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Effects of High-intensity Training on Performance and Physiology of Endurance Athletes

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Abstract

Most endurance athletes use high-intensity training to prepare for competitions. In this review we consider the effects of high-intensity interval and resistance training on endurance performance and related physiological measures of competitive endurance athletes. METHODS. There were 22 relevant training studies. We classified training as intervals (supramaximal, maximal, submaximal) and resistance (including explosive, plyometrics, and weights). We converted all effects on performance into percent changes in mean power and included effects on physiological measures that impact endurance performance. FINDINGS. All but one study was performed in non-competitive phases of the athletes' programs, when there was otherwise little or no high-intensity training. Endurance performance of the shortest durations was enhanced most by supramaximal intervals (~4%) and explosive sport-specific resistance training (4-8%). Endurance performance of the longest durations was enhanced most by intervals of maximal and supramaximal intensities (~6%), but resistance training had smaller effects (~2%). Interval training achieved its effects through improvements of maximum oxygen consumption, anaerobic threshold, and economy, whereas resistance training had benefits mainly on economy. Effects of some forms of high-intensity training on performance or physiology were unclear. CONCLUSIONS. Addition of explosive resistance and high-intensity interval training to a generally low-intensity training program will produce substantial gains in performance. More research is needed to clarify the effects of the various forms of high-intensity training on endurance performance, to determine whether prescribing specific forms of resistance training can improve specific deficits of an endurance athlete's physiology, and to determine the effects of combining the various forms in periodized programs. KEYWORDS: aerobic, anaerobic threshold, economy, plyometrics, resistance, strength. Reprint pdf · Reprint doc · Commentaries by Foster and Saunders and Pyne.
SPORTSCIENCE sportsci.org
Review / Training and Performance
Effects of High-intensity Training on Performance and Physiology of
Endurance Athletes
Carl D Paton, Will G Hopkins
Sportscience 8, 25-40, 2004 (sportsci.org/jour/04/cdp.htm)
Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, The Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton; Email.
Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1020, New Zealand. Reviewers: Philo
Saunders and David Pyne, Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, PO Box 176, Belconnen, ACT 2616,
Australia; Carl Foster, Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601.
Most endurance athletes use high-intensity training to prepare for
competitions. In this review we consider the effects of high-intensity interval
and resistance training on endurance performance and related physiological
measures of competitive endurance athletes. METHODS. There were 22
relevant training studies. We classified training as intervals (supramaximal,
maximal, submaximal) and resistance (including explosive, plyometrics, and
weights). We converted all effects on performance into percent changes in
mean power and included effects on physiological measures that impact
endurance performance. FINDINGS. All but one study was performed in non-
competitive phases of the athletes’ programs, when there was otherwise little
or no high-intensity training. Endurance performance of the shortest durations
was enhanced most by supramaximal intervals (~4%) and explosive sport-
specific resistance training (4-8%). Endurance performance of the longest
durations was enhanced most by intervals of maximal and supramaximal
intensities (~6%), but resistance training had smaller effects (~2%). Interval
training achieved its effects through improvements of maximum oxygen
consumption, anaerobic threshold, and economy, whereas resistance training
had benefits mainly on economy. Effects of some forms of high-intensity
training on performance or physiology were unclear. CONCLUSIONS.
Addition of explosive resistance and high-intensity interval training to a
generally low-intensity training program will produce substantial gains in
performance. More research is needed to clarify the effects of the various
forms of high-intensity training on endurance performance, to determine
whether prescribing specific forms of resistance training can improve specific
deficits of an endurance athlete's physiology, and to determine the effects of
combining the various forms in periodized programs. KEYWORDS: aerobic,
anaerobic threshold, economy, plyometrics, resistance, strength.
Reprint pdf · Reprint doc · Commentaries by Foster and Saunders and Pyne.
Introduction .................................................................................................................26
Methods ......................................................................................................................26
Selection of Studies ................................................................................................26
Analysis of Training.................................................................................................26
Analysis of Performance.........................................................................................28
Analysis of Physiological Effects.............................................................................29
Findings.......................................................................................................................30
Endurance Performance.........................................................................................31
Maximum Incremental Power .................................................................................31
Maximum Oxygen Consumption.............................................................................32
Anaerobic Threshold...............................................................................................32
Economy .................................................................................................................32
Body Mass ..............................................................................................................32
Conclusions and Training Implications .......................................................................32
Further Research........................................................................................................33
References..................................................................................................................33
Appendices .................................................................................................................36
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INTRODUCTION
Endurance in relation to athletic performance has been defined in various ways. In this
article we have reviewed effects of high-intensity training not only on athletic endurance
performance but also on underlying changes in the aerobic energy system. Endurance for
our purposes therefore refers to sustained high-intensity events powered mainly by
aerobic metabolism. Such events last ~30 s or more (Greenhaff and Timmons, 1998).
Training for endurance athletes generally emphasizes participation in long-duration low-
or moderate-intensity exercise during the base or preparation phase of the season, with
the inclusion of shorter-duration high-intensity efforts as the competitive phase
approaches. The effects of low- to moderate-intensity endurance training on aerobic
fitness are well documented (see Jones and Carter, 2000 for review), but reviews of high-
intensity training on endurance performance have focused only on describing the effects
of resistance training (Tanaka and Swensen, 1998), the effects of resistance training with
runners (Jung, 2003), and the different types of interval training used by athletes (Billat,
2001a) and studied by researchers (Billat, 2001b). Furthermore, previous reviews have
included the effects of high-intensity training on untrained or recreationally active
subjects, so findings may not be applicable to competitive athletes. The purpose of this
review was therefore to describe the effects of high-intensity training on performance and
relevant physiological characteristics of endurance athletes.
METHODS
Selection of Studies
We identified most relevant publications through previous reviews and our own reference
collections. We found 22 original-research peer-reviewed articles that identified
competitive endurance athletes as the subjects in a study of effects of high-intensity
training on performance or related physiology. We excluded studies of recreationally
active subjects or of subjects whose characteristics were not consistent with those of
competitive athletes, including Daniels et al. (1978), Hickson et al. (1988), Tabata et al.
(1996), Franch et al. (1998), and Norris and Petersen (1998). We did not perform a
systematic search of SportDiscus or Medline databases for theses or for non-English
articles, and we did not include data from chapters in books.
Analysis of Training
We assigned the training to two categories:
Resistance training: sets of explosive sport-specific movements against added
resistance, usual or traditional weight training (slow repeated movements of weights),
explosive weight training, or plyometrics and other explosive movements resisted
only by body mass (Table 1).
Interval training: single or repeated intervals of sport-specific exercise with no
additional resistance (Table 2).
Classification of some resistance-training studies was difficult, owing to the mix of
exercises or lack of detail. In particular, all the studies we classified under explosive
sport-specific resisted movements probably included some non-explosive resisted
movements and some plyometrics.
We classified the duration and intensity of intervals in Table 2 as follows: supramaximal
(<2 min), maximal (2-10 min) and submaximal (>10 min), where "maximal" refers to the
intensity corresponding to maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). The supramaximal
intervals will have been performed at or near all-out effort; the maximal intervals will
have started at less than maximum effort, but effort will have approached maximum by
the end of each interval; the submaximal intervals can be considered as being close to
27
anaerobic threshold pace (a pace that can be sustained for ~45 min), and effort will have
risen to near maximum by the end of each interval.
