Major challenges during geothermal exploration and exploitation include the structural-geological characterization of the geothermal system and the application of sustainable monitoring concepts to explain changes in a geothermal reservoir during production and/or reinjection of fluids. In the absence of sufficiently permeable reservoir rocks, faults and fracture networks are preferred drilling targets because they can facilitate the migration of hot and/or cold fluids. In volcanic-geothermal systems considerable amounts of gas emissions can be released at the earth surface, often related to these fluid-releasing structures. In this thesis, I developed and evaluated different methodological approaches and measurement concepts to determine the spatial and temporal variation of several soil gas parameters to understand the structural control on fluid flow. In order to validate their potential as innovative geothermal exploration and monitoring tools, these methodological approaches were applied to three different volcanic-geothermal systems. At each site an individual survey design was developed regarding the site-specific questions. The first study presents results of the combined measurement of CO2 flux, ground temperatures, and the analysis of isotope ratios (δ13CCO2, 3He/4He) across the main production area of the Los Humeros geothermal field, to identify locations with a connection to its supercritical (T > 374◦C and P > 221 bar) geothermal reservoir. The results of the systematic and large-scale (25 x 200 m) CO2 flux scouting survey proved to be a fast and flexible way to identify areas of anomalous degassing. Subsequent sampling with high resolution surveys revealed the actual extent and heterogenous pattern of anomalous degassing areas. They have been related to the internal fault hydraulic architecture and allowed to assess favourable structural settings for fluid flow such as fault intersections. Finally, areas of unknown structurally controlled permeability with a connection to the superhot geothermal reservoir have been determined, which represent promising targets for future geothermal exploration and development. In the second study, I introduce a novel monitoring approach by examining the variation of CO2 flux to monitor changes in the reservoir induced by fluid reinjection. For that reason, an automated, multi-chamber CO2 flux system was deployed across the damage zone of a major normal fault crossing the Los Humeros geothermal field. Based on the results of the CO2 flux scouting survey, a suitable site was selected that had a connection to the geothermal reservoir, as identified by hydrothermal CO2 degassing and hot ground temperatures (> 50 °C). The results revealed a response of gas emissions to changes in reinjection rates within 24 h, proving an active hydraulic communication between the geothermal reservoir and the earth surface. This is a promising monitoring strategy that provides nearly real-time and in-situ data about changes in the reservoir and allows to timely react to unwanted changes (e.g., pressure decline, seismicity). The third study presents results from the Aluto geothermal field in Ethiopia where an area-wide and multi-parameter analysis, consisting of measurements of CO2 flux, 222Rn, and 220Rn activity concentrations and ground temperatures was conducted to detect hidden permeable structures. 222Rn and 220Rn activity concentrations are evaluated as a complementary soil gas parameter to CO2 flux, to investigate their potential to understand tectono-volcanic degassing. The combined measurement of all parameters enabled to develop soil gas fingerprints, a novel visualization approach. Depending on the magnitude of gas emissions and their migration velocities the study area was divided in volcanic (heat), tectonic (structures), and volcano-tectonic dominated areas. Based on these concepts, volcano-tectonic dominated areas, where hot hydrothermal fluids migrate along permeable faults, present the most promising targets for future geothermal exploration and development in this geothermal field. Two of these areas have been identified in the south and south-east which have not yet been targeted for geothermal exploitation. Furthermore, two unknown areas of structural related permeability could be identified by 222Rn and 220Rn activity concentrations. Eventually, the fourth study presents a novel measurement approach to detect structural controlled CO2 degassing, in Ngapouri geothermal area, New Zealand. For the first time, the tunable diode laser (TDL) method was applied in a low-degassing geothermal area, to evaluate its potential as a geothermal exploration method. Although the sampling approach is based on profile measurements, which leads to low spatial resolution, the results showed a link between known/inferred faults and increased CO2 concentrations. Thus, the TDL method proved to be a successful in the determination of structural related permeability, also in areas where no obvious geothermal activity is present. Once an area of anomalous CO2 concentrations has been identified, it can be easily complemented by CO2 flux grid measurements to determine the extent and orientation of the degassing segment. With the results of this work, I was able to demonstrate the applicability of systematic and area-wide soil gas measurements for geothermal exploration and monitoring purposes. In particular, the combination of different soil gases using different measurement networks enables the identification and characterization of fluid-bearing structures and has not yet been used and/or tested as standard practice. The different studies present efficient and cost-effective workflows and demonstrate a hands-on approach to a successful and sustainable exploration and monitoring of geothermal resources. This minimizes the resource risk during geothermal project development. Finally, to advance the understanding of the complex structure and dynamics of geothermal systems, a combination of comprehensive and cutting-edge geological, geochemical, and geophysical exploration methods is essential.