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Inhibitory effect of Tridax procumbens against human skin pathogens


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Tridax procumbens is a common herb with significant medicinal properties traditionally used in the treatment of many skin diseases. The methanol extract of T. procumbens exhibited high antifungal activity against clinically important human skin pathogens such as Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichosporon beigelii and Candida albicans with low MIC values. The fractionation of a methanol extract with dichloromethane yielded an oily viscous fluid with antifungal activity which was separated and characterized. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 26 compounds. The major constituents were characterized as 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid ethyl ester (18.04%), 5α-cholestane (12.42%), hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (4.86%) and 9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester (4.72%). This study demonstrated the efficacy of this herb against clinically important dermatophytes and also justified its traditional use.
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Original Research Article
Inhibitory effect of Tridax procumbens against
human skin pathogens
R.S. Policegoudraa,, P. Chattopadhyaya, S.M. Aradhyab,
R. Shivaswamyc, L. Singh d,V.Veer
aDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur 784001, Assam, India
bDepartment of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570020,
Karnataka, India
cDepartment of Central Instrumentation Facility Services, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore
570020, Karnataka, India
dDirectorate of Life Sciences (DLS), DRDO HQ, New Delhi, India
article info
Article history:
Received 31 October 2011
Received in revised form
4 December 2013
Accepted 8 January 2014
Available online 26 January 2014
Tridax procumbens
Antifungal activity
Fatty acids
Tridax procumbens is a common herb with significant medicinal properties traditionally used
in the treatment of many skin diseases. The methanol extract of T. procumbens exhibited high
antifungal activity against clinically important human skin pathogens such as Microsporum
fulvum,Microsporum gypseum,Trichophyton mentagrophytes,Trichophyton rubrum,Trichosporon
beigelii and Candida albicans with low MIC values. The fractionation of a methanol extract
with dichloromethane yielded an oily viscous fluid with antifungal activity which was sep-
arated and characterized. The GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of 26 compounds. The
major constituents were characterized as 9,12-octadecadienoic acid ethyl ester (18.04%),
5-cholestane (12.42%), hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (4.86%) and 9-octadecenoic acid ethyl
ester (4.72%). This study demonstrated the efficacy of this herb against clinically important
dermatophytes and also justified its traditional use.
© 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Plants are a good source of novel bioactive molecules with
therapeutic potential. There is a plethora of pharmaceutically
important molecules, but only a small percentage of plants
have been explored for their phytochemical constituents
(Hostettmann et al., 1998; Balandrin et al., 1985). Tridax procum-
bens is a common weed native to tropical America and
Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 3712 258836; fax: +91 3712 258534.
E-mail addresses:, (R.S. Policegoudra).
distributed in tropical Africa, Australia and Asia. It is exten-
sively used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for the
treatment of diarrhoea, as an insect repellent, hair tonic and
wound healer, i.e. the leaf juice is used to check haemorrhage
from cuts and bruises (Srivastava et al., 1984; Udupa et al.,
1991; Saraf et al., 1992; Bhat et al., 2007). It is a well known
remedy for liver disorders and has been shown to have antidi-
abetic activity (Vilwanathan et al., 2005; Bhagwat et al., 2008).
T.procumbens has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory
2210-8033/$ – see front matter © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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84 journal of herbal medicine 4 (2014) 83–88
and antimicrobial activity (Nia et al., 2003; Mahato and
Chaudhary, 2005). Interestingly some animal studies have
shown that it may have potent immune-modulating property
(Tiwari et al., 2004; Oladunmoye, 2006). T. procumbens contains
alkaloids, carotenoids, saponins, flavonoids, flavones, glyco-
sides and tannins from the leaves of this plant (Raju and
Davidson, 1994; Yadawa and Saurabh, 1998; Ali et al., 2001;
Jude et al., 2009). It also contains lipid constituents (Verma
and Gupta, 1988) plus saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
(Gadre and Gabhe, 1988). The presence of -sitosterol-3-O--
d-xylopyranoside in the flowers of T. procumbens was reported
by Saxena and Albert (2005).
