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... As a traditional Indonesian herbal medicine, Jamu is believed to have the same potency as TCM (Hartanti et al., 2020), which has been used since ancient times to treat various chronic illnesses, such as rheumatic disease and cancer. Previously, various pharmacological properties, including antiviral properties related to the utilization of Jamu, have been reported (Elfahmi et al., 2014). Though, in contrast to the treatment of COVID-19 patients in China, according to the Indonesian Society of Respirology 2020, the use of Jamu is not recognised in the COVID-19 Patients Guideline (Hartanti et al., 2020). ...
... Various reports on in-silico analysis have been reported that the majority of herbal plants that have the potential to be COVID-19 drug candidates stand a good chance to bind to the various target drug action on SAR-CoV-2 (Allam et al., 2020;Elfiky, 2021a;Gurung et al., 2020;Wahedi et al., 2021). As a result, based on these previous findings, this study undertook to emphasise the possibility of CADD application, to identify the selected 49 bioactive phytochemicals from 20 medicinal plants used in Jamu (Elfahmi et al., 2014;Husain et al., 2019) for inhibiting the 3CL pro enzyme of SARS-CoV-2. To find possible inhibitors of 3CL pro , molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, pharmacokinetics, and DFT studies were used in this study. ...
... The 20 selected list of medicinal plants used in Jamu and their 49 bioactive phytochemicals were collected from the previous literature (Elfahmi et al., 2014;Husain et al., 2019), as listed in Table S1. The 3D structures of the selected phytochemicals from Jamu were retrieved from the PubChem Open Chemistry Database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and saved in SDF format. ...
Article
An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has caused a global health emergency, resulting in hundreds of millions of infections and millions of deaths globally since December 2019. Due to the lack of a particular medicine or treatment approach and the fast spread of the virus around the world, it is imperative to find effective pharmacological molecules to combat the virus. Herein, we carried out docking-based virtual screening of selected 49 bioactive phytochemicals from 20 medicinal plants used in Jamu, an Indonesian traditional herbal medicine along with the 3CLpro inhibitor N3 towards the 3CLpro enzyme of SARS-CoV-2. From a total of 49 bioactive phytochemicals, eleven compounds exhibited good binding affinity against 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 (-7.2 to -8.5 kcal/mol). Accordingly, only seven phytochemicals fully obeyed drug-likeness properties. Ultimately, it was observed that both Luteolin and Naringenin have significant interactions with both of the catalytic residues of 3CLpro through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, respectively. The drug-like characteristics of Luteolin and Naringenin were also confirmed by pharmacokinetic investigations. Further, an investigation into molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were undertaken to ensure the ligands would remain stable within the binding pocket. Finally, density-functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed the following order for biochemical reactivity: Naringenin > Luteolin > N3. The oxygen and hydrogen atom regions of these investigated ligands are suitable for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks, respectively. These two bioactive phytochemicals from Tamarindus indica (Luteolin and Naringenin) as well as Citrus aurantifolia (Naringenin) might be potential antagonists of 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
... The use of herbal plants for healing is passed down from generation to generation in the respective communities (Elfahmi et al., 2014). However, access to this traditional knowledge is insufficient (Sujarwo et al., 2014), only specific people, and by oral means, this traditional knowledge is conveyed (Silalahi and Nisyawati, 2018). ...
... After the Brazilian Amazon, Indonesia's tropical forests have the second largest biodiversity in the world, as indicated by the high number of native medicinal plants (Elfahmi et al., 2014). In addition, Indonesia is an archipelago with more than 17,000 islands and around 300 tribes (Pandiangan et al., 2019). ...
... For all samples collected, a taxonomic determination was carried out regarding the name of the species and its family. Plant taxonomic determination is carried out by the plant determination and identification institute Jemberiense, Biology Department, Jember University using key dichotomy and some references (Dalimartha, 1999;Van Steenis, 2013). The scientific name of the species and family, as well as geographic origin, have been confirmed with the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park Office and Purwodadi Botanical Gardens database. ...
... For these countries, availability, accessibility and affordability are primary reasons behind the pervasive use of TCAM, particularly for rural populations. In Indonesia, TCAM use continues to be ubiquitous, despite the increasing provision of healthcare services (Elfahmi et al., 2014;Rahayu et al., 2020). The predominant practice of TCAM in Indonesia is based on the use of local herbal medicine -the traditional Indonesian herbal medicine (TIHM) (Rahayu et al., 2021), and it has increased in recent years (Rahayu et al., 2020). ...
... Finally, the disadvantages of TIHM associated with its safety should be noted. Research has reported that herbal medicines could be harmful to users, such as the possible adulteration, herb-induced side effects, adverse drug reactions resulting from herb-drug interactions, and delay in starting treatment among patients with the condition that needs immediate care (Elfahmi et al., 2014;Izzo & Ernst, 2009;Kretchy et al., 2016;Picking et al., 2011). Integration of TIHM in the NHI program is expected to overcome such disadvantages. ...
... Nonetheless, most TIHM products currently available in Indonesia, which predominantly are jamu, are yet to meet appropriate standards of safety, quality, and efficacy (Elfahmi et al., 2014). This suggests that developing a formal list of TIHM and improving the provision of standardized TIHM may not be possible without providing more or better evidence for the safety and efficacy of TIHM, as highlighted by participants with apprehension toward integration. ...
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Implementation of the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Indonesia has created renewed momentum for integrating traditional Indonesian herbal medicine (TIHM) in healthcare delivery under the national health insurance program (NHI). At present, little is known about the attitudes of conventional healthcare practitioners towards the clinical use of TIHM. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of general practitioners (GPs) towards TIHM use in conventional care and their perception of the integration of TIHM in the NHI. A total of 30 GPs from 28 conventional health facilities were purposively selected to participate in the study. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through administered-questionnaire and interviews. The majority of participating GPs demonstrated a favourable view towards TIHM role in conventional care and the potential integration of TIHM under the NHI. Being used as an adjunct therapy in the conventional treatment of chronic diseases, including degenerative disease and metabolic syndrome, and in palliative care, seemed to be the most promising areas to emphasize TIHM role in conventional care in the anticipated integration. However, only a few GPs had formally prescribed TIHM to their patient. The barriers of TIHM use in their practice include knowledge gap, unclear regulatory procedure, unreliable provision of TIHM and exclusion of TIHM in the NHI. While the GPs accepted the idea of integrative care under the NHI, to achieve an institutional integration, their knowledge base in TIHM must be improved while also addressing regulation, development of TIHM’s formal list, and issues of safety of TIHM to ensure evidence-based practice.
... Jamu, known as Indonesian herbal medicine, is local wisdom that must be preserved because it has been practiced for generations (Elfahmi et al., 2014). The 2010 Basic Health Research results show that more than 50% of Indonesians use herbal medicine (Purwaningsih, 2013). ...
... Thus, Jamu has the potential to be developed. Because of the vast biodiversity of Indonesia's indigenous medicinal plants, herbal medicine has the potential for economic development (Elfahmi et al., 2014). However, this herbal medicine has not been widely used because the discovery of herbal formulas has not been supported by its scientific basis (Noor et al., 2022). ...
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Jamu is an Indonesian traditional herbal medicine that has been practiced for generations. Jamu is made from various medicinal plants. Each plant has several compounds directly related to the target protein that are directly associated with a disease. A pharmacological graph can form relationships between plants, compounds, and target proteins. Research related to the prediction of Jamu formulas for some diseases has been carried out, but there are problems in finding combinations or compositions of Jamu formulas because of the increase in search space size. Some studies adopted the drug–target interaction (DTI) implemented using machine learning or deep learning to predict the DTI for discovering the Jamu formula. However, this approach raises important issues, such as imbalanced and high-dimensional dataset, overfitting, and the need for more procedures to trace compounds to their plants. This study proposes an alternative approach by implementing bipartite graph search optimization using the branch and bound algorithm to discover the combination or composition of Jamu formulas by optimizing the search on a plant–protein bipartite graph. The branch and bound technique is implemented using the search strategy of breadth first search (BrFS), Depth First Search, and Best First Search. To show the performance of the proposed method, we compared our method with a complete search algorithm, searching all nodes in the tree without pruning. In this study, we specialize in applying the proposed method to search for the Jamu formula for type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The result shows that the bipartite graph search with the branch and bound algorithm reduces computation time up to 40 times faster than the complete search strategy to search for a composition of plants. The binary branching strategy is the best choice, whereas the BrFS strategy is the best option in this research. In addition, the the proposed method can suggest the composition of one to four plants for the T2DM Jamu formula. For a combination of four plants, we obtain Angelica Sinensis, Citrus aurantium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Mangifera indica. This approach is expected to be an alternative way to discover the Jamu formula more accurately.
... Herbal medicines are widely used to treat diseases in many countries, as there are still many medicines which are reported to have severe side effects [1]. Herbal medicines are naturally occurring, plant-derived substances, containing phytochemical compounds used for treatment or medicinal purposes [2]. Since the market of herbal medicine is increasing every year, to date there have still been reports that found chemical adulterants in herbal medicines, thereby containing an undeclared synthetic drug. ...
... Other research develops a colorimetric paper-based analytical device for allopurinol detection in herbal medicine [13]. The study was conducted by using Whatman filter paper No. 1,No. 2,and No. 4 and Whatman chromatography as a substrate, and nine colorimetric reagents (dragendorf reagent, ferric chloride, Folin--Ciocalteu reagent, sodium nitroprusside, p-DAB reagent, Schiff reagent, potassium chlorate, tollens reagent, and sodium nitrite) based on the reaction with allopurinol. The result shows that only Folin--Ciocalt ...
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Herbal medicine has become popular in recent years as an alternative medicine. The problem arises when herbal medicines contain an undeclared synthetic drug that is illegally added, since it is a natural product that does not contain any chemical drugs due to the potential cause of harmful effects. Supervision of herbal medicines is important to ensure that these herbal medicines are still safe to use. Thus, developing a reliable analytical technique for the determination of adulterated drugs in herbal medicine is gaining interest. This review aims to provide a recent analytical method that has been used within the past 5 years (2016–2021) for the determination of chemical adulterants in herbal medicine.
... tradisional asli, dasar penemuan obat, dan tujuan konservasi (Heinrich, 2000;Mustafa et., al., 2020). Pemanfaatan tumbuhan obat diwariskan secara turun-temurun di komunitas masing-masing dan disampaikan secara lisan pada kalangan tertentu (Elfahmi et., al., 2014, Silalahi & Nisyawati, 2018. ...
... Indonesia memiliki keanekaragaman hayati yang ditunjukan dengan tingginya jumlah spesies tumbuhan obat (Elfahmi et., al., 2014). Indonesia juga merupakan negara kepulauan yang didiami sekitar tiga ratus suku bangsa . ...
