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The quality of life of flood survivors in Thailand, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University

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Abstract

Background The flood crisis of 2011 was a disaster of the highest order in Thailand and Nakhon Pathom Province was among those hit. The purpose of this research was to explore quality of life of flood survivors in Thailand living in a flood shelter established by Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University. Methods This study was a descriptive research. The research instrument was WHO quality of life-brief Thai questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF-THAI). The data were collected by self administered questionnaires, or read to the subjects who cannot read, then evaluated the answers by themselves on November, 2011. Descriptive statistics, independent-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were used in the data analysis. Results The study found that: (1) The quality of life score was found to be at a moderate level of 65.9% and a high of 34.1%. The social relationships domain of quality of life was at the highest level (47.6%). The poorest quality of life score was from the environmental domain (24.9%); (2) There was no significant difference between gender (t = 0.004, p-value = 0.997) or age (F = 1.356, p-value = 0.260), with quality of life. Conclusion The quality of life evaluation of flood survivors should be further monitored after the recovery and a intervention programme should address their respective needs and covers all aged and genders.

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... The mental health effects of disasters include a range of problems, some of which are psychopathologic [4,6,7]. Disturbances in social relations, economic consequences and temporary or definitive displacements also cause distress in disaster-affected populations [7][8][9]. Therefore, health effects after natural disasters must be considered as physical, psychological and social. ...
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... The studies done by Lin, Huang, Huang, Hwang, Tsai, and Chin, 2002, Fauci, Bonciani and Guerra, 2012, Papanikolaou, Adamis, and Kyriopoulos, 2012and Waelveerakup, 2014 show that research regarding to QoL mostly focusing on four major domains, such as physical health, psychological well-being (mental health), social networking or social support and the environment. Meanwhile, Fauci et al. (2012) divides the fourdimensional domain with respect to the three main life of humanity such as Being, Belonging and Becoming. ...
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... This is especially in the journey of human life, social networks, the environment, health, economy and etc. Previous studies show that research regarding to QoL more focusing on four major domains, namely physical health, psychological well-being (mental health), social networking or social support and the environment (Lin, Huang, Huang, Hwang, Tsai, and Chin, 2002;Fauci, Bonciani and Guerra, 2012;Papanikolaou, Adamis, andKyriopoulos 2012 andWaelveerakup, 2014). The results of these studies highlight all four domains except for study done by Fauci et al. (2012) that divides the four-dimensional domain with respect to the three main life of Humanity such as Being, Belonging and Becoming. ...
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... The QOL has been used widely in social science as a measure of social development and living standard. In recent years, QOL has been used as a tool to access the impact of natural disasters such as earthquake (Ardalan et al., 2011;Ceyhan & Aykut Ceyhan, 2007;Choul et al., 2004;Lin et al., 2002;Tsai et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2000;Wu et al., 2006;Xiong et al., 2010), flood (Tan et al., 2004;Waelveerakup, 2014) and wildfires (Vicky et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
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... The literature review showed that there are only a few studies revealing that healthcare systems were poorly prepared for a flood disaster [8,9]. In Thailand, several studies were conducted following the 2011 flood disaster [10][11][12] lessons learned and evidencing the limitations of disaster preparedness, especially regarding hospital settings, and only one study [13] was conducted on flood disaster preparedness for hospital settings in the central region of Thailand. This explanatory sequential mixed methods design study was conducted during 2015-2016 to investigate the flood disaster preparedness level and directions for improvement. ...
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Background: Nurses, as well as other health personnel and health systems, worldwide need to be adequately prepared for disasters because it is often difficult to predict where and when disasters strike. The 2011 Thailand flood disaster caused significant damage, including to hospitals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of hospital personnel regarding flood disaster preparedness in the central region of Thailand. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using content analysis. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants who were doctors, nurses, and persons involved in flood disaster preparedness. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Findings: Two themes and ten subthemes were extracted with regard to flood disaster preparedness. The two themes were maintaining the function of care provision and struggle with preparedness. Personnel realized that preparation levels of their hospital were inadequate and identified the challenges in providing care during and after floods. Conclusions: The finding identified several areas to improve the current state of preparedness of all hospitals that experienced service disruption due to flood disasters. This can help healthcare personnel, hospitals, and healthcare system to enhance flood disaster preparedness so that they can be better prepared.
... Relating QoL with other variables can vary, depending on the victims' perception of disaster, as well as, whether their basic needs were met. A study done by (Waelveerakup, 2014), found that most subjects had a moderate level of QoL, even though they were placed in a sheltered environment as the shelter management provide the basic needs that would suffice them in performing their usual roles and routines. Perception, on the other hand, can be explained in which, victims who had the trauma of the flood events and were scared of experiencing another flood event, had a significant negative impact on their general quality of life (Van Ootegem & Verhofstadt, 2016). ...
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Flood is a horrible disaster that affects peoples’ life. The disaster affects people in different ways, and many people experience a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of changes in daily routine and loss of roles in life. These changes subsequently affect their quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify the posttraumatic stress disorder amongst flood victims in Kelantan, Malaysia. One hundred and forty-nine participants participated in this cross-sectional study. The results indicated that there were a significant difference in PTSD between gender, ethnic groups and age groups amongst participants in the study.