In tropical and subtropical countries, the infectious dis-
eases that affect the skin and mucosal membranes are a
severe problem. A number of these infections are most fre-
quently caused by dermatophytes and yeasts (Hay, 2006). Due
to an increase in the number of immune-suppressed patients
in the last decade, there are more reports of systemic and
superficial mycoses such as aspergillosis, candidiasis, and
fungal infections (Gabardi et al., 2007; Nucci and Marr, 2005;
Pfaller et al., 2006). Several reports have shown that the ther-
apeutic potential of plant extracts against many diseases like
skin and respiratory infection is due to their high antimi-
crobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes
(Janssen et al., 1987; Rios et al., 1988; Griffin et al., 1999). The
increasing recognition and importance of fungal infections
in regard to resistance to antifungal drugs have stimulated
the search for safe, natural therapeutic alternatives (Pina-Vaz
et al., 2004). The use of indigenous folk medicines for the treat-
ment of fungal infections may offer new effective remedies
(Seneviratne et al., 2007; Li et al., 2008; Webster et al., 2008).
The present study explored the bioactive constituents of a
methanol extract of T. procumbens and its antifungal activity
against dermatophytes.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Plant material and extraction
T. procumbens was collected from Tezpur, Assam, India dur-
ing September 2011. The plant was identified by Dr Jayshree
Das, Pharmaceutical Technology Division, Defence Research
Laboratory, Tezpur and a voucher specimen stored in their
herbarium. The flowers were separated and only the aerial
parts were dried in an oven at 50C for 72 h and powdered
in a grinder. The powder (100g) was extracted with 1000 ml of
methanol for 48 h. The extract was concentrated to dryness
using a vacuum rotary evaporator (Buchi Rotavapor) at 50 C
to remove all traces of methanol. The dried extract was then
stored at 4 C.
2.2. Fractionation of extract
The methanol extract was fractionated with dichloromethane.
The dichloromethane soluble fraction was separated and
yielded an oily, viscous fluid. This oily fraction was subjected
to GC–MS analysis.
2.3. GC–MS analysis
The GC–MS analyses were performed in EI mode on a GCMS,
Perkin Elmer, Turbomass gold, GC-Autosample xL (Perkin
Elmer International, Boesch, Huenenberg, Switzerland) sys-
tem with Elite-1 fused capillary column (composed of 100%
dimethylpolysiloxane), 30 m ×0.25 mm ×0.25 m, directly
coupled to mass detector. The mass spectrometer was oper-
ated at 70 eV. Injection conditions were as follows: Column
temperature 40–250 C at a rate of 5 C/1min; carrier gas was
He: 1 ml/min; sample injection volume 1 l. The constituents
of the essential oils were identified based on a comparison of
mass spectra with those of data in the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) libraries.
2.4. Antifungal activity
2.4.1. Microbial strains and culture conditions
The fungal strains used in this study included Microsporum
fulvum (MTCC 8478), Microsporum gypseum (MTCC 8469), Tri-
chophyton mentagrophytes (MTCC 8476), Trichophyton rubrum
(MTCC 8477) and Candida albicans (MTCC 854) obtained from
the School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Trichosporon beigelii
was isolated from a clinical sample by standard NCCLS (2002)
method. All fungal strains were maintained on Sabouraud
dextrose agar (SDA) medium (Himedia, Mumbai) at 28–30C
for 10 days.
2.4.2. Preparation of spore suspension
The 10-day-old cultures were used for the preparation of
inoculums. The spores were scraped with a sterile loop and
macerated in sterile saline (0.85%) solution. The final spore
suspension was adjusted to 105CFU/ml.
2.4.3. Agar well diffusion method
An antifungal assay was carried out using the modified
method of Kariba et al. (2001). The methanol extract (5 mg/ml)
was reconstituted in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to assess
the antifungal activity. The SDA media was inoculated with
spore suspension (105CFU/ml) of the test fungi. The test sam-
ple was placed in the 6 mm agar well. The plates were then
incubated at 28 ±1C. Griseofulvin was used as a standard and
DMSO served as the control. The zone of inhibition around the
well was determined as antifungal activity. Values are given as
mean and SD of tests performed in triplicate.
2.4.4. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
The MIC was assessed according to the agar dilution method of
Kariba et al. (2001) with modifications. The methanol extracts
and fractions were dissolved in DMSO and concentrations
ranging from 32 to 0.06 mg/ml were incorporated into SDA
growth medium. The resulting SDA medium was inoculated
with spore suspension (105CFU/ml) of the test fungi. The
plates were incubated at 28±1C for 10 days. The minimal
inhibitory concentration was recorded as the lowest con-
centration that produced no visible fungal growth. All the
experiments were carried out in triplicate.