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The people of Tengger in Argosari village receive their knowledge of traditional medicine from their ancestors. This traditional knowledge is inherited and subsequently preserved across generations. This ethnobotanical medicinal plant study began with the participation observatory method and interviewed 28 local Tenggerese people who were selected by purposive and snowball sampling. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed to understand the proportion of cited plants. The analysis was calculated to obtain species use-value (SUV), family use-value (FUV), and fidelity level (FL). We have inventoried 16 species of plants belonging to 9 families to treat five types of sexual problems. The result showed that Piper betle L. had the highest SUV (1.21). Zingiberaceae was recorded as the largest family (6 plant species) with high FUV (0.69). Rhizome (47,06%) and leaves (41.18%) are the most dominant parts used as ingredients in traditional medicine. The majority of Argosari villagers prepare medicinal plants by decoction techniques (94.12%), then use them orally (94.12%). Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb. (purwoceng) that is used for aphrodisiac has the highest FL value (78.57%). So it has the potential to be developed related to its pharmacological effects and the content of its active secondary metabolites. Since P. pruatjan is categorized as rare and protected species, so it requires a policy on its use as raw material for traditional medicines. Keywords: Ethnobotany, Medicinal plants, Sexual problems, Tengger tribe, Argosari Village. ABSTRAK Masyarakat suku Tengger di desa Argosari mendapatkan ilmu pengobatan tradisional dari nenek moyang mereka. Pengetahuan tumbuhan obat ini diwariskan dan selanjutnya dilestarikan dari generasi ke generasi. Pendekatan etnobotani tumbuhan obat ini dimulai dengan metode participation observatory dan mewawancarai 28 masyarakat lokal suku Tengger yang diseleksi secara purposive dan snowball sampling. Analisis data etnobotani digunakan untuk memahami proposi tumbuhan yang tersitasi, yaitu: species use-value (SUV), family use-value (FUV), dan fidelity level (FL). Studi ini telah berhasil menginventarisasi 16 spesies tumbuhan yang termasuk dalam 9 famili untuk pengobatan 5 jenis penyakit permasalahan seksual. Sirih (Piper betle L.) memiliki SUV tertinggi yaitu 1,21, sedangkan Zingiberaceae terdata sebagai famili terbanyak (6 spesies tumbuhan) dengan FUV tertinggi (0,69). Rimpang (47,06%) dan daun (41,18%) merupakan bagian yang dominan digunakan sebagai bahan obat tradisional. Mayoritas masyarakat desa Argosari mempreparasi tumbuhan obat tersebut dengan tehnik dekokta (94,12%), selanjutnya menggunakannya secara oral (94,12%). Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb. (purwoceng) yang berfungsi sebagai tumbuhan afrodisiak memiliki nilai FL tertinggi (78,57%), sehingga sangat berpotensi dikembangkan terkait efek farmakologis dan kandungan metabolit sekunder aktifnya. P. pruatjan termasuk dalam spesies langka dan dilindungi sehingga memerlukan kebijakan dalam pemanfaatannya sebagai bahan baku ramuan obat tradisional. Kata kunci: Etnobotani, Tumbuhan obat, Permasalahan seksual, Suku Tengger, Desa Argosari.
... The complex pathological condition of diabetes mellitus certainly requires treatment with many biological targets, therefore, combinations of drugs with different mechanisms become an option in its treatment (Clemmensen et al., 2019). Jamu is traditional medicine in Indonesian, which contains a mixture of natural ingredients that have been used by Indonesian society for centuries to maintain health and treat diseases such as diabetes (Elfahmi et al., 2014). Furthermore, it is believed that the combination of many ingredients in the herbal formula can improve therapeutic outcomes, reduce toxicity, and systematically manage complex conditions (Zhou et al., 2019). ...
... The combination of A. paniculata and S. cumini was used in several jamu products in Indonesia (Elfahmi et al., 2014). In a previous study, it was reported that the combination of extracts of A. paniculata and C. sappan had moderate antihyperglycemic effects (Wediasari et al., 2020). ...
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Andrographis paniculata, Syzygium cumini, and Caesalpinia sappan are used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study aims to examine the antidiabetic effects and the acute toxicity of combined extract (1:1:1) of A. paniculata, S. cumini, and C. sappan (ASCE). The antidiabetic effect was tested using the rats model, induced by a high-fat diet and a double dose of streptozotocin injection of 35 mg/kg BW. Subsequently, diabetic rats in the experimental group were treated with 75 mg/kg BW and 150 mg/kg BW of ASCE, and those in the diabetic control group were treated with metformin 250 mg/kg BW. After seven days of treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBG), pancreatic β-cells numbers, and lipid profiles were used to analyze the antidiabetic effect. The results showed that the administration of 150 mg/kg BW ASCE significantly reduced FBG (p < 0.01), cholesterol levels (p < 0.05), LDL levels (p < 0.05), but not triglycerides, compared to diabetic control, this effect was comparable to metformin treatment. In addition, the pancreatic β-cells numbers were likely increased after ASCE treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The oral administration of a single dose of ASCE was safe up to 5000 mg/kg BW and did not result in any significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight, hematological and biochemical parameters compared with the control group. Therefore, it can be concluded that ASCE has a potential antidiabetic effect and can be safely developed as alternative medicine.
... Most people in Indonesia, especially in rural areas, use traditional medicine known as jamu to treat several diseases. Jamu is a Javanese word which means traditional medicine [1]. Herbal medicine is made from natural ingredients taken from the roots, leaves, fruits and also parts of animals [2]. ...
... Jamu or Indonesian traditional herbal medicine is one of Indonesian heritage that has been consumed almost all of the Indonesian people, especially in rural areas. Almost 5000 species of Indonesian herbal medicine have been observed to their pharmacological activities 1 . Some of pharmacological activities that have been observed are analgesic and antiinflammation. ...
Article
The study aims to develop an effective, efficient, and reliable method using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) combined with chemometric for identifying the synthetic drug in Indonesian herbal medicine known as Jamu. Jamu powders, Metamizole, and the binary mixture of Jamu and Metamizole were measured using FTIR-ATR at the mid-infrared region (4000-650 cm-1). The obtained spectra profiles were further analyzed by Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Square Regression, Principal Component Regression, and Discriminant Analysis. Jamu Pegel Linu (JPL), Jamu Encok (JE), Jamu Sakit Pinggang (JSP), Metamizole (M), and adulterated Jamu by Metamizole were discriminated well on PCA score plot. PLSR and PCR showed the accuracy and precision data to quantify JPL, JE, and JSP, and each adulterated by M with R2 value > 0,995 and low value of RMSEC and RMSEP. Discriminant Analysis (DA) was successfully grouping Jamu and Metamizole without any misclassification. A combination of FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics offered useful tools for detecting Metamizole in traditional herbal medicine.
... 6 Ginger rhizome which contains gingerol and paradol is traditionally used as antiemetic and in the treatment of gastritis, influenza, malaria, cholera, as well as anorexia. 7 Essential oil and oleoresin in ginger containing mono-and sesquiterpenoids, also phenolic compounds, and its derivatives provide a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. 8 In the course of our screening for secondary metabolites for anti-infective agents from plants and associated endophytes, we investigated an endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae). ...
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Background: Genus Trichoderma of fungal kingdom are largely used as biological control agents due to broad-spectrum activity against plant pathogens. Objective: This study aimed to investigate Trichoderma harzianum, an endophytic fungus obtained from ginger (Zingiber officinale) leaves. Methods: The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were deduced on the basis of UV, 1H NMR and MS data analyses, as well as comparison with literature. Results: Two known tetramic acid derivatives were isolated from this fungus, including harzianic acid (A) and isoharzianic acid (B). Compound B inhibited the growth of a corn pathogenic fungus, Ustilago maydis, with inhibition zone diameter (39 ± 0.33 mm) larger than nystatin (29 mm). Additionally, iso-HA (B) revealed antibacterial effect towards Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value of 25 μM. However, both compounds showed no cytotoxicity against human cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines. Conclusion: T. harzianum produced antimicrobial compound like iso-HA which has potential application either in agricultural or health.
... Herbal medicine is a traditional medicine that uses several mixtures of medicinal plants [1]. One way of using traditional herbal medicine is by boiling [2]. ...
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.) is a cultural heritage in Madura ethnic, Indonesia. Madurese herbs were traditionally boiled using pottery which is made from clay. Clay consists of Silica (SiO2), Aluminum silicate (Al2O3), Magnesium (MgO), Calcium (CaO),) Iron (Fe2O3) and Potassium (K2O). This component contributes to the efficacy of traditional Madurese herbal medicine by forming bioinorganic complex compounds. The present study aimed to characterize the bioinorganic complex compounds from Madurese herbal medicine and predict their pharmacokinetics activity. Madurese traditional herbal medicine composition was determined using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FITR), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to determine the functional group, transition metal composition, morphology, and the crystal structure of bioinorganic complex compounds from Madurese traditional herbal medicine, respectively. The pharmacokinetic activity was predicted using ADMET software. The results showed that Fe and Mn bind to hydroxyl groups (-OH) in the 6-gingerol and shogaol compounds to form bioinorganic complex compounds. The morphological structure of Madurese herbal powder was porous slabs. The crystal structures of Madurese herbal powder were amorphous and uniform in size. The pharmacokinetic activity analysis showed that Madura traditional herbal has a high solubility in water and easily absorbed by the body. In conclusion, bioinorganic complex compounds of Madurese traditional herbal medicine can be considered as a therapeutic agent in further research.
... 9,10 Andrographis paniculata has a blood purifying and cold property which consume as herbal tea and jamu in Indonesia. 9,11,12 Andrographis paniculata has terpenoid, flavonoid, xanthones, noriridoid and traces element. 13 Andrographolide is diterpenoid which has antibacterial activity and scattered in each part of Andrographis paniculata with a different concentration. ...
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Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is penicillin and cephalosporine resistant Staphylococcus aureus which is a major cause of nosocomial infection. Various studies have been conducted for resistant cases, especially herbs which have antibacterial activity. Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) is an example of herb which has antibacterial activity due to the presence of andrographolide. Andrographolide soluble in ethanol and poorly in water, while extraction with alcohol causes andrographolide’s degradation. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water stem extract and compare them against MRSA ATCC 3351 in vitro.Methods: This is an experimental study with a post-test only control group design and conducted by disc diffusion technique to obtain an inhibition zone against MRSA.Result: The result of this study showed the mean inhibitory zone of ethanol stem extract was 5,87mm, 6,77mm, 7,87mm respectively for 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations, while 1% concentration did not show antibacterial activity. Water stem extract at 1%, 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations showed mean inhibitory zone was at 4,57mm, 7,17mm, 8,67mm, and 9,67mm respectively.Conclusion: Ethanol and water stem extract showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. The independent sample t-test didn’t show a difference between ethanol and water stem extract of Andrographis paniculata toward MRSA (p>0,05).
... Nearly one quarter of the participants in this study consumed jamu on a daily basis, which is in line with a previous study that also found only a few patients with CKD drank herbal drinks (Indrayanti et al., 2019). Even though most Indonesians are satisfied with the effects of jamu (Elfahmi et al., 2014), this study found that three quarters of participants avoided consuming this beverage. Most patients undergoing HD avoid herbal drinks as a daily beverage because of concerns over potentially negative effects such as excessive fluid volumes and shortness of breath (Kustimah et al., 2019). ...
