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Wildlife markets and biodiversity conservation in North America

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Abstract

Commercial markets for wildlife and other components of biodiversity are large, growing, and diversifying in North America. These markets are a double-edged sword for biodiversity conservation: If well managed, they can be a tool to conserve biodiversity; if poorly managed, they can lead to biodiversity loss. This paper reviews recent trends in some consumptive-use and nonconsumptive-use markets for wildlife and, more broadly, for biodiversity and their implications for biodiversity conservation in North America.

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... Giving a species an economic value is thought to generate attempts to ensure supply of the product, thereby giving the species a conservation value and stimulating attempts to conserve it. Bolton (1997, p 254-62), McCallum (1995) and Freese and Trauger (2000) discuss the complexity that underlies this seemingly simple concept. In practice, however, commercial use of wildlife may have different effects in different cases, ranging from stimulating conservation efforts in the wild, or having nil impact, through to putting increased pressure on wild populations. ...
... In practice, however, commercial use of wildlife may have different effects in different cases, ranging from stimulating conservation efforts in the wild, or having nil impact, through to putting increased pressure on wild populations. Openaccess wildlife resources of great market value are very susceptible to over harvesting (Freese and Trauger 2000). In addition, uncertainty about the future (due to fluctuating demand, or fluctuation in population size of the harvested species) also creates incentives to over harvest (Freese and Trauger 2000). ...
... Openaccess wildlife resources of great market value are very susceptible to over harvesting (Freese and Trauger 2000). In addition, uncertainty about the future (due to fluctuating demand, or fluctuation in population size of the harvested species) also creates incentives to over harvest (Freese and Trauger 2000). Possum harvesting would have been influenced by both of these factors in the early 20th century. ...
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In this paper we discuss the history of the koala and possum fur trade in Queensland, based mainly on material in Queensland Government archives, and review the development of legislation and wildlife management practices. The koala and possum harvests arose in response to a large increase in the abundance of koalas and possums in mid to late 19th century. A marked increase in skin prices in the early 20th century provided further stimulation to the harvests. Harsh rural conditions and economic downturns further raised interest in harvesting and the government regularly came under pressure to open trapping seasons for economic reasons. Regulated koala harvests operated intermittently from 1906 to 1927, whereas possum harvests were held more frequently and over a longer period, from 1906 to 1936. Fluctuation in demand was a major influence on the industry, leading to the expansion of the industry after 1900, and the eventual demise of the possum industry in the 1930s. Strong demand over about three decades resulted from a range of factors influencing the international fur markets, associated in particular with warfare and economic conditions after World War I. Successive Queensland governments supported the harvest because of its economic value, despite having serious concerns about the viability of the koala harvest The legislation to control the harvest was aimed at protecting possums and koalas from extinction and establishing a sustainable industry. The principal legislative devices used to manage the harvest were close seasons and establishment of sanctuaries, supported by various other measures. Animals were taken by baiting (cyanide), snaring and shooting. Control measures were ineffective in preventing breaches of the regulations, and widespread take occurred during close seasons. The Department of Agriculture and Stock attempted to manage the trade as a sustainable harvest, with annual assessment of populations, and determination of open seasons in response to population levels and market conditions. The harvest was supported by population conservation measures including the establishment of reserves and attempts to conserve populations with a restocking (translocation) program for both koalas and possums in areas thought to be over-harvested. Koalas and possums were translocated to a number of mainland sites and onto islands. The take of possums ranged from about 400,000 to 3,000,000 per annum and that of koalas from about 450,000 to nearly one million. In good seasons, top quality skins could bring at least 60 shillings per dozen.The poorest quality skins brought as little as 2 1/2 pence each.The industry was of considerable economic value, generating personal incomes substantially greater than the income from wages of many workers, and total returns comparable to those of the annual sales of gold for the State. The total number of trapping permits issued in a season varied from about 8,000 to over 9,000. Governments had serious reservations about the koala harvest, but supported the possum harvest much more strongly. Possum harvests were held more frequently, generated more income, and made an important contribution to the economy. Strong community opposition to koala harvests first arose in 1919, effectively signalling the end of the harvest for that species. By 1936, community opposition to the possum seasons had also become established. There was a market downturn at the same time and the possum harvest came to an end. Significant community opposition to harvests of both species arose in both urban and rural areas, the latter mainly because harvests were seen as interfering with grazier interests, causing death of stock from cyanide baits and disturbance to stock by shots and spotlights.