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journal of herbal medicine 4 (2014) 83–88 85
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Extraction and fractionation
The extraction of T. procumbens powder with methanol yielded
28 g of extract. This extract showed antifungal activity against
dermatophytes hence the fractionation was carried out to
identify the bioactive components. The methanol extract was
fractionated with dichloromethane (DCM). This DCM solu-
ble fraction obtained was an oily, viscous fluid. This fraction
showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes hence the
bioactive components were characterized.
3.2. GCMS analysis of bioactive fraction
The GCMS analysis of the bioactive fraction from the methanol
extract of T. procumbens yielded 26 components (Table 1). The
bioactive fraction was mainly composed of alicyclic hydrocar-
bons, fatty acids and steroids. The major components were
identified as 9,12-octadecadienoic acid ethyl ester (18.04%),
5-cholestane (12.42%), hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (4.86%)
and 9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester (4.72%). The structure of
all the bioactive components characterized from the DCM
fraction of T. procumbens is represented in Fig. 1. This is
the first report of the identification of 5-cholestane from
plants. Cholestane glycosides and rhamnosides are reported
earlier from different plants and they are known for their
potent cytotoxicity activity against malignant tumour cells
(Liu et al., 2008; Kuroda et al., 2002). This is also the first
report of the presence of different siloxanes like heptamethyl
trisiloxane, octamethyl trisiloxane, 1H-indole-2,3-dione-5-
methyl-1-(trimethylsilyl) and decamethyl tetrasiloxane. The
role of these siloxanes in the plant’s metabolic pathways is
yet to be understood.
3.3. Antifungal activity
The agar well diffusion assay clearly showed the inhibition
of all dermatophytes by the methanol extract with zones
of inhibition ranging from 17 to 25 mm (Fig. 2). C. albicans
was highly susceptible whereas T. mentagrphytes was less
susceptible to the methanol extract. The oily, viscous DCM
fraction also showed high antifungal activity against all the
test organisms. This fraction was also most effective against
C. albicans with 32 mm zone of inhibition, M. fulvum and
T. rubrum however were less susceptible to this fraction.
The antifungal activity of T. procumbens may be due to the
presence of many bioactive compounds including phenols,
flavonoids, saponins, sterols and fatty acids as reported ear-
lier (Manjamalai et al., 2010). The bioactive compounds such
as 8,3-dihydroxy-3,7,4-trimethoxy-6-O-ˇ-d-glucopyranosyl
flavones, 6,8,3-trihydroxy-3,7,4-trimethoxyflavone, puerarin,
esculetin, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, centaurein, bergenin
and centaureidin have previously been isolated and charac-
terized from this plant (Xu et al., 2010; Jachak et al., 2011).
These bioactive compounds may have some role in antifungal
The MIC for the methanol extract ranged from 1.6 to12.8 mg
for all the test organisms (Fig. 3). Among the test organisms,
C. albicans and T. beigelii were inhibited at a low MIC of 1.6mg
each. The DCM fraction was also most effective against C.
Table 1 – Chemical constituents of DCM fraction of methanol extract of T.procumbens.