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Background: The factors related to fluid intake adherence among patients undergoing hemodialysis have been explored in many studies. However, most of these were conducted in Western countries and have produced inconsistent results. A study of this issue in Indonesia, a tropical country with strong herbal medicine traditions, may show different results. In addition to demographic characteristics, self-efficacy is a standard measurement used in chronic care management activities such as hemodialysis treatment. Understanding the reasons behind patient nonadherence in Indonesia may help nurses better manage the fluid intake of patients. Purpose: This study was designed to determine the factors that predict patient adherence to fluid intake restrictions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 153 patients undergoing hemodialysis at two hospitals. Intradialytic weight gain over a 1-month period was recorded to assess the participants' adherence to fluid intake restrictions. Intradialytic weight gains of more than 2 kg was considered to be nonadherent. A daily urine output and level of thirst were also recorded. The participants completed an adapted self-efficacy questionnaire, Swedish Fluid Intake Appraisal Inventory, and the data were analyzed together with demographic characteristic and clinical parameters using hierarchical multiple regression. Results: The results revealed that most of the respondents did not adequately adhere to fluid intake restrictions (59.5%). Intradialytic weight gain was shown to strongly correlate with self-efficacy (p < .05, β = -.201), gender (p < .05, β = -.179), educational background (p = .05, β = .159), and urine output (p < .05, β = -.168). Demographic characteristic explained 10.6% and self-efficacy explained 3.9% of the variance in fluid adherence. Conclusions/implications for practice: Female participants with higher self-efficacy scores reported the lowest average level of intradialytic weight gain, indicating better adherence to fluid intake restrictions. Several demographic factors as well as self-efficacy were identified as potential predictors of fluid intake restriction adherence. Therefore, measuring self-efficacy periodically is a good initial step toward detecting those patients who are at higher risk of noncompliance with fluid intake restrictions.
... The traditional knowledge of various species of forest medicinal plants owned by the Dayak Tribe is invaluable, especially for developing health and industrial medicine (Cheikhyoussef et al. 2011;Shosan et al. 2014;Haeruddin et al. 2017;Qamariah et al. 2020). In addition, the knowledge of traditional medicine and the use of medicinal plants is an essential element in increasing an individual's ability to have a healthy life (Panjaitan et al. 2013;Elfahmi et al. 2014;Sujarwo et al. 2015;Fitmawati et al. 2017;Setiawati et al. 2019). Therefore, efforts to spread the use of medicinal plants are needed. ...
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Az-Zahra FR, Sari NLW, Saputry R, Nugroho GD, Sunarto, Pribadi T, Setyawan AD. 2021. Review: Traditional knowledge of the Dayak Tribe (Borneo) in the use of medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 22: 4633-4647. Dayak is the name for the native inhabitants of the island of Borneo. The Dayak Tribe uses natural and forest products in plants as traditional medicine for health treatment. This study aims to obtain information about the utilization of medicinal plants in the Dayak Tribe. The knowledge about traditional medicine by utilizing medicinal plants has been obtained from their ancestors since ancient times and inherited from generation to generation. The use of various medicinal plants used by the Dayak Tribe has differences in terms of the part of the plant taken, how to process it, and how to use it. This is because each Dayak Sub-tribe has its role model for using these medicinal plants. For example, the leaves are used in one area, and it could be that the plant roots are used in other areas. This paper reviews the use of medicinal plants to treat various diseases by 6 Dayak sub-tribes, namely: Desa Dayak Sub-tribe (member of Iban Dayak), Jangkang Dayak Sub-tribe (member of Klemantan Dayak), Bakumpai Dayak Sub-tribe (member of OtDanum-Ngaju Dayak), Kenyah Dayak Sub-tribe (member of Apokayan Dayak), Tagol Dayak Sub-tribe (member of Murut Dayak), and Siang Dayak Sub-tribe (member of Punan Dayak). The results from 6 Dayak Sub-tribes revealed 63 families of plants from which 133 species. The family most widely used for medicinal plants, namely Euphorbiaceae, consists of 9 species, and the leaf is the most commonly used part of the plants (47%). The traditional knowledge of the Dayak Tribe in utilizing plant resources will significantly help preserve biodiversity and domestication of medicinal plants. Suppose medicinal plants are exploited more than they should. In that case, it will undoubtedly have a significant impact on their availability in the forest area, and if it continues, it will cause the extinction of certain species. This implies the importance of preserving local wisdom in the Dayak Tribe so that the use of nature is done wisely and so that it remains sustainable. By knowing the benefits of medicinal plants, Dayak Tribe will want to conserve these medicinal plants to be used in the future.
... Traditional medicine demonstrated many obvious advantages of anticancer therapy using multiple target mechanisms and types. [18] One of the widely used plants as traditional medicine has already completed clinical trials and is recommended for cancer prevention and therapy. [19,20] E. cinereum is traditionally used by the Bangka Belitung Island community for cancer treatment. ...
Article
Eriocaulon cinereum R. Br is used as traditional medicine by the local community in Bangka Belitung Island, Indonesia. The plant is processed as an infusion for fever, boosts the immune system, and treats tumor cells. However, scientific research on this species is still limited. The aims of this study were to determine the cytotoxic of E. cinereum against MCF-7 cells. The results suggested that one of the compounds has a good cytotoxic activity. Therefore, it is quite promising in the effort of cancer drug discovery. The active compound has a flavonoid, which plays a role in several anticancer mechanisms. This study provided scientific evidence regarding the utilization of E. cinereum by the local community for cancer therapy. The plant can be further developed as an alternative agent to treat cancer or as cancer adjuvant therapy.
... This historical usage gives botanical and herbal sources of new drugs somewhat of an advantage over other drug sources since discovery is often based on historical observations of patient experiences (i.e., an herbal treatment has been anecdotally associated with a particular symptom alleviation, setting the stage for the isolation of a potentially active component). While the isolation of a single agent is typically the approach in Western medicine, herbal treatments and ethnobotanical ap-proaches may include whole plant extracts, mixtures of plant extracts, supplements, and the healing potential of functional foods [4][5][6][7]. Thus, plants can be used in drug discovery both for the isolation of a single bioactive chemical agent and at the extract level where the multiple components in natural product mixtures may be associated with beneficial interactions [8]. ...
Article
Prior to the advent of modern medicine, humans have used botanicals extensively for their therapeutic potential. With the majority of newly approved drugs having their origins in natural products, plants remain at the forefront of drug discovery. Continued research and discovery necessitate the use of high-throughput analytical methods to screen and identify bioactive components and potential therapeutic molecules from plants. Utilizing a pre-generated plant extract library, we subjected botanicals to LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking to determine their chemical composition and relatively quantify already known metabolites. The LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking approach was also used to authenticate the composition of dietary supplements against their corresponding plant specimens. The networking procedures provided concise visual representations of the chemical space and highly informative assessments of the botanicals. The procedures also proved to define the composition of the botanical supplements quickly and efficiently. This offered an innovative approach to metabolite profiling and authentication practices and additionally allowed for the identification of new, putatively unknown metabolites for future isolation and biological evaluation.
... Di India, berbagai jenis tanaman juga digunakan untuk mengobati penyakit ini [2]. Berbagai jenis tanaman obat yang digunakan untuk mengobati DM telah diteliti secara in vitro, in vivo hingga uji klinik [8]. ...
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Diabetes melitus (DM) adalah penyakit metabolik yang ditandai dengan peningkatan kadar glukosa darah. Selain pengobatan menggunakan obat-obat antidiabetik, masyarakat banyak yang menggunakan bahan alam, khususnya tanaman untuk mengobati penyakit DM. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan kadar gula darah sewaktu (GDS) dan HbA1c pada pasien DM tipe 2 yang mendapat terapi jamu saintifik (JS) di klinik saintifikasi jamu WKJ Kabupaten Tegal dengan pasien DM tipe 2 yang mendapat terapi antidiabetik oral di puskesmas pada tahun 2020. Rancangan penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan teknik consecutive sampling menggunakan subjek uji yang memenuhi kriteria. Subjek uji penelitian ini adalah 19 pasien dengan terapi antidiabetik oral (ADO) dari Puskesmas dan 9 pasien dengan terapi jamu saintifik dari Klinik WKJ. Uji independent t-test digunakan untuk membandingkan rata-rata GDS dan kadar HbA1c pada kedua kelompok, dengan nilai signifikansi p < 0,05. Kuesioner digunakan untuk mengukur tingkat kepatuhan minum obat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rata-rata nilai GDS pasien terapi antidiabetik oral (ADO) dan jamu saintifik (JS) setelah terapi berturut-turut adalah 282,95 mg/dL dan 267,56 mg/dL. Rata-rata HbA1c pasien terapi ADO dan JS setelah terapi berturut-turut adalah 9,83% dan 10,11%. Kadar GDS dan HbA1c setelah terapi pada kelompok pasien dengan terapi ADO tidak berbeda bermakna dengan kelompok pasien dengan terapi JS. Berdasarkan pengukuran analisis tingkat kepatuhan, diketahui tidak terdapat hubungan antara tingkat kepatuhan pasien terhadap kadar GDS dan HbA1c pasien
... Kowru dresis are typical Afro-Surinamese preparations (Wooding, 1979) which are used, as mentioned above, for reversing disease-causing imbalances between "hot" and "cold" (Onwuanibe, 1979). Jamus (Figure 8.5) are health-promoting and medicinal preparations that are mainly prepared from plants according to Jamu, the widely practiced form of traditional medicine in Indonesia and among Surinamese Javanese (De Waal Malefijt, 1963;Elfahmi, Woerdenbag & Kayser, 2014). ...
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International security is another aspect of international relations that will also enhance the regionalization trend. Another important element of contemporary international security is the extension of the debate on its scope. According to the traditional approach, the concept of security is directly related to the idea of confrontation between states. In this context, security is related to survival, thus forming a strictly political-military agenda, a hallmark in the Cold War context. However, the theoretical debates since the 1970s resulted in an economic and environmental agenda for the discussion about security as well as issues concerning identity and transnational crimes. South America, inserted into the trend of regionalization in international relations in the past decades, sought to strengthen this process on the subcontinent with integration initiatives. The continent occupies 12% of the earth’s land area with a portion of arable land, including abundant natural resources, yet only 6% of the world’s population. In the context of the growing world population, increased use of natural resources and systemic ecological degradation, South America is of great strategic importance. We can identify three major geographical regions in South America: the Andes, the La Plata Basin, and the Amazon Basin. The Amazon Basin stands out for its international trend, and covers parts of nine out of the 13 countries in South America. However, when we speak of a region that covers more than 50% of South America and involves nine countries, axles with different dynamics regarding integration processes and security issues will come up. This means that we could approach the Amazon region with its sub-divisions based on geography, integration, culture and security issues. From this point of view we consider the Guiana Shield in this chapter a sub-region of the Amazon.
... The study of Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai plant extracts, which were rich in polyphenolic compounds (total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid compounds) with efficient antioxidant activity, also showed remarkable antibacterial activity against plant and animal pathogenic bacteria [3]. The diverse Indonesian medicinal plants have been used as the sources of herbal medicines for the inhibition and treatment of human diseases for several thousand years [4]. ...
... [93] Gambir (Uncaria gambir) belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which is plant species distributed in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. [94] U. gambir contains an abundant amount of procyanidin, catechin, and quercetin, which exhibit antiviral characteristics. [95] Traditionally, U. gambir is used to treat sore throat, spongy gums, dysentery, atherosclerosis, obesity, and deafness. ...
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In the current century, the development of medicine and molecular biotechnology led to successful containment and even eradication of some human pathogens, especially in developed countries. However, some pathogens have evolved, resulting in the emergence of other infectious diseases in developed countries. Human socioeconomic activities and the advancement of technology and transportation have led to the quick movement of humans to different parts of the world. There is a significant concern that this movement enhances the distribution of pathogens, making it difficult to contain, as witnessed with the global spread of the 2009 influenza pandemic within only 3 months and the 2014 Ebola outbreak, which spread in various West African countries within 8 months. Natural products obtained from plant sources can be identified as the next-generation antibacterial and antiviral alternatives. In developed countries, 80% of the population depends on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare issues, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Relatedly, India is one of the highest producing countries for medicinal herbs. It is considered an international botanical garden. Therefore, the focus of this current review was on the importance of using plants to treat bacterial and viral diseases due to the many advantages of these plants.