A major concern with all but one of the studies we reviewed is that the high-intensity
training interventions were performed in the non-competitive phases of the athletes’
season, when there was otherwise little or no intense training. Authors who have
monitored endurance athletes throughout a season have reported substantial
improvements in performance and changes in related physiological measures as athletes
progress from the base training to competitive phases (Barbeau et al., 1993; Lucia et al.,
2000; Galy et al., 2003). Indeed, our own unpublished observations show that well-
trained cyclists ordinarily make improvements in power output of ~8% in laboratory time
trials as they progress from base through competitive phases of their season. The large
improvement in performance as the competitive phase approaches occurs because
Table 1: Experimental and control training in studies of the effects of high-intensity resistance training on
endurance performance in competitive athletes.
Study Experimental training Control traininga
Explosive sport-specific resisted movements
Hoff et al. (1999) Skiing-specific, 3x 6RM, 7%; general
strength, 2%; endurance, 70%; total
8.5 h.wk-1
Endurance, 72%; general strength, 13%;
total 9.2 h.wk-1 in basic preparation phase
Hoff et al. (2002) Skiing-specific, 3x 6RM, 7.5%, plus
endurance; total 9.6 h.wk-1 Mainly endurance with strength endurance;
total 10.1 h.wk-1 in pre-season phase
Osteras et al.
(2002) Skiing-specific, 3x 6RM, 5% of total of
15 h.wk-1 Endurance + strength-endurance weights,
total 15 h.wk-1 in pre-competition phase
Paavolainen et al.
(1991) Skiing-specific, 34-42%; endurance, 66-58%;
total 6-9 sessions wk-1 in base preparation
phase
Endurance running & roller skiing (83%) +
strength-endurance weights (17%); total 6-
9 sessions wk-1 in base preparation phase
Paavolainen et al.
(1999) Running-specific, 32%; endurance and
circuit, 68%; 2-3 session.wk-1; total 9.2 h.wk-1 Endurance running and circuit, 97%;
running-specific explosive strength, 3%;
total 9.2 h.wk-1 in post-competition phase
Sport-specific resisted movements
Toussaint and
Vervoorn (1990) Swimming sprints against resistance for 30
min, 3 wk-1 for 10 wk in competition phase,
plus usual (?) swim training
Same as experimental group but without
additional resistance during sprint training
Explosive non-sport-specific weight training
Bastiaans et al.
(2001) 4x sets of 30 reps each of squats, leg
presses, single-leg step ups for 3.3 h.wk-1,
plus 5.5 h.wk-1 of control endurance cycling
8.9 h.wk-1 endurance cycling in pre-
competition phase
Plyometrics
Spurrs et al.
(2003) 2x 10 reps of 3-4 jumps, bounding and hops,
plus 60-80 km. wk-1 endurance running 60-80 km. wk-1 endurance running; training
phase not stated
Turner et al.
(2003) 6 sets of jumps, 3 wk-1 for 6 wk, plus usual
low-intensity endurance running Minimum 3 sessions and 16 km.wk-1
running; unspecified intensity and training
phase
Usual weight training
Bishop et al.
(1999) 3-5 sets of 2-8RM squats, plus usual
endurance cycling Endurance cycling in off-season,
unspecified weekly duration
Johnston et al.
(1997) 2-3 sets of 6-20RM, plus 32-48 km.wk-1
endurance running 32-48 km.wk-1 endurance running in pre-
competition phase
Millet et al. (2002) 3-5 sets of 3-5RM of 6 lower-limb exercises,
2 wk-1 for 14 wk, plus control endurance
training
20 h.wk-1 endurance running, cycling,
swimming at <70 %VO2max in winter non-
competition phase
RM, repetitions maximum.
a"Endurance training" is presumably long sessions below submaximal intensity (below anaerobic threshold).
28
athletes normally include higher intensity endurance training as part of a periodized
program. It therefore seems unlikely that the large improvements reported in studies
performed during a non-competitive phase would be of the same magnitude if the studies
were performed in the competitive phase, when the athletes ordinarily include higher
intensity training in their program. Indeed, in the only training study we could find
performed during the competitive phase of a season, Toussaint and Vervoorn (1990)
found that 10 weeks of sport-specific resistance training improved race performance time
in national level competitive swimmers by ~1%. Though such improvements appear
small, they are important for elite swimmers (Pyne et al., 2004), and the estimated change
in power of ~3% is certainly greater than the ~0.5% that is considered important in other
high-level sports (Hopkins et al., 1999).
Table 2: Experimental and control training in studies of the effects of high-intensity interval training on
endurance performance in competitive athletes.
Study Experimental training Prior and/or control traininga
Submaximal intervals
Sjodin et al. (1982) Running at anaerobic threshold, 1x 20 min, 1
session.wk-1 for 14 wk, plus usual training No control; usual winter training,
~6.5 h.wk-1
Maximal intervals
Acevedo and
Goldfarb (1989) Running, ?x ? min, 1 session.wk-1, plus Fartlek
(presumably mainly max) sessions (8-19 km, 2
session.wk-1 for 8 wk
No control; endurance training runs
(8-19km) for 3-4 session.wk-1
Billat et al. (1999)b Running, 5x 3 min, 1 session.wk-1, plus 2x 20 min
(submax), 1 session.wk-1 replacing usual training No control; low-intensit
y
base phase
training, unspecified weekly
duration
Cycling, 8x 2.4 min with 4.8-min recoveries, 2
session.wk-1, plus usual training?
Laursen et al.
(2002b) Cycling, 8x 2.4 min with 2- to 3-min recoveries, 2
session.wk-1, plus usual training?
~10 h.wk-1 of endurance training in
off and pre-competition phases
Lindsay et al.
(1996) Cycling, 6-8x 5 min with 1 min recoveries, 1-2
session.wk-1 replacing ~15% of usual training No control; usual base-phase
endurance training, ~300km.wk-1
Smith et al. (1999) Running, 5-6x 2-3 min, 2 session.wk-1 for 4 wk
plus 1x 30 min.wk-1 at 60% of VO2max No control; prior training unclear
Stepto et al. (1999)c Cycling, 4x 8 min, 8x 4 min, or 12x 2 min with 1- to
3-min recoveries, 2 session.wk-1, plus usual
training
No control; usual endurance
training, unspecified training phase,
230 km.wk-1
Westgarth-Taylor et
al. (1997) Cycling, 6-9x 5 min with 1 min recoveries, 2
session.wk-1 replacing 15% of usual training No control; usual base-phase
endurance training, unspecified
weekly duration
Weston et al. (1997) Cycling, 6-8x 5 min with 1 min recoveries, 1-2
session.wk-1 replacing 5% of usual training No control; usual base-phase
endurance training, ~290 km.wk-1
Supramaximal intervals
Creer et al. (2004) Cycling, 4-10x 30-s, 2 session.wk-1 for 4 wk plus
5 h.wk-1 endurance training 8 h.wk-1 endurance training
Laursen et al.
(2002a) Cycling, 12-19x 1 min, 2 session.wk1 plus 8 h.wk-1
base training Low intensity in base phase,
~10 h.wk-1
Laursen et al.
