Article

Actor roles and role patterns influencing innovation in living labs

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Abstract

Innovation networks are embodied and shaped by their participants. This paper examines actors' roles in living labs, which are defined as networks of open innovation. The study utilizes four approaches to roles: structuralist, symbolic interactionist, resource-based, and action-based approaches. Our empirical analysis of 26 living labs in four different countries identifies a number of actor roles associated with open innovation. In addition, it reveals four role patterns characteristic of living labs: (i) ambidexterity, (ii) reciprocity, (iii) temporality, and (iv) multiplicity. These patterns distinguish actor collaboration in networks characterized by heterogeneous actors, the coexistence of individual and shared motives, high degree of openness, and user involvement. Scholars and practitioners of innovation learn that understanding of role patterns in living labs can contribute to building, utilization, and orchestration of open innovation networks.

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... Innovation platforms can potentially address this, but only if the participation of these groups is encouraged and supported (Adam et al. 2018). Similarly, with living labs, the potential can only be realized if users (and marginalized groups in particular) are equivalent to other producers such as researchers and the private sector (Nystrom et al. 2014). While certain instruments focus on users as key actors, the equity agenda needs to be actively pushed, for example, using participatory approaches, if it is to be achieved. ...
... Accelerate uptake including users as key actors and adopt a useroriented approach to create, validate and test new products and systems, working with companies (Nystrom et al. 2014;Masi 2016;Osma et al. 2019), which also recognizes the heterogeneity of users (Masi 2016). ...
... should be seen as equivalent to other participants (Nystrom et al. 2014). ...
Technical Report
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The traditional linear technology transfer model has limited effectiveness in promoting the uptake of technologies and innovations. It fails to account for complexity within the agri-food system, is too simplistic and does not fully consider forward and backward feedback loops in the food system or pay adequate attention to context. There is, therefore, an increasing interest in investors and decision-makers making use of alternative instruments (such as innovation platforms or accelerators) to support innovation processes. Furthermore, there is growing consensus for a paradigm shift in agriculture. The current focus is primarily on increasing productivity, with sustainability considered a secondary outcome, if anything. By contrast, sustainability is at the core of sustainable agricultural intensification (SAI). The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture Intensification (CoSAI) was established to increase effective investment in innovation for SAI in the Global South, to support the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the climate goals of the Paris Agreement of 2015. CoSAI commissioned a study to investigate different investment instruments with the potential to support transformation of the sector. The objectives of this study were to summarize current evidence on how well different investment instruments to promote innovation have supported the multiple objectives of SAI, and to develop lessons and guidance based on this evidence to help innovators and investors choose the best funding instruments to support SAI innovation. More specifically, the study was designed to answer the following three key questions: (1) What types of investment instruments have been tested to support innovation in agri-food systems in the Global South, and how can these be categorized into a working typology? (2) What is the evidence on how well different instruments have supported SAI's multiple objectives (e.g. social equality and environmental) at scale and what contextual and design factors affect their success or failure in achieving these objectives (e.g. type of value chain, who participates)? (3) What advice can be given to innovation investors and practitioners about the instruments selected for different objectives and contexts, and how can selected instruments be designed to achieve better impacts? For this study, the focus was on instruments – defined as arrangements for financing or disbursing support to those engaged in research and/or innovation (i.e. research performers). The process of gathering data included a rapid, purposive review of gray and peer-reviewed literature. In addition, interviews were conducted with various key informants to draw on their experiences, obtain useful documents, and to identify additional websites, individuals and organizations to explore. The 12 selected instruments were defined as follows: (1) Instruments that support entrepreneurship: incubators, accelerators, innovation hubs; (2) Instruments that finance innovation: challenge funds, innovation funds and grants, innovation funds for smallholder farmers, prizes and awards, results-based contracts; and (3) Instruments that support innovation in real-life contexts: innovation platforms, living labs, farmer research structures, farmer field schools.
... Roles have attracted increasing attention in industrial marketing research (Anderson, Havila, Andersen, & Halinen, 1998;Heikkinen et al., 2007;Nyström, Leminen, Westerlund, & Kortelainen, 2014;Story, O'Malley, & Hart, 2011), and have been used to analyze, for example, innovation networks (Heikkinen et al., 2007;Möller, 2010;Nyström et al., 2014;Story et al., 2011) or industrial networks (Batt & Purchase, 2004;Håkansson & Ford, 2002). However, the roles that market actors perform in market-shaping processes remain underexplored. ...
... Roles have attracted increasing attention in industrial marketing research (Anderson, Havila, Andersen, & Halinen, 1998;Heikkinen et al., 2007;Nyström, Leminen, Westerlund, & Kortelainen, 2014;Story, O'Malley, & Hart, 2011), and have been used to analyze, for example, innovation networks (Heikkinen et al., 2007;Möller, 2010;Nyström et al., 2014;Story et al., 2011) or industrial networks (Batt & Purchase, 2004;Håkansson & Ford, 2002). However, the roles that market actors perform in market-shaping processes remain underexplored. ...
... Third, we reveal that roles are not only created through specific actions (Nyström et al., 2014), expectations (Baker & Faulkner, 1991), or intentions (Anderson et al., 1998), but are created and performed through a focal market actor's actions embedded in the context of a focal market vision and other market actors' behavior. ...
Article
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Despite the emphasis on actors in the market-shaping literature, the market-shaping roles and heterogeneity of market actors have mostly been aggregated into overarching practices, processes, or activities. While market-shaping research has provided rich insights into the different activities, and actors, that play a role in shaping markets, it remains unclear how the differences in market actors' market-shaping engagement translate back into specific roles. By following the Swedish market for liquefied gas over a period of three years, this longitudinal case study draws on extensive data to further elucidate market-shaping processes through the lens of roles. Employing an abductive theorizing approach, we empirically investigate the different roles performed by market actors in market-shaping processes. We discover that roles depend on the different levels in market-shaping engagement towards a focal market vision that ultimately relates to the disposition, behavior and influence displayed by the specific actors. Within this process we identify and delineate six market-shaping roles: the Market Driver, Market Supporter, Market Missionary, Market Rival, Market Catalyzer, and Market Detractor.
... Les définitions de ces dispositifs sont encore variées, mais convergent quant à leur objet d'action centré autour du déploiement d'expérimentations collaboratives en environnement réel, axées sur la mobilisation d'sagerstesteurs (Karvonen & van Heur, 2014 Leurs rôles s'inscrivent dans la continuité de ceux des intermédiaires des systèmes d'innovation tels que décrits par Howells (2006). Comme le montrent certains travaux (Nyström et al., 2014 ;Hakkarainen & Hyysalo, 2016), ces dispositifs élargissent leur spectre d'activités en réponse aux besoins spécifiques liés à l'ouverture des processus d'innovation dans le secteur privé comme public (Bakıcı et al., 2013 ;Gascó, 2017 « Contributor » Collabore de manière intensive avec les autres acteurs du réseau pour développer de nouveaux produits, services, processus ou technologies. ...
... Par cette externalisation, ils s'affranchissent également de la dimension opérationnelle de pilotage de projets (méthode, suivi, etc.) que les ULLs assurent à travers leurs rôles variés d'intermédiation (Nyström et al., 2014 ;Orillard et al., 2020) et la méthodologie déployée. Le « mode projet » ainsi retenu offre un garde-fou financier pour la ville (financement de six mois à un an d'accompagnement par l'ULL et une éventuelle enveloppe de subvention initiale de l'expérimentation), limite l'imposition de lourdeurs bureaucratiques liées à l'application du droit public et encourage une acculturation à court terme des acteurs des écosystèmes aux processus d'innovation ouverte. ...
... Cette évolution induit ainsi un risque de « capture » de la valeur produite par les expérimentations (apprentissages, données), et fait peser des incertitudes sur l'orientation des futurs projets (critères de sélection, choix dans les mises en relation), d'autant que « le résultat peut modifier le réseau qui l'a produit » (forme réflexive des actions réciproques, Nyström et al., 2014). Cette « privatisation » des ULLs pourrait ainsi se traduire par une divergence grandissante entre les expérimentations urbaines déployées sur les territoires et les priorités stratégiques portées par les acteurs publics locaux. ...