... Herbal medicine can propose efficacy and safety due to its large biological activities with minimum adverse effects [11]. Indonesia has the second biggest biodiversity in the world, exhibited by a high number of indigenous medicinal plants that can be used as medicine [12,13]. The Indonesian people, particularly Javanese people, have been using medicinal plants for a long time by drinking herbs derived from medicinal plants. ...
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Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common oral mucous ulcerative lesion with challenging treatment. Herbal medicine therapy can propose clinical efficacy and safety due to its large biological activities. The objective was to review the clinical efficacy and safety of herbal medicine therapy in terms of ulcer size, pain score, healing duration, and adverse effects in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A systematic was conducted based on the PRISMA statement. The search was performed using four electronic databases, namely PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, and Google Scholar for articles published from 2016 until 2021 using specific keywords. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in English, full text, and study in humans. The main outcome is expected to be ulcer size, pain score, healing duration, and adverse effects. Quality assessment of selected articles was conducted using the Quality Appraisal of Randomized Trials Checklist (Cochrane Risk of Bias tool). The methodology quality of studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions and Rev Man software. Five articles were eligible for analysis. The population of the sample study ranged from 34-70 patients of 15-65 y old. The herbs used were Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), curcumin (Curcuma longa), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.). This review showed that there is some evidence of the clinical efficacy and safety of herbal medicine therapy in improved outcomes of recurrent aphthous stomatitis treatment with minimum adverse effects.
... Preparations from various parts of C. pulcherrima are used as a mouthwash for teeth and gums; as an emmenagogue, to accelerate childbirth, and as a strong abortifacient; for treating colds and fevers; against gastrointestinal complaints such as diarrhea, constipation, and gall bladder problems; and to remedy urinary tract problems such as kidney stones [128,129]. In Suriname, C. pulcherrima is used for the same purposes [118, 120,125] but also for good fortune and to honor Mama Aisa, an important deity in Afro-Surinamese Winti religion [130]. ...
... Traditional Indonesian herbal medicine, which has been practiced for generations in Indonesian society, is still widely used for preserving health and treating ailments, owing to its perceived safety over chemical pharmaceuticals (Isnawati et al., 2019;Pengpid and Peltzer, 2018). Jamu is the common name for this type of traditional medicine (Elfahmi et al., 2014). But not only jamu, traditional Indonesian medicine can also be obtained from plants that specifically grow in Indonesia (Jun et al., 2021). ...
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According to some studies, two-thirds of the world's plant species have therapeutic worth. Saurauia vulcanii (Korth.) is one of them. This is something that can be found in Indonesia. Traditionally, this herb was known as pirdot and was used to cure diabetes. This article examines the scientific activities of pirdot leaves as well as their safety for usage. This study used a literature review article as its design. Searching for related publications using data from Pubmed, Proquest, Ebsco, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for the last ten years (2011–2021) yielded 141 articles. There are 14 pertinent articles that explore their substance and application in health. The content of secondary metabolites that have been reported proves that pirdot has properties as an antidiabetic, immunostimulant, antidiarrhoea, anticholesterol, and hepatoprotective.
... For instance, in Japan, there is Campo, traditional medicine formulas used as vitamins and pharmaceuticals (Saito, 2000). In Indonesia, Jamu, rooted in Javanese culture, has long been acknowledged as not only for medicine but also for health care, beauty care, and endurance (Elfahmi et al., 2014;Riswan & Sangat-Roemantyo, 2002) jamu is still very popular in rural as well as in urban areas. Based on its traditional use jamu is being developed into a rational form of therapy, by herbal practitioners and in the form of phytopharmaceuticals. Jamu has acquired a potential benefit, both economically and clinically. ...
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The primary objective of this study is to explore the past and recent research in traditional medicine policy published by scholarly journals. From a series of reputable databases, including BMC, Cambridge, Elsevier, JSTOR, Sage, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, and Wiley, one hundred fifty articles were collected for further analysis. Using a systematic literature review, evidence from this work shows that the predominance of traditional medicine policy research is developed from theory and empirical studies, using random sampling and qualitative analysis. There are a wide variety of subject matters studied, but the research commonly focuses on Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The future research directions in this area are discussed to address various theoretical, methodological, and empirical gaps from the prior research. This study positively contributes to our understanding of the development and trends of traditional medicine policy.
... Series: Earth and Environmental Science 951 (2022) 012078 IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/951/1/012078 2 millions of species of creatures, including humans. Ancient culture made use of natural resources for medical reasons sometimes referred to as a natural product [6]. It is even more popular nowadays because of the advantages of the natural product compared to synthetic material in offering safer, low side effects and green chemistry [7] materials. ...
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SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus that causes COVID-19. This virus was first detected in the city of Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019, and until now, it has become a global pandemic. The FDA recently approved Vekluty (remdesivir) for adults and certain pediatric patients who have COVID-19 and are sick enough to require hospitalization. One of the potential drug target candidates for SARS-CoV-2 is the main protease (M pro ). The purpose of this study was to analyze the flavonoid compounds found in orange (Citrus sp.) peel to determine its potential as anti-M pro through a molecular docking study. The compounds were initially screened for drug-like properties and then docked using Autodock Vina in the PyRx emulator software. The docking results were visualized using the BIOVIA Discovery Visualizer 2020. The result showed that the binding free energy of hesperidin (-8.6 kcal/mol) was higher than nelfinavir (-8.5 kcal/mol). In addition, hesperitin (-7.3 kcal/mol), sakuranetin (-7.1 kcal/mol), isosacuranetin (-7.2 kcal/mol) and tetra-o-methylscutallerin (-6.8 kcal/mol) exhibited lower binding free energy value than control. Based on these results, hesperidin has the potential as an inhibitor of the main protease’s SARS-CoV-2.
... 5,6 The incorporation of antioxidant chemicals into sunscreens enhances their protective properties against UV radiation and enables the treatment and prevention of UV-induced illnesses. 7 Indonesia is the world's second most biodiverse country, with 28,000 plant species and an estimated 2,500 plant species with therapeutic qualities, 8 one of which is Black Glutinous Rice (Oryza sativa). This plant is widely utilized in the production of food and natural sunscreens as well as a cosmetic component such as emulgel. ...
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Background: Recently, emulgel has emerged as a potential hydrophobic drug delivery method. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the phytochemical content of Oryza sativa extract and develop an emulgel formulation using Carbapol 940 as a gelling agent. Materials and Methods: The emulsion was placed in a gel basis after preparation and the formulations were evaluated for their rheology, pH, spreading coefficient, stability, and sun protection factor. Then, phytochemical analysis of O. sativa extract was used to determine the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, quinones, monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids, as well as triterpenoids and steroids. Results: The entire formulations of O. sativa emulgel extract filled the emulgel formulation criteria. Furthermore, O. sativa emulgel protects against UV radiation, as indicated by the SPF value in each formulation, which increases as the dose of O. sativa extract increases. Based on the results, formulations 2 and 3 have an SPF of 5.71±0.063 and 16.07±0.072, respectively. These suggest that they both fill the Indonesian National Standard, which requires a sunscreen preparation with a minimum of four protection. Conclusion: Consequently, O. sativa emulgel extract can serve as a novel sunscreen agent against UV radiation. However, further study is required to ascertain the mechanism of action of the active chemicals found in O. sativa that function as an antioxidant and give protection against UV radiation.
... We estimated the value of this resource using the price of raw turmeric particularly Curcuma domestica (c.US$0.1/kg) which has a similar function (Bandaranayake, 1998;Roosita et al., 2008;Elfahmi Woerdenbag and Kayser, 2014). A new resource use activity that did not exist in the past was the extraction of Rhizophora seeds for mangrove nursery business. ...
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Efforts to rehabilitate degraded mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia started in the 1960s and have recently received increased attention. Rehabilitation efforts have been mainly conducted through community-based mangrove management (CBMM) programs, aimed at restoring important services such as food provisioning and coastal protection, and for biodiversity conservation. Our study assessed the effectiveness of CBMM strategies to conserve biodiversity in four adjacent Indonesian coastal villages (Sriwulan, Bedono, Timbulsloko, Surodadi) in Central Java. For this, we used complementary methodologies combining participatory resource mapping, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire-based interviews, field assessments and literature review. This yielded detailed information on mangrove rehabilitation activities, management approaches and the impacts of mangrove rehabilitation on biodiversity in the four villages. Our analysis focussed on mangrove forest structure and diversity and macro invertebrate diversity. The overall comparison of management performance shows a higher achievement of CBMM applied in Bedono in terms of a larger mangrove diversity and net reforestation coverage, also supporting a higher macrobenthic faunal diversity compared to the other villages. The main contributing factors were a) the longer-term funding and maintenance, b) the greater acceptance for protective legislation, c) the higher levels of public support, d) the fact that more species of mangroves were used, e) the much larger spatial scale of mangrove restoration, and f) the presence of additional measure to reduce wave action in highly eroded areas. These results revealed key determinants of success when restoring mangroves for the purpose of biodiversity conservation and the influence of different CBMM approaches.
... Indonesia has approximately 30,000 vascular plants. Based on data from the National Food and Drug Administration (BPOM), 283 plant species have been officially registered for national medicine and the rest are still used traditionally (Elfahmi et al., 2014). ...
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The people of the South Bangka Regency have been well-known for using plants as traditional medicine and applying it in their daily life, but the information about the indigenous medical system the limited to written documentation. This study aimed to describe the types of medicinal herbs, analyze the medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine, and discover the conservational effort practiced by the Malays which is the local ethnic of South Bangka Regency. The study employed a quantitative method with field observation techniques, interviews, and herbal identification. The data were analyzed using the ethnomedicinal quantitative method. The results showed that there were 117 species of medicinal herbs with 57 families, while the most frequently used herb was Areca catechu with the results of UV (0.16), FL (16.22), and RFC (0.004). On the important family value (FIV), the most frequently used herb was the Myrtaceae family with 9 species, followed by Poaceae with 8 species. One of the conservation efforts of medicinal plants is by conducting cultivation to help prevent extinction in their natural habitat.
... Rosella flower is used for preventing cancer and lowering pressure (Dewantari, 2018). Ginger is usually used for respiratory nose, ear, oral/dental, throat problems, cough (Jadid et al., 2020), venomous snake-bite, asthma, headache, stomachache, back pain, influenza, maintaining the immune system (Hijrah et al., 2019), body warmer (Elfrida, 2021), antiemetic, rheumatism, anorexia, cholera, influenza, anemia, malaria, anthelmintic, cough and vertigo (Elfahmi et al., 2014). Lime is usually used for cough (Elfrida, 2021), tonsillitis, cough with phlegm, fever, headache, hemorrhoid (Hijrah et al., 2019), and adding herbal flavor (Husein et al., 2019). ...