... Between 1999 and2002 there was also a three-fold increase in the number of applicants, suggesting that the value of the permits grew substantially between 1999 and 2002. can raise hunting quotas on their land and achieve revenues from fee hunting after they agree to adopt state-specified habitat management guidelines (Freese and Trauger 2000). ...
... because more than half of the ranches in Texas offer fee hunting ( Freese and Trauger 2000). In 1998, Steinbach et al. estimate that Texas landowners earned $100-300 million from hunting fees and current levels are expected to be much greater. ...
... Although these are restrictedly transferable from the state governments or legitimate agents (e.g., mostly big groceries and outdoor stores, to fishermen), these markets have been well managed. between 1989(Freese and Trauger 2000. ...
Article
Overfishing of red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico has significantly increased lately. A major regulation to reduce the overfishing is Total Allowable Catches (TAC) in combination with a season closure. The restrictions on entry lead to an inefficient outcome, however, because the resource is not used by the fishermen who value it the most. As an alternative to restricting entry, transferable rights (TR) programs are being increasingly considered. Under a TR program, a market is created to trade a right to use a resource and the total benefits of the participants are maximized through such a trade. The principal objective of this dissertation is to comprehensively assess economic and biological consequences of the red snapper fishery for the TR program. To date the literature lacks sufficient discussion of how recreational TR programs would function. I, therefore, propose an economically desirable institutional framework for the TR program in the recreational fishery. I draw some lessons from hunting programs and applications of other TR programs to find better schemes for the TR program in the recreational fishery.This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical models as well as institutional settings to develop the TR program. A theoretical model is provided to investigate which unit of measurement for the TRs is preferable. For empirical models I first estimate an empirically based recreation demand that incorporates TR permit demand and then develop a simulation submodel using the estimated demand. I find price instruments, such as fees or TR programs, are very efficient to reduce fishing trips but they also lead to distributional impacts on trips by low income (or low cost) anglers. Partial simulation results indicate that an efficiency benefit of the TR program would be significant because recreational trip demand in the current closed season is not trivial. I conclude that the TR program in the recreational fishery will economically and biologically provide a great deal of merit to reduce the overfishing situation and a substantial efficiency gain to Gulf anglers. Some institutional barriers, especially from the large transaction cost can also be overcome if electronic systems or the Internet are used.
... Huffman (1989Huffman ( , 2007 also argues that the doctrine primarily supports public rather than private ownership of natural resources (or easements to such resources) and thus should be interpreted as a special case of property law rather than a distinct area of legal scholarship. Not surprisingly, the ascendency of neoliberalism has supported efforts to reframe wild animal species previously held by state governments in trust for the public as privately held commodities to be traded in the marketplace (Anonymous 1988, Benson 1992, Freese and Trauger 2000. ...
... virginianus clavium), whose existence constrains human development projects by virtue of their listing under the ESA (Freudenburg et al. 1998;Peterson et al. 2002Peterson et al. , 2004Peterson et al. , 2006. As wildlife accrued significant positive and negative economic values for landowners and other publics, the PTD became increasingly controversial as grounding for wildlife conservation policy and practice (Geist 1988(Geist , 1995Geist et al. 2001) and efforts to reframe wild animal species as privately held commodities to be traded in the marketplace began in earnest (Anonymous 1988, Benson 1992, Freese and Trauger 2000. ...
Article
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Wildlife conservation policy discussions in the United States and Canada often revolve around historical accounts of the success of wildlife management grounded in the public trust doctrine. We suggest that the usefulness of these discussions is partially limited by failure to consider the importance of wildlife “identity” rooted in freedom (i.e., how humans socially construct the “wildness” dimension of wild animals). To demonstrate the interrelations between identity and freedom, we explain that the class of subjects people care most about—partners, children, and people in general—typically should not be privately owned (i.e., chattel) because freedom (as opposed to slavery) is generally accepted as central to human identity, and its abrogation therefore degrades human identity. The degree to which this ethical argument applies to privatization of wildlife depends upon the relationship between freedom and the identity of wildlife as perceived by society. Thus, we suggest policy decisions regarding privatization of wildlife will be more accurately deliberated if society and wildlife professionals more completely considered the degree to which freedom is essential to a wild species’ identity and the degree to which that identity is inviolable.
... Environmental ethics and moral communities Our work assumes our students have been educated in the dominant western ethical tradition, which is characterized by anthropocentrism and utilitarianism (Freese and Trauger 2000;Loomis 2000). Anthropocentrism attributes intrinsic value to humans alone; other beings are only instrumentally valuable, or valuable in their ability to benefit humans. ...