Sl. no Retention time Mass Compound name % Amount of compounds
1 3.18 158 2-Propyl-1-heptanol 0.55
2 3.29 128 3-Octen-1-ol 0.51
3 3.42 136 -Methyl benzeneethanol 0.47
4 3.49 114 2,3-Dimethylhexane 0.21
5 3.6 114 2-Methylheptane 0.19
6 3.74 114 2,4-Dimethylheptane 0.22
7 3.87 128 2-Propenyl butanoate 0.09
8 5.59 222 Heptamethyl trisiloxane 0.13
9 6.77 236 Octamethyl trisiloxane 0.08
10 9.2 233 1H-indole-2,3-dione-5-methyl-1-(trimethylsilyl)- 0.24
11 12.72 310 Decamethyl tetrasiloxane 0.39
12 26.74 204 1,3-Cyclohexadiene,5-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-2 methyl 0.15
13 38.39 278 Dibutyl phthalate 0.06
14 39.12 256 Hexadecanoic acid 0.08
15 39.89 284 Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester 4.86
16 43.59 308 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester 18.04
17 43.78 310 9-Octadecenoic acid ethyl ester 4.72
18 44.29 322 Isopropyl linoleate 0.29
19 44.47 312 Octadecanoic acid, 2-methyl, methyl ester 0.33
20 49.22 282 2,6,11-Trimethyl dodecane 0.18
21 51.35 296 2,6,10,14-Tetramethyl heptadecane 0.71
22 53.46 366 7-Hexyl eicosane 0.81
23 55.72 282 Eicosane 0.88
24 58.41 372 5-Cholestane 12.42
25 58.86 416 14-Methyl cholest-8-ene-3,6-diol 0.09
26 58.95 400 3,4-Epoxy-2-methyl cholestane 0.06
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86 journal of herbal medicine 4 (2014) 83–88
Fig. 1 – Phytochemical constituents of Tridax procumbens.
Fig. 2 – Antifungal activity of methanol extract and DCM
fraction against dermatophytes and yeasts. (1) Microsporum
fulvum (Mf); (2) Microsporum gypseum (Mg); (3) Trichophyton
mentagrophytes (Tm); (4) Trichophyton rubrum (Tr); (5)
Trichosporon beigelii (Tb); (6) Candida albicans (Ca).
Fig. 3 – MIC of methanol extract and DCM fraction against
dermatophytes and yeasts. (1) Microsporum fulvum (Mf); (2)
Microsporum gypseum (Mg); (3) Trichophyton mentagrophytes
(Tm); (4) Trichophyton rubrum (Tr); (5) Trichosporon beigelii
(Tb); (6) Candida albicans (Ca).
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journal of herbal medicine 4 (2014) 83–88 87
albicans with an MIC of 0.2 mg. The DCM fraction was effec-
tive against all the dermatophytes with MIC values ranging
from 0.4 to 3.2 mg. This investigation clearly demonstrated
the potential antifungal activity of the methanol extract of T.
procumbens and DCM fraction. The MIC values for Griseofulvin
ranged from 0.25 to 4.0 g/ml against the dermatophytes.
The antifungal activity of the methanol extract may be
due to the presence of various bioactive compounds reported
earlier. Whereas the DCM fraction may be due to major bioac-
tive compounds like 9,12-octadecadienoic acid ethyl ester,
cholestane, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester and 9-octadecenoic
acid ethyl ester. The cumulative effect of other compounds
may also play an important role in antifungal activity.
The antimicrobial activity of unsaturated fatty acids has
long been known (Knapp and Melly, 1986). The antidermato-
phytic activity of the DCM fraction may be attributed to the
presence of unsaturated fatty acids and other components.
This is the first report on the presence of 5-cholestane and
different siloxanes from plant sources. The antifungal activity
of the active fraction against dermatophytes may be attributed
to the cumulative effect of all the components reported in
Table 1. This investigation has clearly shown the efficacy of
this medicinal herb against some clinically important human
skin pathogens and validated its use in traditional medicine.
Further clinical trials are needed to study the in vivo effective-
ness of this herb.
4. Conclusion
The present investigation revealed the presence of alicyclic
hydrocarbons, fatty acids and steroids in the bioactive frac-
tion of methanol extract of T. procumbens. This is the first
report on the presence of 5-cholestane and siloxanes from
this plant. The antifungal activity of the active fraction may be
attributed to the presence of fatty acid derivatives and other
constituents. More work needs to be carried out to identify
the bioactivity of cholestane and siloxanes in regard to their
possible contribution to antifungal activity.
Appendix A. Supplementary data
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found,
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... Different extraction methods have been used to find the optimum zone of inhibition from different fungal strains including Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans, and Trichosporon beigelii. Extracts of the aerial parts of this plant have shown activity against dermatophytes with zones of inhibition rangifrom17 to 25mm with dichloromethane (DCM) fraction resulting in the best response (Policegoudra et al., 2014). However, the authors do not describe which ones are the bioactive compounds responsible for the antifungal properties. ...
... 16) Treditional uses:-Leaves: dried and other herbs ingested orally, juice Diabetes, insect repellent, used to treat diarrhea, and to help check for hemorrhages, as well as hair loss. Jaundice, healing of wounds, inflammation ...