... X. Wang, Gao, Shinfuku, et al. (2000) found that exposure to an earthquake in rural China was associated with multidimensional impairment in quality of life including physical, psychological, and environmental domains at 3 months, and psychological and environmental domains at 9 months post-disaster. Waelveerakup (2014) found that for tsunami flood victims in Thailand, the highest quality of life score was from the social relationships domain and the poorest quality of life score was from the environmental domain. A study conducted by Valenti et al. (2013) on the quality of life impacts of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake in Italy found higher quality of life scores in the environmental domain for men than for women and quality of life scores in the environmental domain for the elderly population which varied by age, gender, and educational level. ...
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Photovoice is a qualitative method of inquiry whereby individuals can document their lived experiences, particularly individuals whose voices are not typically heard in regard to promoting social change and policy development. We used photovoice to elicit major themes regarding community members' perceptions of the long-term impact on their quality of life as a deadly technological disaster hit a small, rural town in South Carolina. Overall, participants photographed more negative images than positive. Overarching themes included residential and business vacancies, economic decline, the need for clean-up and modernization, attention to wellness or rehabilitation, and concerns for safety. Emergency response agencies should consider the themes elicited from these community residents to help identify where to focus disaster response efforts both in the immediate aftermath and during the long-term recovery period of technological disasters, particularly in underserved, rural communities. © The Author(s) 2015.
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Aim: To improve hospitals disaster preparedness during floods. Background: The Thai flood disaster in 2011 struck several sectors, including hospitals. It is necessary to build a disaster preparedness system that ensures that hospitals have the capacity to respond effectively to any kind of disaster. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using content analysis. Purposive sampling was used to select 15 participants, including doctors, nurses and other staff involved in disaster preparedness, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with them. The study was reported according to COREQ guidelines. Results: Healthcare personnel identified several ways in which flood disaster preparedness of hospitals may be enhanced. Three themes and eight subthemes were identified during the data analysis. The three themes were as follows: 1) ongoing efforts for flood prevention and mitigation at a national level; 2) developing operational guidelines to effectively prevent and resolve flood problems at provincial levels; and 3) increasing the levels of flood readiness at the hospital level. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate strategies to help policymakers and health personnel enhance flood disaster preparedness measures at hospitals based on the experiences of hospital personnel involved in one of the worst flood disasters worldwide. Relevance to clinical practice: Hospitals alone cannot deal with unpredictable events; they need additional assistance in disaster preparedness. There are three levels at which improving hospital flood disaster preparedness can take place: national, provincial and hospital levels. Nursing professionals participate in hospital disaster preparedness and work with multidisciplinary teams to provide services. Nurses should be prepared for such participation, as their involvement, through tailored services for hospital disaster preparedness, can expand the literature on nursing knowledge to improve clinical outcomes.
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Objective: To study the quality of life (QOL) and the factors impacting QOL of physicians who worked in the three southern border provinces of Thailand between July-August 2005, a time of crisis in those provinces. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixteen (50%) of 234 physicians returned a WHO quality of life-brief Thai questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF-THAI). Multiple linear regression was used to determine the significant predictors of the study outcomes. Results: Most of the 116 physicians worked in a rural hospital. The QOL score were found to be at a moderate level for 69.8% and high for 30.2%. The physical health aspect of QOL was at the highest level (54.3%), followed by mental health (50%) and social relationships (35.3%). The poorest QOL score was from the environmental aspect (7.8%). Time working in the area, income satisfaction, job satisfaction, conflicts with co-workers, and insecurity from the conflicts predicted 33% of the variance of QOL of physicians (adjusted R2=0.33). Factors related to a high QOL score were high job satisfaction, longer time working in the area and high income satisfaction. Factors related to low QOL scores were conflicts with co-workers and insecurity from the conflicts. The environmental aspect was related to dissatisfaction with income, lack of opportunity to continue education, poor job satisfaction and insecurity from conflicts, which complained 47% of the a variance of QOL of physicians (adjusted R2=0.473). Conclusion: The QOL of the physicians who worked in the 3 southern border provinces of Thailand experiencing a crisis was not good enough, especially the environmental aspect of their QOL. Because physicians are a key group in ensuring the wellfunctioning health care system for the people, it is important to resolve the conflicts in this area in order to promote a "Healthy Thailand" in 2015. The QOL evaluation of the physicians should be further monitored.
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On the basis of the literature reviewed in Part I of this two-part series (Norris, Friedman, Watson, Byrne, Diaz, and Kaniasty, this volume), the authors recommend early intervention following disasters, especially when the disaster is associated with extreme and widespread damage to property, ongoing financial problems for the stricken community, violence that resulted from human intent, and a high prevalence of trauma in the form of injuries, threat to life, and loss of life. Meeting the mental health needs of children, women, and survivors in developing countries is particularly critical. The family context is central to understanding and meeting those needs. Because of the complexity of disasters and responses to them, inter-agency cooperation and coordination are extremely important elements of the mental health response. Altogether, the research demands that we think ecologically and design and test societal- and community-level interventions for the population at large and conserve scarce clinical resources for those most in need.
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