... In addition, non-scientific ways of understanding place and the natural world, including TEK and creative writing, communicated course ideas in new forms. These elements of our curriculum provided language and methodsother than cost/benefit analysis, which is often the predominant approach in natural resources education (Freese and Trauger 2000;Loomis 2000) to evaluate unmeasurables like beauty and intrinsic value. They demonstrated that sciencewhich students associated clearly with truth in pre-course writingisn't the only holder of knowledge. ...
Article
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For five years we taught a field philosophy course in Isle Royale National Park to study if and how wilderness experience, coupled with a care-based and community-focused curriculum in place-based ecology and environmental ethics, could help students develop empathy for nonhuman nature. Empathy for the natural world can positively impact environmental attitudes and behaviors; empathy also plays an important role in citizenship skills and actions. Using a constructivist grounded theory qualitative analysis of student pre-, on-, and post-course writing, we found that students consistently demonstrated shifts in empathetic awareness and individual agency all years but one, when the course size was larger. Several factors impacted the development of an empowered sense of self and moral agency, including: the use of narrative and storytelling in the curriculum, the inclusion of student-driven choice- based assignments, and group size. Experiential environmental learning focused on the development of empathy can provide a meaningful path for students to bridge moral agency, environmental attitudes and knowledge, and citizenship skills and behavior so they can connect their values with action These results have consequential impacts for sustainability learning and action.
... Value attributed to game populations and the environment that sustains them can result in initiatives to protect these populations and their habitat, which acts to conserve both the target species and associated species (Loveridge et al. 2006). If properly managed and monitored, the benefits may thus outweigh potential disadvantages such as conflicts with other users or provide reasons to combat overhunting and environmental degradation (Lent 1971, Freese & Trauger 2000. ...
... Ultimately, conflicts between wildlife and agricultural landowners may only be resolved when landowners are provided legitimate opportunities for deriving meaningful economic benefits from wildlife. In economic terms, under the current management system the landowner is producing a ''positive environmental externality'' (Freese and Trauger, 2000) that mostly benefits the public, for which he/she receives little compensation. We suggest that to increase the wildlife acceptance capacity of landowners, management program innovations are needed that increase opportunities for incorporating wildlife into the local economy, provide economic incentives to landowners, operate at an ecosystem scale, encompass ecological goods and services conservation including biodiversity, and that are consistent with the principles of the North American wildlife conservation model. ...
Article
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Complex ecological issues like depredation and its management are determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale and are interlinked with complex human social and economic behaviour. Depredation by wild herbivores can be a major obstacle to agricultural community support for wildlife conservation. For three decades, crop and fence damage, competition with livestock for native rangeland and tame pasture, and depredation of stored feed by elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) have been the cause of conflict with agricultural producers in the Cypress Hills, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Tolerance of elk presence on private lands is low because few benefits accrue to private landowners; rather they largely perceive elk as a public resource produced at their expense. Government management actions have focused on abatement inputs (e.g., population reduction; fencing) and compensation, but incentives to alter land use patterns (crop choice and location) in response to damages have not been considered. Nor has there been information on spatial structure of the elk population that would allow targeted management actions instead of attempting to manage the entire population. In this study we analysed the spatial structure of the Cypress Hills elk population, the distribution of the elk harvest in relation to agricultural conflicts, developed models of the spatial patterns of conflict fields, and evaluated compensation patterns for damage by wild herbivores. We propose modifications to current abatement and compensation programs and discuss alternative approaches involving changes to agricultural land use patterns that may reduce the intensity of conflicts with elk, and increase the acceptance capacity of landowners.
... A new use of wildlife, sport hunting, is an economically important form of tourism and recreation in many countries (Baker 1997, Simiyu andBennun 2000). Research into how best to manage sport hunting has been ongoing for over a decade (see examples in Robinson andRedford 1991 andFreese 1997), and has shown that it is less environmentally destructive than other forms of tourism (Baker 1997), can be used for sustainable development (Dietrich 1992) and can encourage conservation through economic incentives (Rasker et al. 1992; Lewis and Alpert 1997;Wilkie and Carpenter 1999;Freese and Trauger 2000,). As well, sport hunting generates considerably more money for the local economy per visitor than non-consumptive tourism (Milne et al. 1997;Baker 1997). ...
