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Out of Our Minds: Learning to Be Creative

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... Creative thinking is considered one of the major aims of the 21st century (Craft, 2005;Puccio, 2017;Robinson, 2011;World Economic Forum, 2016, 2018. We live in a world that is changing at an unprecedented pace. ...
... It is a key to the development of any society (Onyinyechukwu et al., 2021;Ritter et al., 2020;Runco, 2018) and to the success of any individual (Jones & Richards, 2016a;Ritter et al., 2020;Robinson, 2011;Runco & Jaeger, 2012). The Moroccan context is no exception. ...
... Encouraging intrinsic motivation is vital too according to Amabile et al. (1986), Kaufman (2016) and Zhou and Shalley (2003). However, overemphasizing highstakes testing hinders the promotion of creative thinking (Jones & Richards, 2016b;Niu & Sternberg, 2003;Robinson, 2011;Turner, 2013). ...
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The present paper reports on an evaluation study investigating the extent to which Moroccan EFL high school classrooms encourage the development of creative thinking skills. Our objectives were: to explore the extent to which educational policy documents, namely the National Charter for Education and Training (1999), the White Paper (2002) and the Guidelines for teaching English (2007) promote the development of creative thinking; to find out whether Ticket to English 2 textbook has the potential to support students to think creatively; to investigate teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards developing creative thinking and to discover insights into the nature of classroom environment with regard to the development of the skill. The study used a mixed methods design which involves a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The purpose behind this choice is to investigate the match between the aims and objectives outlined in educational policy documents and their implementation through the textbook and teaching practices. The study employed five research instruments namely documents analysis, textbook evaluation, questionnaires, classroom observation, and a semi-structured interview. The results revealed that the importance of creative thinking has been emphasized in policy documents, yet the textbook and teaching practices focus on lower-order thinking skills, such as remembering and understanding. The study concludes with practical recommendations for policy makers, textbook designers, teachers, and teacher development programs.
... In this section, I examine the fluid and dynamic nature of definitions and understandings of the term creativity and, flowing from that, creative writing. Understanding of what creativity is has changed over time, and still today there is disagreementcontroversy evenover whether it ought to be welcomed in formal educational contexts (Marshall, 1999;Robinson, 2011). Also in this section, I consider the opportunities for creation and creative writing afforded through digitalisation and the internet (Kress, 2003;McCallum, 2012). ...
... Oct. 42/2 Creativity wasn't mentioned in fact it was discouraged because of the over-indulgent ideas of some of the students. (Oxford English Dictionary Online, 2020) Robinson (2011) acknowledges this fear of 'overindulgence' when transferred to the context of schooling: ...
... In contrast, advocates of creativity insist that it relies on qualities such as focus, critical judgement and work, which are to be welcomed in school. Robinson (2011) argues that negative views of creativity are unfounded, when he states: ...
Thesis
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The digital age has re-shaped the landscape of creative writing. One example of the changes that have taken place is the way in which millions of young people, globally, now write and share stories as online fanfiction. This is an out-of-school leisure pastime that can also help improve language skills (Aragon & Davis, 2019; Black, 2008). English taught as a second language (i.e. L2) in schools can be less authentic, less motivational and engaging than English used in free-time situations (extramural English, Sundqvist, 2009); thus, there is a need to “bridge the gap” between the English taught in the formal setting of school and the English encountered in informal settings (Swedish Schools Inspectorate, 2011). This licentiate thesis focuses on extramural English creative writing and aims to raise understanding about the ways it can motivate and engage. Also, the issue of L2 English is addressed in relation to pupils’ perspectives of their informal learning as well as their insights into creative writing and challenge in the school subject of English. The participants in the study were thirteen teenage pupils of Swedish secondary and upper-secondary schools who write creatively in English in their free time. Their writing included stories, comics, poems and songs, and some of this work was published online. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and it was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings confirm that writing can be closely related to reading, as participants were motivated by stories they wished to imitate and adapt. Also, the results show how teenage creative writers were able to use networked communication to access a large global readership. There was a strong motivation to write for pleasure – for oneself – and this writing, and enjoyment, could subsequently be shared with others. The free-time writing activity was fun, playful and imaginative, and also aided understanding of the participants’ own experiences and emotions. The state of flow (Csíkszentmihályi, 1990) was an aspect of the pupils’ engagement with creative writing as well. The activity was rewarding as it brought praise, enabled role-play, involved social contacts, and opened the way to new affiliations and friendships. Moreover, the pupils considered that their language learning was enriched through their free-time creative writing. Finally, the participants offered valuable insights into aspects of English as a school subject: there was some creative writing in English lessons, but there was a need for both more creative writing and more challenge.
... En segundo lugar, los estudiantes deben ser animados a participar en tareas creativas. Hay que permitir que los estudiantes vean que pueden ser creativos y eviten el pensamiento equivocado de: "no soy creativo" (Robinson, 2011). Exigir la creatividad como parte del trabajo permite a los estudiantes ver que ser creativo es algo positivo para su formación. ...
... Los profesores rehuyeron dar una respuesta concisa, en cambio los alumnos sueñan con mundos digitales, construcciones espaciales, realidad virtual… ¿será verdad que las escuelas matan la creatividad? (Robinson, 2006). ...
... Cropley, 2016;D. Cropley, 2015;Kazerounian y Foley, 2007;Robinson, 2011;Walther y Radcliffe, 2007): Desde la percepción de que la creatividad es ser resolutivo, hasta la idea de que no puedes ser creativo en asignaturas técnicas. Al ser un concepto tan grande y abstracto, falta esfuerzo por entenderla. ...
... Assessing student learning throughout teaching is essential to meeting the student's cognitive level and increasing their ability to learn new information (Black & Wiliam, 2018). The act of learning is fraught with mistakes and incorrect assumptions which is increasingly considered something to avoid (Robinson, 2011). Learning success requires practice, time, and the opportunity to make metacognitive adjustments while attaining and forming new concepts (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2004;Joyce et al., 2015). ...
... This study supports the theory of transformative learning as an adult, for students learning through discourse and integrating self-reflection thereby enhancing their critical thinking skills (Mezirow, 2000). There has been extensive research on teaching and learning to continually seek new and more effective ways to support student academic achievement, modify and accommodate students with specific learning needs, and to discover how the social and emotional state of students influences their ability to learn (Robinson, 2011). ...