(2002b) Cycling, 12x 30 s with 4.5-min recoveries, 2
session.wk-1 plus usual training? ~10 h.wk-1 of endurance training in
off and pre-competition phases
Stepto et al. (1999)b Cycling, 12x 30 s with 4.5-min recoveries or 12x 1
min with 4-min recoveries, 2 session.wk-1 plus
usual training
No control; usual endurance
training, unspecified training phase,
230 km.wk-1
a"Endurance" training is presumably long sessions below submaximal intensity (below anaerobic threshold).
bShown in Appendices 2-4 as submax and max intervals.
cThe five training groups in this study were merged into two groups for this review.
29
Analysis of Performance
Measures of performance in real or staged competitions are best for evaluating the effects
of training interventions on competitive athletes (Hopkins et al., 1999). Toussaint et al.
(1990) were the only researchers to use competitive performance in a study of high-
intensity training. The others have opted instead for laboratory-based ergometer tests or
solo field tests, which may not reproduce the motivating effect of competition. Appendix
1 summarizes the effects from sport-specific time trials and constant-power tests, sorted
into the same three intensity/duration categories as the interval training. Appendix 2
summarizes the effects on maximum power in incremental tests. To permit comparison
of effects, we have converted outcomes in the various performance tests into percent
changes in mean or maximum power, using the methods of Hopkins et al. (2001).
Footnotes in the appendices indicate which measures needed conversion.
Analysis of Physiological Effects
The remaining tables show the effects of high-intensity training on physiological
measures related to endurance performance: maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max,
Appendix 3), anaerobic threshold, exercise economy (Appendix 4), and body mass
(Appendix 5). Most endurance events are performed at a nearly constant pace, and for
those performed at an intensity below VO2max mean performance power or speed is the
product of VO2max, the fraction of VO2max sustained, and aerobic energy economy (di
Prampero, 1986). Provided they can be measured with sufficient precision, percent
changes in each of these components are therefore worth documenting, because they
translate directly into percent changes in endurance power. Of course, training is likely
to change more than one of these components, so researchers serious about identifying
the mechanism of a change in performance should assess all three.
Most authors of the studies we reviewed measured VO2max, usually in an incremental
test. Some also measured economy (work done per liter of oxygen consumed) from VO2
measurement either in middle stages of the incremental test or at a fixed work rate in a
separate test. Where necessary, we re-expressed percent changes in VO2max and
economy for VO2 measured in units of L.min-1, to avoid difficulties in interpretation
arising from changes in mass when VO2 is expressed as ml.min-1.kg-1.
No authors measured the fraction of VO2max sustained in the endurance test itself
(requiring measurement of VO2 throughout the test), but some measured the anaerobic
threshold, usually from an analysis of blood lactate concentration during an incremental
test. Depending in its method of measurement, the anaerobic threshold occurs at ~85%
of VO2max, an intensity that an athlete can sustain for ~30-60 min (Jones and Carter,
2000). One can therefore assume that percent changes in the anaerobic threshold will
translate directly into percent changes in fractional utilization of VO2max in a sub-
VO2maximal event. Authors in two studies provided the anaerobic threshold as a power
rather than a percent of VO2max; in this form the measure is effectively already a nett
measure of submaximal endurance performance, with contributions from VO2max,
fractional utilization of VO2max, and economy. We therefore included these measures in
Appendix 1 in the subgroup of submaximal tests.
The relevance of changes in anaerobic threshold to changes in endurance performance at
maximal and supramaximal intensities is unclear, but for such events (lasting up to ~10
min) anaerobic capacity makes a substantial contribution to performance (Greenhaff and
Timmons, 1998). None of the studies we reviewed included critical-power or other
modeling of performance to estimate the contribution of changes in anaerobic capacity
resulting from high-intensity training. However, a practical and much more reliable
30
measure of anaerobic capacity is performance in sprints lasting ~30 s, which we have
included as supramaximal tests in Appendix 1.
Body mass is an important determinant of performance in running [Berg, 2003 #120] and
presumably in most other high-intensity endurance sports, depending amongst other
things on the distribution of the change in mass between the active limbs and the rest of
the body, the power required to continually accelerate and decelerate the limbs, and the
power required to move the rest of the body against gravity with each cycle of limb
movement and over any undulating terrain or hills. The relationship between changes in
body mass and performance is therefore difficult to predict, but it has not been studied
empirically for any sport. We have nevertheless included in Appendix 5 the percent
changes in body mass from those studies where mass was reported before and after
resistance training, because this form of training could increase body mass substantially
by increasing muscle mass. None of the studies of interval training provided enough data
to estimate changes in body mass, presumably because there were either no substantial
changes or the authors did not consider changes in body mass to be an issue with this
kind of training.
FINDINGS
The outcomes from individual studies are shown in Appendices 1-5, at the end of this
article. Table 3 represents a summary derived from the appendices and justified in the
following sections.
Table 3: Summary of effects of high-intensity interval and resistance training on performance and
physiology of endurance athletes in a non-competitive (low intensity) phase of training.
Interval training Resistance traininga
Sub-
maximal Maximal Supra-
maximal Explosive
sport-
specific
Explosive
non-sport
specific
Plyo-
metrics Usual
weights
Performance power
Submaximal endurance +++ +++ + + +/–
Maximal endurance + ++ +
Supramaximal endurance 0 ++ ++ ++++
Maximum incremental +++ ++ ++ + 0
Physiology
Maximum oxygen uptake + ++ + +/–
Anaerobic threshold + +++ ++/– 0
Economy + +++ ++++ ++ +++ +
Body mass + + 0 +
Key to effects: ++++, 8% or more; +++, 6% (5 to 7%); ++, 4% (3 to 5%); +, 2% (1 to 3%);
0, 0% (-1 to 1%); –, -2% (-1 to -3%).
aThe study by Toussaint and Vervoorn (1990) of effects of non-explosive resisted movements on
swimmers in the competitive phase of training is not included in this summary.
Our interpretation of the appendices was cautious and tentative, because the various kinds
of performance and physiological tests are disproportionately represented by the different
kinds of training. For example, there has been only one study of purely submaximal
interval training, and it did not include a measure of performance power or maximal
power in an incremental test (Sjodin et al., 1982). Further, a submaximal performance
test was generally included in studies of interval training but not in studies of resistance
training, whereas tests of economy are more likely to have been included in studies of
resistance training. The reasons for such bias in the use or reporting of tests are unclear.
31
Authors might have been more likely to include a test or measure that had already been
shown to produce a big change. Also, some authors may have chosen not to report non-
significant effects, or they may have been instructed to remove them from the manuscript
by a misguided reviewer or editor. A formal quantitative meta-analysis can partially
improve the interpretation when there are such biases, but we decided against a meta-
analysis when we discovered that all but one of the published studies were performed
with athletes in the base phase of training. A meta-analysis would not address the real
issue for athletes: how does each kind of high-intensity training contribute to
performance against a background of other high-intensity training? This review can
provide only suggestive evidence.
Endurance Performance
Appendix 1 shows that maximal and supramaximal intervals produced equally impressive
gains (3.0-8.3%) on performance at submaximal intensities. The magnitude of the largest
improvement (Westgarth-Taylor et al., 1997) is likely to be due to either sampling
variation or a computational error, because it is not consistent with the smaller gains (4.6
and 8.3%) in two similar studies by the same group (Lindsay et al., 1996; Weston et al.,
1997). Explosive resistance training was less effective (0.3 and 1.0%) over the same time
frame as the interval training studies (~4 wk), and even after 9 wk the gains were still not
as great (2.9 and 4.0%) as with interval training. In the only study of the effect of usual
weight training on submaximal endurance, there were opposing effects on anaerobic
threshold power (2.6%) and time-trial power (-1.8%) in the same subjects after 12 wk.