Full-text available
Medicinal plant are mostly used in healthcare in the whole world. The medicinal plant. are Effective in production of medicine . In this paper we can seen the role and usefullness of medicinal plants and approaches to diseases prevention.
... The present study results of GCMS analysis of isolated compound can be compared with the GCMS analysis of bioactive fractions of T. procumbens reported (35). In their study they were reported more than 20 saturated fatty acids and their different form with structural formula. ...
... It is also rich with minerals such as Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium and Potassium. It is also showing cytotoxic activity against malignant tumor cells [6] . ...
... e process of obtaining the essential oil (EO) was carried out at the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry of the Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP), where the leaves of the plant species were dehydrated in a greenhouse with air circulation at 36°C. e EO was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus at 100°C for two hours [8]; it was stored in an amber bottle and cooled to −20°C in the dark. ...
Full-text available
The present study evaluated the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and larvicidal potential of the essential oil of Tridax procumbens leaves, as well as identified the compounds present in the essential oil. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the sequestration method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the cytotoxic activity was evaluated using Artemia salina, the larvicidal bioassay was performed with larvae in the third stage of development of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, and the identification of the metabolites was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The phytochemical oil analysis showed the presence of 20 compounds, with thymol and γ-terpinene being the main ones. It presented antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 194.51 μg mL-1, demonstrating antioxidant activity in the highest concentrations tested. It presented low cytotoxic activity against A. salina, with an LC50 of 1238.67 μg mL-1, demonstrating atoxicity in the concentrations tested. The essential oil presented good larvicidal activity when compared to the literature, with an LC50 = 79.0 μg mL-1 in 24 hours and LC50 of 69.15 μg mL-1 in 48 hours. In this way, it was possible to identify that the essential oil of the leaves of T. procumbens presented potential for the development of a natural larvicide, as well as antioxidant activity satisfactory to the radical DPPH and low toxicity to A. salina.
... Aerial parts Methanol-dichloromethane Bioactive components for antifungal activity against dermatophytes [162]. ...
Homeostasis of bone is tightly regulated by the balanced activities between bone resorbing activity of osteoclast cells and bone forming ability of osteoblast cells. Multinucleated osteoclasts degrade bone matrix and involve in the dynamic bone remodelling in coordination with osteoblasts. Disruption of this regulatory balance between these cells or any imbalance in bone remodelling caused by a higher rate of resorption over construction of bone results in a decrease of bone matrix including bone mineral density (BMD). These osteoclast-dominant effects result in higher risk of bone crack and joint demolition in several bone related diseases including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tridax procumbens is a very interesting perennial plant and its secondary metabolites called here T. procumbens flavonoids (TPFs) are well‐known phytochemical agents owing to various therapeutic practices such as anti-inflammatory, anti-anaemic and anti-diabetic actions. This review designed to focus the systematic convention concerning about the medicinal property and mechanism of actions of TPFs for the management of bone-related diseases. Based on the current literature, the review offers evidencebased information of TPFs for basic researchers and clinicians for the prevention and treatment of bone related diseases including osteoporosis. It also emphasizes the medical significance for more research to comprehend the cellular signalling pathways of TPFs for regulation of bone remodelling and discusses the possible promising ethnobotanical resource that can convey the preclinical and clinical clues to develop the next generation therapeutic agents for the treatment of bone-related disorders.
... This process yielded 15 fractions ( Figure 1) with following eluents: F 1 and F 2 in CHCl 3 ; F 3 and F [4][5] in CHCl 3 : MeOH (9.9:0.1), F [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] in CHCl 3 : MeOH (9.8:0.2), F [16][17] in CHCl 3 : MeOH (9.7:0.3), ...