Thesis
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Instructors in higher education, except those in teacher education, generally do not have any prior pedagogical training nor are they generally required to have such training. Formative assessment is an essential component to creating effective teaching and learning. Most research in methods of formative assessment primarily stems from pedagogical research for the PK‒12 learning environment. Consequently, collegiate instructors typically do not know how to use methods of formative assessment in higher education to gather evidence of learning during the teaching and learning process or why it may inform their instruction and have an impact on student learning; hence, achieving student learning outcomes becomes problematic (Asghar, 2012; Jensen, 2011; Scott-Webber, 2012). The purpose of this study was to explore the current pedagogical methods of formative assessment used in higher education and answer the research question: How are collegiate instructors using methods of formative assessment to inform their instruction? The research design for this study was a hermeneutic phenomenological design using Heidegger’s hermeneutic circle (Gadamer, 1975). This design began with a preunderstanding of what constitutes formative assessment based on research-based best practices currently applied in teacher preparation programs (Gadamer, 1975). Interviews and a focus group were conducted with instructors from two different institutions across a variety of disciplines to gather data on their experiences from their perspective. One recommendation resulting from this study was to provide faculty development and training in effective teaching and learning strategies to non-education collegiate instructors to fulfill the mission of educating students (Fullan & Scott, 2009; Giridharan, 2016).
... Dunia di abad 21 ini semakin rumit. 4 Untuk bisa memahami dan hidup secara bermutu di abad ini, kreativitas adalah sesuatu yang mutlak diperlukan. Kreativitas sendiri, menurut Ken Robinson, adalah bentuk kecerdasan tertinggi yang dimiliki manusia. ...
... Di Jerman, program "anak-anak berfilsafat" (Kinder Philosophieren) sudah dimulai sejak dekade 1960-an. Metode yang digunakan sebenarnya cukup sederhana, yakni perumusan pertanyaan yang dibuat bersama-sama dengan anak (1), berdiskusi bersama anak, guna menjawab pertanyaan ini (2), melihat beberapa kemungkinan jawaban yang bersifat terbuka (3) dan mencoba menggali pertanyaan lebih jauh dari jawaban yang telah ada (4). ...
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Pendidikan adalah urusan semua orang. Ia bukanlah semata urusan pemerintah, atau ahli pendidikan semata. Pepatah lama mengatakan, bahwa dibutuhkan satu desa untuk membesarkan seorang anak. Pendidikan adalah sebuah upaya bersama yang membutuhkan landasan nilai, sekaligus usaha bersama dari seluruh masyarakat. Mutu pendidikan mempengaruhi mutu kehidupan masyarakat di masa kini dan masa depan. Segala bentuk kejahatan, mulai dari pencurian, pembunuhan, pemerkosaan sampai dengan korupsi, berakar pada kegagalan sebuah masyarakat mewujudkan sistem dan filsafat pendidikan yang bermutu tinggi. Mutu pendidikan juga mempengaruhi masa depan sebuah bangsa. Kemampuan sebuah bangsa untuk tetap ada dan terlibat di dalam pembentukan masyarakat global yang adil dan makmur amat ditentukan dari mutu pendidikan di dalamnya. Di Indonesia, pendidikan memiliki berbagai tantangan yang mesti dihadapi. Untuk bisa melakukan ini, beragam tantangan tersebut haruslah dipahami terlebih dahulu. Ada beberapa hal yang kiranya perlu diperhatikan. Pertama, dunia pendidikan Indonesia jatuh ke dalam urusan birokrasi dan administrasi semata. Guru disibukkan dengan beragam bentuk pelatihan, sertifikasi dan beban administrasi. Pengajaran bermutu, yang menjadi salah satu unsur terpenting pendidikan, kerap kali terlupakan. Ini seperti dikatakan oleh Jürgen Habermas, bahwa sistem telah menjajah dunia kehidupan (Lebenswelt) yang penuh dengan makna dan kebebasan.[i] Di beberapa institusi pendidikan, guru juga banyak dibebani oleh pekerjaan di luar bidang akademik, misalnya menjadi panitia acara sekolah. Hal ini kerap kali begitu menyita waktu dan tenaga, sehingga proses pengajaran yang baik, yang justru merupakan unsur utama pendidikan, justru terlupakan. Guru-guru, yang menolak untuk terlalu banyak dilibatkan di dalam acara-acara non-pendidikan sekolah, justru dianggap sebagai guru yang tidak dapat bekerja sama. Hal ini jelas menghambat proses pendidikan di sekolah. Dua, dunia pendidikan juga telah kehilangan esensi utamanya. Pendidikan telah berubah semata menjadi pelatihan, yakni pelatihan untuk mempersiapkan murid memasuki dunia kerja. Dalam arti ini, pendidikan tidak lagi mengembangkan wawasan dan kepribadian murid, melainkan mengubahnya semata menjadi pegawai-pegawai pabrik dan perusahaan. Pola pendidikan ini jelas salah arah, karena justru dunia profesional sekarang ini amat membutuhkan manusia-manusia yang berwawasan luas dan berkarakter kuat. Kiranya benar, bahwa pola pendidikan di Indonesia tidak banyak berubah, bahkan setelah 76 tahun merdeka. Pola pendidikan yang ada masih menerapkan pola Belanda di masa kolonial yang hanya menekankan kepatuhan dan kemampuan menghafal. Memang, pada masa penjajahan dulu, Pemerintah Belanda membutuhkan tenaga pegawai yang siap pakai. Mereka tidak membutuhkan orang-orang yang mampu berpikir kritis, kreatif dan berwawasan luas. Ironisnya, pola semacam itu masih dipertahankan di masa kini, walaupun kolonialisme sudah lama berlalu. Tiga, pendidikan yang sejati juga semakin sulit dilakukan di tengah perubahan budaya yang begitu cepat, akibat revolusi industri keempat yang terjadi sekarang ini. Di dalam revolusi industri keempat ini, manusia hidup di dunia digital bahkan lebih lama, daripada ia hidup di dalam dunia nyata sehari-hari. Ini tentunya membuat perubahan besar di dalam pemahaman manusia soal kenyataan itu sendiri. Proses pendidikan menjadi sulit, ketika murid lebih suka menghabiskan waktu bermain game atau berselancar di internet, daripada belajar dan berdiskusi dengan gurunya. Penelitian terbaru bahkan membuktikan adanya penyakit kecanduan perangkat teknologi informasi dan komunikasi ini. Hubungan antar manusia di