The authors suggested that the non-specific movement and speed of the weight training
accounted for its failure to enhance time-trial performance (Bishop et al., 1999).
Explosive sport-specific movements produced the greatest gains in maximal endurance
tests (1.9-5.2%) after 8-9 wk (Appendix 1). Maximum intervals were less effective
(2.8%), although the duration of training was only 4 wk. Plyometric jumps were less
beneficial (1.2%).
Not surprisingly, the highest-intensity training produced the greatest enhancements in the
supramaximal tests (Appendix 1). The very large gain with explosive weights (11%) was
more than twice that with supramaximal intervals and explosive sport-specific resistance
(3.0-4.6%). Maximal intervals had little effect (0.4%).
There was only one study of the effects of submaximal intervals (Sjodin et al., 1982), and
it did not include measures of performance power. The effects on VO2max, anaerobic
threshold, and economy in that study, if they were additive, would be consistent with
~6% enhancement of submaximal endurance and possibly 2-4% on supramaximal and
maximal endurance respectively.
Maximum Incremental Power
Maximum-intensity intervals appear to be the most effective form of high-intensity
training for improving maximum incremental power (by 2.5-7.0%; Appendix 2). Gains
appear to be smaller with explosive sport-specific resistance training (2.3% and 6.0%)
and supramaximal intervals (1.0-4.7%), and possibly smaller still with explosive weights
(2.0%). Remarkably, a gain of 4.7% was achieved in only four sessions of supramaximal
intervals (Laursen et al., 2002a).
These improvements will transfer to time-trial performance to some extent, because
maximum power achieved in an incremental test correlates well with time-trial
performance (Noakes et al., 1990; Hawley and Noakes, 1992; Bourdin et al., 2004).
Exactly how they will transfer might depend on the duration of the time trial. Most of an
incremental test is performed at submaximal intensities, but the last minute or two is
32
maximal and supramaximal. Performance in the test will therefore be determined by a
mix of VO2max, anaerobic threshold, economy, and anaerobic capacity. If the mix does
not reproduce that of the time trial, enhancements of one or more components of the mix
will produce changes in maximum incremental power that differ from those in time-trial
performance.
Maximum Oxygen Consumption
It is evident from Appendix 3 that the largest improvements in VO2max occurred with
maximal-intensity interval training (gains of 2.3-7.1%). Supramaximal intervals were
probably less effective (impairment of 0.6% in one study, enhancements of 2.2% and
3.5% in two others). The changes can occur rapidly: Laursen et al. (2002a) recorded an
increase of 3.5% after a total of only four supramaximal sessions in two weeks. Explosive
weight training can produce smaller gains (up to 2.0%), but the various forms of
resistance training had a predominantly negative effect on VO2max. Improvements in
other physiological measures can offset this effect and result in nett improvements in
endurance performance following resistance training.
Anaerobic Threshold
One cannot draw a firm conclusion about the effect of explosive resistance training on the
anaerobic threshold in Appendix 4, given that there were major enhancements in three
studies (5.0-7.1%) and substantial impairments in two others (2.0 and 2.1%). In the only
study of presumably maximal intervals, the gain was ~5.0%, whereas the gain was less
(1.5%) in the only study of submaximal intervals.
Economy
Although the claim of 39% increase in economy from explosive sport-specific resistance
training in Appendix 4 is almost certainly erroneous, it is clear from the other studies in
the table that explosive resistance training in general produced spectacular beneficial
effects (3.5-18%) on this endurance parameter. Plyometrics may be only a little less
effective (3.1-8.6%). The effects of interval training were least for submaximal (2.8%)
and greater for a mixture of submaximal and maximal (6.5%).
Body Mass
It is reasonably clear from Appendix 5 that explosive resistance training increased body
mass by ~1%, presumably via an increase in muscle mass. Any direct harmful effects of
this increase in mass on performance were inconsequential, given the large enhancements
that this form of training produced in power output of all durations. Usual weight
training may produce increases in body mass that are greater (2.8% in one study) and
therefore more likely to impair performance in some sports.
CONCLUSIONS AND TRAINING IMPLICATIONS
High-intensity interval and resistance training in an endurance athlete’s non-competitive
phase can substantially improve performance and related physiological measures. Interval
training at intensities around VO2max (intervals lasting 2-10 min) improves mainly
submaximal endurance performance (by ~6%) through improvements of all three
components of the aerobic system (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, economy). Effects of
longer intervals at lower intensity have unclear but possibly similar effects on
performance, judging by their effects on the components of the aerobic system. Higher
intensities of interval training (intervals of <2 min) probably have similar benefit for
submaximal endurance and possibly less benefit (~4%) for shorter durations of endurance
performance, but the contribution of aerobic components is unclear. Explosive resistance
33
training produces some benefit (~2%) for submaximal endurance, but probably more
benefit (4-8%) for maximal and supramaximal endurance. The effects of explosive
resistance training are mediated at least partly by major increases in economy, possibly
by increases in anaerobic threshold, but probably not by increases in VO2max. Increases
in body mass with this kind of resistance training are not an issue.
Many high-level endurance athletes will already include high-intensity intervals in their
training leading up to and including the competitive phase. For these athletes adding
more intervals is not necessarily a good strategy, but altering the mix to reduce the
volume of lower intensity intervals and increase the volume of higher intensity intervals
may be beneficial. Athletes who do not currently include sport-specific explosive
resistance training are almost certain to experience substantial gains in performance by
adding this form of training to their programs.
A partially selective effect of the different kinds of training on physiological measures
raises the possibility of prescribing training to correct weaknesses in these measures. On
the basis of the existing research one can tentatively recommend adding or increasing
explosive resistance training for an athlete with a poor economy and/or poor anaerobic
capacity, and adding or increasing maximal intervals for an athlete with a poor VO2max.
FURTHER RESEARCH
We need more research aimed at filling voids in the matrix of different kinds of training
vs effects on performance and physiology. In particular:
We need to know more about the effects of non-specific resistance training (especially
plyometrics and usual weights) on performance and some aspects of physiology.
The effects of supramaximal intervals on anaerobic threshold and economy need more
research.
The one study on physiological effects of submaximal intervals needs augmenting
with studies that include performance measures.
High-intensity sport-specific resistance training of the non-explosive variety has not
been investigated other than in the one study that was performed in the competitive
phase.
This new research will give us a more complete understanding of how each type of high-
intensity training in isolation affects endurance performance. More importantly, it will
give us a better indication of the possibility of prescribing training to correct deficits in an
athlete's physiological profile. Well-designed studies of individualized training
prescription will further address this issue.
From the perspective of the athlete and coach, the most important question is how best to
combine the various kinds of high-intensity training before and during the competitive
phase of the season. There is currently only one study of high-intensity training of
athletes in the competitive phase. We need more, and we need studies of periodization of
high-intensity training in the phases leading to competition.
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36
APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Effects of high-intensity training on measures of endurance performance in competitive
athletes. Performance is expressed as change in mean power in a sport-specific time trial or its equivalent.
Studies ordered approximately by magnitude of effect within each of the intensities/durations of endurance
test.
Performance test Change in
power (%) Experimental
training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
Submaximal Tests
1-h 40-km cycling 12.4?b Max intervals (short
recovery) 12 sessions
over 6-7 wk 8 M cyclists Westgarth-
Taylor et al.