Article
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This thesis examines the complex social ecological system involving polar bear management in Nunavut and its conversion from a top-down system to a multi-level governance system. The interactions of the governance scale with the biophysical, economic and social/cultural scales are explored, with emphasis placed on the local levels of these scales. Co-management, as an instituted method of governance, is also examined to evaluate the incorporation of the Euro-Canadian and Inuit ideologies regarding polar bears. The hypothesis that Inuit would gain power through the authority granted to them in co-management was supported. However, the hypothesis that individual polar bear harvesters and other Inuit involved in the formal governance system would adopt the Euro-Canadian ideology due to the influences of the market economy and historic power of the top-down governance system was not well supported. Instead, Inuit used the Euro-Canadian tools of science and the market economy, but resisted top-down management views and the commoditization of polar bears in the market economy. Traditional understandings of social relationships among humans and between humans and bears based on the social economy of subsistence were used to oppose Euro-Canadian views in co-management and in structuring the use of polar bears for economic reasons. Cette thèse compare le système socio-écologique, impliquant la gestion des ours polaire du Nunavut, et la conversion d'un système de gestion directionel (« top-down ») vers un système de gouvernance multi-niveaux . Les interactions des échelles de gouvernance avec les éléments biophysiques, économiques et socio-culturelles sont abordées, en mettant l'accent sur les échelles locales. La co-gestion, comme méthode de gouvernance, est également examinée afin d'évaluer l'incorporation des idéologies Euro-Canadiennes et Inuits en ce qui concerne les ours polaires. Notre hypothèse de recherche stipule stipulant que les Inuits gagnent du pouvoir par l'acquisition d'une autorité accordée par la co-gestion. Toutefois, nos recherches n'ont pas corroboré l'hypothèse voulant que les individus chassant l'ours polaire et les autres Inuits impliqués dans le système formel de gouvernement adopteraient les idéologies Euro-Canadienne, en raison de l'influence du pouvoir du marché économique et historique présent dans le système de gestion directionnel. Au contraire, les Inuits utilisent les outils scientifiques Euro-Canadiens et l'économie de marché, mais résistent aux idées de gestion directive et la commercialisation des ours polaires dans l'économie de marché. La compréhension traditionelle des relations entre les Hommes, entre les Hommes et les ours polaires sur l'économie sociale de substistance a été utilisée afin d'opposer les idées Euro-Canadiennes de la co-gestion et pour rationaliser l'utilisation de l'ours polaire pour des raisons économiques.
... Some or all of these extra costs may be recovered through other means. Increased wildlife may bring added revenue through activities such as wildlife viewing and hunting (Freese and Trauger 2000;Loomis 2000). If wildlife revenues are quantified and related to timber volumes, areas of stand structures, habitat levels, or other attribute that can be calculated using LMS this revenue could then be included into financial analyses within LMS. ...
... When this occurs, however , it does not always have social support. For example, African wildlife species have been introduced to private properties in the United States for game hunting, and this has been the subject of some criticism (Freese and Trauger, 2000). ...
Article
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Some believe that provision of private property rights in wildlife on private land provides a powerful economic incentive for nature conservation because it enables property owners to market such wildlife or its attributes. If such marketing is profitable, private landholders will conserve the wildlife concerned and its required habitat. But land is not always most profitably used for exploitation of wildlife, and many economic values of wildlife (such as non-use economic values) cannot be marketed. The mobility of some wildlife adds to the limitations of the private-property approach. While some species may be conserved by this approach, it is suboptimal as a single policy approach to nature conservation. Nevertheless, it is being experimented with, in the Northern Territory of Australia where landholders had a possibility of harvesting on their properties a quota of eggs and chicks of red-tailed black cockatoos for commercial sale. This scheme was expected to provide an incentive to private landholders to retain hollow trees essential for the nesting of these birds but failed. This case and others are analysed. Despite private-property failures, the long-term survival of some wildlife species depends on their ability to use private lands without severe harassment, either for their migration or to supplement their available resources, for example, the Asian elephant. Nature conservation on private land is often a useful, if not essential, supplement to conservation on public lands. Community and public incentives for such conservation are outlined.
... Still, wetlands within the Laramie, Powder, Green, Wind, and Snake River basins provide important recreational opportunities for hunting and wildlife viewing. Access for wildlife-and wetland-dependent recreation is beneficial because this instills cultural values that translate into political and financial support for wetlands conservation programs (Freese and Trauger, 2000). ...
Article
Wetlands serve critical functions including natural flood control and providing wildlife habitat, yet despite these values they remain highly threatened systems. Here we present a landscape-scale geospatial assessment of wetlands in Wyoming. Areas containing high densities of wetlands were identified and mapped, and wetland complexes were quantified as a function of their biological diversity, protection status, susceptibility to climate change, and proximity to sources of impairment. Our results indicate there are 280591 wetlands in Wyoming, totaling 371758 surface hectares, and 222 wetland complexes. The majority (67%) of wetlands are classified as temporary. Low elevation wetland complexes are the least protected, in the poorest current condition, and the most vulnerable to future land use changes. This fundamental information will provide a tool decision-makers can use to more effectively allocate limited resources to conserve, manage, and restore Wyoming's wetlands.