dunia nyata menjadi amat dangkal dan jarang. Sementara, hubungan manusia dengan mesin dianggap menjadi lebih utama. Ini tentunya memberikan tantangan besar bagi dunia pendidikan. Empat, juga dengan berkembangnya teknologi informasi dan komunikasi, informasi menjadi begitu banyak. Bahkan, bisa dibilang, dunia mengalami kebanjiran informasi. Akibatnya, banyak orang kebingungan. Bahkan, banyak juga yang terjebak pada berita palsu yang menyesatkan. Orang sulit untuk membedakan antara kebohongan dan kebenaran, serta antara informasi yang penting dan yang tak penting. Di dalam proses pendidikan, banjir informasi menghasilkan kemiskinan berpikir. Peserta didik hanya menyalin informasi, tanpa menggunakan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan analitis. Kemampuan mereka untuk melampaui segala tantangan di dunia nyata pun berkurang. Mereka menjadi seperti komputer, yakni pandai menghafal informasi, namun lemah dalam penyelesaian masalah melalui pola pikir analitis dan kritis. Lima, perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi ini juga berdampak pada generasi yang lebih tua. Guru-guru senior seringkali tak mampu mengikuti perubahan pesat yang terjadi. Beberapa ingin terlibat lebih jauh, dan belajar menggunakan teknologi terbaru. Namun, tak sedikit pula yang menolak perubahan, sehingga tak mampu lagi mengikuti perkembangan yang ada. Jurang antar generasi ini membuat proses pendidikan menjadi sulit. Ini juga menjadi hambatan komunikasi antara murid dengan guru-guru senior. Ketika komunikasi terhambat, maka kesalahpahaman akan terjadi. Ini seringkali bermuara pada kekerasan fisik maupun verbal yang terjadi antara guru dan murid. Dampaknya pun beragam, mulai dari putus sekolah, trauma terhadap pendidikan maupun pemecatan terhadap guru senior yang amat merugikan hidupnya. Upaya untuk mempersempit jurang antar generasi ini kiranya perlu dilakukan secara sistematik dan berkelanjutan. Enam, persoalan tentang kesejahteraan guru telah lama menjadi masalah di dunia pendidikan Indonesia. Sebagian guru masih bekerja sebagai guru honorer. Status mereka tidak jelas, dan pendapatan mereka cenderung kecil. Ini membuat banyak guru honorer harus mencari pekerjaan sampingan. Sebagai bagian penting dari sistem pendidikan nasional, ini tentu menjadi persoalan besar. Guru yang mengajar setengah hati tidak akan mampu membentuk karakter sekaligus pikiran anak didik dengan baik. Tidak hanya itu, mereka bahkan seringkali harus meninggalkan kelas, karena harus mencari uang di tempat lain. Ini tentu memberikan teladan buruk, sekaligus membuat seluruh proses belajar mengajar menjadi terhambat. Tujuh, tantangan terbesar pengembangan pendidikan di Indonesia adalah korupsi di dalam sistem pendidikan itu sendiri. Sebagai pemegang tertinggi otoritas pendidikan di Indonesia, pemerintah kerap kali membuat peraturan-peraturan yang tidak masuk akal. Akibatnya, banyak sekolah harus kesulitan di dalam proses penyesuaian. Salah satunya adalah sikap diskriminatif pemerintah terhadap sekolah-sekolah swasta yang sudah memberikan sumbangan besar bagi perkembangan pendidikan di Indonesia. Ini juga ditambah dengan peraturan yang terus menerus berubah, sehingga membuat banyak pihak bingung. Tidak heran, bila banyak praktisi pendidikan berpendapat, bahwa pemerintah merupakan “musuh” terbesar pengembangan dunia pendidikan Indonesia. Peraturan yang diterapkan kerap kali amat berat bagi para peserta didik. Mereka diharuskan mempelajari hal-hal yang belum waktunya untuk dipelajari. Delapan, semua ini bermuara pada lemahnya sistem pendidikan di Indonesia, sehingga rapuh terhadap segala bentuk serangan dari luar, seperti virus radikalisme agama dan mentalitas neoliberal yang mengukur segala sesuatu dari kaca mata uang. Keadaan ini membuat dunia pendidikan menjadi penuh dengan diskriminasi, mulai dari diskriminasi terhadap kelompok agama minoritas (akibat radikalisme agama), sampai dengan diskriminasi terhadap kelompok miskin (akibat neoliberalisme). Manusia macam apa yang dihasilkan dari sistem pendidikan semacam itu? Tak heran, dalam banyak hal, Indonesia ketinggalan dari berbagai negara lainnya. Buku ini ditulis sebagai upaya untuk menanggapi beragam tantangan pendidikan Indonesia tersebut. Di abad 21 ini, proses globalisasi dan perkembangan pesat teknologi di berbagai bidang tak lagi dapat dihindari. Dampak baik dan buruknya pun bisa langsung terasa di kehidupan sehari-hari. Diperlukan upaya untuk mengembangkan pendidikan secara menyeluruh di Indonesia, supaya bisa menjawab berbagai tantangan yang muncul di abad 21 ini. Buku ini adalah contoh dari upaya nyata semacam itu. Dalam konteks itu, buku ini merupakan buku pertama yang berbicara soal visi yang menjadi dasar bagi revolusi pendidikan Indonesia abad 21. Ada beberapa buku filsafat dan teori pendidikan. Namun, buku-buku tersebut tidak menawarkan visi nyata bagi pengembangan pendidikan di abad 21 ini. Maka dari itu, terbitnya buku ini merupakan sesuatu yang perlu untuk dimaknai lebih dalam. Buku ini ditujukan untuk para pendidik di berbagai bidang kehidupan, sekaligus kepada semua orang yang peduli pada mutu dan masa depan pendidikan di Indonesia. Seperti sudah dijelaskan sebelumnya, pendidikan adalah urusan dari semua orang, dan bukan hanya urusan para pendidik formal semata. Harapannya, dengan berpijak pada buku ini, dunia pendidikan Indonesia bisa berubah ke arah yang lebih baik, terutama dalam soal pembuatan kebijakan di sistem pendidikan nasional, maupun dari proses pendidikan hidup sehari-hari. Dengan begitu, bangsa Indonesia akan mampu menghadapi tantangan-tantangan baru di abad 21 ini. Buku ini terdiri dari beberapa artikel ilmiah yang telah diterbitkan di beberapa jurnal ilmiah. Keterangan diberikan di bagian catatan akhir. Selamat membaca. Reza A.A Wattimena
... Kreativitet beskrives ofte som noe originalt (nyskapende) og meningsfullt (Robinson, 2011;Sternberg & Lubart, 1999). Kreativitet kan forstås som uttrykk og produkt skapt av ekstra ordinaere mennesker, men det kan også brukes i tilknytning til hverdagslige situasjoner og barns kreative produksjoner (se f.eks. ...
... (Säljö, 2017(Säljö, , 2019. De skaper et produkt som er originalt og meningsfylt for dem (Robinson, 2011;Rowsell & Harwood, 2015;Sakr et al., 2018;Sternberg & Lubart, 1999 ...
