[In Chinese with English Abstract] Lichen is a reliable biomonitor for atmospheric element deposition, and its element accumulation ability has differences between species and between individuals. In the lichen biomonitoring studies using in situ specimens, the composite sample is often used to represent the average accumulation level of lichen elements at each sample point, but the representativeness of the composite sample and its difference between different lichens need to be further studied. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of 52 kinds of elements in Xanthoria elegans and Dermatocarpon miniatum in Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China. The intra-site variability and inter-species differences of these elements were compared. The results show that element concentrations in Xanthoria elegans are roughly similar to those in the congeneric species from similar habitats, confirming the characteristics of atmospheric deposition dominated by sand dust deposition in the study area. The element ranks in Dermatocarpon miniatum and Xanthoria elegans are roughly the same, indicating the same source of elements in both lichens. The concentrations of 7 nutrient elements (Ca, K, Mo, P, Rb, S and Se) are not significantly different between Dermatocarpon miniatum and Xanthoria elegans, indicating bioregulation of these elements in lichen thallus. The difference in Hg concentration between species is of no significance Possibly due to the volatility of Hg. Dermatocarpon miniatum has 1.32–2.05 times higher concentrations of the 44 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ge, Ho, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Y, Yb and Zn) than Xanthoria elegans, showing that element-specific element-specific Dermatocarpon miniatum has a higher accumulation ability. Except for Ca (CV>31%), the intra-site variability of the concentration of the other 51 elements is <27.5% in both Dermatocarpon miniatum and Xanthoria elegans, indicating that the composite sample can represent the average level of element accumulation in both lichens.