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Jamu is well known as traditional herbal medicine that has been used by Indonesian for centuries ago. Local people usually consume jamu for maintaining health and therapy diseases because it is cheaper and has less side effects. Scientific approach needs to be done to study the characteristic of the herbals. This research aims to characterize Indonesian herbal medicine based on microstructure using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples for this research are rosela flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa), ginger (Zingiber officinale), lime fruit (Citrus aurantifolia), and celebes pepper (Piper crocatum). The infusion method preparation was carried out. The mixture was processed further by a freeze-drying method to obtain a powder form. SEM was utilized to capture the herbal powder image. Size of distribution and surface roughness were analysed by ImageJ and Origin Pro 8 on SEM images. The size measurement result showed that infused Rosella has the biggest grain (53.5 µm), followed by lime (43.8 µm), ginger (41.2 µm) and celebes pepper (38.4 µm). The surface roughness results showed that the roughest samples of all is ginger (Ra = 64.417), followed by lime (Ra = 58.761), celebes pepper (Ra = 43.589), and rosella (Ra = 30.855). In conclusion, based on its size measurement result, celebes pepper is the most soluble and has the highest bioavailability, followed by ginger, lime, and rosella. According to its surface roughness, celebes pepper also showed the most soluble compared to other samples, followed by lime, ginger and rosella.
... Furthermore, the leaves have higher phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and metal ion-chelating ability than K. galanga rhizomes [4]. The rhizomes are also used to prepare 'Jamu beras kencur' in Indonesia, as a local tonic frequently consumed for beneficial health effects [5]. ...
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Kaempferia galanga is a tropical plant with an impressive range of food and medicinal uses. This study, therefore, investigated the variation in yields, physicochemical properties, chemical compositions, and antioxidant activities of rhizome oils from two K. galanga varieties, K. galanga bigger rhizomes (V1) and K. galanga smaller rhizomes (V2), isolated by steam distillation (S) and maceration (M) techniques. The air-dried rhizomes' oil contents were found to be 2.81±0.09% (SV1O), 7.93±0.20% (MV1O), 3.60±0.10% (SV2O), and 8.76±0.22% (MV2O), respectively. From the GC-MS analysis, the SV1O, MV1O, SV2O, and MV2O samples contain 49, 48, 61, and 56 compounds, respectively. Furthermore, ethyl trans-p-methoxycinnamate was the most prevalent chemical constituent in four oils with a percentage contribution of 43.37% (SV1O), 60.62% (MV1O), 24.92% (SV2O), and 57.17% (MV2O). Several long-chain alcohols (6Z,9Z-pentadeca-6,9-dien-1-ol, 9E,12E-octadeca-9,12-dien-1-ol, heptadecan-1-ol), aldehyde (Z-octadec-9-enal), carboxylic acids (4-(4-methoxyphenyl)oxane-4-carboxylic acid, hexadecanoic acid), diterpene sandaracopimaradiene, steroid ergosterol, and alkaloid 2-imino-3-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one, were also identified in K. galanga rhizome oils isolated by maceration method. In addition, all oils showed high antioxidant activities with the IC50 values of 86.10±1.51, 85.24±1.48, 89.19±1.72, and 86.49±2.03 μg/mL for SV1O, MV1O, SV2O, and MV2O, respectively.
... Indonesia is a mega-biodiversity country with over 30,000 flowering plant species, 6,000 of which are used for traditional healing processes (Elfahmi et al. 2014). However, only about 20-22% of them are cultivated, while the rest 78% are still harvested from the wild (Azmin et al. 2019). ...
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Elfrida, Tarigan NS, Suwardi AB. 2021. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by community in Jambur Labu Village, East Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 2893-2900. Jambur Labu is a village in East Aceh that is home to various ethnic groups. The community in the village has used various plant species as a traditional medicine to treat diseases and disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the medicinal plants used by the community in the Jambur Labu Village, Birem Bayeun Sub-district, East Aceh, Indonesia. This study was based on field surveys, plant collection, and interviews with the local people. Interviews were performed with 30 informants selected using the Snowball Sampling technique. A total of 107 medicinal plant species, belonging to 87 families, were documented to be used by the local community in Jambur Labu Village. Leaves were the most used plant part (38%), followed by fruit (22%), whole plant (9%), rhizome (8%), roots (7%), flowers and bark (4% each), sap (3%), stem and tuber (2% each), and seeds (1%) and the main mode of preparations are decoction (39%). Breynia androgyna (L.) Chakrab.dan N.P.Balakr., Moringa oleifera Lam, Jatropha multifida L., Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr., Zingiber officinale Roscoe., and Tagetes erecta L. had the highest UV value (0.96), indicating the high importance of such species for the community. The high informant consensus factor (ICF=0.978) was assigned to the diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism (DBF) category. The results of this study can enrich the existing study of medicinal uses of plant by communities, in this context is the use by a community in Aceh.
... The study of Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai plant extracts, which were rich in polyphenolic compounds (total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid compounds) with efficient antioxidant activity, also showed remarkable antibacterial activity against plant and animal pathogenic bacteria [3]. The diverse Indonesian medicinal plants have been used as the sources of herbal medicines for the inhibition and treatment of human diseases for several thousand years [4]. ...
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A large common species, Syzygium aqueum , belonging to the genus Syzygium possesses numerous bioactive phytochemical constituents. Moreover, the different parts of this species have been used as folk medicine since centuries ago. In this study, a phytochemical exploration was carried out on the plant’s stem bark. Isolation of the compounds was carried out through the extraction step with some organic solvents, followed by separation and purification using chromatography techniques until the two triterpenoids were isolated from nonpolar and semipolar extracts. Structure elucidation was done using spectroscopic methods. These compounds were identified as alphitolic acid and arjunolic acid. Subsequently, these two compounds were used in anticancer tests against human cancer cells HeLa, T47D, and A549 using colorimetric assay. The result showed that both compounds showed more inhibition of the growth of HeLa and T47D than A549 cancer cells, with the highest activity shown by arjunolic acid against HeLa cell lines.
... Jamu is known as a traditional herbal medicine of Indonesia, processed from plant parts such as leaves, rhizomes, roots, and bark (Limyati, 1998;Ratnawati, 2020;Riswan, 2003;Stevensen, 1999). Jamu has been used for hundreds of years from generation to generation, as it is believed to be able to maintain health and treat disease (Beers, 2001;Elfahmi et al., 2014;Torri, 2012). The term of jamu in this research refers to a broader term of traditional medicine. ...
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This paper analyzes the important role of jamu in the complementary medical market of Indonesia by exploring the four types of market valuation as proposed in the social order of market by Jens Beckert (Beckert, 2009). Different from studies conducted by Srivastava et al. (2021), Kumar et al. (2021), Neto et al. (2020), and Poonthananiwatkul et al. (2015) that mostly discuss physical and material value, specifically on the product standardization and pharmacological characteristics of traditional medicine at the respective Asian countries, this study focuses on both material and symbolic qualities of jamu in Indonesia. By presenting market valuation as a composite of standardization, cognitive anchoring, normative legitimation, and social positioning, this study reveals that Jamu is more recognized by its symbolic value than its material or physical value. As a methodological novelty, this study illustrates how to visualize the pattern and structure of connectivity between words as a value formation process in jamu market by employing TNA and corpus-based SNA using Gephi and WORDij software. This study also illustrates a theoretical operationalization of how the issue of product valuation in the market as social order is justified by empirical evidence.
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The emergence of modernization and globalization, followed by technology, information, and communication, leads Javanese millennial women to start using modern beauty treatment. On the other side, there are groups of millennial women who prefer to use traditional treatment. Research on traditional treatments and Jamu (Indonesian herbal medicine) are mostly focus on its function rather than reasons of people using it. This study explores the factors and reasons of millennial women to return to use traditional beauty treatment rather than modern one. This study applied qualitative in particular phenomenology to explain this trend and to understand the meaning from the perspective of users. This research conducted in Yogyakarta Special Region and involved eight millennial women. Using theory of Ulrich Beck on risk society, this study suggests that the trend of back to natural treatment among millennials is a form of a reflexive modernity. There are reasons of young women to do this; 1) previous experience of adverse effect of modern beauty treatment; 2) the price of traditional beauty treatment is more affordable than modern one; 3) the feasibility of getting basic ingredients for traditional beauty treatment; 4) belief about the good effect of traditional beauty treatment rather than modern one.
Article
The decline in birth rates has become a very serious problem in various parts of the world. Many countries have implemented national programs for increasing birth rates, one of which involves the use of traditional medicine as an alternative solution. Among the fast-growing traditional medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indonesian medicine (TIM) have attracted a lot of demand globally. Here, we analyzed and compared the herbal medicines from TCM and TIM that must be avoided by pregnant women for preventing miscarriage and maintaining safety during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This review uses data from official reports from the respective government and national and international electronic databases for analysis. Although TCM and TIM have their own characteristics of treatment, they also have some similarities in concept and treatment, especially those related to herbal medicines. This review can be used as a reference base to help pregnant women consume herbal medicines at appropriate conditions and doses.
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In this work, indigenous knowledge of Indonesian medicinal plants and their preparation for traditional medicines in Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, is investigated. This indigenous knowledge was incorporated into STEM-based teaching/learning as a meaningful aspect of science education in Indonesia. This indigenous knowledge was also scientifically correlated and its integration into STEM-based learning was evaluated. Field visits involving traditional medicine sellers and makers were conducted to gather information on Indonesian traditional medicines. A semi-structured interview technique was used. In addition, field observations were conducted to observe the process of preparing traditional medicines, along with literature studies on their ingredients and benefits. Twenty species of medicinal plants commonly used as herbs were investigated. The STEM approach was used descriptively in the data analysis. Comparative analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between STEM and indigenous knowledge of Indonesian traditional medicines. The correlation between the original knowledge in the community and scientific knowledge in the literature was analyzed to integrate this indigenous knowledge into STEM education and therefore to re-design the experiences in the teaching/learning process. This study showed that scientific concepts in the preparation of traditional medicines have important implications for indigenizing the science curriculum in Indonesia through an ethno-STEM-oriented teaching/learning approach.
Article
Biodiversity in Indonesia is home to medicinal plants in the world, including Nothopanax scutellarium Merr., Moringa oliefera Lam., Piper betle L. Several researchers have examined the active compounds contained in these plants. This study focused on preliminary phytochemistry and FTIR analysis of leaf extracts of Nothopanax scutellarium Merr., Moringa oliefera Lam., Piper betle L. Phytochemicals were extracted with ethanol 70% by maceration. The results showed that the active compounds of flavonoids, steroids, tannins, phenols, saponins, and alkaloids were present in the three leaves. FTIR analysis observed the main peak at wavenumber 3623.44 cm-1 in the mangkokan leaf extract, wavenumber 3690.64 cm-1 in the moringa leaf extract, and wavenumber 3683.89 cm-1 in the piper betle leaf extract. All of which showed the O-H phenol functional group.