(1997)
1-h 40-km cycling ~8.3 Max intervals (short
recovery) 6 sessions
over 4 wk 8 M cyclists Lindsay et al.
(1996)
1-h 40-km cycling 4.6 at 2 wk;
6.6 at 4 wkc Max intervals (short
recovery) 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
1-h 40-km cycling 3.2 at 2 wk;
6.2 at 4 wkc Max intervals (long
recovery) 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
1-h 40-km cycling 2.7 at 2 wk;
5.3 at 4 wkc Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
Cycling at ventilatory
threshold 4.7 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 2 wk 7+7 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002a)
1-h 40-km cycling ~4.6 Max intervals (short
recovery) 6 sessions
over 4 wk 6 M cyclists Weston et al.
(1997)
18-min 5-km running 0.3 at 6 wk;
4.0 at 9 wk Explosive sport-
specific movements 9 wk 12+10 M elite
runners Paavolainen et
al. (1999)
1-h 40-km cycling 3.4 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 7 M cyclists Stepto et al.
(1999)
1-h 40-km cycling 3.0 Max intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 12 M cyclists Stepto et al.
(1999)
10-km running 3.0 Max intervals 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 7 M runners Acevedo and
Goldfarb (1989)
1-h cycling 1.0 at 4 wk;
2.9 at 9 wk Explosive weights 9 wk 6+8 M cyclists Bastiaans et al.
(2001)
Cycling at Dmax
lactate 2.6 Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 12
wk 14+7 F cyclists
Bishop et al.
(1999)
20-min running to
exhaustion ~1.2h Max intervals 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 7 M runners Acevedo and
Goldfarb (1989)
1-h cycling 0.6 at 6 wk;
-1.8 at 12 wk Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 12
wk 14+7 F cyclists
Bishop et al.
(1999)
Performance test Change in
power (%) Experimental training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
Maximal Tests
5-min skiing to
exhaustion ~5.2d Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 10+9 M cross-
country skiers Osteras et al.
(2002)
5-min skiing to
exhaustion ~5.1e Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 8+7 F cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (1999)
10-min 3-km running 2.8% Max intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 5 M runners Smith et al.
(1999)
7-min skiing to
exhaustion ~1.9g Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 9+10 M cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (2002)
10-min 3-km running 1.2 Plyometrics 2-3 wk-1 for 6
wk 8+9 M runners Spurrs et al.
(2003)
For footnotes see Appendix 5.
37
Appendix 1 continued: Effects of high-intensity training on measures of endurance performance in
competitive athletes. Performance is expressed as change in mean power in a sport-specific time trial or its
equivalent. Studies ordered approximately by magnitude of effect.
Performance test Change in
power (%) Experimental
training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
Supramaximal Tests
30-s cycling 10 at 4 wk;
11 at 9 wk Explosive weights 9 wk 6+8 M
cyclists Bastiaans et al.
(2001)
45-s cycling 4.6 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 7 M cyclists Stepto et al. (1999)
30-s cycling 3.0 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 10+7 M
cyclists Creer et al. (2004)
30-s to 2-min 50- to
200-m swimming ~3.0f Sport-specific
resistance 3 wk-1 for 10 wk 11+11 M & F
swimmers Toussaint and
Vervoorn (1990)
45-s cycling 0.4 Max intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 12 M cyclists Stepto et al. (1999)
For footnotes see Appendix 5.
Appendix 2: Effects of high-intensity training on maximum power in an incremental test in competitive
athletes. Studies ordered approximately by magnitude of effect.
Performance test Change in
power (%) Experimental
training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
Cycling 2.1 at 2 wk;
7.0 at 4 wk Max intervals (short
recovery) 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
Running sprints 0.8 at 3 wk;
3.5 at 6 wk;
6.0 at 9 wk
Explosive sport-
specific movements 9 wk 12+10 M elite
runners Paavolainen et
al. (1999)
Cycling 3.1 at 2 wk;
5.8 at 4 wk Max intervals (long
recovery) 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
Cycling 5.3 Max intervals (short
recovery) 6 sessions
over 4 wk 8 M cyclists Lindsay et al.
(1996)
Cycling 5.0 Max intervals (short
recovery) 12 sessions
over 6-7 wk 8 M cyclists Westgarth-
Taylor et al.
(1997)
Running speed at
VO2max 4.8 Max intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 5 M runners Smith et al.
(1999)
Cycling 4.7 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 2 wk 7+7 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002a)
Cycling 0.7 at 2 wk;
4.0 at 4 wk Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
Cycling 3.5 Max intervals (short
recovery) 6 sessions
over 28 d 6 M cyclists Weston et al.
(1997)
Running speed at
VO2max 2.9 Submax and max
intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8 M runners Billat et al.
(1999)
Cycling 2.5 Max intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 12 M cyclists Stepto et al.
(1999)
Running 0.9 at 3 wk;
0.9 at 6 wk;
2.3 at 9 wk
Explosive sport-
specific movements 9 wk 12+10 M elite
runners Paavolainen et
al. (1999)
Cycling 2.1 at 4 wk;
2.0 at 9 wk Explosive weights 9 wk 6+8 M cyclists Bastiaans et al.
(2001)
Cycling 1.0 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 7 M cyclists Stepto et al.
(1999)
Running speed at
VO2max 0.0 Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 14
wk 7+8 M
triathletes Millet et al.
(2002)
For footnotes see Appendix 5.
38
Appendix 3: Effects of high-intensity training on maximum oxygen consumption in competitive athletes.
Studies ordered approximately by magnitude of effect.
Performance test Change in
VO2max (%) Experimental
training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
Cycling 2.6 at 2 wk;
7.1 at 4 wk Max intervals (short
recovery) 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
Running 4.9 Max intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 5 M runners Smith et al.
(1999)
Cycling 2.0 at 2 wk;
4.4 at 4 wk Max intervals (long
recovery) 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
Cycling 3.5 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 2 wk 7+7 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002a)
Cycling 2.3 Max intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 12 M cyclists Stepto et al.
(1999)
Cycling 0.8 at 2 wk;
2.2 at 4 wk Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8+11 M cyclists Laursen et al.
(2002b)
Running 2.2 Submax intervals 1 wk-1 for 14
wk 8 M runners Sjodin et al.
(1982)
Running 2.1 Submax and max
intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8 M runners Billat et al.
(1999)
Skiing 2.0 Explosive sport-
specific movements 6 wk 7+8 M cross-
country skiers Paavolainen et
al. (1991)
Skiing 3.4 to -3.9j Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 8+7 F cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (1999)
Skiing 1.4k Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 9+10 M cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (2002)
Running 0.7 Max intervals 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 7 M runners Acevedo and
Goldfarb (1989)
Running -0.3 Usual weights 3 wk-1 for 10
wk 6+6 F runners Johnston et al.
(1997)
Running -0.4 Plyometrics 3 wk-1 for 6 wk 10+8 F+M
subelite
runners
Turner et al.
(2003)
Cycling -0.6 Supramax intervals 2 wk-1 for 3 wk 7 M cyclists Stepto et al.
(1999)
Running -2.3k Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 9+10 M cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (2002)
Cycling -2.4 Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 12
wk 14+7 F cyclists
Bishop et al.
(1999)
Running -3.0 Plyometrics 2-3 wk-1 for 6
wk 8+9 M runners Spurrs et al.