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Tridax procumbens L. is a medicinal plant and used as a drink to treat bronchial catarrh, diarrhea, dysentery and liver diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of T. procumbens to treat hyperuricemia, oxidative stress, and bacterial infection. Ethyl acetate extract of this plant was separated to different fractions by column chromatography (CC) using chloroform and methanol as eluents and subjected to xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial assays. The results showed that the F45–47 fraction exhibited the strongest XO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 133.17 �g/mL), while the F48–50 fraction possessed maximum antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays (IC50 = 0.51 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the F4–5 fraction presented the most effective inhibition on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Proteus mirabilis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GS-MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrophotometry (LC-ESI-MS) results revealed that fatty acids, glycerides, and flavonoids were the major compounds of the F45–47 fraction. Glycerides, triose sugar alcohols, and fatty acids were dominant compounds of the F48–50 fraction, while sterols were principal components of the F4–5 fraction. This study indicated that T. procumbens had potent inhibitory effects on XO inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. These biological activities may be attributed to the presence of fatty acids, flavonoids, and sterols in this plant. It is suggested that T. procumbens can be utilized as a healthy source to develop beverages and foods to treat antihyperuricemia, oxidative stress, and bacterial infection
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Maerua oblongifolia (Forssk.) is a rare medicinal plant in Saudi Arabia that is threatened with extinction owing to overexploitation, climate change, and poor seed germination. This study aimed to identify, for the first time, the phytochemical compounds existing in M. oblongifolia leaves’ extract using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, it aimed to determine the plant growth and genetic uniformity of the plant under the exposure of in vitro biogenic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles. The GC-MS analysis detected 28 phytochemical compounds. The main compounds obtained from the leaf extracts were triphenylphosphine oxide and 4,5-Dihydrooxazole-5-one, 2-methyl-4-[2,3,4-methozxybenzylidnen]-. The supplementation of AgNPs and ZnO NPs to the culture media significantly enhanced the plant biomass, shoot length, and shoot regeneration of M. oblongifolia. The genetic stability of the plant material was evaluated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The application of Ag and ZnO NPs showed genetic stability among treated plants. However, the higher concentration of both nanoparticles induced minor genetic variations recorded as 4.4 and 2.2% in Ag and ZnO NPs, respectively. This work focused on the detection of phytochemical active constituents from M. oblongifolia shoot cultures, and it will be useful for the large-scale manufacturing of these compounds for pharmaceutical and commercial purposes. In addition, it confirmed that the exposure of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles to the in vitro culture media of plant tissues might be a secure technique with which to produce true-to-type plants.
Background Tridax procumbens L. (T. procumbens) belongs to the Asteraceae family, is an Ayurvedic herb of Asia with a history of traditional use. T. procumbens have been used from ancient times to treat wounds, skin diseases and to stop blood clotting in folk medicine. It possesses anticoagulant, antileishmanial, antioxidants, and anticancer, immunomodulatory agent, insecticidal, anthelmintic cardiovascular, antiseptic, and antimicrobial insecticidal properties. Purpose This review article aims to collate past and present updated information on traditional uses, morphology, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities, miscellaneous activities, and relevant patents of this plant, thereby providing useful data for researchers and pharmaceutical, cosmetics-related industries. Methods A review was collected from various platforms, including Science Direct, Google Scholar, Google patents, PubMed, ACS, Tayler and Francis, Mendeley Desktop databases on traditional uses, morphology, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, and patents of T. procumbens. The literature search covers original research articles and reviews articles in peer review journals, published up to 2021 using relevant keywords. Chemical structures were drawn using Chem draw ultra 8.0. A total of 101 references were used in the present review. Results This review yielded 839 Papers. After the screening method, 101 papers were potentially discussed. Phytochemical investigation revealed more than 138 chemical compounds have been isolated or identified from T. procumbens plant covering, including 75 isolated and other identified compounds according to phytochemical analysis. This plant possesses a variety of chemical compounds including flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, and terpenoids as main secondary metabolites. Diverse pharmacological activities of T. procumbens have a wide range of bioactivities including antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties. Toxicological knowledge is scarce at this time, and more research is needed on this plant. Conclusions T. procumbens predominantly shows wound healing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory properties traditionally. It is not further supported by the isolation of chemical compounds i.e. lack of bioassay-guided isolation strategies is observed. Several main active chemical compounds are present in the T. procumbens. The pharmacological effects of plant active secondary metabolites of this plant may help to defeat dangerous diseases such as diabetics, cancers, respiratory disorders like the current corona virus COVID -19 upsurge. The present treasury of traditional uses, chemical compounds, and pharmacological activities will be helpful in the future for researchers on T. procumbens in the search for new leads for drug discovery.