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Until now, Coronavirus disease-19 (Covid-19) is still a significant problem in various countries in the world and Indonesia. Various prevention efforts continue to be carried out by people around the world. In Indonesia, prevention efforts continue to be made, including the use of vaccines and herbs. Herbs are plants that can be used as medicine. This study aims to determine the use of herbal medicines to prevent Covid-19 during the pandemic in several regions in Indonesia. Questionnaires were distributed to the public in several provinces in Indonesia. The questionnaire was given in the form of a G form which was distributed online. The results obtained from the questionnaire show that the Indonesian people who use herbs are more female (66.4%) than male, aged 17-25 years (29.9%), with undergraduate/diploma education (42.7%). At the same time, the types of herbs that are widely consumed are herbal concoctions themselves (45.3%), where the use of these herbal medicines has increased in the last year (41.4%). Herbal medicines can be an alternative for the Indonesian people to prevent being infected with Covid-19.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Etlingera calophrys (Zingiberaceae) is endemic in Sulawesi, Indonesia, and has been used in culinary as a condiment. Up till now, reports on the phytochemistry as well as the pharmacological properties of this plant is still scarce. This study aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and biological activities of E. calophrys rhizome. Methods The compounds were isolated and purified from the methanol extract of the rhizome using several chromatographic techniques and the chemical structures were identified using NMR. Radical scavenging activity was done using DPPH technique, while antimicrobial activity was performed using microdilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica), and a Gram-positive fungus (Candida albicans). In addition, docking study of isolated compounds was also performed. Results Nine compounds were isolated from E. calophrys and classified as diarylheptanoids and steroids. These compounds showed scavenging activity with IC50 ranging from 25.1 to 398.2 μg/mL. The methanol extract was found to have antibacterial properties against B. subtilis, E. coli, and S. enterica with MIC values of 512, 256, and 128 μg/mL, respectively. Three diarylheptanoids (7–9) exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MIC up to 8 μg/mL. Molecular docking analysis against xanthine oxidase showed that yakuchinone B (9) was capable of attaining similar interactions with native ligand (HPA) while acquiring much more negative XP docking score, which is in accordance with the present experimental antiradical activity. Conclusions Diarylhepatonoids 7–9 isolated from E. calophyrs exhibited scavenging and antimicrobial activities against several bacteria. One of diarylhepatanoids also showed inhibition of xanthin oxidase activity in silico.
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The research results in the last two decades show the important role of pekarangan as a micro-scale landscape unit in providing space for growing various types of plants, i.e., multi-layers from the grasses to the trees, livestock, and fish. Pekarangan is defined with distinctive spatial patterns and elements as a representation of the harmonious relationship between the owner and the ecological character. Perceptions and preferences based on different social, cultural, and environmental factors shape the pekarangan pattern and function to become more diverse as a form of community local wisdom. The important role of pekarangan needs to be deeper elaborated in efforts to increase community immunity during the Covid-19 pandemic. Pekarangan has great potential to be developed as a mitigation and rehabilitation space by providing a variety of medicinal plants as well as outdoor activity spaces with a healthy environment quality. This research was designed for three years with three main approaches: (1) inductive method, which focuses on building theory from practices that have been known and carried out for generations, (2) implementation as an effort to actualize local knowledge, (3) multiplicative for the benefit of the important value of pekarangan . Studies start from basic research of pekarangan ; research on the development of spatial planning and elements forming pekarangan ; research on nutritional content contributed from pekarangan products. Data were obtained through pekarangan mapping, structured questionnaires at four selected locations in Cisadane, Citarum, Kali Progo, and Brantas Watersheds. The results of this research are expected to be implemented in public spaces on a meso scale and macro scales.
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The oxidative stress mechanism in the body involves the balance between increased ROS and decreased antioxidant agents. ROS can damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, leading to pathology and impaired insulin secretion by dysregulation of several genes expression. High concentrations of ROS are often followed by a low activity of antioxidants from endogenous sources. As a result, exogenous antioxidants are required to neutralize ROS. As reported, medicinal plants, which have had various traditional applications, contain large amounts of secondary metabolites, proven to be exogenous antioxidant agents. Jamu, a traditional medicine, also known as an alternative medication, can be widely and easily found in traditional markets. Antidiabetic herbal products are among the most popular of jamu. Antidiabetic mechanism has a strong relationship with antioxidant roles in many biological systems. The aim of this research was to figure out the potential antioxidant activity of antidiabetic herbal products. Eight antidiabetic jamu samples were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity, phosphomolybdenum antioxidant activity, and FRAP, as well as for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Good linearity was a general finding for the quantitative analysis, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.999 for the standards. The highest total flavonoid content found was 8.66 ± 0.11 mgQE/g, and the highest total phenolic content was 22.66 ± 0.15 mgGAE/g. With regard to antioxidant activity, all of the samples demonstrated weak DPPH radical scavenging activity, while phosphomolybdenum antioxidant activity and FRAP were the highest at 48.58 ± 0.45 mgQE/g extract and 226.98 ± 0.19 mgQE/g extract, respectively. These results indicated that the claimed antidiabetic herbal products could be prepared as exogenous antioxidant sources, irrespective of being with or without antioxidant activity, for diabetes treatment.
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This study ( N = 1306) investigated the role behavioural immune system and specific beliefs in COVID-19 misinformation in predicting COVID-19 protective behaviours. By analysing the data from an online survey, we found that germ avoidance significantly predicted social distancing and was negatively correlated to transportation use. Belief in conspiracy theories and non-psychological cures and prevention methods were negatively associated to social distancing, while the latter also predicted lower preventive commodities purchasing. These findings suggested that germ aversion should be incorporated in the promotion of COVID-19 prevention behaviours and that any misinformation related to COVID-19 should be minimized to improve people’s protective behaviours.
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Tanaman obat tradisional merupakan potensi teknik pengobatan yang diketahui lebih aman dan murah. Pengembangan kajian ilmiah tanaman obat mendorong dilakukannya penelitian terhadap potensi tanaman sebagai antimikroba. Salah satu tanaman obat yang berkhasiat adalah Delima Merah (Punica granatum). Untuk mengetahui kemampuan antimikroba Punica granatum, maka dilakukan penelitian dengan memakai ekstrak etanol daun Punica granatum yang dibuat kedalam seri konsentrasi yang bervariasi dari terkecil hingga terbesar. Mikroba patogen yang digunakan berjumlah delapan mikroba patogen dengan masing-masing tiga kali ulangan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa jumlah konsentrasi berpengaruh terhadap zona hambat yang terbentuk untuk masing-masing mikroba uji. Dapat dismpulkan bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak etanol daun delima merah maka semakin tinggi zona hambat yang terbentuk.
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Melastoma malabathricum is an Indo-Pacific herb that has been used traditionally to treat numerous ailments such as wounds, dysentery, diarrhea, toothache, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of the metabolic profiles of M. malabathricum across its geographic distribution. By employing thin layer chromatography (TLC), specimens collected from six terrestrial and archipelago regions of Indonesia were analyzed by densitometry for metabolomic fingerprinting analysis combined with chemometric tools: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Two PCAs were identified as PC1 and PC2 with 41.90% and 20.36%, respectively. Our results indicate the importance of considering geographic distribution during field-collection efforts since they demonstrate regional metabolic variation in secondary metabolites of M. malabathricum, as illustrated by TLC and their biological activities.
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The habits of today's society, which are influenced by economic growth and globalization have brought new lifestyles, especially those related to diet, resulting in minimal physical activity accompanied by a high calorie intake. This energy imbalance can lead to the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, which is still a burden on the world today. Some plants in Indonesia are believed to help lose weight, such as Aloe vera, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Curcuma longa, Garcinia cambogia, and Garcinia mangostana. This literature review was conducted to determine the effects of Aloe vera, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Curcuma longa, Garcinia cambogia, and Garcinia mangostana on weight loss and preventing obesity. The review of twelve relevant articles concluded that Aloe vera, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Curcuma longa, Garcinia cambogia, and Garcinia mangostana have the potential to prevent and treat obesity but further research is required.
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A combination of herbals medicines is an alternative treatment choice for developing anticancer therapy because of its benefits, active compounds, and non-toxic side effect. This study investigates the anticancer and antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus urinaria and Curcuma longa water extract combination. The analysis of their bio-active components was done using LC-HRMS. The biological activity prediction was made using PassOnline and Cytoscape. Anticancer activity, apoptosis, and cell cycle assay were tested on treated T47D breast cancer cells line with the combination herbal extract and individual herbal extract compare to the untreated and cisplatin-treated control cells. This study also determined the antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid total assay. The result showed that these herbs' compounds were predicted to have a biological function in cancer treatment. The herbal combination has efficiency inducing apoptosis with more than 50% compared to the individual herbal treatment and untreated control cells. Cell cycle analysis shows these herbals affect cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase compared to the control cells. The antioxidant activity and total phenol and flavonoid of P. urinaria and C. longa combination positively correlate with the anticancer activity result. Compusyn test results on cell toxicity parameters showed that the combination of both herbs had an additive effect (C = 1). Although this combination has no synergism effect, the water extract of P. urinaria and C. longa combination can be an anticancer agent.
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Plant extracts such as essential oils are a common yet valuable source of antioxidants for application in pharmaceutical and food preservative. In this study, the phytochemical profile of Baeckea frutescens (BF) and Leptospermum javanicum (LJ) essential oils were determined using GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. This resulted in the identification of 13 components (82.03%) in the essential oil of BF, the major compounds were p-cymene (1, 31.06%), α-pinene (2, 24.53%), 1,8-cineole (3, 11.49%), and γ-terpinene (4, 8.31%). Whilst, 32 components (84.62%) were detected in the essential oil of LJ, in which sabinene (5, 25.83%) and α-pinene (2, 12.17%) were the major components. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils were evaluated using a wide array of radical scavenging assays, such as DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating, and β-carotene bleaching assays. From the results, both BF and LJ essential oils exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity in all assays (EC50 0.29–1.39 mg/mL), except in DPPH radical scavenging assay (EC50 > 50 mg/mL). The essential oil of BF had a higher overall antioxidant capacity than LJ. With reference to the phytochemical profile, compounds 1–5 are potent antioxidants, which may substantially contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils.
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The hypoglycemic effect of an exo-biopolymer (EXO) and endo-biopolymer (ENDO) produced from submerged mycelial culture of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both the EXO and ENDO showed hypoglycemic potential, however, the former proved to be more potent than the latter. The administration of the EXO at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) significantly reduced the plasma glucose level (23.5%) and increased the plasma insulin level (2.2 fold) in the diabetic animals. The EXO also lowered the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and athrogenic index by 14.7, 31.4, 24.1, and 45.4%, respectively, and reduced the liver total cholesterol and triglyceride levels by 6.7 and 25.8%, respectively. It increased the plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (37.7%), compared to the control group. Furthermore, the alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) showed lower activities in the EXO administered groups than the other experimental groups. Taken together, these results suggest that the exo-biopolymer may alleviate the blood glucose level by increased insulin secretion.
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Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus niruri, a widely used medicinal plant, were investigated. Methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and fruits of P. niruri showed inhibition of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. Antioxidant activity of the extracts were also demonstrable in vivo by the inhibition of the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) – induced formation of lipid peroxides in the liver of rats by pretreatment with the extracts. CCl4 – induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged by the raised serum enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), was prevented by pretreatment with the extracts, demonstrating the hepatoprotective action of P. niruri.
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is extensively used as a spice, food preservative and colouring material in India, China and South East Asia. It has been used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases, including biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis. For the last few decades, extensive work has been done to establish the biological activities and pharmacological actions of turmeric and its extracts. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric has been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological actions. These include its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antifibrotic, antivenom, antiulcer, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic activities. Its anticancer effect is mainly mediated through induction of apoptosis. Its antiinflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant roles may be clinically exploited to control rheumatism, carcinogenesis and oxidative stress-related pathogenesis. Clinically, curcumin has already been used to reduce post-operative inflammation. Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, both turmeric and curcumin have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.