Article
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I denne artikkelen utforsker jeg begrepet kreativitet i en skapende prosess med digital teknologi i barnehagen. Problemstillingen er: Hva kjennetegner en skapende teknologimediert samarbeidsprosess der en gruppe barnehagebarn (4–5-åringer) og en barnehagelærer lager en digital bildebok sammen? Studien er en kvalitativ casestudie, og datamaterialet består av videoobservasjoner av prosessen og det ferdige produktet, en digital bildebok. Som teoretisk rammeverk for analysen bruker jeg begrepene mulighetstenkning av Anna Craft og distribuert kreativitet av Keith R. Sawyer. Analysen viser at den skapende teknologimedierte samarbeidsprosessen kjennetegnes av at barna og barnehagelæreren på ulike måter engasjerer seg i mulighetstenkning og sammen utforsker nye muligheter. Kreativiteten distribueres mellom deltakerne, aktivitetene og artefaktene, og prosessen kan karakteriseres som et eksempel på en kreativ teknologimediert samarbeidsprosess. Ved å ta utgangspunkt i egne tanker og ideer skaper barna og barnehagelæreren sammen en ny kulturressurs; de lager et produkt som er nytt, originalt og meningsfylt for dem. Analysen viser også at for å forstå helheten i barns kreative samarbeidsprosesser, er det viktig å inkludere både prosessen og produktet. Artikkelen bidrar med kunnskap om kreativ og skapende bruk av digital teknologi sammen med grupper av barnehagebarn, som er sentralt for både praksisfeltet og barnehagelærerutdanningen
... Creativity research which includes imagination is relevant for considering imagination as cognition (e.g., Kaufman and Beghetto 2009;Stokes 2014), however; the concept of imagination itself is often left relatively unexpanded within discussions of creative cognition (e.g., Robinson 2001;Eisner 2002). Possibility thinking, as an aspect of imagination, is discussed and modelled by Cremin, Chappell, and Craft (2013), Craft et al. (2013) and Clack (2017). ...
... We may need or choose to combine or manipulate these images in order to think of something new, or at least new to us. Due to this relative originality, cited frequently as essential for creativity (see Kaufman and Beghetto 2009;Robinson 2001;Wegerif 2010), with Craft (2001, 56) describing a 'spectrum of novelty or innovation' as a necessary quality spanning high and 'Little c creativity'; I call this third type 'Creative Imagination'. A step further is to enter the world of fantasy, to imagine things never directly, materially experienced: 'Fantastical Imagination'. ...
... Creativity is considered as important skill for art and design students as discussed by Brown, Imms, Watkins & O'Toole(2009) . According to Robinson (2001) assignments are planned to train students to think out of the box .Aside from routine literacy skills, visual design instruction have a particular role in urging people to be more imaginative and audacious in their reasoning .To boast technical skills in alliance with creative abilities for textile/ apparel designer as mentioned by Emna (2006) different assignments are planned to enhance creative abilities of students. ...
Conference Paper
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Learning is continuous but complex process involve attaining or processing information having impact varies from habit of brushing teeth to executing major decisions of our life. (Schunk, 1991). Importance of learning is evident from literature but variation in learning process has been discussed by researchers and scholars (Shuell, 1986) rooted with formal psychological study in the latter part of the nineteenth century(Mueller, 1979).Some scholars discussed learning as skill acquiring (e.g., Anderson, 1981; Bryan & Harter, 1897) others emphasized on concept of understanding related to schema formation(e.g., Anderson & Pearson, 1984 ;Wertheimer, 1959).Development of behavior and attitudes through collaboration with outer world is another area of study for many researchers like Carey(2000); Papert (1980) &Vygotsky(1978). Presented literature is the summary of concept map expressing my understanding of learning theories and connections between them (KMK, 2017). Concept mapping is an effective tool for visual representation of the knowledge initially designed by Joseph D. Novak. (Antoni, 2014).Presented Concept map is personal narrative of my learning experiences. Presented concept Map was developed through Inspiration 9 software. Undoubtedly learning is not linear as discussed by Piaget & Inhelder (1969) and knowledge transformation is like walking on bumpy road. (Holly, Janet, Hernandez, & Debra, 2013) For this Map, different personal experiences are linked with various learning theories to understand the sole conception of learning approaches. Learning experiences are segregated into three categories according to age-based on Adolescent and youth demographics: a brief overview 1. Childhood 2. Age of adolescence (10-19 years) 3. Youth (15- 24 years)
... He also states that we are not trained in a way to improve our creativity in the education system, but in a way to move away from creativity (Robinson, 2006). Robinson, (2011) states in another study that creativity is misunderstood as something specific to special people and special jobs. Contrary to this view, he emphasizes that people are born with a great capacity for creativity and the only thing to do is to improve this capacity. ...
Article
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Creativity is recognized as an integral skill of the 21st century. For this reason, it is important for educators to learn how to nurture their students’ creativity and find means of evoking it in the classroom. It is believed that creativity, a trademark of this age of innovation, can be developed with a suitable educational environment and can be taught when appropriate conditions are provided. The role and importance of universities, especially faculties of education, which elicit the development and application of new ideas, cannot be denied. This study aimed to help pre-service teachers define creativity and evaluate their undergraduate education processes in terms of gaining and using creativity-based skills. In accordance with the nature of the qualitative research, the study group of the research was selected using a random sampling strategy. The study group of the research consisted of 197 pre-service teachers being educated in the faculty of education of a state university in their final year. The data collected and entered into the online data collection form was acquired using content analysis.
... The digital revolution has been bringing unprecedented change to the world of education. An increasing number of educators and researchers have been discussing "Changing education paradigm" (Robinson, 2011). E-Learning was introduced in 1980s with the increasing ownership of personal computers used in schools and homes. ...
Article
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The recent development of technology provides emerging opportunities for higher education in the digital era. Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) have been recently burst and proved to be a good way for teaching and learning. Nevertheless, limited attention has been paid to learners from various levels of electronic learning (e-Learning) in higher education in hospitality and tourism, particularly from Asian perspective. To fill this research gap, the present study explores learners’ perceptions and expectations of MOOCs among hospitality and tourism students in Hong Kong to facilitate teaching and learning of hospitality and tourism education in the MOOCs-based model, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the knowledge of the relationship between different levels of learner and acceptance of MOOCs. Through adopting focus group interviews, learners’ perceptions and expectations from three groups have been identified. Findings of the present study provide practical implications for the design and development of MOOCs, and the overall picture of MOOC learning in hospitality and tourism education.
... Many of these developments in understanding and practice are not, however, universal and much continues to be experimental. Educator Sir Ken Robinson argues that the entire system has to be revolutionised for real change to occur (Robinson, 2011). Early education practice has been likened to systems used in factories: ...
... Nhóm tác giả này cho rằng, GDPTBV liên quan tới vai trò chuyển đổi (transformative role) của giáo dục và đòi hỏi các nhà giáo dục phải có một nhóm các năng lực, ví dụ như có tầm nhìn, tư duy phản biện, sáng tạo, có hệ thống và có tính tương lai, đối thoại, hợp tác và liên kết. Dựa trên mô hình năng lực CSCT (Sleurs, 2008), mô hình năng lực của UNECE (2012), và các công trình nghiên cứu của các tác giả khác [37][38][39][40][41], nhóm tác giả này đã xây dựng mô hình năng lực gồm các khía cạnh sau: sự kết nối, đối thoại, sáng tạo, đổi mới, tư duy phản biện, tính không chắc chắn (uncertainty). ...