(2003)
Running -3.2 Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 14
wk 7+8 M
triathletes Millet et al.
(2002)
Running 0.0 at 3 wk;
-3.4 at 6 wk;
-4.2 at 9 wkl
Explosive sport-
specific movements 9 wk 12+10 M elite
runners Paavolainen et
al. (1999)
Skiing -4.7 Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 10+9 M cross-
country skiers Osteras et al.
(2002)
For footnotes see Appendix 5.
39
Appendix 4: Effects of high-intensity training on anaerobic threshold (on oxygen consumption as percent
of VO2max) and on exercise economy. Studies ordered approximately by magnitude of effect within each
measure.
Performance test Change in
measure (%) Experimental
training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
Anaerobic threshold
Skiing VO2 at 1.8 mM
lactate above
baseline
7.1m Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 10+9 M cross-
country skiers Osteras et al.
(2002)
Running VO2 at
increase of lactate 6.8m Explosive sport-
specific movements 9 wk 12+10 M elite
runners Paavolainen et
al. (1999)
Running VO2 at 2.5 &
4 mM 5.3 & 4.9 Max intervals 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 7 M runners Acevedo and
Goldfarb (1989)
Skiing VO2 at 1.8 mM
lactate above
baseline
5.0m Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 9+10 M cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (2002)
Running VO2 at 4mM
lactate 1.5 Submax intervals 1 wk-1 for 14
wk 8 M runners Sjodin et al.
(1982)
Running VO2 at
ventilatory threshold 0.2 Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 14
wk 7+8 M
triathletes Millet et al.
(2002)
Skiing VO2 at ~2 and
~4 mM lactate -2.0m Explosive sport-
specific movements 6 wk 7+8 M cross-
country skiers Paavolainen et
al. (1991)
Running VO2 at 1.8
mM lactate above
baseline
-2.1m Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 9+10 M cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (2002)
Performance test Change in
measure (%) Experimental
training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
Economyn
Skiing at VO2max 39?o Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 8+7 F cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (1999)
Skiing at 10.9 km.h-1 18 Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 9+10 M cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (2002)
Running at 75%
VO2max 15?p Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 14
wk 7+8 M
triathletes Millet et al.
(2002)
Skiing at anaerobic
threshold 13 Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 10+9 M cross-
country skiers Osteras et al.
(2002)
Running at 15 km.h-1 7.8 at 3 wk;
7.0 at 6 wk;
8.6 at 9 wkq
Explosive sport-
specific movements 9 wk 12+10 M elite
runners Paavolainen et
al. (1999)
Running at 12, 14
and 16 km.h-1 7.6, 6.2 and
4.9 Plyometrics 2-3-1 wk for 6
wk 8+9 M runners Spurrs et al.
(2003)
Running at 14 km.h-1 6.5 Submax and max
intervals 2 wk-1 for 4 wk 8 M runners Billat et al.
(1999)
Cycling at 50-70%
VO2max 4.1 at 4 wk;
3.5 at 9 wk Explosive weights 9 wk 6+8 M cyclists Bastiaans et al.
(2001)
Running at 15 km.h-1 2.8 Submax intervals 1 wk-1 for 14
wk 8 M runners Sjodin et al.
(1982)
Running (mean at
various speeds) 3.1 Plyometrics 3 wk-1 for 6 wk 10+8 F+M
runners Turner et al.
(2003)
Running at 12.8 and
13.8 km.h-1 1.7 and 1.2 Usual weights 3 wk-1 for 10
wk 6+6 F runners Johnston et al.
(1997)
For footnotes see Appendix 5.
40
Appendix 5: Effects of high-intensity training on body mass in competitive athletes. Studies ordered
approximately by magnitude of effect.
Performance test Change in
mass (%) Experimental
training Duration of
training Subjectsa Reference
- 2.8 Usual weights 3 wk-1 for 10
wk 6+6 F runners Johnston et al.
(1997)
- 1.7 Explosive sport-
specific movements 9 wk 12+10 M elite
runners Paavolainen et
al. (1999)
- ~1.5r Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 10+9 M cross-
country skiers Osteras et al.
(2002)
- 1.3s Explosive weights 9 wk 6+8 M cyclists Bastiaans et al.
(2001)
- 0.8 Explosive sport-
specific movements 6 wk 7+8 M cross-
country skiers Paavolainen et
al. (1991)
- 0.8 Usual weights 2 wk-1 for 12
wk 14+7 F cyclists
Bishop et al.
(1999)
- 0.6 Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 9 wk 8+7 F cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (1999)
- 0.3 Plyometrics 2-3 wk-1 for 6
wk 8+9 M runners Spurrs et al.
(2003)
- 0.2 Explosive sport-
specific movements 3 wk-1 for 8 wk 9+10 M cross-
country skiers Hoff et al. (2002)
Supramax, supraximal; max, maximal; submax, submaximal; M, male; F, female; VO2, oxygen consumption.
aNumbers are experimental + control.
bThe value of 12% in the paper appears to be an unrealistic increase (should probably be ~5.3%).
cThese changes in performance time on the Cateye ergometer need to be inflated by an unknown factor
(perhaps 1.5x) to convert them to changes in mean power.
dEstimated from 51% increase in time to exhaustion using methods of Hopkins et al. (2001).
eEstimated from 50% increase in time to exhaustion using methods of Hopkins et al. (2001).
f Estimated from a 0.8- 1.1% decrease in swim time using methods of Hopkins et al. (2001).
gEstimated from 26% increase in time to exhaustion using methods of Hopkins et al. (2001).
hEstimated from 17% increase in time to exhaustion using methods of Hopkins et al. (2001).
i Changes based on VO2 in L.min-1.
j Wide inconsistency between VO2 in L.min-1, ml.min-1.kg-1 and ml.min-1.kg-0.67 probably due to ~3% increase
in body mass in resistance group.
kEstimated from VO2 in ml.min-1.kg-1 by adding 0.2% change in body mass.
l Estimated from VO2 in ml.min-1.kg-1. Value at 9 wk corrected by adding the 1.7% change in body mass.
Values at 3 and 6 wk not corrected because change in body mass unknown.
mEstimated by combining percent changes in mean VO2 and mean VO2max.
nExpressed as percent change in work output per liter of oxygen consumed
oThe value of 39% in the paper is unrealistic.
pThe increase in economy of 15% is not consistent with an associated increase in heart rate and no change
in speed at VO2max; standard deviation of economy consistent with outlier or faulty portable gas analyzer.
qEstimated from VO2 expressed as ml.min-1.kg-1. Value at 9 wk corrected by subtracting the 1.7% change in
body mass. Values at 3 and 6 wk not corrected because change in body mass unknown.
rEstimated by combining data for VO2 in L.min-1 and ml.min-1.kg-1.
sChange in lean body mass.
Published Nov 2004
©2004
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... This noncontrollable aspect of boardsailing directly influences the energy cost of windsurfing, which is demonstrated by higher mean heart rate (HR) values measured in male windsurfers during the simulated race in light compared to moderate wind conditions (87 ± 4% vs. 83 ± 5% HRmax) [4]. Apart from wind conditions, additional factors that significantly impact the windsurfers' energy expenditure are the size of the sail, buoyancy of the board, type of wetsuit, ambient and water temperature, and the level of insolation [6,7]. ...