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We have screened 11 important species of Zingiberaceae, used as spices and for medicinal purposes in Indonesia, for their antitumor activity using human HT-29 colon cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. They were Amommum cardamomum, Curcuma aeruginosa, C. longa, C. mangga, C. xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga, K. pandurata, K. rotunda, Z. aromaticum, Z. cassumunar, and Zingiber officinale. Ethanol extracts of eight species showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of the cancer cells when evaluated using the colorimetric tetrazolium salt assay. Since curcumin, a yellow pigment isolated from C. longa, has shown its potential anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo studies and is currently undergone clinical trial in the US, we used an extract of C. longa as a comparison. Extracts of K. pandurata and Z. aromaticum had very strong inhibitory activity against the two cell lines similar to those of C. longa. However, curcumin was not detectable in the extracts of those two plants. The ethanol extracts of the active species had less effect on the growth of a non-transformed human skin fibroblast cell line (SF 3169). Microscopic examination of cancer cells exposed to extracts of active species showed a characteristic morphology of apoptosis. Further study on Z. aromaticum and K. pandurata, including identification of bioactive compounds and elucidation of mechanism(s) likely to be operating, has been carried out.
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Abstract Administration of an alcohol extract of Andrographis paniculata (25 mg/kg) and two of its constituent diterpenes, andrographolide and neoandrographolide (6 mg/kg/day for two weeks) showed significant antihepatotoxic action in P. berghei K173- induced hepatic damage in M. natalensis. The increased levels of serum lipoprotein-X, alkaline phosphatase, GOT, GPT and bilirubin were markedly reduced by A. paniculata and its diterpenes. In the liver, these preparations decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation products and facilitated the recovery of superoxide dismutase and glycogen. The protective effects of andrographolide were comparable to those of neoandrographolide.
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By bioactivity-directed fractionation, five cytotoxic constituents have been characterized from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia collected in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Four canthin-6-one alkaloids, namely, 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, 9-methoxycanthin-6-one-N-oxide, 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one, and 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one-N-oxide, and one quassinoid, eurycomanone, were found to be cytotoxic principles. Each of these compounds was evaluated against a panel of cell lines comprising a number of human cancer cell types [breast, colon, fibrosarcoma, lung, melanoma, KB, and KB-V1 (a multi-drug resistant cell line derived from KB)] and murine lymphocytic leukemia (P-388). The canthin-6-ones 1-4 were found to be active with all cell lines tested except for the KB-V1 cell line. Eurycomanone was inactive against murine lymphocytic leukemia (P-388) but was significantly active against the human cell lines tested. Two additional isolates, the beta-carboline alkaloids beta-carboline-1-propionic acid and 7-methoxy-beta-carboline-1-propionic acid, were not significantly active with these cultured cells. However, compounds 5 and 7 were found to demonstrate significant antimalarial activity as judged by studies conducted with cultured Plasmodium falciparum strains. The structures of the novel compounds 2-4 and 7 were established by spectral and chemical methods.
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A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers. The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4+ lymphocyte levels. No subjects used antiretroviral medications during the trial. Those with liver or renal abnormalities were excluded. The planned regimen was 5 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, escalating to 10 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, and to 20 mg/kg bodyweight for a final 3 weeks. The trial was interrupted at 6 weeks due to adverse events including an anaphylactic reaction in one patient. All adverse events had resolved by the end of observation. A significant rise in the mean CD4+ lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of 10 mg/kg andrographolide (from a baseline of 405 cells/mm3 to 501 cells/mm3; p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels throughout the trial. Andrographolide may inhibit HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4+ lymphocyte levels in HIV-1 infected individuals. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: similar to 40 mu g/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae). Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaeene), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 mu g/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae). Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: similar to 60 mu g/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Healthcare practitioners are deeply concerned about drug-herb interactions and how concurrent administration may affect both the safety and effectiveness of prescribed drugs. Interactions between botanical medicines and synthetic drugs can be clinically relevant and it is important to understand what kinds of interactions are possible. Better knowledge in this area will help avoid negative interactions and may also help enable synergistic interactions. Includes articles related to the investigation of Western botanicals or whole herbal extracts in human subjects, investigating either the impact on Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes or an assessment of specific drug-herb interactions within a clinical trial. Searches were conducted in both Pubmed and EMBASE from inception to March 2009. Knowledge regarding specific interactions to consider in clinical practice. The reader will also gain an appreciation of the complexities associated with the area of drug-herb interactions. Summary tables of relevant drug-herb interactions are presented both for the individual herbs included and at the level of the CYP450 enzymes. Knowledge of drug-herb interactions is limited and much more research needs to be done to further document clinically relevant interactions. Even though preclinical data are often poorly generalizable to the human situation, caution must be taken in the absence of clinical evidence especially where drugs with narrow therapeutic windows are concerned.
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The concomitant use of herbal medicines and pharmacotherapy is wide spread. We have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between seven popular herbal medicines (ginkgo, St John’s wort, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto and kava) and conventional drugs. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and we identified 128 case reports or case series, and 80 clinical trials. Clinical trials indicate that St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), via cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein induction, reduces the plasma concentrations (and/or increases the clearance) of alprazolam, amitriptyline, atorvastatin, chlorzoxazone, ciclosporin, debrisoquine, digoxin, erythromycin, fexofenadine, gliclazide, imatinib, indinavir, irinotecan, ivabradine, mephenytoin, methadone, midazolam, nifedipine, omeprazole, oral contraceptives, quazepam, simvastatin, tacrolimus, talinolol, verapamil, voriconazole and warfarin. Case reports or case series suggest interactions of St John’s wort with adrenergic vasopressors, anaesthetics, bupropion, buspirone, ciclosporin, eletriptan, loperamide, nefazodone, nevirapine, oral contraceptives, paroxetine, phenprocoumon, prednisone, sertraline, tacrolimus, theophylline, tibolone, tryptophan, venlafaxine and warfarin. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) decreases the plasma concentrations of omeprazole, ritonavir and tolbutamide. Clinical cases indicate interactions of ginkgo with antiepileptics, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), diuretics, ibuprofen, risperidone, rofecoxib, trazodone and warfarin. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) may interact with phenelzine and warfarin. Kava (Piper methysticum) increases the clearance of chlorzoxazone (a CYP2E1 substrate) and may interact with alprazolam, levodopa and paroxetine. Garlic (Allium sativum) interacts with chlorpropamide, fluindione, ritonavir and warfarin; it also reduces plasma concentrations of chlorzoxazone (a CYP2E1 probe). Echinacea might affect the clearance of caffeine (a CYP1A2 probe) and midazolam (a CYP3A4 probe). No interactions have been reported for saw palmetto (Serenoa repens.) Numerous interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs have been documented. While the significance of many interactions is uncertain, several interactions, particularly those with St John’s wort, may have serious clinical consequences.
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In order to assess the potential of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus L., C. nardus L. and C. schoenanthus L. as active ingredients against superficial mycosis, their chemical composition had been determined with GC/MS. Their antimicrobial properties were studied in vitro using bacteria and fungi from human and animal cutaneous microflora. All of the oils proved to be ineffective against cutaneous bacteria. Conversly, C. citratus L. oil (type citral) and C. nardus L. oil (type citronellal/geraniol) showed a fungistatic effect which upon complementary studies would make them useful as possible ingredients against superficial mycosis in topical drugs.
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The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50<3 μg/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant. Their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions also exhibited an antiplasmodial activity with IC50<3 μg/ml. EtOH extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves (5<IC50<10 μg/ml), Tetracera poggei leaves (10<IC50<50 μg/ml) and Morinda morindoides leaves (50<IC50<100 μg/ml) were less active, but their petroleum ether fractions exhibited a pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50<3 μg/ml). The same observation could also be made for the petroleum ether fraction from Cassia occidentalis, Euphorbia hirta, Garcinia kola and Phyllanthus niruri. Isoamyl alcohol fractions from Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Vernonia amygdalina showed IC50 values less than 3 μg/ml, and from Cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera poggei between 10 and 50 μg/ml. The observed antiplasmodial activity may be related to the presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and anthraquinones.
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Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anti-cancer agents. These include vinblastine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, etoposide, and paclitaxel (Taxol®). Several promising new agents are in clinical development based on selective activity against cancer-related molecular targets, including flavopiridol and Combretastatin A4 phosphate. Recently, plants have yielded several agents showing anti-AIDS activity, and one of these, (+)-calanolide A, is in clinical development.
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The hepatoprotective effect of Alstonia scholaris R. Br. on liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ß-D-galactosamine, acetaminophen and ethanol were investigated by means of serum-biochemical and histopathological examinations. Post treatment of A scholaris reduced dose-dependently the elevation of serum transaminases level and histopathological changes such as cell necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, which were caused by the single administration of 32 μl/kg CCl4 or 600 mg/kg acetaminophen in mice. A. scholaris significantly lowered 288 mg/kg ß-D-galactosamine induced serum transaminases elevation in the serum-biochemical analysis in rats. A tendency was also shown to inhibit cell necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration caused by ß-D-galactosamine in histopathological examination. All serological and histopathological effects of A. scholaris were compared with those of Bupleurum chinense, which has been reported previously as a treatment criteria of hepatitis.
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We have screened 11 important species of Zingiberaceae, used as spices and for medicinal purposes in Indonesia, for their antitumor activity using human HT 29 colon cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. They were Amommum cardamomum, Curcuma aeruginosa, C. longa, C. mangga, C. xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga, K pandurata, K rotunda, Z. aromaticum, Z. cassumunar, and Zingiber officinale. Ethanol extracts of eight species showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of the cancer cells when evaluated using the colorimetric tetrazolium salt assay. Since curcumin, a yellow pigment isolated from C. longa, has shown its potential anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo studies and is currently undergone clinical trial in the US, we used an extract of C. longa as a comparison. Extracts of K. pandurata and Z aromaticum had very strong inhibitory activity against the two cell lines similar to those of C. longa. However, curcumin was not detectable in the extracts of those two plants. The ethanol extracts of the active species had less effect on the growth of a non-transformed human skin fibroblast cell line (SF 3169). Microscopic examination of cancer cells exposed to extracts of active species showed a characteristic morphology of apoptosis. Further study on Z aromaticum and K. pandurata, including identification of bioactive compounds and elucidation of mechanism(s) likely to be operating, has been carried out.
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Activity of Carica papaya Linn, (commonly known as paw-paw) seed extract in liver physiology of albino (Wistar) rats was studied. The MeOH extract of C. papaya seeds were Soxhlet extracted. Tolerated doses of C. papaya were estimated in acute toxicity studies and administered orally, single or repeated doses, for 30 days to adult male rats weighing between 190 and 200 g, which were divided into four groups of five rats per group. Group 1 received 10 mg/kg; group 2 received 50 mg/kg; group 3 received 200 mg/kg; group 4 received normal saline (1 ml/rat) as control. Twenty-four hours after treatments, the animals of all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected by heart puncture into centrifugal tubes. The blood samples were allowed to coagulate before centrifuged at 400 rpm at 4°C for 15 min to separate the serum for enzyme assays. A portion of liver was cut off and fixed in 10% normal saline. The result showed that C. papaya seed extract treatments caused elevation of rat serum levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Also revealed was mild to severe metaplasia of hepatocytes in a dose-related manner as well as proliferation of Kupfer cells and hepatic cells cirrhosis. These biochemical and pathological changes indicated liver cell damage and malfunction. These results, therefore, suggest that seeds of C. papaya should be used in herbal medicine with care to avoid toxicity.
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A new cytotoxic anthraquinone glucoside, pulmatin, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone-1-O-β-d-glucoside, and its congeners, chrysophanein and physcionin, have been isolated as minor components from the root of Rheum pulmatum, an Indonesian Jamu (medicinal plant) known as ‘kelembak’ by recycling high performance liquid chromatography (R-HPLC). These anthraquinone glycosides exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against several types of carcinoma cells. Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic methods, in particular, the NMR data.