... By 2003, hunting and harvest exploitation were considered a major reason for the threatened status of 13% of mammals, 7% of birds, 31% of reptiles, and 68% of marine fish species (Holechek et al., 2003). Freese and Trauger (2000) stress that large commercial markets for wildlife can be a double-edged sword for biodiversity: if well managed, they can be a tool to conserve biodiversity; if poorly managed, they can lead to its loss. (Hoffer, 2002). ...
... However, whether or not legalizing the sale of bear parts would increase bear harvest is unknown. Further, this action may be viewed as commercialization, which, if poorly managed, can lead to overexploitation and biotic impoverishment (Freese and Trauger 2000). Commercialization of wildlife and unregulated trade has contributed to declines in populations and extirpation of species worldwide (e.g., Jennings 1987, Camhi 1995, Fa et al. 1995, Thorbjarnarson 1999, Baker et al. 2000, Wright et al. 2001, Yiming et al. 2003, Stiles 2004. ...
... This will assist public agencies and policy makers as they contemplate various regulations and laws that affect Mississippi's wildlife resources. Commercial markets based on wildlife are large, growing, and diversifying (Freese and Trauger 2000). Economic growth can be encouraged by the actions of federal and state governments and wildlife management agencies. ...
Conference Paper
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Hunting activities provide an economic enhancement to rural economies. Traditional economic impact analyses enumerate hunter expenditures and derive their economic impacts. However, hunting outfitters, an integral component of the hunting industry, have largely been ignored in these studies. In addition to their own expenditures, outfitters impact local economies by drawing large numbers of out-of-region hunters. These out-of-region hunters have a much greater impact on local economies than do local hunters. Their expenditures represent an import of dollars to a region and they generally spend more than locals. This study incorporates the economic contributions of both outfitters and their clientele. A survey of Mississippi outfitters and their clientele was conducted during the 1999-2000 hunting season to determine their expenditures in pursuit of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), waterfowl (Anas spp.), quail (Colinus virginianus), and dove (Zenaida macroura). Results indicated that Mississippi outfitters generated $13.8 million in total output, $7.5 million in value-added, and 186 full- or part-time jobs. Clientele impacts include $16.9 million in total output, $10.2 million in value- added, and 247 full- or part-time jobs.
... Sport hunting is classified as consumptive wildlife tourism (Lovelock, 2008a) and several authors include it as a form of ecotourism for multiple interconnected reasons. First, it can be less environmentally destructive than other forms of tourism (Baker, 1997b); second, it is a form of sustainable development (Dietrich, 1992) and third, it can encourage conservation through economic incentives (Freese & Trauger, 2000;Lewis & Alpert, 1997;Rasker, Martin, & Johnson, 1992;Wilkie & Carpenter, 1999). Some may question the morality of hunting, and as Franklin (2008) outlines, Western views are complex and change through time; but in terms of learning, respect and empathy Tremblay (2001) did not find any difference between consumptive and non-consumptive wildlife tourism. ...
Article
Polar bear sport hunting (which in the case of Nunavut is defined as a form of conservation hunting) is an economically important form of Aboriginal ecotourism in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. Each sport hunt provides approximately 20 times the monetary value of a polar bear taken in a subsistence hunt. Positive cultural outcomes for communities that offer these hunts include the revival of dog mushing; preservation of traditional sewing, hunting and survival skills, and accommodation within the industry for the subsistence economy and Inuit norms of sharing. Concurrently, there are frequent community discussions about the industry that provides insight into Inuit views of hunting for recreation as well as western-style wildlife management, which allow for an examination of how Inuit communities are working to accommodate the non-Inuit culture and the market economy. Sport hunting provides Inuit with a reason to support western-style conservation and learn about scientific research and management programmes. Recent international concern about climate change impacts on two polar bear populations and its extrapolation to all populations threatens the conservation programme already in place in Nunavut. Polar bear conservation is of primary concern to Inuit and non-Inuit alike, but pressure to reduce hunting that is not supported by evidence, could result in an undue reduction in the value of polar bear harvesting (by reducing hunting and stopping conservation hunting). This may well result in a loss of local support for conservation measures, including polar bear quotas, which would erode, rather than support, protection for this species.