Article
Các nghiên cứu về giáo dục phát triển bền vững (GDPTBV) ở Việt Nam đã chỉ ra rất cần thiết phải có nghiên cứu về phát triển năng lực cho giáo viên ở nước ta hiện nay. Vì vậy, bài báo này sẽ tập trung nghiên cứu cơ sở lí luận về phát triển năng lực nghề nghiệp của giáo viên trong bối cảnh GDPTBV và xây dựng khung lý thuyết của năng lực nghề nghiệp cho giáo viên phổ thông trong bối cảnh GDPTBV tại Việt Nam. Nghiên cứu này sẽ dựa vào tổng quan tài liệu hệ thống để xác định các khung lý thuyết uy tín về năng lực nghề nghiệp của giáo viên đặt trong bối cảnh GDPTBV, từ đó đề xuất lựa chọn các năng lực cần thiết cả về mặt kiến thức chuyên môn và phương pháp sư phạm của giáo viên – khía cạnh vốn còn bị bỏ ngỏ trong nghiên cứu về phát triển năng lực nghề nghiệp cho giáo viên ở Việt Nam. Do giáo dục vừa là mục tiêu vừa là phương tiện của PTBV, điều này sẽ góp phần thực hiện mục tiêu GDPTBV nói riêng và mục tiêu PTBV nói chung ở Việt Nam.
... Aunque este tipo de iniciativas se han discutido en el sistema de educación superior de muchos países, en casi ninguno se ha hecho algo para llevarlos a buen término. Robinson (2011) propone el desarrollo de la educación, específicamente de la creatividad. Él cree que, debido a la velocidad del cambio en el mundo, los gobiernos y las empresas deben reconocer que la educación y la formación son las claves para un mundo futuro. ...
Chapter
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En este capítulo se presenta una reflexión acerca de la importancia de internacionalizar la educación superior y se anota su significado para todos los actores involucrados. Además, se describe las posibilidades y estrategias para lograrlo, al tiempo que se detalla los deberes y desafíos para las instituciones. La conclusión es que este proceso debe ser una política, en la que intervienen factores de estado, institucionales y personales, que se estructura con el apoyo de directivas, profesores y estudiantes.
... In order to do this creative ideas need to be implemented in practice and in so doing become innovation [5]. In the words of Robinson [6], noted for his work on creativity in education, "Innovation is applied creativity" (p. 142). ...
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In order for management education to move beyond the analytical thinking of the last century to promote creative thinking more appropriate for today’s organizations we need to build new courses that allow for organic flexible approaches to building diverse types of knowledge. We need to nurture student curiosity and encourage them to delve deeply into unknown fields. By approaching problems with curious humility they can begin to understand the nuances of tensions and trade-offs that exist at the heart of complex issues. We also need to unleash student creativity and support intelligent generative failure in order to learn. They need to learn the skills of experimentation in order to test ideas in uncertain contexts. We also need to promote clarity of purpose and communication that will enable innovation to be implemented and have positive impact in the world. In this chapter a new process model covering each of these aspects is described along with an illustrative example of how this has been applied in a redesigned MBA course over the last 5 years.
... On the other hand, the health crisis accelerated the changes that educational systems had been predicting for years (Bokova, 2014;Robinson, 2011). These anticipated changes include preparing students for continuous changes and sustainability, enabling them to solve complex problems, changing the teacher's role to a facilitator, teaching life skills such as innovation, creativity, resilience, autonomy, adaptability, communication, collaboration, empathy, and emotional intelligence, and implementing new technologies in educational processes (Dietrich et al., 2020). ...
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This research studied the needs of university students receiving distance and hybrid education during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study's main objective was to analyse the university students' expectations and needs in the Andalusia (Spain) region during the Covid-19 health emergency, to provide guidelines for post-Covid online and hybrid educational continuity. A qualitative interpretative study was carried out on the survey responses of 641 undergraduate and postgraduate students in nine Andalusian universities. Six themes related to the students' needs and expectations came from the findings. The needs and expectations of students during a health emergency like the Covid-19 pandemic depend on university management developing and implementing a clear plan of action, continually communicating with students, training teachers in the virtual and hybrid modalities, and building and maintaining empathetic relationships in the university community.
... Contribution de l'art dramatique à la formation du citoyen Créativité : solutions inédites 45 L'artiste pédagogue devra lui aussi développer sa propre créativité en encourageant ses élèves à croire à leur potentiel créateur et en les conviant à cultiver leur confiance en eux-mêmes ; en les aidant à découvrir leurs forces créatives ; en exerçant leurs habiletés à réaliser un travail créatif et à le faire avec de plus en plus d'autonomie(Robinson, 2011 ;Chaîné, 2018). Pour que se déploie cet élan créateur, l'enseignant modélisera son action et proposera des situations d'apprentissage riches et complexes favorisant l'émergence de la créativité des élèves en faisant appel à leur imagination, à leur intuition et à leur sensibilité. ...
Article
Drama has been taught for over 50 years in the Quebec school system. As early as 1969, the Rapport Rioux claimed the importance of art in school through “artistic doing and contact with works of art” (Rioux, 1969, vol. 2, p. 20). This seminal paper was the starting point for a series of drama programs. This essay takes a retrospective look at the evolution of the Quebec drama model, but it also tries to anticipate how learning and teaching theatre at school can contribute to the student citizen training who is creative, open mind, and responsible and, consequently equip them to better face a complex and uncertain world. In the evolution of practice, we also targeted the pedagogical approaches and the professional action of the artist teacher which contribute to the development of transformative skills in the drama classroom. Three professors carried out this essay and, they are involved in the drama training teachers.
... Imagination has been regarded as one of the key components of creativity and innovation, and also the source of every form of human achievement (Robinson, 2011). A number of scholars (Pelaprat & Cole, 2011;White, 1990) claim that individuals who demonstrate a certain degree of imaginative capabilities are considered to be more capable of thinking of lots of possibilities and generating ideas or prototypes that can solve current problems in life. ...
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This research was conducted to explore the STEM imagination of Grade 10 students from one Malaysian rural secondary school that adopted the integration of the imagination process in an Engineering Design Process (EDP) through an outreach program in STEM. Four stages of the STEM imagination process were examined: initiation, dynamic adjustment, virtual implementation and implementation. A total of 50 students aged 16 participated in a 10-hour program which engaged them in designing and building two different prototypes. Data on students’ STEM imagination were captured through teachers’ field notes based on focus group interviews and observations. The findings reveal that students needed to draw from their lived experiences to brainstorm problems and solutions around a given scenario, and to arrive at a workable solution in order to move from the initiation to the implementation stage. The findings also suggested that the EDP approach is able to create a supportive environment for nurturing STEM imagination among rural secondary school students.