Conference Paper
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Situated at the frontier of innovation management and urban geography, this paper analyses the implementation of smartcity strategies led by local public actors who rely on urban experimentation and Urban Living Labs (ULLs). It sheds empirical light on their role in open innovation processes at the city level. Our research is based on the analysis of sociotechnical experimentations that feed the urban strategies of European metropolises, and on the role of the 'third-party actors' that accompany them, the ULLs. Our empirical materials result from a qualitative study of two experimental projects located in the United Kingdom ('Careview' project) and in France ('Tierce Forêt' project). Within this framework, we defend the following theory: ULLs use their intermediation position to centralise knowledge and operate a form of control over the innovations deployed in the city (experimentations), and to initiate its platformisation. By supporting the deployment of urban experimentations, these sociotechnical systems (ULLs) help to increase social acceptability and local ownership of the services tested (territorialisation); by supervising socioeconomic players and their offers, they contribute to setting in motion a process of formalisation of the city (perpetuation of offers, networking, deterritorialisation, etc.). These processes are part of the more general framework of so-called smartcity strategies and organise the distributed emergence of local innovations.
... These actors are categorized mainly as municipalities, companies, research institutes, and residents [11]. Another approach to classifying the living lab actors points out the actors' roles and goals of participating in the living lab and uses the following categorizations, respectively: Enablers, utilizers, providers, and users, which is in line with the action-based role theory [9,10]. Action-based role theory explains the actor roles through their actions: An actor takes a role to achieve a specific goal. ...
... Action-based role theory explains the actor roles through their actions: An actor takes a role to achieve a specific goal. The roles act as a means to organize innovation in networks, and to assess the resource and partner selection when conducting the tasks that are associated with the roles [10]. Therefore, to some extent, the roles describe the contribution and commitment of the actors to specific goals in the urban living lab. ...
... Lastly, residents, as the essential actors of the urban living labs, use and test the solutions that are developed and provide their feedback for further improvements [11,23]. Although each actor type is introduced with specific roles, these roles might change over time as they are context-specific and depend on the innovation network's needs and goals [10,24]. ...
Article
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Environmental sustainability is an increasingly relevant aspect of urban living labs. The objective of this study is to examine an urban living lab through ecosystem approach lenses and reveal the actor activities and diverse flows between them, enabling sustainable urban development. The study examines an urban area through four living lab projects in the Hiedanranta district in Tampere in Finland. We apply a qualitative research design strategy including semi-structured interviews reinforced with the project reports and websites. The collaboration and co-creation nature of living labs resembles an ecosystem structure, as both include diverse complementary actors and have distinctive coordination mechanisms, shared goals, and system-level outcomes. Building on the ecosystem analogy and circular economy ecosystem typology, our study examines living labs as ecosystems, enabling the economic value flow, material flow, and knowledge flow and pursuing the shared goal of improved environmental sustainability. The findings of the study demonstrate how the different ecosystem types manifest in urban living labs, and the actors, flows, and outcomes in these ecosystems. The study concludes that urban sustainability-oriented living labs comprise all main types of circular economy ecosystems. The dominant type of the activities (biased to economic value, material, or knowledge) determines the ecosystem type in an urban living lab, highlighting a key topic for future research: The contribution of collaborative projects to environmental sustainability in urban living labs realized through diverse ecosystem types.
... Finally, we refer to the very interesting work conducted by (Nyström et al., 2014). These authors also build on the research work of (Gemünden et al., 2007) , co-creator, orchestrator, contributor), which correspond to living lab approaches encouraging multi-stakeholder engagement. ...
... o Get people involved and encourage collaboration in every lab activity (Gemünden et al., 2007;Goduscheit, 2014;Kelley & Littman, 2005;Nyström et al., 2014). ...
... o Act as peacekeepers when a conflict emerges, maintaining the focus on project objectives and common goals (Belbin, 2010;Hering & Phillips, 2005;Nyström et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
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Since several years now, there has been a proliferation of prodigious spaces for fostering creativity and innovation. Governments, companies, universities, and communities have turned to the implementation of innovation labs as the places where innovation processes are expected to be enhanced through open and agile forms of collaboration. However, there are concerns on how the lack of a clear and shared strategic intent undermines the innovation labs’ purpose and how these initiatives struggle to share and align their strategic intent with all the stakeholders. Thus, this dissertation, following an action research approach under multiple research settings, aims to explain how the strategic intent of innovation labs is built and can be used to guide their performance. Throughout this thesis, innovation labs are recognized as intermediary organizational forms created to support and facilitate the innovation intent in multi-stakeholder contexts. Moreover, it is also addressed how innovation lab settings require sensemaking and feedback processes that allow them to create and maintain a strategic alignment among their stakeholders. Accordingly, this work focuses on the design of mechanisms that enable (1) the representation of the constituent elements of the organizational strategic intent of an innovation lab, (2) understanding how this intent unfolds over time and the stages it goes through, and (3) the identification of competences and roles within innovation lab teams that help to navigate the innovation lab intent. Altogether, they constitute a methodological approach to support strategy making processes in such collaborative environments.
... LL's orchestrators are attributed with one or more roles that may be understood as «behaviours expected of parties in particular positions» (see Allen & van de Vliert, 1984 in Nyström et al., 2014). These roles are dynamic and negotiable between the actors, depending on the particular situation and the needs following the LL's goals (Nyström et al., 2014). Besides, an actor can perform several roles simultaneously or during different stages of joint activity (see e.g. ...
... Moreover, the roles can be adopted, created and transformed by the actors themselves according to time and context. The different approaches to role theory confirm this idea suggesting that roles may also vary by the actors' conduct and rationale to act (see Nyström et al. 2014 (2016), it may be interesting to look at the impact of individual characteristics on the innovation processes and on the outcomes of the network. Therefore, in the frame of the present research, this idea inspired the consideration of different context-related and individual factors specific for agroecology LLs that could be important for the definition and sustainability of such LLs. ...
... The great importance of personal motivation in its interconnection with the roles and personal skills has been mentioned in several research works (e.g. Gago & Rubalcaba, 2020; Nyström et al. 2014). The analysis of all case studies confirmed this idea and revealed that in the case of agroecology LL the motivation to work in the agroecologyrelated field in general and to contribute to the nascent agroecology transition with a LL approach, in particular, is especially significant for the LL's success in the long-term perspective. ...
Conference Paper
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Through a shared governance approach, the city of Milan is adopting a co-design process that involves citizens and their preferences in designing green roofs and walls throughout the city. This process is supported by the CLEVER Cities project co-creation pathway that fosters the engagement of inhabitants and local stakeholders in leading the Urban Living Lab (ULL) in a collaborative environment towards implementing nature-based solutions (NBS). In this short research in progress article, we emphasize the different workshops of co-design held digitally due to latest health emergency, COVID-19, whereas various instruments and tools were tested and implemented with citizens as residents in their own buildings. The current ongoing results yield on the evolvement of the ULL looking at its spatial challenges, flexibility, citizen engagement dynamics as well as stakeholders shared decision-making mechanism.
... States can alternately play steering, facilitating and entrepreneurial roles in the implementation of live-work goals, depending on their governance capacity (Tasan-Kok, 2010). The facilitating role consists of supporting the market with resources, such as incentives, and assisting it in development and investment decisions (Heurkens et al., 2018;Nyström et al., 2014). Steering expands the state's capacity to take a guiding role through such means as interaction and persuasion (B´eal et al., 2018). ...
... In addition, their roles can overlap, for example, when they both engage in opportunistic behaviours (Koppenjan & Enserink, 2009). New actors, such as 'innovation intermediaries', who facilitate innovation, transfer knowledge and intervene between these traditional actors, are needed as support (Nyström et al., 2014). ...
... In contrast, Amsterdam still centralises its resources, although it has increasingly been assisted by external consultants. In both cases, these cities used actors as 'innovation intermediaries' to facilitate innovation and interactions among mainstream actors (Nyström et al., 2014). ...
Article
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This paper addresses the governance of the ‘live-work mix’. This concept refers to the renewed intertwining of living and working activities in new housing and urban development in the context of welfare state restructuring, development of the knowledge economy and globalisation. Implementing live-work goals can be difficult because a consensus between public and private actors is usually needed to develop such projects. In this paper, we examine the actors and instruments that assist in the implementation of live-work goals in targeted areas. We survey live-work development by analysing three illustrative projects in Brussels and Amsterdam, cities with comparable strategies but distinct planning systems. Our results indicate that state support is essential to enhance live-work mix, especially because the market remains reluctant to mix functions and focuses primarily on housing development. Flexible and tailor-made instruments are used, sometimes co-authored by public and private actors, to reach consensus. These instruments illustrate variants of strategic planning. Despite a shared interest in attracting target groups to redevelopment areas, the consensus-building process is affected by dis- crepancies in the nature of live-work mix.