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Purpose: Training with blood flow restriction (BFR) is known to enhance muscle mass and strength during resistance training activities. However, little is known about the BFR effects during aerobic training. This investigation examines the effects of running training performed with or without BFR on physiology and performance. Method: Sixteen subjects (age 24.9 ± 6.9 years, height 172.9 ± 7.8 cm, weight 75.1 ± 13.8 kg) were assigned to a BFR or control (CON) group for eight sessions of training. Before and after training, subjects completed an incremental test to determine peak running velocity (PRV) maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and running economy (RE), followed by a time to exhaustion run (TTE) performed at PRV. Training for both groups consisted of progressively increasing volumes of 30-s repetitions completed at 80% of PRV. Results: The BFR and CON groups reported gains (6.3 ± 3.5 vs 4.0 ± 3.3%) in [Formula: see text] following training with only trivial (ES = 0.18) differences between groups. Similarly, PRV and incremental test time increased in both training groups with a small (ES ~ 0.3) additional enhancement in favour of the BFR group. Running economy improved in the BFR group but not in CON (ES = 0.4). TTE also increased in both BFR (27 ± 9%) and CON groups (17 ± 6%) with a small (ES = 0.31) additional benefit in favour of the BFR group. Conclusions: Using BFR during training appears to confer small but potentially worthwhile improvements in RE, PRV and TTE measures. The improvements following BFR training are likely due to muscular rather than cardiovascular function.
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Background: The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of plyometric training on physical variables among Kabaddi players. Method: For the present study 30 male kabaddi players from Department of Physical Education, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu were selected at random and their age ranged from 18 to 25 years. For the present study pre test-post test randomized group design which consists of control group and experimental group was used. The subjects were randomly assigned to two equal groups of fifteen each and named as Group 'A' and Group 'B'. Group 'A' underwent plyometric training and Group 'B' underwent no training. The data was collected before and after six weeks of training. The data was analyzed by applying Dependent 't' test to find out the effect of plyometric training programme. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Result: The findings of the present study have strongly indicates that plyometric training of six weeks has significant effect on selected physical variables i.e., Explosive Strength, Muscular Endurance and Speed of Kabaddi players. Hence the hypothesis earlier set that plyometric training would have been significant effect on selected physical variables in light of the same the hypothesis is accepted. Conclusion: Significant effect of plyometric training was found on Explosive Strength, Muscular Endurance and Speed.
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No intuito de desenvolver um treinamento intervalado de sprints com um novo modo de exercício, a presente tese propôs a aplicação intermitente do teste de saltos verticais contínuos com 30s de duração (CJ30). O objetivo principal do estudo foi analisar o efeito desse treinamento (JIT), aplicado durante quatro semanas, sobre o desempenho do salto vertical com contramovimento (CMJ), a força explosiva, a aptidão anaeróbia, as variáveis determinantes do desempenho de endurance e as variáveis biomecânicas e fisiológicas da corrida em velocidade submáxima. O objetivo secundário foi verificar a relação da rigidez (vertical, KV e perna, KL) e coordenação intrassegmentos (CRP), medidas em velocidade submáxima, com a economia de corrida (EC). Vinte e dois (12 mulheres e 10 homens) corredores (as) recreacionais foram divididos randomicamente nos grupos experimental (GE) e controle (GC) por meio de sorteio. Todos os participantes realizaram treinamento contínuo em esteira, três vezes por semana, com intensidade de 70% do pico de velocidade (PV) identificado durante teste incremental. No treinamento do GE foram incluídas duas sessões do JIT por semana. Uma sessão do JIT foi composta de quatro a seis séries de CJ30 com cinco minutos de intervalo. Para análise estatística foi utilizada a ANOVA modelo misto com p ≤ 0,05 e o Effect Size (ES). Na avaliação do CMJ houve efeito moderado do treinamento apenas no GE: 4,7% (ES = 0,99) para altura do salto vertical (H), 3,7% (ES = 0,82) para potência pico (PP) e 3,5% (ES = 0,83) para potência média (PM). A taxa de desenvolvimento de torque (TDT) do quadríceps aumentou 29,5% (ES = 1,02) no GE. Na avaliação do CJ30, considerando-se apenas os primeiros saltos (20%; ≈ 5 saltos), houve um aumento moderado no GE de 7,4% (ES = 0,87) para H e 5,6% (ES = 0,73) para PP; e moderado/alto de 11,7% (ES = 1,2) para a profundidade de agachamento (ΔY). Considerando-se todos os saltos realizados no CJ30 também houve aumento de moderado a alto no GE de 10,1% (ES = 1,04) para H, 9,5% (ES = 1,1) para PP e 8,8% (ES = 1,1) para ΔY. Foi verificado aumento de moderado a alto no GE de 2,7% (ES = 1,11) para PV, 9,1% (ES = 1,28) para o VO2pico e 9,7% (ES = 1,23) para o limiar de lactato (vOBLA). No teste de EC a 9 km.h-1 verificou-se que a maioria das variáveis biomecânicas sofreram efeito do treinamento, tanto para o GE quanto para o GC, mas o consumo de oxigênio (VO2) e custo energético (CE) não sofreram efeito do treinamento. Destaca-se o aumento da rigidez vertical e da perna (8,1%), diminuição do tempo de voo (3,28%) e maior estado coordenativo do acoplamento coxa-perna (CRP; 3,4%). Verificou-se também correlação positiva do VO2 e CE com o CRP coxa-perna (r ≈ 0,5). Por fim, pode-se concluir que a inclusão do JIT no treinamento de contínuo de endurance teve efeito significativo sobre o desempenho do CMJ (H), potência muscular (PP e PM), força explosiva (representada pela TDT), potência (H e PP dos primeiros saltos do CJ30) e capacidade (H e PP do CJ30) anaeróbia e potência (PV e VO2pico) e capacidade (vOBLA) aeróbia. Além disso, pode-se concluir que o estado coordenativo mais estável do acoplamento coxa-perna está ligado a menores valores de VO2 e CE e que KV e KL não têm relação significativa com a EC. Palavras-chave: Treinamento Pliométrico. Treinamento Intervalado. Endurance. Coordenação Intrassegmentos.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different high-intensity interval training (HIT) regimens on endurance performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Methods: Before, and after 2 and 4 wk of training, 38 cyclists and triathletes (mean +/- SD; age = 25 +/- 6 yr; mass = 75 +/- 7 kg; (V)over dot O-2peak = 64.5 +/- 5.2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed: 1) a progressive cycle test to measure peak oxygen consumption ((V)over dotO(2peak)) and peak aerobic power output (PPO), 2) a time to exhaustion test (T-max) at their (V)over dotO(2peak) power output (P-max), as well as 3) a 40-kin time-trial (TT40). Subjects were matched and assigned to one of four training groups (G(1), N = 8, 8 X 60% T-max P-max, 1:2 work:recovery ratio; G(2), N = 9, 8 X 60% T-max at P-max, recovery at 65% HRmax; G(3), N = 10, 12 X 30 s at 175% PPO, 4.5-min recovery; G(CON), N = 11). In addition to G(1) G(2), and G(3) performing HIT twice per week, all athletes maintained their regular low-intensity training throughout the experimental period. Results: All HIT groups improved TT40 performance (+4.4 to +5.8%) and PPO (+3.0 to +6.2%) significantly more than G(CON) (-0.9 to + 1.1 %; P < 0.05). Furthermore, G(1) (+5.4%) and G(2) (+8.1%) improved their (V)over dot O-2peak significantly more than G(CON) (+ 1.0%; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study has shown that when HIT incorporates P-max as the interval intensity and 60% of T-max as the interval duration, already highly trained cyclists can significantly improve their 40-km time trial performance. Moreover, the present data confirm prior research, in that repeated supramaximal HIT can significantly improve 40-km time trial performance.