... Ini bersesuaian dengan keperluan negara masa hadapan, di mana generasi abad ke-21 bukan sahaja cemerlang dalam bidang akademik semata-mata, malah menguasai pelbagai kemahiran yang diperlukan. Menurut Robinson (2011), walaupun perkembangan teknologi telah banyak membawa perubahan kepada cara kita berhubung, bekerja, bermain dan berfikir, namun ada di kalangan kita hari ini masih selesa mengamalkan cara pemikiran yang lama terutama dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu masalah. Keadaan ini bukan sahaja berlaku di kalangan belia luar bandar malah turut berlaku di kalangan belia bandar yang majoritinya berpendidikan dan berkerjaya. ...
... It is a process that entails the observation of new possibilities and opportunities. It is not an independent skill but it is associated with our willingness to re-observe and rethink the things we are used to (Robinson, 2001). Thus, creativity is a potential in every individual and could be manifested and improved in adequate conditions. ...
Book
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Art education is quite important in an individual’s educational life. It is not just an education that talented individuals should partake, as commonly thought, but all individuals should benefit from it. Thus, happy individuals with an aesthetic indulgence, awareness about their culture, art, and preservation, respect for the art of different cultures, tolerance, a creative perspective could be trained. In the book, the significance of art education was emphasized and the main issues in art education were discussed. The present book, published to identify certain basic issues in different fields of art education, to investigate and discuss these issues with scientific methods, and to fill the gap in the literature, scrutinized music education and especially visual arts education. The book includes seven chapters, five of which are on visual arts education and two on music education. The titles of these chapters are as follows: Chapter 1, Artistic Development Stages Of Children, Chapter 2, Discipline-Based Art Education, Chapter 3, Art Criticism In Visual Arts Education, Chapter 4, Museum Education And An Application Proposal Based On Multiple Intelligences Theory, Chapter 5, Museum And Disabled Individuals, Chapter 6, General Music Education From Creativity Perspective, and Chapter 7, Voice Physiology and Vocal Training.
... Persaingan dunia global pada hari ini dan automasi tugasan menjadikan kapasiti inovatif dan semangat kreatif sebagai keperluan untuk kejayaan individu dan kerjaya. Robinson (2011), salah seorang pelopor pemikiran kreatif berkata, "Kreativiti adalah sama penting dengan literasi dalam pendidikan dan atas sebab ini kreativiti perlu diberikan tumpuan dengan status yang sama." Dengan memiliki kreativiti, murid berkemampuan mencipta sesuatu yang kreatif lagi bernilai dengan menggabungkan kemahiran dan imaginasi serta penglibatan kecerdasan dan kecergasan (Mohamad & Subraniam, 2014). ...
... Though it remains an elusive and imprecisely defined concept, researchers, teachers, and politicians recognize that creativity is one of the key elements of life satisfaction, a motivating factor in learning, as well as a driver of innovation and economic productivity. When creativity is fostered in educational contexts, it can inspire and support student success, increase personal and social engagement through learning, and lead to greater student satisfaction and higher levels of self-efficacy (Robinson, 2011) Furthermore, Kaycheng and Boylan (2015) detailed the nine aspects of creativity nurturing behaviour of teachers as freedom, integration, motivation, consideration, flexibility, assessment, questioning, opportunities, and disappointment. In this study, the term "creativity nurturing" refers to a teaching method that aims to encourage students' creativity through specific behaviours and strategies based on their classroom expertise while also displaying control, adaptability in thought and action, and admiration for freedom of thought. ...
... By offering students different ways to explore their assumptions, Rose captured how her use of the crucible facilitated a form of critically reflective learning that is simply not attainable through traditional instructional approaches (Greene, 1995;Robinson, 2001). Sally, in turn, presented a more holistic view of what critical reflection could look like during learning; "it's a bit of everything…you cannot do it just through writing…artistic elements are also reflected in it…students can represent it through an image or a painting." ...
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Critical reflection is a vital 21st-century capacity required by students to navigate their increasingly complex world, yet many educators experience uncertainty when attempting to conceptualise this phenomenon. This study originated in response to this need and to elucidate the relationship between critical reflection and questioning, through the experiences of 4Cs educators working within an Australian primary school. A phenomenological case study involving three teacher participants was designed to explore their experiences as they implemented Jefferson and Anderson’s (2017) teaching tool, the critical reflection crucible, in their respective classrooms. Qualitative data was collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis [IPA]. The findings in this sample reveal a strong correlation between teacher questioning and students’ ability to critically reflect during learning. Although participants encountered difficulty when defining critical reflection, a clearer image of how this phenomenon manifests during learning emerged from the appraisal of their transformative classroom experiences.
... En cuanto a su relación con el juego (Torrens, 2007c), en la pedagogía de la performance se trata de aprender jugando, de generar pasión, de disfrutar para poder asimilar mejor el conocimiento (Robinson, 2011) explorando nuevos mundos y desarrollando más fácilmente la creatividad. La performance es un juego artístico con reglas (de respeto, de concentración y de cooperación) pero en el cual se participa desde la libertad creadora. ...
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Este artículo se ubica en el ámbito de la Educación Artística que se desarrolla dentro de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO). Explica en qué consiste una investigación artística propia que trata de fusionar la pedagogía de la performance, el feminismo y la celebración de la diversidad mediante diferentes prácticas artísticas (del dibujo a la performance) dentro y fuera del aula y también mediante las redes sociales. Además, este proyecto educativo de investigación artística plantea una metodología diferente a través de la acción artística desarrollada con el propio cuerpo de los estudiantes con el fin de promover la creatividad, la autoestima, la empatía, la convivencia y toda una serie de valores y políticas inclusivas relacionadas con la igualdad y principalmente con la diversidad sexual y de género.