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In this study, the anticonvulsant effect of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae) was studied against seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in mice. Administration of the essential oil protected mice against MES- and PTZ-induced tonic seizures. Furthermore, at some anticonvulsant doses, the essential oil produced sedation and motor impairment.
Article
Activity of Carica papaya. Linn. (commonly known as paw-paw.) seed extract in liver physiology of albino (Wistar) rats was studied. The MeOH extract of C. papaya. seeds were Soxhlet extracted. Tolerated doses of C. papaya. were estimated in acute toxicity studies and administered orally, single or repeated doses, for 30 days to adult male rats weighing between 190 and 200 g, which were divided into four groups of five rats per group. Group 1 received 10 mg/kg; group 2 received 50 mg/kg; group 3 received 200 mg/kg; group 4 received normal saline (1 ml/rat) as control. Twenty-four hours after treatments, the animals of all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected by heart puncture into centrifugal tubes. The blood samples were allowed to coagulate before centrifuged at 400 rpm at 4°C for 15 min to separate the serum for enzyme assays. A portion of liver was cut off and fixed in 10% normal saline. The result showed that C. papaya. seed extract treatments caused elevation of rat serum levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Also revealed was mild to severe metaplasia of hepatocytes in a dose-related manner as well as proliferation of Kupfer cells and hepatic cells cirrhosis. These biochemical and pathological changes indicated liver cell damage and malfunction. These results, therefore, suggest that seeds of C. papaya. should be used in herbal medicine with care to avoid toxicity.
Article
The antimicrobial activity of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and anacardic acids isolated from nuts of Anacardium occidentale were tested against several strains responsible of cutaneous infection or olfactory disagreement. CNSL exhibited minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Propionibacterium acnes (1.56 µg/mL), Corynebacterium xerosis (6.25 µg/mL), and various strains of Staphylococcus aureus (25 µg/mL), but was not active against the fungus Pityrosporum ovale. The ß-lactamase inhibition was tested by the agar diffusion method with penicillin G, against two strains of S. aureus, both resistant to penicillin by synthesis of ß-lactamase, but one strain being insensitive to all ß-lactamines antibiotics due to a modification of protein linking penicillin (PLP 2a). The results showed clearly the ß-lactamase inhibitory activity of CNSL and anacardic acids on S. aureus enzyme, without activity on PLP 2a.
Article
Andrographis paniculata is widely used in traditional remedies in India in a number of clinical conditions including allergic manifestations. Two diterpenes, andrographolide and neoandrographolide, isolated from the plant, were evaluated for their antiallergic activity. These were tested for anti-PCA (Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) and mast cell stabilizing activities in rats. Significant anti-PCA activity was observed. The compounds also possessed mast cell stabilizing activity against compound 48/80 and in sensitized mast cells, against egg albumin induced degranulation. The activities were found to be comparable to disodium cromoglycate.
Article
Leaves of Piper betle. Linn (Piperaceae) possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. However, its antinociceptive activity has not been investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to examine the antinociceptive activity of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanol extract (CEE) of P. betle. leaves using rats and three models of nociception (tail flick, hot plate, and formalin tests). Different concentrations of HWE (125, 200, 300, 500 mg/kg) and CEE (125, 200, 300, 500 mg/kg) were made and orally administrated to rats, and the reaction times were determined. The results showed that the extracts have marked antinociceptive activity when evaluated in the hot plate and the formalin tests but not in the tail-flick test. The overall antinociceptive effect of CEE was higher than that of HWE. The antinociceptive effect was mediated via opioid mechanisms.
Article
A chemical investigation of biologically active compounds from the root of Rheum palmatum, an Indonesian Jamu plant known as ''kelembak,'' has led to the isolation and identification of two stilbene glycosides, 4'-O-methylpiceid [1] and rhapontin [2], which exhibited moderate alpha-glycosidase inhibitory activity. These bioactive glycosides were efficiently isolated by using only dccc.
Article
Guided by the glutathione S-transferase (GST) assay, fractionation of lemongrass oil and galanga root oil from the plants Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga, respectively, led to the isolation of four active compounds: d-limonene (1) and geraniol (2) from lemongrass oil; ethyl traras-cinnamate (3) and ethyl 4-methoxy-trans-cinnamate (4) from galanga root oil. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral analysis. These compounds were tested for their capacity to induce the activity of the detoxifying enzyme, GST, in several tissues of female A/J mice. Compound 1 increased GST activity 2.4-3.0-fold higher than controls in the mouse liver and mucosa of the small intestine and large intestine. Compound 2 showed high GST-inducing activity only in the mucosa of the small intestine and large intestine (about 2.5-fold greater than controls). Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited significant activity in the mouse liver and intestines. Induction of increased GST activity, which is believed to be a major mechanism for chemical carcinogen detoxification, has been recognized as one of the characteristics of the action of anticarcinogens. Thus, these compounds show promise as potential chemopreventive agents.
Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not evidence-based from a clinical perspective but subclinical research data from the past decades support the traditional use of many herbal VTM drugs. For safe use, knowledge of the occurrence of adverse reactions and herb-drug interactions is necessary. The Vietnamese government supports further development of VTM in a scientific way and integration of VTM with Western medicine. This article first gives an overview of the general aspects of VTM (historical perspective, regulatory aspects, comparison with traditional Chinese medicine, philosophical background, the Vietnamese market situation, quality assurance and formulations), and subsequently focuses on its safe and effective use in Vietnamese clinical pharmacy and medical practice.
Article
Of 30 Indonesian plant extracts tested for their human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) inhibitory activities, six were shown to be effective by assays using HIV-1-infected MT-4 cells: a methanol extract of mahoni (bark of Swietenia mahagoni) and water extracts of benalu teh (stems and branches of Loranthus parasiticus), kiules (fruit of Helicteres isora), supratul (fruits of Sindora sumatrana), sambiloto (leaves of Andrographis paniculata) and temu ireng (rhizoma of Curcuma aeruginosa). Their ED50 values ranged from 4.2 to 175 μg/mL. The samples also suppressed the formation of syncytia in co-cultures of MOLT-4 and MOLT-4/HIV-1 cells. The most potent inhibitor was a methanol extract of mahoni, which also showed a significant inhibition of HIV-1 protease.
Article
During a chemical study of Indonesian medicinal plants, we examined the constituents of fruits of Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae), one of the famous Jamu medicines. From a H2O extract of the fruits, we isolated six new neolignans, the helicterins A – F (1 – 6), and elucidated their structures by spectral analyses. Helicterins A – F (1 – 6) are dimeric (7.5′,8.2′)-neolignans with a bicyclo[2.2.2]octene C-framework, and showed mild inhibitory activity against reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus.
Article
A large variety of natural products have been described as anti-HIV agents, and for a portion thereof the target of interaction has been identified. Cyanovirin-N, a 11-kDa protein from Cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) irreversibly inactivates HIV and also aborts cell-to-cell fusion and transmission of HIV, due to its high-affinity interaction with gp120. Various sulfated polysaccharides extracted from seaweeds (i.e., Nothogenia fastigiata, Aghardhiella tenera) inhibit the virus adsorption process. Ingenol derivatives may inhibit virus adsorption at least in part through down-regulation of CD4 molecules on the host cells. Inhibition of virus adsorption by flavanoids such as (−)epicatechin and its 3-O-gallate has been attributed to an irreversible interaction with gp120 (although these compounds are also known as reverse transcriptase inhibitors). For the triterpene glycyrrhizin (extracted from the licorice root Glycyrrhiza radix) the mode of anti-HIV action may at least in part be attributed to interference with virus-cell binding. The mannose-specific plant lectins from Galanthus, Hippeastrum, Narcissus, Epipac tis helleborine, and Listera ovata, and the N-acetylgl ucosamine-specific lectin from Urtica dioica would primarily be targeted at the virus-cell fusion process. Various other natural products seem to qualify as HIV-cell fusion inhibitors: the siamycins [siamycin I (BMY-29304), siamycin II (RP 71955, BMY 29303), and NP-06 (FR901724)] which are tricyclic 21-amino-acid peptides isolated from Streptomyces spp that differ from one another only at position 4 or 17 (valine or isoleucine in each case); the betulinic acid derivative RPR 103611, and the peptides tachyplesin and polyphemusin which are highly abundant in hemocyte debris of the horseshoe crabs Tachypleus tridentatus and Limulus polyphemus, i.e., the 18-amino-acid peptide T22 from which T134 has been derived. Both T22 and T134 have been shown to block T-tropic X4 HIV-1 strains through a specific antagonism with the HIV corecept or CXCR4. A number of natural products have been reported to interact with the reverse transcriptase, i.e., baicalin, avarol, avarone, psychotrine, phloroglucinol derivatives, and, in particular, calanolides (from the tropical rainforest tree, Calophyllum lanigerum) and inophyllums (from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum). The natural marine substance illimaquinone would be targeted at the RNase H function of the reverse transcriptase. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, from turmeric, the roots/rhizomes of Curcuma spp), dicaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylt artaric acids, L-chicoric acid, and a number of fungal metabolites (equisetin, phomasetin, oteromycin, and integric acid) have all been proposed as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Yet, we have recently shown that L-c hicoric acid owes its anti-HIV activity to a specific interaction with the viral envelope gp120 rather than integrase. A number of compounds would be able to inhibit HIV-1 gene expression at the transcription level: the flavonoid chrysin (through inhibition of casein kinase II, the antibacter ial peptides melittin (from bee venom) and cecropin, and EM2487, a novel substance produced by Streptomyces. α-Trichosanthin (from the root tubers of Trichosanthes kirilowii), MAP30 (from Momordi ca charantia), GAP31 (from Gelonium multiflorum), DAP30 and DAP32 (from Dianthus caryophyllus) would act as RIPs (ribosome-i nactivating proteins), suppressing the translation process. As glycosylation inhibitors, castanospermine and 1-deoxynojirimycin would interfere with the infectivity and secondary spread of HIV-1. And so would bellenamine [(R)-3,6-diamino-N-(aminomethyl)hexanamide] (from Streptomyces nashvillensis), albeit by an unknown mechanism. Hypericin and pseudohype ricin, two aromatic polycyclic diones from Hypericum triquetrifolium (St. Johnswort), could block HIV-1 infection through a variety of mechanisms (direct virucidal effect, inhibition of secondary virus spread, inhibition of virus budding, and inactivation of the preintegration complex). A number of miscellaneous compounds, including propolis, pokeweed antiviral protein, and michellamines inhibit HIV replication by mechanisms that still have to be resolved. Cyclosporins do so by preventing the interaction of cyclophil in A with the capsid gag proteins, thus blocking both a late event (assembly) and early event (nuclear localization of the preintegration complex) in the HIV replicative cycle. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Med Res Rev, 20, No. 5, 323–349, 2000
Article
Water and methanol extracts of 30 traditional medicinal plants, collected in Indonesia, were tested for their anti HSV-1 activity. The extracts of eight plant species showed potent activity on the plaque assay at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The therapeutic efficacy of seven selected plants was demonstrated by using a mouse HSV-1 infection assay, both the methanol extracts of the fruit of Melaleuca leucadendron (Myrtaceae) and the pericarp of Nephelium lappaceum (Sapindaceae) significantly prolonged the development of skin lesions and reduced the mortality. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.