... The identification of actors in Living Lab (LL) scenarios is crucial in understanding the types of inputs and the management of content in the Incubators crowdsourcing platform. Both Incubators and LL scenarios have a diverse range of actors and end-users who work closely together to deliver a viable end product, where it is crucial to acknowledge and then efficiently accommodate this diversity captured by roles presented by both Heikkinen et al. (2007) and Nyström et al. (2014). Doing so, will potentially safeguard the richness of the contributions from the crowd. ...
... Living labs (LL) are described by Nyström et al. (2014) as environments where stakeholders from public-private partnerships "create, prototype, validate, and test new technologies, services, products, and systems in real-life contexts" (ibid., p. 483). As such, similarities can be drawn between the working environments of LL and Incubators, where users are not only sources of information but are testers, developers, and designers of innovation (ibid.). ...
... As such, similarities can be drawn between the working environments of LL and Incubators, where users are not only sources of information but are testers, developers, and designers of innovation (ibid.). In fact, Nyström et al. (2014) cover 10 unique roles actors can play in the process of developing a CS platform. ...
Article
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The paper is based on the experience of creating and piloting a functioning ‘Incubator’ crowdsourcing platform for designing public spaces in an estate regeneration project in South London. The paper uses a cybernetics framework to analyse and present the way the platform itself was created and how issues of effectiveness, efficiency and equity were dealt with. It explores the generic qualities of interface and reviews applications of variety reduction in established crowdsourcing CS) models. It briefly presents the legal and socio-spatial parameters (like property rights) associated with the creation of the Incubators platform as well as the generic rules applicable to human-spatial relationships, based on studies exploring human-spatial interactions. Practical constraints including costs, catchments, life-span and meaningful feedback are looked into, followed by a discussion on social and political limitations associated with this form of public participation. The paper explains how those constraints where taken into account when establishing the operational parameters of the software platform and the experiences gained from the operation of the platform. Challenges and complications, such as the exclusion of actors, are identified together with the responses encountered in practice. While the Incubators platform succeeded in attracting younger planning participation demographics, older demographics were marginalised by the platform’s graphical user interface and social networking features. These findings highlight why, in spite of what it promises, ‘crowdsourced urbanism’ is prone to similar traits with those of analogue participation. In that sense, creating a CS platform which could convey the grass-roots ideas of actors and users of urban spaces in an efficient way that could be applied to a broad range of planning systems, appears to be a challenge.
... This aligns with a perspective that interdependent actors in the relationship influence each other on the basis of the resources possessed and activities performed (Ford et al., 2008). Nyström et al. (2014) suggest that greater openness in living labs increases the complexity of orchestration. Within this context, relational governance may be considered more appropriate than formal management approaches, however, its practical application in platform settings must be further explored (Yu et al., 2006). ...
... Goal heterogeneity is understood to generate both complexity and value (Corsaro et al., 2012) and this logic can be extended to living lab settings. As stated by Nyström et al. (2014), the simultaneous pursuit of disparate goals in living labs necessitates goal ambidexterity among actors. ...
... In both living labs studies, the university actor performed the role of platform activator, which we understand to encompass the original ideation and various activities to drive platform development across all stages. Given the specific focus on the research actor and including stages prior to the opening of the living lab, this description does not neatly align with the existing definition of actor roles (Nyström et al., 2014). Platform evolution required consideration of all actor goals and collective goals determined through a process of interaction. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the role of relational governance in innovation platform development, specifically investigating the context of living labs. Design/methodology/approach Two longitudinal case studies are presented, derived from auto-ethnographic narratives, qualitative interviews and secondary documents, which cover the critical stages in the development of each living lab. Findings Empirical insights demonstrate the relevance of coordination activities based on joint planning and activities to support innovation platform development across different stages. The governance role of research actors as platform activators is also identified. Practical implications The paper offers a useful perspective for identifying collective goals between living lab actors and aligning joint activities across different stages of living lab development. Social implications The case provides insights into the challenges and opportunities for collaboration between academia, industry and users to support sustainable construction innovation. Originality/value A relational governance mode is identified, going beyond top down or bottom up approaches, which contributes a new understanding of how collective goals align within a relational space.
... El tronco del árbol recoge las propuestas por los autores clásicos para darles una estructura a partir de enfoques particulares y más profundos, en este sentido, los estudios contribuyen con esquemas más detallados para la comprensión de los conceptos utilizados en la literatura sobre living lab, living laboratory y living labbing (Leminen y Westerlund, 2016); elementos y características de estos laboratorios (Steen y Van Bueren, 2017); el vínculo entre los procesos de innovación y el uso de herramientas (Leminen y Westerlund, 2017); los roles de los usuarios y su impacto en la innovación (Hakkarainen y Hyysalo 2013;Leminen et al., 2015); la colaboración de actores en redes de innovación (Nyström et al., 2014); y el uso de las TIC dentro de la innovación abierta (Schuurman et al., 2011;Schuurman y De Marez, 2012). ...
... Desde el enfoque estratégico de los living labs, se puede garantizar que las partes interesadas -especialmente, los turistas y comunidad receptora-participen de manera constante y activa en las fases del proceso de prueba (i.e. planificación, implementación, experimentación, evaluación, retroalimentación) y que en esa medida, se involucren en revisar y mejorar continuamente las necesidades de los grupos de interés (Almirall et al., 2012;Leminen et al., 2015;Nyström et al., 2014;Steen y Van Bueren, 2017). ...
... Para ello, es imprescindible el compromiso y colaboración entre los actores y usuarios, ya que en la medida que trabajen y unan esfuerzos, los impactos positivos se verán reflejados en cada una de sus actividades productivas y en la atención de sus problemas particulares (Von Wirth et al., 2019). Así, al integrar los conocimientos, las experiencias y la capacidad de absorción de los actores en un espacio turístico, surgen asociaciones a escala comunitaria, es decir, alianzas entre las partes interesadas con perspectivas multidisciplinares y valores compartidos que permiten mantener los objetivos de la plataforma de manera perpetúa, pero con transformaciones que resultan en mejoras significativas (Nesti, 2018;Nyström et al., 2014;Schuurman y De Marez, 2012). ...
Chapter
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El sector turístico se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de productos innovadores, y para dar respuesta surge, entre otras, la propuesta de los living labs como una estrategia para la generación y el desarrollo de innovaciones orientadas en los usuarios y sus necesidades. Su aplicación es susceptible si se concibe al espacio turístico como un punto de encuentro entre los turistas y otros actores para desplegar prácticas de innovación. En este capítulo se realizó una revisión de literatura para analizar el cuerpo de conocimientos en torno a los laboratorios vivientes como plataformas de innovación. Se concluye que al vislumbrar al espacio turístico como un living lab, las oportunidades y los beneficios de la innovación se vuelven mayores. Por ende, es necesario contar con proyectos centrados en las experiencias y colaboración de los actores que permitan transformaciones significativas y la especialización de los destinos para brindar productos turísticos únicos.
... In their study on managerial actionbased roles for managing in business nets, Heikkinen et al. (2007) found ten different roles for managers in total. In contrast, Nyström et al. (2014) suggested 17 role-related tasks for actors in a living lab. More recently, Dedehayir et al. (2018) have highlighted various roles seminal to innovation ecosystem birth. ...
... Therefore, the role is closely related to firms' positions in particular EEs. As mentioned, roles are a collection of behaviours expected from an actor with a specific position (Nyström et al., 2014), determining the capacity and result of behaviour in a given structure (Heikkinen et al., 2007). The position is, thus, based on the different types of resources the actor owns; if resources are valuable to the ecosystem, the position is stronger and vice versa. ...
... The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, allowing some improvisation and thus providing important insights that may arise during the interview (Myers, 2013). Primary data consists of 19 semi-structured interviews with the CEOs, Chief Executive Officers, Marketing Directors, Executive Vice Presidents, Vice Presidents, Sales and Marketing Managers, and Managing Directors of SMEs members of the same local healthtech ecosystem in Northern Finland. ...