... After all, if wild animals are owned, then they can be sold and privatized. Native wild animals indeed have been privatized in many states, and provinces (Anonymous, 1988;Benson, 1992;Freese and Trauger, 2000;Peterson et al., 2010b) despite the objections of consumptive communities of practice that rather ironically argued that wildlife were owned entities. ...
... The grassland lies in proximity to the stream, river, and wetlands are the preferred habitat of the Demoiselle cranes for the breeding and wintering ranges (Archibald et al., to $12 billion annually (Oldfield, 2002). The demands of wild animals and their byproducts were increasing with time (Freese and Trauger, 2000;Hillstrom and Hillstrom, 2003;Thapar, 2003). ...
Article
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Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.
... With emphasis on ecosystem services, trade-offs, and economic valuation of nonmarket biodiversity and conservation strategies, natural resource management and education can tend to prioritize utilitarian or anthropocentric perspectives (Freese and Trauger 2000;Loomis 2000). Additionally, overreliance on empirical scientific evidence in conservation learning hinders students' ability to understand the importance of epistemology or practice the integration of diverse values in environmental discourse ( Jones et al. 1999;Grace and Ratcliffe 2002;Vucetich and Nelson 2013). ...
Article
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For 5 years, we have taught an interdisciplinary experiential environmental philosophy—field philosophy—course in Isle Royale National Park. We crafted this class with a pedagogy and curriculum guided by the ethic of care (Goralnik et al. in J Experiential Education 35(3):412–428, 2012) and a Leopold- derived community-focused environmental ethic (Goralnik and Nelson in J Environ Educ 42(3):181–192, 2011) to understand whether and how wilderness experience might impact the widening of students’ moral communities. But we found that student pre-course writing already revealed a preference for nonanthropocentric and nonutilitarian ethics, albeit with a na ̈ıve understanding that enabled contradictions and confusion about how these perspectives might align with action. By the end of the course, though, we recognized a recurrent pattern of learning and moral development that provides insight into the development of morally inclusive environmental ethics. Rather than shift from a utilitarian or anthropocentric ethic to a more biocentric or ecocentric ethic, students instead demonstrated a metaphysical shift from a worldview dominated by dualistic thinking to a more complex awareness of motivations, actions, issues, and natural systems. The consistent occurrence of this pre-ethical growth, observed in student writing and resulting from environmental humanities field learning, demonstrates a possible path to ecologically informed holistic environmental ethics.
... Aunque los economistas han asignado a muchos ecosistemas un valor específico, la valoración no garantizará su protección. 50 En algunos casos, el empleo de estudios de valoración para identificar y promover nuevas formas de captar los valores del ecosistema por medio de mercados o pagos por servicios, puede resultar un arma de doble filo 51 : si no se gestionan bien, esos mercados pueden socavar la provisión de servicios hídricos del ecosistema. ...
... After all, if wild animals are owned, then they can be sold and privatized. Native wild animals indeed have been privatized in many states, and provinces (Anonymous, 1988;Benson, 1992;Freese and Trauger, 2000;Peterson et al., 2010b) despite the objections of consumptive communities of practice that rather ironically argued that wildlife were owned entities. ...
... Harvest tags authorize the individual take of a specified number of animals of a given species over a season. While currently used in only a small handful of fisheries (Johnston et al. 2007), they have seen extensive use by state natural resource agencies as a means to limit harvest for game species, provide data for management, and create a means for allocating access when demand exceeds the regulated supply (Freese and Trauger 2000;Johnston et al. 2007). This cap is achieved by allocating a fixed number of tags per season conditional on the size of the wild population. ...
Article
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This article turns a critical eye on the current role of economics in informing inter-sector allocation disputes. I argue that much of this analysis relies on a notion of efficiency that is flawed on both static and dynamic grounds and fails to address the inefficiencies of existing management institutions. I propose that reallocation is rarely a first-order concern. Rather, it is a "red herring" that detracts from far more necessary fundamental reforms within the recreational sector. These reforms would significantly improve the accountability and efficiency of the sector and establish the necessary institutions to resolve allocation disputes in an adaptive, efficient manner through arms-length transactions. I propose a general framework for reform of mixed recreational-commercial fisheries and discuss realistic rights-based policies to better manage fishing mortality for private recreational anglers and facilitate transferability across sectors. I close with an appeal for more policy-relevant work on recreational fisheries by fisheries economists.
... In addition, some game species that we would expect to fall under the principles of the Model are actively traded. Deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk, ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), quail, chukar (Alectoris chukar), and more exotic wildlife species are commonly bought and sold (Freese and Trauger 2000). Related to wildlife markets are contests and tournaments common in rural areas of the country. ...
