Hypofractionated SBRT Versus Conventionally Fractionated EBRT for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of PSA Slope and Nadir

Radiation Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.55). 02/2014; 9(1):42. DOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-9-42
Source: PubMed


Patients with early stage prostate cancer have a variety of curative radiotherapy options, including conventionally-fractionated external beam radiotherapy (CF-EBRT) and hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Although results of CF-EBRT are well known, the use of SBRT for prostate cancer is a more recent development, and long-term follow-up is not yet available. However, rapid post-treatment PSA decline and low PSA nadir have been linked to improved clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare the PSA kinetics between CF-EBRT and SBRT in newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer.Materials/methods: 75 patients with low to low-intermediate risk prostate cancer (T1-T2; GS 3 + 3, PSA < 20 or 3 + 4, PSA < 15) treated without hormones with CF-EBRT (>70.2 Gy, <76 Gy) to the prostate only, were identified from a prospectively collected cohort of patients treated at the University of California, San Francisco (1997-2012). Patients were excluded if they failed therapy by the Phoenix definition or had less than 1 year of follow-up or <3 PSAs. 43 patients who were treated with SBRT to the prostate to 38 Gy in 4 daily fractions also met the same criteria. PSA nadir and rate of change in PSA over time (slope) were calculated from the completion of RT to 1, 2 and 3 years post-RT.
The median PSA nadir and slope for CF-EBRT was 1.00, 0.72 and 0.60 ng/ml and -0.09, -0.04, -0.02 ng/ml/month, respectively, for durations of 1, 2 and 3 years post RT. Similarly, for SBRT, the median PSA nadirs and slopes were 0.70, 0.40, 0.24 ng and -0.09, -0.06, -0.05 ng/ml/month, respectively. The PSA slope for SBRT was greater than CF-EBRT (p < 0.05) at 2 and 3 years following RT, although similar during the first year. Similarly, PSA nadir was significantly lower for SBRT when compared to EBRT for years 2 and 3 (p < 0.005).
Patients treated with SBRT experienced a lower PSA nadir and greater rate of decline in PSA 2 and 3 years following completion of RT than with CF-EBRT, consistent with delivery of a higher bioequivalent dose. Although follow-up for SBRT is limited, the improved PSA kinetics over CF-EBRT are promising for improved biochemical control.

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Available from: I-Chow Hsu, May 14, 2014
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    • "In a subset of these patients, we previously reported a median PSA nadir of 0.1 ng/mL at a median follow-up of 33.4 months[44]. When analyzing the PSA kinetics of SBRT monotherapy, PSA nadir also declines with longer follow-up[45]. Additional follow-up may yield an even lower median PSA nadir for this study cohort. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose Treatment of intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer with a high BED has been shown to increase recurrence free survival (RFS). While high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, given as a boost is effective in delivering a high BED, many patients are not candidates for the procedure or wish to avoid an invasive procedure. We evaluated the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a boost, with dosimetry modeled after HDR-boost. Material and methods Fifty patients were treated with two fractions of SBRT (9.5-10.5 Gy/fraction) after 45 Gy external-beam radiotherapy, with 48 eligible for analysis at a median follow-up of 42.7 months. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of biochemical control post-radiation therapy (95 % Confidence Interval) at 3, 4 and 5 years were 95 % (81–99 %), 90 % (72–97 %) and 90 % (72–97 %), respectively (not counting 2 patients with a PSA bounce as failures). RFS (defined as disease recurrence or death) estimates at 3, 4 and 5 years were 92 % (77–97 %), 88 % (69–95 %) and 83 % (62–93 %) if patients with PSA bounces are not counted as failures, and were 90 % (75–96 %), 85 % (67–94 %) and 75 % (53–88 %) if they were. The median time to PSA nadir was 26.2 months (range 5.8–82.9 months), with a median PSA nadir of 0.05 ng/mL (range <0.01–1.99 ng/mL). 2 patients had a “benign PSA bounce”, and 4 patients recurred with radiographic evidence of recurrence beyond the RT fields. Treatment was well tolerated with no acute G3 or higher GI or GU toxicity and only a single G3 late GU toxicity of urinary obstruction. SBRT boost is well-tolerated for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer patients with good biochemical outcomes and low toxicity.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Radiation Oncology
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    • "Several reports have shown a rapid decline of PSA over the first year after SBRT with a continued decline over the next two to three years, consistent with our results[23,30,34,39]. Anwar, et al. further demonstrated that SBRT produced a lower PSA nadir and greater rate of decline in PSA over the same period of time compared to conventionally fractionated EBRT[39]. In our study, we showed an 85% decline in median PSA over the first 12 months after SBRT with a median PSA of 0.88 ng/ml. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To report on initial patient characteristics, treatment practices, toxicity, and early biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) of localized prostate cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and enrolled in the RSSearch(®) Patient Registry. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients with clinically localized prostate cancer enrolled in RSSearch(®) from June 2006 - January 2015. Patients were classified as low-risk (PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, T1c-T2a, Gleason score ≤ 6), intermediate-risk (PSA 10.1 - 20 ng/ml, T2b-T2c, or Gleason 7), or high-risk (PSA > 20 ng/ml, T3 or Gleason ≥ 8). Toxicity was reported using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. Biochemical failure was assessed using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/ml). The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate bDFS and association of patient and tumor characteristics with the use of SBRT. Results: Four hundred thirty-seven patients (189 low, 215 intermediate, and 33 high-risk) at a median of 69 years (range: 48-88) received SBRT at 17 centers. Seventy-eight percent of patients received 36.25 Gy/5 fractions, 13% received 37 Gy/5 fractions, 6% received 35 Gy/5 fractions, 3% received 38 Gy/4 fractions, and 5% received a boost dose of 19.5-29 Gy following external beam radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 20 months (range: 1-64 months). Genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were minimal, with no acute or late Grade 3+ GU or GI toxicity. Late Grade 1 and 2 urinary frequency was 25% and 8%. Late Grade 1 and 2 proctitis was 3% and 2%. Median PSA decreased from 5.8 ng/ml (range: 0.3-43) to 0.88, 0.4, and 0.3 ng/ml at one, two, and three years. Two-year bDFS for all patients was 96.1%. Two-year bDFS was 99.0%, 94.5%, and 89.8% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients (p < 0.0001). Two-year bDFS was 99.2%, 93.2%, and 90.4% for Gleason ≤ 6, Gleason 7, and Gleason ≥ 8 (p < 0.0001). Two-year bDFS was 96.4%, 97.2%, and 62.5% for PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, PSA 10.1 - 20 ng/ml, and PSA > 20 ng/ml (p < 0.0001). Clinical T Stage was not significantly associated with bDFS. Conclusions: Early disease outcomes of SBRT for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer from a multicenter patient registry compare favorably with reports from single institutions. Acute and late GU and GI toxicities were minimal, and PSA response to SBRT was highly encouraging. Continued accrual and follow-up will be necessary to confirm long-term results.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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