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This study determined the effects of a 10-week strength training program on running economy in 12 female distance runners who were randomly assigned to either an endurance and strength training program (ES) or endurance training only (E). Training for both groups consisted of steady-state endurance running 4 to 5 days a week, 20 to 30 miles each week. The ES undertook additional weight training 3 days a week. Subjects were tested pre and post for [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max, treadmill running economy, body composition, and strength. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine significant differences between and within groups. The endurance and strength training program resulted in significant increases in strength (p < 0.05) for the ES in both upper (24.4%) and lower body (33.8%) lifts. There were no differences in treadmill [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max and body composition in either group. Running economy improved significantly in the ES group, but no significant changes were observed in the E group. The findings suggest that strength training, when added to an endurance training program, improves running economy and has little or no impact on [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max or body composition in trained female distance runners. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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This article traces the history of scientific and empirical interval training. Scientific research has shed some light on the choice of intensity, work duration and rest periods in so-called ‘interval training’. Interval training involves repeated short to long bouts of rather high intensity exercise (equal or superior to maximal lactate steady-state velocity) interspersed with recovery periods (light exercise or rest). Interval training was first described by Reindell and Roskamm and was popularised in the 1950s by the Olympic champion, Emil Zatopek. Since then middle- and long- distance runners have used this technique to train at velocities close to their own specific competition velocity. In fact, trainers have used specific velocities from 800 to 5000m to calibrate interval training without taking into account physiological markers. However, outside of the competition season it seems better to refer to the velocities associated with particular physiological responses in the range from maximal lactate steady state to the absolute maximal velocity. The range of velocities used in a race must be taken into consideration, since even world records are not run at a constant pace.
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This study examined the effects of sustained high-intensity interval training (HIT) on the athletic performances and fuel utilisation of eight male endurance-trained cyclists. Before HIT, each subject undertook three baseline peak power output tests and two simulated 40-km time-trial cycling performance (TT40) tests, of which the variabilities were 1.5 (1.3)% and 1.0 (0.5)%, respectively [mean (SD)]. Over 6 weeks, the cyclists then replaced 15 (2)% of their 300 (66) km · week−1 endurance training with 12 HIT sessions, each consisting of six to nine 5-min rides at 80% of , separated by a 1-min recovery. HIT increased from 404 (40) to 424 (53) W (P < 0.01) and improved TT40 speeds from 42.0 (3.6) to 43.0 (4.2) km · h−1 (P < 0.05). Faster TT40 performances were due to increases in both the absolute work rates from 291 (43) to 327 (51) W (P < 0.05) and the relative work rates from 72.6 (5.3)% of pre-HIT to 78.1 (2.8)% of post-HIT (P < 0.05). HIT decreased carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, plasma lactate concentration and ventilation when the cyclists rode at the same absolute work rates of 60, 70 and 80% of pre-HIT (P < 0.05), but not when they exercised at the same relative (% post-HIT ) work rates. Thus, the ability of the cyclists to sustain higher percentages of in TT40 performances after HIT was not due to lower rates of CHO oxidation. Higher relative work rates in the TT40 rides following HIT increased the estimated rates of CHO oxidation from ≈ 4.3 to ≈ 5.1 g · min−1.
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In accordance with the principles of training specificity, resistance and endurance training induce distinct muscular adaptations. Endurance training, for example, decreases the activity of the glycolytic enzymes, but increases intramuscular substrate stores, oxidative enzyme activities, and capillary, as well as mitochondrial, density. In contrast, resistance or strength training reduces mitochondrial density, while marginally impacting capillary density, metabolic enzyme activities and intramuscular substrate stores (except muscle glycogen). The training modalities do induce one common muscular adaptation: they transform type IIb myofibres into IIa myofibres. This transformation is coupled with opposite changes in fibre size (resistance training increases, and endurance training decreases, fibre size), and, in general, myofibre contractile properties. As a result of these distinct muscular adaptations, endurance training facilitates aerobic processes, whereas resistance training increases muscular strength and anaerobic power. Exercise performance data do not fit this paradigm, however, as they indicate that resistance training or the addition of resistance training to an ongoing endurance exercise regimen, including running or cycling, increases both short and long term endurance capacity in sedentary and trained individuals. Resistance training also appears to improve lactate threshold in untrained individuals during cycling. These improvements may be linked to the capacity of resistance training to alter myofibre size and contractile properties, adaptations that may increase muscular force production. In contrast to running and cycling, traditional dry land resistance training or combined swim and resistance training does not appear to enhance swimming performance in untrained individuals or competitive swimmers, despite substantially increasing upper body strength. Combined swim and swim-specific 'in-water' resistance training programmes, however, increase a competitive swimmer's velocity over distances up to 200 m. Traditional resistance training may be a valuable adjunct to the exercise programmes followed by endurance runners or cyclists, but not swimmers; these latter athletes need more specific forms of resistance training to realise performance improvement.
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To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A 5-km time trial (5K), running economy (RE), maximal 20-m speed ( V 20 m ), and 5-jump (5J) tests were measured on a track. Maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic treadmill running tests were used to determine maximal velocity in the MART ( V MART ) and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙o 2 max ). The 5K time, RE, and V MART improved ( P < 0.05) in E, but no changes were observed in C. V 20 m and 5J increased in E ( P < 0.01) and decreased in C ( P < 0.05).V˙o 2 max increased in C ( P < 0.05), but no changes were observed in E. In the pooled data, the changes in the 5K velocity during 9 wk of training correlated ( P< 0.05) with the changes in RE [O 2 uptake ( r = −0.54)] and V MART ( r = 0.55). In conclusion, the present simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training improved the 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes without changes in theirV˙o 2 max . This improvement was due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved V MART and running economy.
Conference Paper
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess research aimed at measuring performance enhancements that affect success of individual elite athletes in competitive events. Analysis: Simulations show that the smallest worthwhile enhancement of performance for an athlete in an international event is 0.7-0.4 of the typical within-athlete random variation in performance between events. Using change in performance in events as the outcome measure in a crossover study, researchers could delimit such enhancements with a sample of 16-65 athletes, or with 65-260 in a fully controlled study. Sample size for a study using a valid laboratory or field test is proportional to the square of the within-athlete variation in performance in the test relative to the event; estimates of these variations are therefore crucial and should be determined by repeated-measures analysis of data from reliability studies for the test and event. Enhancements in test and event may differ when factors that affect performance differ between test and event; overall effects of these factors can be determined with a validity study that combines reliability data for test and event. A test should be used only if it is valid, more reliable than the event, allows estimation of performance enhancement in the event, and if the subjects replicate their usual training and dietary practices for the study; otherwise the event itself provides the only dependable estimate of performance enhancement. Publication of enhancement as a percent change with confidence limits along with an analysis for individual differences will make the study more applicable to athletes. Outcomes can be generalized only to athletes with abilities and practices represented in the study. Conclusion: estimates of enhancement of performance in laboratory or field tests in most previous studies may not apply to elite athletes in competitive events.
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