... Pada sebagian besar spesies, olah raga berburu untuk mendapatkan trofi individu jantan hanya akan mengurangi ukuran populasi secara keseluruhan jika laju pemburuan jantan terlalu tinggi. Pemilihan target buru yang ditujukan hanya jantan saja dapat menimbulkan mutlidampak seperti terjadinya ancaman kepunahan populasi karena betina tidak terkawini, menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap keanekaragaman genetik, kesehatan populasi target dan proses-proses ekologis (Freese & Trauger 2000). Berdasarkan hal tersebut maka target buru dalam kegiatan perburuan di kawasan TBMK ditetapkan dengan perbandingan 2 jantan dan 1 betina. ...
Article
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Hunting quota is the number of animals of hunting species destined to harvesting from the hunting population in the current year. Setting hunting quota is designed to ensure sustainable use of hunting game and conservation of ecosystem diversity. In the case that population of hunting species within hunting area is absence or not enough to ensure hunting activity, a number of animals must be introduced. The study showed that maximum sustained yield for hunting in the Masigit-Kareumbi Hunting Park was 674 individuals. Based on this quota, the individual number of animal should be introduced to hunting area as width as 12540,73 ha was 3.938 individuals that consist of 657 males and 3.281 females. Hunting season is after 5 years of population introduced.
... Although many ecosystems have been assigned a value by economists, valuation will not guarantee their protection. 50 In some cases, the use of valuation studies, to identify and promote new ways of capturing ecosystem values through markets or payments for services, can be a double-edged sword: 51 if poorly managed, such markets can actually undermine the provision of ecosystem water services. ...
Book
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as water infrastructure This practical guide explains the most important techniques for the economic valuation of eco-system services, and how their results are best incorporated in policy and decision-making. It explains, step by step, how to generate persuasive arguments for more sustainable and equitable development decisions in water resources management. It shows that investments in nature can be investments that pay back. About IUCN IUCN-The World Conservation Union brings together States, government agencies, and a diverse range of non-governmental organizations in a unique partnership. As a Union of members, IUCN seeks to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and eco-logically sustainable. About the IUCN Water & Nature Initiative The IUCN Water and Nature Initiative is a 5-year action programme to demonstrate that ecosystem-based management and stakeholder participation will help to solve the water dilemma of today -bringing rivers back to life and maintaining the resource base for many.
... One reason could be that there are still significant market failures present that cannot be eradicated. Failures of this type have been identified by Hall et al. (2000), Erickson (2000), Freese and Trauger (2000) and Isaacs (2000). In the light of seemingly exaggerated claims for the ability of private property rights to conserve wildlife and biodiversity, it is important to clarify the position as far as non-captive wildlife is concerned by taking into account the implications of established economic theory and its modern developments for this issue. ...
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To reduce the rate of human-induced biodiversity loss of wild species, it has become increasingly important to stem this loss on private lands. Some writers believe that granting landholders commercial property rights in wildlife will be effective in dealing with this matter and will result in the preservation of biodiversity. This paper explores this view using economic theory. In doing so, it takes into account the total economic valuation concept. While granting of commercial property rights is found to be effective for conserving some species, it is predicted to be a complete failure as a means of conserving other species and also to vary in its potential for success in different regions of the world. The Southern African policy cannot be effective everywhere. Here, particular attention is given to the economics of utilisation and conservation of non-captive fugitive (or mobile) wildlife.
Technical Report
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Chapter
Much of what we have to say in this chapter about future trends in wildlife conservation and management will be influenced by whether you are a technological or economic optimist or pessimist. If you are an optimist, we urge you to review thoroughly your entire framework for your optimism, particularly the laws of thermodynamics and our current economic system based upon unlimited growth. Energy is fundamental to human civilization and some forms cannot be easily substituted for others. Our modern industrial civilization is structured around nonrenewable fossil fuels. Being nonrenewable, each fossil fuel, whether coal, oil, or gas, has a certain life span that is dependent on the initial amount and rate of extraction. Extraction and depletion of these resources have certain characteristics. Oil, for instance, is characterized by an increase in rate of extraction, a peaking, and then a decrease, similar in shape to a bell curve. By some accounts, Peak Oil is already upon us. The peaking of world oil means that there will never again be as much oil extracted in subsequent years to meet current and future demands for it. The debate is not if it will happen, but when, and how we will deal with it. We always knew that this event would happen, as oil is a nonrenewable resource along with other fossil hydrocarbons, such as coal and natural gas, each having their own finite limits. We have built an entire global civilization on these nonrenewable resources at great cost to the environment and the biota inhabiting it. How will our fossil fuel dependency be dealt with as these fuels become scarce and more costly, both from a monetary and environmental aspect? Will we make a technological transition and substitute alternative energy sources at the requisite scale? Will we come up with a new source of cheap liquid fuel that is environmentally benign and that will allow us to continue this global civilization, or will we have to "powerdown" in ways presently unanticipated by most people? What will these events mean to contemporary wildlife conservation and management?.