Article
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This study explores how health-tech small and mid-size enterprises (SMEs) could better utilize the entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs) around them in developing their business within this fast-growing yet under-researched industry. Based on the qualitative empirical study, we examine actor roles and related dynamics in the health-tech ecosystem to understand how firms could benefit from the ecosystem's resources. The study contributes to EE research by providing an empirically grounded typology of ten actor roles and examining how an individual company could change and develop its role in the network to grow and succeed. Moreover, it extends the current research on role typologies by explaining the various roles in EEs and underlines the importance of ecosystem dynamics. Managerially, the study highlights the importance of recognizing the company's role(s) and the roles of other ecosystem members, which further aids in their strategic decision-making and future planning.
... In this paper, we present a case study that illustrates how citizens with diverse characteristics can be involved into the long-term co-creative design process in ULLs. As argued in previous research on LLs (e.g., [21]), the "role of the actors" is the key to creating new value and achieving innovation in co-creation projects. We therefore focus on the "citizen roles" for better understanding of citizen involvement in ULLs. ...
... To deeply investigate user involvement in the cocreation process in LLs, several researchers have attempted to identify a typology of "user roles" in LLs [21,30,31]. Nyström et al. [21] proposed four types of user roles: informant, tester, contributor, and co-creator. ...
... To deeply investigate user involvement in the cocreation process in LLs, several researchers have attempted to identify a typology of "user roles" in LLs [21,30,31]. Nyström et al. [21] proposed four types of user roles: informant, tester, contributor, and co-creator. Informants brings user knowledge and opinions to the LL while testers evaluate services and/or technologies in their real-life environments. ...
... Crucially, academic literature on such spaces is burgeoning, largely focusing on the types of knowledge they produce, classifying them by process or output and being generally positive about their promissory potential. Scholars who engage with this new context reveal different typologies (Dekker et al., 2017;Steen and van Bueren, 2017;Bulkeley et al., 2018;Puerari et al., 2018), the participatory potential of labs, their relationship with the democratic ordering of society (Nyström et al., 2014;Evans, 2016;Engels et al., 2018), their transformative political power (Karvonen and van Heur, 2014;Evans, 2016) and their potential for governance, innovation and participatory engagement (Bulkeley and Castán Broto, 2013;Dekker et al., 2017;Steen and van Bueren, 2017;Bulkeley et al., 2018;Puerari et al., 2018). ...
... Within experimental governance the structure of the local government role is transformed from a hierarchical to a more horizontal form (Pierre, 2005;2011). This kind of governance emphasizes learning in real-world settings, the institutionalization of experimentation and collaboration with a diverse array of actors to create synergistic solutions (Nyström et al., 2014). Experimentation in this context is aimed at achieving collaborative arrangements of actors and infrastructures in order to create an alternative and more sustainable urban future in a democratic and socially just way (Evans and Karvonen, 2014). ...
Article
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In the field of city-governance urban labs are being constructed as experimental spaces of knowledge production, innovation and urban governance. This perspective is mirrored in the majority of the literature engaging with the urban lab. However, empirical evidence shows that ‘urban labs’ are also constituted through imaginative work practices that remain unexplored in theory and practice. In order to address this gap and to delineate how these spaces matter for urban governance, this article critically examines urban lab projects in the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We approach the initiatives under study from the perspective of the urban imaginary, which is shaped through three types of imaginative work––branding, dreaming and assimilating. These imaginative practices reveal how the process of constructing and practising the urban lab has political implications for the city. This point is important, as it brings up questions about urban governance and participation, such as who has access to, and who is allowed to imagine and experiment in, the city? In this way we connect the literature on urban imaginaries to debates on participation and experimental urban governance in the urban lab.
... Schuurman et al. (2016a: 330) provide a comprehensive overview of the potential motivations of utilizers, enablers, providers and users. In addition to that, several authors have developed and categorized a number of roles in living labs (Heikkinen et al., 2007;Nyström et al., 2014), such as webber, instigator, orchestrator, builder, messenger, etc. ...
... Intille et al., 2002;Schaffers et al., 2007;Mulder, 2012; Sauer, 2012;Juujärvi & Pesso, 2013;Nyström et al., 2014; Tukiainen et al., 2015;.Acknowledging diversity of covered topics and approaches in living labs, living labs offer ample research opportunities for researchers and scholars(Bergvall-Kåreborn et al., 2015; Brankaert & den Ouden, 2016; Dell'Era & Landoni, 2014; Femeniás & Hagbert, 2013; Guimont & Lapointe, 2016; Hakkarainen & Hyysalo, 2013Leminen, 2013Leminen, , 2015bLeminen et al., , 2015aLeminen & Westerlund, 2009 Rits et al., 2015; Ståhlbröst & Lassinantti, 2015; Veeckman et al., 2013). Previous literature on living labs documents multiple meanings and interpretations ...
Thesis
Decreasing fossil fuel reserves and the environmental consequences related to the exploitation of petroleum products effectuate a shift to a more bio-based economy. This economy will be driven by biochemicals and biofuels derived from various biological feedstocks. The fermentation or direct transformation of these complex feedstocks is often preceded by a pretreatment step to activate the components of interest, followed by several downstream processing operations to isolate and purify the product from these complex feed streams. The cost of upstream and downstream processing is a major contributor to the total production cost of biochemicals. Traditional purification steps often include a combination of chemical and physical separation processes and are resource- and energy-intensive. Recent studies indicate that electrodialysis can be a cost-effective alternative to replace some of these costly upstream and downstream processing steps. This membrane separation technology makes use of an electric field to remove ions from a feed stream. Despite the advantages in terms of cost/material efficiency, one of the main bottlenecks for the application of electrodialysis on bio-based process streams is fouling. The physicochemical properties of the bio-based feedstocks lead to fouling of the membranes, spacers and clogging of the system and is a major hurdle to overcome. Several experimental studies have been performed on fouling in electrodialysis systems but have not yet led to a clear solution for the targeted bio-based streams. A limited understanding and lacking quantitative description of the complex fouling phenomena lies at the heart of this problem. Given the growing market share of the bio-based economy along with a growing pressure towards sustainability, a fouling resilient electrodialysis system, tailored to withstand the potential fouling in electrodialysis processing of bio-based process streams would be a significant improvement. Even if the increase in efficiency is modest, it will be an important contribution to the economy and the environment. Previous research shows that the fouling severity is heavily influenced by the process conditions and stack design but designing and optimising electrodialysis systems to reduce fouling is challenging. This work aims at tackling this problem by developing a mathematical model of the fouling process. A mathematical model that can predict the fouling behaviour as a function of the feed stream and foulant properties, the electrodialysis stack characteristics and the operational conditions could be leveraged as a digital twin for operational optimisation and model-based design and accelerate the innovation process. A lot of models have been developed to unravel the mechanisms of ED fouling but none of them is developed to relate the process settings to the fouling rate, defined as an amount of foulant attached to the membrane or as electrical resistance. To optimise ED performance in the presence of foulants, this formulation is essential and is the main focus of this work. The first methodological part of the thesis focuses on the available mechanistic models to simulate fouling in electrodialysis. The goal of this part is to select a suitable electrodialysis process model and analyse the available fouling models. The different modelling frameworks to simulate the electrodialysis process are summarised and the trade-off between dimensionality, generalisability and computational cost of these modelling frameworks is discussed. The Nernst-Planck framework is compared to the Kedem-Katchalsky framework and several efficient simplifications of the ion transport and the hydrodynamics are reviewed as potential process models. Different open-source software libraries are highlighted that can be used to simulate these frameworks. The next chapter proposes extensions of three prominent mechanistic models to dynamically simulate electrodialysis fouling. The extended models are calibrated with experimental data and the suitability of these mechanistic approaches is determined through a combination of scenario and identifiability analyses. It was concluded that due to the large uncertainty on the underlying physics and limited specificity of the experimental data, a data-driven approach has to be adopted to fill in the gaps of missing knowledge in these mechanistic models and simulate electrodialysis fouling. The second methodological part focuses on the data-driven modelling of fouling. A dataset is gathered of the fouling behaviour of a pilot electrodialysis installation treating a humic acid solution at different operational conditions. The evolution of the stack resistance is monitored while varying the crossflow velocity, the current density and the salt concentration. Neural differential equations are put forth as a novel data-driven modelling framework for dynamic systems and the experimental data is used to train this model. The neural differential equation framework shows accurate predictions of the fouling dynamics even when a limited set of experimental data is used for model training. The robustness of the model is demonstrated by a scenario analysis and a sensitivity analysis indicates that the crossflow velocity is the most important variable influencing the fouling rate. The third methodological part extends the neural differential equations with a mechanistic process model and a mechanistic fouling model. The previous chapters establish that the development of a mechanistic fouling model is challenged by a large uncertainty on the underlying physics. Especially the mechanisms of foulant-membrane interaction, gelation and precipitation processes seem to be poorly understood. This work shows that neural differential equations can be used to fill in these knowledge gaps and improve the accuracy of the fouling models. Furthermore, we show that by including mechanistic knowledge in the data-driven model, the need for experimental data can be reduced while improving the generalisability of the model. This concept is applied to predict polyacrylamide fouling during electrodialysis. A historic dataset is used to calibrate and validate this hybrid model where the evolution of the stack resistance is predicted in time and is a function of the operational parameters and stack characteristics. Two important findings are highlighted in this part; First, the hybrid neural differential equations can leverage the mechanistic processes and generalises for new input variables which is impossible with a purely data-driven approach. Secondly, the data-driven part of the hybrid model is analysed and provides insight into the structure of the missing physics. Finally, model-based optimisation of electrodialysis operation is explored. An upcoming operational mode is pulsed electric field electrodialysis where a fluctuating current is applied to the system. Pulsed electric fields have been proved to reduce the fouling susceptibility of the system and several fouling suppression mechanisms have been put forth in previous research. A Nernst-Planck and Kedem-Katchalsky modelling approach is adopted and the evolution of the concentration profiles at the membrane surface is simulated. This model is applied to study organic fouling and sodium dodecyl sulphate is used as a foulant. An experimental study is performed and the fouling rate is studied as a function of the pulse frequency. The effect of different pulse parameters on the boundary layer concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate is studied along with an evaluation of the current efficiency and energy consumption. Our results show that concentration relaxation is an important contributor to the fouling suppression mechanisms of pulsed electric field operation but cannot fully explain the decrease in fouling at high-frequency pulses. The simulations illustrate the counterproductivity of low-frequency pulses and the trade-off between the current efficiency and fouling suppression. Fouling layer relaxation is put forth as an additional fouling suppression effect for future research.