Thesis
Each night, we cross a bridge that connects the waking and sleeping worlds. We know very little about this bridge (symbolizing the sleep-onset period), as our passage is brief and leaves only a few fragmented memories behind. Moreover, sleep researchers have largely overlooked this twilight period, certainly owing to its ‘in-between’ and fleeting nature. However, upon closer examination, the sleep-onset period appears as a rich and dynamic time during which our body and mind undergo significant changes. Brain activity slows, muscles relax, and reality gradually distorts: dreamlike images begin to dance before the eyelids. In contrast to the research community, many scientists and artists, such as Thomas Edison and Salvador Dali, were fascinated by this rich period, seeing in it great potential, particularly for increasing their creativity. They even devised methods for capturing creative inspirations from this ‘genius gap’ before they vanished into the limbo of sleep. They would take naps while holding an object that dropped noisily as they dozed off, awakening them just in time to record some of their discoveries/ideas. Is there any truth in this seductive story? In other words, is the sleep-onset period conducive to creativity? This question will serve as the central theme of this thesis. Our main hypothesis was that hybrid states, at the borderland between wakefulness and sleep, would promote creativity. We tested this hypothesis by examining both a physiological state in which sleep and wakefulness coexist (the sleep-onset period, specifically the first sleep stage, named N1) and a sleep disorder, narcolepsy, in which the line between the two vigilance states is even finer than usual. We first demonstrated an increased creative potential in patients with narcolepsy, suggesting an (indirect) link between a privileged access to the sleep-onset period (caused by excessive daytime sleepiness) and the gradual development of creativity over time. Second, we found a direct link between the N1 stage and creativity, given that a single minute of N1 was sufficient to triple the probability of discovering a hidden shortcut to solve a task compared to a period of wakefulness. Additionally, this beneficial effect of the N1 stage disappeared when the subjects reached a deeper sleep (N2). We substantiated these results using spectral analyses and discovered an optimal cocktail for creativity (above and beyond sleep stages), consisting of an intermediate level of alpha (a marker of the wake-to-sleep transition) and a low level of delta (which signs sleep depth). We thus unraveled the existence of a ‘creative sweet spot’ within the sleep-onset period. Hitting this zone requires striking a balance between falling asleep easily and sleeping too deeply. Finally, we investigated the relationship between memory and creativity during sleep onset, using a newly-designed task that allowed us to evaluate these two cognitive functions within a single experimental design. Regrettably, the creative task was too difficult (not enough solvers) to assess the link between memory and creative problem-solving. However, we found that subjects who slept exclusively in N1 exhibited a 10% forgetting of previously encoded individual memory traces, whereas subjects who transitioned to the N2 stage showed less forgetting. Intriguingly, these last two studies both show distinct behavioral effects between two seemingly close sleep stages (N1 and N2). These parallel findings may suggest a link between memory processing (and possibly the pruning of irrelevant information) and the N1-induced boost in creativity. But more importantly, they emphasize the importance of distinguishing the N1 and N2 stages in future research, as they appear to have distinct effects on cognition. Overall, our findings indicate that critical cognitive processes occur during sleep onset. Notably, we found that this period constitutes a doorway into creativity, which neuroscientists [...]
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The usage of rubrics is nowadays a developing trend in the world of Higher Education. One can think about two main reasons for this. First, even if there is no definitive proof, rubrics seem to be adequate for supporting the learning of complex skills, in particular for formative assessment. Rubrics are then finding a natural place in HE institutions in the context of the 21st Century where digital education skills become more and more important and need to be well defined and assessed. Secondly, rubrics are based on very easy principles and this simplicity may contribute to the trend noted. However our experience of doing rubrics for defining and assessing the students’ digital education skills revealed us that the design of rubrics needs its basic principles but also additional rules in order to make a rubric that can be used as an efficient assessment tool. In this perspective, we decided to compile and explain in this article the rules that we have applied during our rubric design work. Some rules were found in the literature; other ones were elaborated during our work progression. With this compilation, we want to bring the reader concrete guiding elements and steps for the design of rubrics. A general rule seems to emerge from our work: a rubric maker should always try to distinguish between all the aspects of the competences needed to perform a task and all the aspects of all the different levels that can be seen in the competences of a person who is performing the task.
Chapter
As demand for and use of interactive, experiential, and hands-on learning continues to increase and be used in entrepreneurship education, the concept of play remains elusive. This chapter reflects our strongly held belief that well-constructed play can deliver profound “aha” moments, resonant lessons, and truly rigorous learning experiences, as driven by its ability to immerse, engage, and focus students—all while enhancing or reinvigorating the joy of learning and practicing entrepreneurship. In an effort to shed light on a concept that has so long been seen as elusive, we provide a brief overview of what we know about play from a childhood development perspective and then explore what is known about play in higher education in general, as well as entrepreneurship education. We introduce a philosophical model of using play in entrepreneurship education and conclude with some sample exercises.
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Ce travail de recherche prend pour objet d’étude la notion de créativité en éducation physique et sportive. La perspective adoptée est celle de l’approche par l’activité du sujet. La thèse propose une conceptualisation de la notion d’« agir créatif » associant le concept d’expérience (Dewey, 1938) et le paradigme de l’activité (Billeter, 2012). L’agir créatif se caractérise par une instrumentalité authentique au service de l’expérience. Cette notion sert d’outil d’analyse des différentes représentations de la créativité des enseignants d’éducation physique. L’étude se fonde sur une analyse socio-historique et épistémologique de la revue professionnelle d’éducation physique Revue EP&S ainsi que sur une enquête réalisée auprès des enseignants d’EPS. L’analyse met en évidence trois périodes qui structurent les représentations de la créativité en éducation physique, de 1960 à 2020, entre expériences et instrumentalité. Dans la période contemporaine, la créativité est majoritairement associée aux pratiques artistiques. L’enquête fait également ressortir une importante demande en termes de formation artistique de la part des enseignants. Les arts du cirque constituent alors une entrée dans les pratiques artistiques susceptible de favoriser l’appropriation d’un processus de création par les enseignants d’EPS. La notion d’agir créatif peut ici constituer un outil dans le cadre de la formation des enseignants à la créativité.
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We consider the challenges LESLLA learners face when confronted with literacy- based decontextualized tasks inside and outside of school that demand ways of thinking intrinsic to Western-style formal education, work, and modern life. We frame our work in the context of preparing LESLLA learners in Germany for the trades in adult education programs. Specifically, we focus on how ways of learning, familiarity with literacy-based decontextualized tasks and academic ways of thinking impact the ability of LESLLA learners to access content and succeed on assessments in adult education programs. Our work has applications beyond Germany: The assumptions underlying school tasks and ways of thinking form the “invisible challenge” of school and vocational training for LESLLA learners.
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The many challenges faced by humanity today can only be tackled by understanding and unleashing the full power of human potential. Technological innovation and social change are accelerating at a bewildering rate. For individuals and nations to not only cope with change but shape it and thrive, we need to prioritise the skills which define our humanity, rather than pursue old and outdated paradigms of knowledge, or compete with the machines we have created.
Chapter
This chapter is a review of the success and possible development of digital education. It details the impact of technology on the approach to learning and teaching, how it produced an educational shift in providing ubiquitous access to information. It highlights as well the shift in the role of teachers and the rise of a more holistic acceptance of education simultaneously with a new form of student-centered approach. Teaching skills, creativity, innovation, critical global thinking are now central concepts that are discussed here. The review also reflects on the current techniques and tools to facilitate academic learning online (i.e., research, simulation, and gamification). It surveys their strengths, weaknesses, and potential for growth. The second half of the chapter provides guidelines for implementations. It analyses the roles of the innovation directors, students, teachers, and the LMS and suggests protocols to facilitate a smooth and successful implementation and running of digital innovation in schools.