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We investigated perceptions of wildlife policy and issues through questionnaires (n = 148) administered to policy makers, conservation scientists, individuals representing non-government organizations (NGO s ), and field officials, who implemented government policies and enforced laws. We found significant differences among attitudes of stakeholders identifying major threats to wildlife, the use of science, the role of poaching in conservation, and the composition of species illegally traded. Policy makers and field officials differed in their views with NGO s and scientists on community response to wildlife policies and the varying threat perceptions to different species due to poaching and illegal trade. We noted ambiguity among stakeholders about sustainable use principles in India. Policies must be more effective in conservation and the process of making policy must be broad-based and participatory if wildlife conservation is to advance on the subcontinent.
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We evaluate a proposal to double sockeye salmon production from the Fraser River and conclude that significant changes will be required to current management processes, particularly the way available catch is allocated, if the plan is to be consistent with five major principles embodied in the concept of sustainable development. Doubling sockeye salmon production will not, in itself, increase economic equity either regionally or globally. Developing nations may actually be hindered in their attempts to institute other, nonsalmon fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean as a result of the possible interception of salmon. Further, other users of the Fraser River basin will have to forgo opportunities so that salmon habitat can be conserved. If doubling sockeye salmon production is to meet the goal of doing more with less, it will be necessary to develop more efficient technologies to harvest the fish. If increasing salmon production is to reflect the integration of environmental and economic decision making at the highest level, then a serious attempt must be made to incorporate environmental assets into national economic accounting. Finally, to promote biodiversity and cultural self-sufficiency within the Fraser River basin, it will be important to safeguard the small, less-productive salmon stocks as well as the large ones and to allocate a substantial portion of the increased production to the Native Indian community.
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Hypotheses stated were verified from survey questions and relevant literature: landowners and operators who managed for wildlife and recreation as an enterprise on private rural lands had favorable attitudes about wild animals and hunters on their property. Landowners who followed good management practices with their business, habitat, and wildlife populations had higher social satisfaction and monetary return than persons who managed poorly. Sale of wild meat was a valuable asset supported by an infrastructure that encouraged wildlife production on private land. Laws, regulations, policies, procedures and incentives existed for managing wildlife-based recreation on private land. Information was needed by operators to improve wildlife-based recreation management, meat production, and sales. The game ranching system in South Africa was successful because of partnerships between public and private sectors where the authority and responsibility for wildlife and recreation management on private land was shared. Authority and responsibility that was vested in the private sector by the government in South Africa has provided wildlife utilization as a valuable instrument for wildlife management and as an investment in game conservation for the future. -from Author
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Forest peat management issues are reviewed in terms of their history since the 1962 publication of Silent Spring; a view of synthetic chemical pesticides and their controversy is given. The negative or destructive effects of pests on human resources is provided, as is the role of pests that help maximize and stabilize resources (such as fire). Intact natural forests must continue to be available for comparison with managed ones; in this way forest and pest management strategies can be improved. -from Author
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Ranching operators in parts of Texas that leased recreational hunting were interviewed to determine the type of leasing system used and associated costs. Results indicate a bias in ranchers towards harvesting deer bucks as the marketing strategy rather than reducing non-cash (grazing opportunity costs) by reducing the deer herd. Some 47% of respondents said they would attempt to reduce deer numbers for range management. -from Authors
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I evaluate the potential usefulness of nonmarket valuation concepts and techniques from environmental economics for improving wildlife conservation. The concepts include distinguishing between on-site recreation use value and off-site passive use or existence values. In addition, I review 3 nonmarket valuation techniques. I illustrate the concepts and use of the technique of contingent valuation with a case study of valuation of increased ecosystem services for a riverine ecosystem. Results suggested that the benefits to households living along the river exceeded the costs of water rental from farmers and conservation easements.
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Wildlife conservation is incompatible with global markets or private ownership. What is needed is a 'tribal' system of management such as that in North America that creates both wealth and jobs while sustaining resources.