... Innovation, engagement and knowledge translation Innovation in healthcare practice and research increasingly involves the collective collaboration of multiple stakeholders. 5 This sentiment is reflected in abundant practices and associated terminology, both emergent and established. Terms such as codesign, experience-based codesign, usercentred design, design thinking, patientoriented research and integrated knowledge Strengths and limitations of this study ► This will be the first systematic review on living labs in healthcare and will incorporate a range of published and grey literature sources. ...
... 3 It is clear that despite burgeoning interest in living labs for innovation, living labs remain underexplored and underdeveloped within health systems, and there appears to be an overemphasis on user roles as 'testers' of a prototype or service, rather than alternative roles, such as developers or designers of innovation. 5 As such, the valuable cross-sectoral learning theoretically possible through living lab integration within the health sector has not yet been realised or fully explored. 3 4 13 14 Establishing an understanding of how living labs have been developed and used in healthcare environments is a critical first step towards maximising the potential of living labs in healthcare. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Healthcare is increasingly challenged to meet the demands of user involvement and knowledge mobilisation required by the 21st-century patient-centred and knowledge-based economies. Innovations are needed to reduce problematic barriers to knowledge exchange and improve collaborative problem solving. Living labs, as open knowledge systems, have the potential to address these gaps but are underexplored in healthcare. Methods and analysis We will conduct the first systematic review of living labs across healthcare contexts. We will comprehensively search the following online databases from inception to 31 December 2020: Scopus, the Cochrane Library (Wiley), Medline (OVID), Embase (OVID), Web of Science, PsycINFO (OVID) and EBSCOhost databases including Academic Search Complete, Business Source Premier, Canadian Reference Centre, CINAHL, MasterFILE Premier, SPORTDiscus, Library & Information Science Source, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, AgeLine, EconLit, Art Full Text, Women’s Studies International and Social Work Abstracts. We will search for grey literature using Google advanced techniques and books/book chapters through scholarly and bibliographical databases. We will use a dual-reviewer, two-step selection process with pre-established inclusion criteria and limit to English language publications. Empirical studies of any design examining living lab development, implementation or evaluation in health or healthcare will be included. We will use the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) for methodological quality appraisal and Covidence software for review management, and we will extract data on pre-established variables such as lab context and technological platforms. We will create evidence tables and analyse across variables such as focal aim and achievement of living lab principles, such as the use of cocreation and multimethod approaches. We will tabulate data for descriptive reporting and narrative synthesis to identify current applications, approaches and promising areas for living lab development across health contexts. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was not required for this review. This review will inform research into living labs in health environments, including guidance for a living lab in paediatric rehabilitation. Academic publications shared through collaborative networks and social media channels will provide substantive knowledge to the growing tech-health development sector and to researchers, practitioners and organisations seeking enhanced patient/stakeholder engagement and innovations in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020175275
... « communauté de participants hétérogènes hiérarchiquement indépendants, mais interdépendants, qui génèrent collectivement les résultats » (Autio & Thomas, 2020) notamment car elle sous-entend que nous pouvons sortir de l'approche structurelle des rôles qui veut que les positions des acteurs déterminent les rôles dans lesquels ils peuvent agir (Nyström, Leminen, Westerlund, & Kortelainen, 2014). ...
... Intégration du rôle d'opposant dans une perspective interactionniste symbolique Notre étude apporte aussi sa pierre à l'édifice en proposant l'analyse du rôle de l'opposition dans une perspective de la théorie des rôles. La théorie des rôles peut s'analyser sous cinq perspectives (Biddle, 1986), voire six si l'on intègre l'approche basée sur les ressources (Callero, 1994;Nyström et al., 2014) Au-delà de la plasticité qui existe dans les différentes modalités de l'opposition, les résultats permettent de s'inscrire plus largement dans une perspective interactionniste symbolique de la théorie des rôles : nous avons pu noter le changement de position de l'acteur au sein de l'écosystème notamment lorsque d'opposant un acteur s'est mû en champion de l'innovation sociale. ...
Thesis
Avec ce travail de recherche exploratoire, nous avons tenté de dresser les contours du rôle d’opposant. Cet opposant, comme le champion, a vocation à prendre place dans l’écosystème des rôles et, par la même, à renouveler la lecture de la théorie des rôles.Le cadre de cette définition de l’opposant s’inscrit dans la mise en place d’innovation dans les organisations. Si la question de l’innovation a largement été étudiée par les économistes et les sociologues dans sa dimension technologique, les travaux traitant de l’innovation organisationnelle n’ont pas connu le même écho. De la même manière, peu de travaux étudient les acteurs de l’innovation alors que les dispositifs et les systèmes d’innovation ont connu une large audience.Le corpus scientifique de la théorie des rôles associés à l’innovation porte principalement son attention sur le rôle de champion et cela dès les années 1960. Ces travaux mettent en lumière le rôle déterminant, stratégique voire héroïque du champion. Ce travail permettra de nuancer cette position de quasi-monopole du champion dans la littérature en rappelant que peu à peu les rôles des « nonchampions » se sont incarnés. Si le champion demeure un rôle prédominant et complexe, nous apporterons une vision plus nuancée en en présentant les rôles connexes principaux que sont le gatekeeper, le sponsor et l’expert et nous présenterons les contours du rôle d’opposant. Ce dernier, à bien y regarder, est présent de longue date, en filigrane dans la littérature. Il serait dans l’ombre du champion voire, écriront certains, comme un contrepoint au champion si ce n’est un acteur qui se définit en miroir du champion.Proposer l’ajout d’un nouveau rôle passe par en préciser les contours. Cela revient à s’attacher à la compréhension l’émergence, aux caractéristiques personnelles de cet acteur. Autrement dit : qui est-il ? C’est aussi comprendre quel est son mode d’action pour tâcher de mener à bien son action. Enfin, une fois l’action menée, quelles sont les conséquences de l’opposition ? Cette question s’entend à deux niveaux. D’une part, quelles conséquences sur les projets innovants l’opposant a-t-il eu ? Et d’autre part, quel impact la tenue de ce rôle cela a-t-il eu sur sa carrière ?