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ABSTRACT Tridax procumbens L (Erva Touro) is a plant widely used in folk medicine in different parts of Brazil. The objective was to bring elementary data from the plant Tridax procumbens L. The leaves of Tridax procumbens L were collected in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, (latitude20º, 47 '54,08''S longitude 54º 59' 23,88 '' W) in December 2017. The species was identified by Ana Carla Gomes Rosa and was deposited at the Herbarium of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul - UFMS under number (65752 HUFMS). The 100g sample after drying in a controlled oven at 40º C for 48 hours and stabilization of the weights were ground with a portable stainless steel electric grinder and passed through a granulometric sieve (0.0232 inches of opening mesh).To the mineral metabolism laboratory of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) for physical-chemical analysis using the technique. - Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) microwave digestion in which the powder from the plant leaves was transferred to the Dap60 tubes containing approximately 0.25 g of the plant leaf powder that was digested with 3.0 mL of HNO3 (65%, Merck), 1.0 mL of high purity water (18 MU cm, Milli-Q, Milli-Q, Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) and 2.0 mL of H2O2 (35%, Merck) in a microwave digestion system (Speedwave four, Berghof, Eningen, BW, Germany). The results showed a high level of sulfur (S). The gap in knowledge about the quantification of the sulfur compound in the Erva Touro plant was obtained for the first time in this work and can serve as a tool for future in-depth studies for the safe ingestion of this plant for use with medicinal purposes. Medicinal plants are not classified as drugs by Brazilian legislation, the ingestion of medicinal plants and their products requires strict control of the presence of chemical compounds, labeling of doses, contraindications, manufacturing techniques and mainly a list of the entire composition. Although medicinal plants are effective in the treatment of some diseases, their continuous and uncontrolled use is of concern in many countries, including Brazil. Thus, this study has relevant information for the use of T.procumbens L. The limited knowledge of the population, training of health professionals on the effects of medicinal plants presents a challenge and a public health problem in Brazil. The continuity of the research is relevant to better clarify the gaps present in the study of this medicinal plant of popular use.
In this chapter, informations on the recent advances regarding antifungal activity of natural products obtained from plants collected directly from their natural habitat or from plant cell and organ, cultures have been reported. The biotechnological approaches could increase uniformity and predictability of the extracts and overcome problems associated with geographical, seasonal, and environmental variations. Human fungal pathogens are the cause of severe diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. The major human fungal pathogens are Candida species, dermatophytes, Aspergillus species, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Side effects and resistance are frequently attributed to the current antifungal agents. Moreover, the treatments often require long-term therapy and are not resolving. Plants represent a source of antifungal agents, but up to date, the number of new phytochemicals reaching the market is very low. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies on antifungal activity of plant products. Despite the currently non-uniform regulatory framework in all the states, the plant-derived products are increasingly in demand for their effectiveness. The basic conclusion from these studies is that rigorous, well-designed clinical trials are needed to validate the effectiveness and safety of plant extracts for their use as antifungals.
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Patient characteristics, antifungal prophylaxis, and other factors appear to have contributed to a change in the spectrum of invasive fungal pathogens. Infections with Candida glabrata, Aspergillus terreus, and non-Aspergillus moulds appear to be on the rise, at least among certain populations. These species are resistant or less susceptible to some commonly used antifungal agents. Non-Aspergillus moulds are particularly lethal. This article reviews the spectrum of invasive mycoses and risk factors for infection with these pathogens.
The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 60 terpenoids against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans have been determined. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group the compounds into five groups according to their activity patterns against the four microorganisms. K-Means cluster analysis was then used to confirm these groupings and to show the differences in the activity patterns of the groups. Ten molecular properties of the terpenoids, either calculated via molecular modelling or determined by direct measurement, were then used as variables in a forward stepwise discriminant analysis to identify which variables discriminated between groups. Low water solubility of Group IV compounds, mainly hydrocarbons and acetates, was found to be associated with their relative inactivity. The remaining groups, all containing oxygenated terpenoids, showed characteristic but distinct activity patterns towards the four test organisms. Hydrogen bonding parameters were found to be associated with antimicrobial activity in all cases. Activity against Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa was associated with a combination of a hydrogen bonding and size parameters. This was not found to be the case for the Gram-positive S. aureus or the yeast C. albicans. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.