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This chapter describes the structural features and problem areas of modern education systems, then discusses new social and educational ideas that offer solutions to these problems. From the nineteenth to the twenty-first century, information was given on the social models and educational systems that coincided with the turning points of industrial developments. While factory organization as characterized by mass production and nation-state citizenship shaped the education system of industrial societies, digitization and its values have left their mark on educational systems in the information society. Advanced technological developments in areas such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, or the Internet of things have led to a techno-futuristic model of society being placed on the agenda. In this context, we pursue the questions of how new technologies are changing the education system and what kind of solutions they are offering to its problems for education in future societies. New technologies are argued to have not eliminated the basic problems we must deal with in the contemporary world such as equal opportunity in education and student-centered education.
Thesis
O presente relatório reporta-se às atividades e à investigação desenvolvidas durante o estágio na Escola Secundária de Ermesinde, no ano letivo 2011/2012, integradas no Mestrado em Ensino de Artes Visuais no 3o. Ciclo do Ensino Básico e no Ensino Secundário. Esta investigação diverge dos domínios habituais do Desenho enquanto disciplina e linguagem, e converge no corpo de quem o produz, na identidade de quem o cria e no espaço e consciência que esse corpo habita. A ideia de podermos aprender pelo Desenho uma forma de utilizar melhor o corpo na sua escala e consciência, torna o ato de desenhar expansível a outras áreas disciplinares como a Performance, o Teatro, a Expressão Dramática ou a Dança. Esta investigação sobre a consciência do nosso corpo reporta à consciência que temos de nós mesmos, e da nossa existência no espaço, na forma como interagimos no campo social e humano, e no reflexo que isso tem na aprendizagem. Ter o corpo em mente é como ter em mente nós próprios enquanto espécie; é ter em mente o nosso impacto na Terra, medindo a nossa escala física e mental, avaliando as nossas ambições, pensando de onde viemos e refletindo para onde vamos. Desenhar com o corpo em mente é uma reflexão para a expansão de uma linguagem, para aprender mais sobre nós, seres sociais e ímpares. Palavras chave: Desenho, corpo, consciência, espaço, performance, aprendizagem.
Article
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) combined with experimental outreach learning activities may affect the inherently correlated constructs creativity and self-concept. Evaluation of our one-day CLIL genetics laboratory confirms this correlation for both Biology (p < .001, r = 0.739) and English (p < .001, r = 0.802) after participation with excellent model-fit parameters. Participation did not produce any gender differences except for the latent variable Social of the self-concept scale. Moreover, self-concept correlates with short- and long-term cognitive achievement and long-term linguistic knowledge, confirming the mutually reinforcing relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. For Biology and English grades, negative correlations with self-concept indicate that our module provides effective support for low achievers. Combined with an overall positive correlation between the latent constructs creativity and self-concept and long-term cognitive achievement, our results indicate that creativity-enhancing interventions could increase the self-concept and may, accordingly, lead to better performance at school.
Chapter
Every discipline values creativity and looks for its application to advance ideas, theories, new products, and new solutions. On the other hand, few learners develop creativity in their educational preparation, whether explicitly in dedicated courses or integrated into their regular training in any field. Understanding creativity through its definition and development is valuable in education and instructional design. Digital tools offer the potential for improving creativity skills.
Chapter
Young children’s innate curiosity and disposition for exploration makes them naturally inclined to engage in STEM and meaningful STEM learning experiences can positively impact young children’s academic futures. However, research on creativity in the context of STEM is limited. Our exploratory research project followed early childhood educators as they supported the STEM experiences of toddlers (18–30 months) and preschoolers (2½–5 years) in a Canadian childcare centre. In this chapter, we highlight the aspects of creativity that we observed during a larger project in which researchers and early childhood educators worked side-by-side to identify, document, and expand on child-initiated STEM investigations. Data collection during 27 weekly visits to the childcare centre included fieldnotes and photos; anecdotal descriptions were then developed to document 143 episodes of STEM-related learning experiences. We used the 4P/A-E creativity framework to identify 52 episodes of creativity in STEM within our initial dataset and to reanalyse these episodes in order to explore the aspects of creativity as manifested in the context of STEM. We describe several examples of creativity in STEM and discuss the aspects of product, person, place, and process as observed in a play-based and constructivist oriented childcare centre.
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The 21st century has implied technological advances and improvements in the quality of life. It is useful that the ecological design is exposed from the educational institutions, so that a deterioration does not take place in the environment. The ecological footprint is a factor that analyzes the environmental impact generated by the demand and the use made of the resources available in the ecosystems. In recent decades, these indicators of pollution and excessive use of non-degradable raw materials have risen considerably, so it is necessary to think about ecological design to maintain the balance for future generations. In Arts Education, practices with an initial approach of analysis can be offered through cartographies, timelines, infographics or drawings that imply a study before the creation of the prototype and the product. After this study, it must be related to some of the fields of ecological design whether product design, packaging design, sustainable architecture, among others. It is also necessary to be aware of the natural materials to be used, as it is essential to maintain life cycles in harmony with nature. Finally, works will be exposed on packaging through ecological design with a vision for the educational field at the university stage.
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Design education develops a range of skills thought to be life-long relevant, and valuable for the design industry. The ability to generate ideas is one of the fundamental skills that is also fostered by design education. The exact pedagogical approaches of how this happens in design schools are not well documented or understood. It has been found that educators believe that encouraging design learners to expand their experiences and engaging in critical conversations improves the ability to generate ideas. On the contrary, utilising a supportive learning environment and implementing an empathic teaching approach does not appear as effective. Three traits are perceived to correlate with the capacity to produce ideas; these are: able to see relationships, Highly curious, and independent of thought. This study was conducted using a mixed-methods approach, with three separate studies: two surveys (n=104, n=167) and a series of semi-structured interviews (n=24). A multilevel research triangulation design allowed the data from one study to be used by another, combining the data into one overall interpretation. Finally, this dissertation concludes that various teaching strategies can influence several personality traits that influence the ability to generate ideas. Moreover, the teaching strategies examined in this dissertation have varying degrees of influence.
Thesis
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The present research work is developed with the objective to determine the relationship between the creative factors, the reading-writing skills, logical mathematics, and musical intelligence. The methodological framework used to the development of this study, was done in a quantitative way, in a non-experimental design, and descriptive. The collection of theinformation was obtained through the application of several standardized test, and it was analyzed using statisticaldescriptive and inferential methods, along with a simple lineal regression and structural equations.The results obtained, show clear relationship between all the variables presented in this research, which prove, beside, the hypothesis that the creative factor causes an effect in the students’ performance in students of 4th elementary gradefrom Altamira's School which is located in Peñalolén
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