... Schuurman et al. (2016a: 330) provide a comprehensive overview of the potential motivations of utilizers, enablers, providers and users. In addition to that, several authors have developed and categorized a number of roles in living labs (Heikkinen et al., 2007;Nyström et al., 2014), such as webber, instigator, orchestrator, builder, messenger, etc. ...
... Intille et al., 2002;Schaffers et al., 2007;Mulder, 2012; Sauer, 2012;Juujärvi & Pesso, 2013;Nyström et al., 2014; Tukiainen et al., 2015;.Acknowledging diversity of covered topics and approaches in living labs, living labs offer ample research opportunities for researchers and scholars(Bergvall-Kåreborn et al., 2015; Brankaert & den Ouden, 2016; Dell'Era & Landoni, 2014; Femeniás & Hagbert, 2013; Guimont & Lapointe, 2016; Hakkarainen & Hyysalo, 2013Leminen, 2013Leminen, , 2015bLeminen et al., , 2015aLeminen & Westerlund, 2009 Rits et al., 2015; Ståhlbröst & Lassinantti, 2015; Veeckman et al., 2013). Previous literature on living labs documents multiple meanings and interpretations ...
... However, over the years the outlook and thematic focus of LLs started to diversify and were influenced and fueled by the growth of European national and regional innovation networks, and pioneering companies [3]. LLs include multiple stakeholders and their roles [4][5][6]. Such network structures possess advantages for innovation in short and long terms [7][8][9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The year 2006 is the 'official' start of European Living Labs as the movement gained real momentum through European policy measures, culminating in the birth of the pan-European network ENoLL (European Network of Living Labs) [1]. Living Labs (latter LLs) were closely linked to Testbeds and mainly focused on experimenting with novel technologies in a real-life context, especially in the context of ICT innovation [2]. However, over the years the outlook and thematic focus of LLs started to diversify and were influenced and fueled by the growth of European national and regional innovation networks, and pioneering companies [3]. LLs include multiple stakeholders and their roles [4-6]. Such network structures possess advantages for innovation in short and long terms [7-9]. Several studies have also looked into concrete impact and outcomes of LLs [10,11]. Nowadays, we consider LLs as platforms with shared resources, which organize their stakeholders into a collaboration network(s) that rely on representative governance, participation, open standards, and diverse activities and methods to gather, create, communicate , and deliver new knowledge, validated solutions, professional development, and social impact in real-life contexts [12]. LLs facilitate the development of people and communities for the use of innovation, i.e., they contribute to environmental and social improvements as well as economic development and mainly deal with so-called 'wicked problems' [11]. Moreover, LLs are regarded as innovation approaches linked to the generation and development of innovative business models [13] and innovation management approaches [14]. The LLs movement has grown to a worldwide phenomenon, both in terms of research and practice. ENoLL has already accredited nearly 500 LLs worldwide and currently counts more than 125 active members. In terms of publications, the search term "living labs" results in nearly 20,000 articles, of which more than 80% were written in 2015 or later, indicating that Living Labs has been gaining momentum. This special issue on 'Innovation Management in LLs' is dedicated to the exploration and analysis of conceptual and theoretical foundations of LLs. This special issue is a collection of the ten best selected and reworked papers from the LL track at the ISPIM2020 conference, chaired by prof. Leminen and dr. Schuurman, and from the Open Living Lab Days 2020, with dr. Dimitri Schuurman as scientific chair of the conference. These events showed that both academic and practitioner interest in the concept of LLs is increasing. Living Labs in Mega, Meso, and Micro Levels As LLs are complex in nature, the literature has the tendency to mix up various aspects in relation to LLs. Schuurman [14] proposed a theoretical lens to distinguish three interlinked layers in LLs: the LL organization, the LL project(s), and the individual user and stakeholder activities. The top layer of the model can be associated with Open Innovation , whereas the bottom layer is in line with User Innovation. Both literature streams Citation: Schuurman, D.; Leminen, S. Living Labs Past Achievements, Current Developments and Future Trajectories. Sustainability 2021, 131, 703. https://doi.
... A few studies in the collaboration literature have identified LLs as boundary spanners seeking to bridge various sectors (Van Geenhuizen, 2018) or LL coordinators as individuals who nurture the relationships among different actors (Palomo-Navarro and Navío-Marco, 2018). When it comes to citizen inclusion, the role of LL coordinators conventionally involves collecting and organising information provided by citizens, as users, and forwarding it to other Triple Helix actors (Nyström et al., 2014). Our analysis contributes to this discussion by illustrating a fundamental change in contemporary urban collaborative discourses and practices that are interested in exploring the agency of citizens in innovation and their likely undermined roles. ...
Article
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Smart cities refer to place-specific collaborative systems where multiple actors collaborate to collectively address public problems. However, smart city initiatives regularly frame citizens as the weakest link, as passive consumers rather than active creative agents. This article argues that power imbalances between citizens and other organisational participants structurally mute citizens' voices, ultimately compromising smart cities' aims. Living laboratories are a popular smart city intervention that have the potential to address this power imbalance and empower citizens to influence smart city development. This research theoretically and empirically explores this role of living labs through a multiple-case study of urban living labs in the region of Catalonia. The findings uncover a ‘power banking’ mechanism which, coupled with other critical factors, facilitates the effectiveness of such initiatives. The considerable efforts required to engage citizens at a fairly basic level suggest that incorporating citizens into smart city models is more challenging than simplistic Quadruple Helix discourses convey.
... In contrast, experimental governance recasts the role of local governments from a vertical, hierarchical structure with clearly defined responsibilities to a more horizontal, collaborative structure with fluid, distributed responsibilities (Pierre, 2011). Collaboration is a cornerstone of experimental governance where different actors contribute in multiple ways to develop synergistic solutions that cannot be achieved by a single actor (Nyström, Leminen, Westerlund, & Kortelainen, 2014). As Berkhout et al. (2010, p. 262) note, "experiments typically bring together new networks of actors with knowledge, capabilities and resources, cooperating in a process of learning." ...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental governance is increasingly being implemented in cities around the world through laboratories, testbeds, platforms, and innovation districts to address a wide range of complex sustainability challenges. Experiments often involve public-private partnerships and triple helix collaborations with the municipality as a key stakeholder. This stretches the responsibilities of local authorities beyond conventional practices of policymaking and regulation to engage in more applied, collaborative, and recursive forms of planning. In this article, we examine how local authorities are involved in experimental governance and how this is influencing their approach to urban development. We are specifically interested in the multiple strategic functions that municipalities play in experimental governance and the broader implications to existing urban planning practices and norms. We begin the article by developing an analytic framework of the most common strategic functions of municipalities in experimental governance and then apply this framework to Stockholm, a city that has embraced experimental governance as a means to realise its sustainability ambitions. Our findings reveal how the strategic functions of visioning, facilitating, supporting, amplifying, and guarding are producing new opportunities and challenges to urban planning practices in twenty-first century cities.
... It should also be noted that improvement of urban sustainability in cities (Ferraris, Santoro, & Papa, 2018) involves understanding them as a collaborative network (Brorström et al., 2018) with various actors that compete and collaborate with each other (Camagni & Capello, 2004), forming collaborative partnerships (e.g., public-private partnerships) (Ferrari et al., 2018). Of these collaborative partnerships, we highlight living labs, seen as an entrepreneurial partnership between companies, governments, citizens and institutions (Ratten, 2017), supported by an open business network, profitable and non-profit, based on entrepreneurship and innovation, as stimulating drivers of cities' economic growth (Nyström et al., 2014). ...
Article
Digital entrepreneurship is an inseparable axis of technological evolution and digitalization experienced in the twenty-first century, so the role played by the technological and related sectors requires the relevant investment of all economic and non-economic actors in places with administrative and political powers. Like any kind of entrepreneurship, digital entrepreneurship stimulates the formation of bonds and local networks, attracting investment and people. In addition, it stimulates the fight against depopulation in rural areas, such as the case studied here. The objective is to study local authorities’ level of digitalization and their capacity to improve their technological and digital information systems, through a qualitative methodology, specifically the case study method. The results show the relevance of local actors becoming digital entrepreneurs, as this impacts on economic development and is a means to counter the negative aspects of geographical isolation verified in recent years.
... An important aspect of a living lab methodology is how the interaction and collaboration between stakeholders is organized, which is evident in cases depicted by partnerships (Edwards-Schachter et al. 2012;Nyström et al. 2014;Äyväri and Jyrämä 2017;Schliwa and McCormick 2016;Gascó 2017). In some publications, this is conceptualized as 'the four Ps', i.e., a public-private-people partnership (Edwards-Schachter et al. 2012;Veeckman et al. 2013), whereas others refer to the quadruple/quintuple helix model of open innovation (Haider et al. 2016;Cossetta and Palumbo 2014;Baccarne et al. 2016;Keijzer-Broers et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The public administration literature and adjacent fields have devoted increasing attention to living labs as environments and structures enabling the co-creation of public sector innovation. However, living labs remain a somewhat elusive concept and phenomenon, and there is a lack of understanding of its versatile nature. To gain a deeper understanding of the multiple dimensions of living labs, this article provides a review assessing how the environments, methods and outcomes of living labs are addressed in the extant research literature. The findings are drawn together in a model synthesizing how living labs link to public sector innovation, followed by an outline of knowledge gaps and future research avenues.
... The proposed model offers a starting point for understanding these diverse and interconnected roles. In the context of transitions using regenerative tourism approaches, further investigation of how framings of these roles, patterns and their potential for creating sustainable destinations is needed (Nystrom, Leminen, Westerlund, & Kortelainen, 2014). Applications of these roles to the operationalisation of regenerative tourism would clarify their contributions towards such transitions (Wittmayer et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tourism which seeks to regenerate communities and places, calls for roles that serve living systems. This paper aims to conceptualise the different roles of key stakeholders to enact regenerative tourism in destinations. Findings shared are derived from a scoping review study that sought to investigate what is known about the concept of regenerative tourism in the literature. The scoping review included a consultation exercise undertaken with world leading expert practitioners. The study’s contributions to the development of new frontiers in tourism actor roles and paradigms will be discussed.
... With respect to the actor-networks of an ULL, (Leminen, Westerlund and Nyström 2012) state that anyone designing, participating in, or intending to participate in a living lab will benefit from understanding the overall purpose of the living lab and which party drives the network; this understanding helps them to comprehend the characteristics of the living lab and adopt a feasible role within the network (Leminen, Westerlund and Nyström 2012). For the implementation of ULLs, Leminen, Westerlund and Nyström (2012), Leminen (2013) and Nyström et al. (2014) propose a classification of four driving actors based on different actor-related starting points and motivations: (1) enabler-driven, (2) user-driven, (3) utilizer-driven and (4) provider-driven. Such a differentiation is particularly useful since actors from different societal domains and sectors still do not necessarily meet, understand each other, or corporate immediately (Puerari et al. 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Like many European regions, the Alpine Rhine Valley, at the intersection of Switzerland, Austria, and Liechtenstein, is characterised by a heterogeneous mix of settlement areas, transport infrastructure, settlement-related open spaces, agricultural areas, and open landscape structures. Planning science tries to describe this phenomenon of urbanization through different terms: agglomeration, urban landscape, urban area, in-between city, sprawl town, etc. The research parameter is an unremarkable but publicly accessible “inbetween” space within the urban landscape of Liechtenstein. The underlying hypothesis of this paper is that there is little aesthetic attention given to these in-between spaces in science, planning policy, and practice in the case of Liechtenstein. The research project investigates the question of how the perception-oriented perspective of everyday landscapes can be implemented into the institutionalised processes of conceptual landscapes on two levels: (1) Everyday landscapes: in-between spaces are examined from the perspective of perception in the case of Vaduz, Liechtenstein. (2) Conceptual landscapes: in-between spaces are viewed from the rational perspective of planning, systematisation, and control. In this paper, we specifically examine the potentials and challenges of Urban Living Labs (ULL) as an applied and participatory research method to integrate the perspectives of the everyday and conceptual landscapes through temporary revitalisation and activation of the “Parkhaus Marktplatz” in Vaduz. Hence, the focus is not on the impact on the built environment but rather on the learnings of this participatory process for future planning on three perspectives: (i) actors, (ii) process, and (iii) programme.
... Prior studies suggest that the network structure influences the innovative outputs (Schilling and Phelps, 2007) and distribution of value among individual partners (e.g., Powell et al., 1996;Bae and Gargiulo, 2004;Lavie, 2007), but the aspect of dynamism is not fully recorded in this respect. Further, the network structure has an impact on the degree actors can negotiate their roles with other actors in an innovation network (Nyström et al., 2014). Actors that can leverage collaborations actively have appropriation advantages. ...
Article
Contemporary innovation management studies on collaboration dynamics and value appropriation lack coherent theoretical articulations and underlying conceptual foundations. It is challenging to manage collaborative value creation without a proper understanding of the dynamic connections between collaboration for and appropriation of innovation. This study conducts a systematic literature review to uncover the dynamic connections between innovation-related value appropriation and collaboration. Topic modelling, a machine-learning-based text analysis method, is applied to a corpus of 270 scholarly articles to uncover relevant elements. Additionally, 77 articles are selected for an in-depth content analysis to examine the elements in a more detailed manner. With these steps, the study contributes to the literature by illustrating and elaborating the role of dynamics of collaboration in value appropriation, and vice versa.
... Similarly, researchers can also build upon a body of literature that seeks to understand and explore the living labs approach. For example, the literature offers insights on the way living labs function and foster innovation in terms of living labs as open innovation networks (e.g., [22,23]); the roles of users, stakeholders, and other actors (e.g., [24][25][26]); innovation methodologies and tools (e.g., [27][28][29]); business model innovation [30,31], and many other topics. However the evaluation of the actual impact of a living lab in terms of innovation process, effective adoption, and sustainable changes is still a notable gap [32,33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In response to environmental, economic, and social challenges, the living labs approach to innovation is receiving increasing attention within the agricultural sector. In this paper, we propose a set of defining characteristics for an emerging type of living lab intended to increase the sustainability and resilience of agriculture and agri-food systems: the “agroecosystem living lab”. Drawing on first-hand knowledge of case studies of large initiatives from Canada and France and supported by eight other cases from the literature, we highlight the unique nature of agroecosystem living labs and their distinct challenges with respect to their aims, activities, participants, and context. In particular, these living labs are characterized by exceptionally high levels of scientific research; long innovation cycles with high uncertainty due to external factors; and the high number and diversity of stakeholders involved. Both procedurally and conceptually, we link to earlier efforts undertaken by researchers seeking to identify urban living labs and rural living labs as distinct, new types of living labs. By highlighting what makes agroecosystem living labs unique and their commonalities with other types of living labs, we hope to encourage their further study and help practitioners better understand their implementation and operational challenges and opportunities.
... Other actors roles have also received attention, and more and more 147 refined typologies of encountered roles were produce to interpret the actors' actions and coordination (e.g. 148 Nyström et al., 2014;Sopjani et al., 2019). These descriptive typologies are seldom addressing how 149 different roles are being enacted as the outcome of specific aspects of the innovation process. ...
Article
Living Labs are developed in widely diverse innovation domains, based on principles of users involvement and experimentation in ‘real-world’ contexts, inviting to question the various actors' roles within innovation systems. In the agricultural sector, the implementation of Living Labs may face incumbent routines for experimentation, actors' relationships, and information circulation, as ‘users’ are mostly farmers already embedded in innovation systems. How, beyond adhesion to inclusiveness principles, the actual practices related to an agricultural Living Lab development make possible to renew or redistribute actors' roles in the innovation process? To address this issue, we realized a case study, following the development of an agricultural Living Lab in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Region (France) by one year long immersion and participant observation. Our theoretical approach was to consider the Living Lab as a boundary object supposed to allow actors from different social worlds to work together in a new way, and relying on infrastructures in order to do so. We thus studied the intertwining between various rationales about the innovation model or the territory, the infrastructures on which the innovation process relied, and actors' roles construction. Our findings underline the divergent rationales conserved among the LIT's steering actors, associated with undefined roles, especially for farmers. We further show how these divergent rationales participated in maintaining existing infrastructures of the innovation system, preventing from effectively renewing actors' arrangements and respective roles. Among these, we describe the farmers' workshops, and the information sharing paths, both limiting the ownership of the process by non-incumbent actors. Complementarily to the distinctions of various roles in literature, we contribute to relate potentially neglected aspects of the Living Lab management (because not judged strategical) to the room for manoeuvre and possibilities for enactment of expected actors' roles. We finally discuss the relevant skills and their distribution among actors that our findings suggest for the development of an agricultural Living Lab within an existing innovation system.
... Meanwhile, the whole social, physical, and technological structure of a neighborhood needs to be taken into account to reconsider roles and responsibilities when city actors work together (Nevejan and Brazier, 2015a,b;Golsteijn et al., 2016). Research into living labs provides some insight into how city stakeholders can co-create and which different roles apply (Leminen et al., 2012;Mulder, 2012;Nyström et al., 2014). While this is a good start, living labs are often focused on innovation of public services (Mulder, 2012;Leminen, 2013), not necessarily concerning play or interventions for the urban space. ...
Book
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In this book, we compare and contrast the various forms of play that occur in urban environments or are dedicated to their design and planning, with the notion of the playable city. In a playable city, the sensors, actuators, and digital communication networks that form the backbone of smart city infrastructure are used to create novel interfaces and interventions intended to inject fun and playfulness into the urban environment, both as a simple source of pleasure and as a means of facilitating and fostering urban and social interactions.
... Defining categories of stakeholders in the Living Lab helps the managers of Labs to effectively plan and prioritise the often variant and competing stakeholder claims [26,41,42]. A notion called stakeholder salience [40]. ...
Article
Working together with end-users and different private and public stakeholders towards a common goal in a real-life setting creates a rich environment for co-design, co-creation, co-innovation and sharing of different ideas in an iterative fashion. Such spaces are termed Living Labs. This paper builds on the understanding of Living Labs and explores the best application of the concept to support gendered energy technology innovation in poor urban environments. Using a case study of a poor urban informal environment in South Africa, this paper describes the implementation of the Living Lab concept in seeking security of energy services in the household energy sector and the roles of the identified stakeholders towards operationalisation of the Lab. Living Labs are dynamic innovation spaces that consider a multidimensional approach (technical, economic, usability, regulative, environmental, social, etc.) to problem solving and ease future implementation and diffusion of solutions, technologies, and innovations, if managed well.
... De plus, dans un Living Lab, les parties prenantes sont organisées selon des rôles précis. Nyström et al. (2014) identifient 17 rôles dans un Living Lab : initiateur, instigateur, FIGURE 10 : Les éléments communs des Living Labs (Source : adaptée d' Evans et al., 2017) promoteur, défenseur, producteur, planificateur, fournisseur d'accessoires, coordinateur, constructeur, messager, facilitateur, orchestrateur, intégrateur, informateur, testeur, contributeur et co-créateur. (Pascu et Van Lieshout, 2009). ...
Thesis
Les forêts françaises sont au cœur d’enjeux historiques, comme la production de bois et le renouvellement du patrimoine forestier, qui aujourd’hui se croisent avec des défis environnementaux, économiques et sociaux dans un contexte de changement climatique et de transition écologique (par exemple, la préservation des sols, de la biodiversité et des ressources en eau, la bioéconomie circulaire, la conception de forêts résilientes face à des risques inédits et extrêmes etc.). Pour répondre à ces enjeux et défis, les décideurs publics ont formulé de nouvelles stratégies nationales et régionales qui traduisent un ensemble d’attentes envers le secteur forestier. Dans ce contexte, décideurs politiques et acteurs forestiers ont pris conscience qu’il était nécessaire d’innover au sein d’écosystèmes complexes d’acteurs, pour s’adapter à cette situation inédite avec cohérence et organisation. L’ambition de cette thèse est donc de démontrer que les approches living Labs, souvent évoquées mais rarement pratiquées avec rigueur et méthode procurent un cadre méthodologique performant et adapté pour impulser cette innovation collective et faire évoluer les usages des acteurs (en matière de gestion sylvicole mais aussi de travail en réseau et de partage d’information). Nous proposons de construire un cadre de référence méthodologique, selon une posture de recherche-action, basée sur l’approche Living Lab pour piloter l’innovation dans des contextes forestiers caractérisés comme complexes, multi-acteurs et multi-échelles (dans le temps et l’espace), territorialisés. Ce travail propose donc un transfert théorique et méthodologique de l’approche Living Lab vers l’amont du secteur forestier au travers de trois études de cas. Des outils particuliers sont développés ou adaptés, tels des personas pour toucher les petits propriétaires privés, les jeux de territoire pour aborder la spatialisation des ressources ou des questionnements. La discussion montre la pertinence de l’approche pour piloter les processus d’innovation dans un contexte forestier multiacteurs, multifonctionnel et incertain, en faisant émerger des idées inédites pour résoudre des points de blocage.
... Specifically, an evaluation of the process may allow for a review of approaches, identification of gaps and challenges, and agreement on the next steps. This can also contribute to trust-building and peer learning [67]. Unlike other participation approaches, all the participants in living labs contribute to the process, and according to most authors, are also innovators, and users act as sources of information and creativity [68]. ...
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Various efforts are presently being undertaken to set up and maintain open, inclusive, participatory, and transparent processes, whilst at the same time, strengthening stakeholder partnerships in implementing SDGs remains a challenge. This paper enriched the discussion of multi-stakeholder approaches through a dynamic multi-level system view of stakeholder mapping, along with important theoretical frameworks and key empirical results to tackle the lack of security of energy services in poor urban settings. The study attempted to develop comprehensive cases for Africa-based experiences of the pilot project launched through a set-up of an energy living lab in the Groenheuwel community, as well as achieve an improved understanding of social-technical benefits of gendered energy security and innovative solutions at the household level. The contents are two-fold. The first part assesses the theoretical models available for stakeholders and outcome mapping. The second part focuses on the preliminary identification of stakeholders and their primary interests at all levels. The results of this study found that the energy living lab in poor urban settings recognised the importance of stakeholder mapping and the development of new solutions. Findings indicated that all stakeholders should support the government in the development of policies and strategies. Findings also suggested that key players should proactively agree and negotiate with the local government on energy outcome measures. It was also found that multi-stakeholder involvement improved transparency and accountability for decision making.
... Such methods constitute visions of plausible, possible, or desirable futures which have agency in shaping food futures (Voros, 2017). This type of ULL functions as a user-centred innovation facilitation that enables collaborative learning by users, producers and researchers and can serve to seize the rich variety in understandings and meanings in cocreating diverse sustainable food futures (Almirall, Lee, & Wareham, 2012;Ballon & Schuurman, 2015;Dell'Era & Landoni, 2014;Nyström, Leminen, Westerlund, & Kortelainen, 2014). Whereas the first type of living lab strives for breadth of engagement, this second type of living lab particularly provides for appropriate depth of citizen engagement with its multi-method process (see Table 2). ...
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Citizen engagement is heralded as essential for food democracy and equality, yet the implementation of inclusive citizen engagement mechanisms in urban food systems governance has lagged behind. This paper aims to further the agenda of citizen engagement in the transformation towards healthy and sustainable urban food systems by offering a conceptual reflection on urban living labs (ULLs) as a methodological platform. Over the past decades, ULLs have become increasingly popular to actively engage citizens in methodological testbeds for innovations within real-world settings. The paper proposes that ULLs as a tool for inclusive citizen engagement can be utilized in two ways: (i) the ULL as the daily life of which citizens are the experts, aimed at uncovering the unreflexive agency of a highly diverse population in co-shaping the food system and (ii) the ULL as a break with daily life aimed at facilitating reflexive agency in (re)shaping food futures. We argue that both ULL approaches have the potential to facilitate inclusive citizen engagement in different ways by strengthening the breadth and the depth of citizen engagement respectively. The paper concludes by proposing a sequential implementation of the two types of ULL, paying attention to spatial configurations and the short-termed nature of ULLs.
... Although the current literature acknowledges the involvement of multiple stakeholders in the co-creation process (Schaffers & Kulkki, 2007;Feuerstein et al., 2008;Almirall & Wareham, 2011;Westerlund & Leminen, 2011), the focus predominantly lies on co-creators, their ideas, suggestions, and feedback, which ultimately produces value to the companies. Thus, these findings expand on the current literature, which predominantly stresses the value user feedback generates for companies (Dutilleul et al., 2010;Nyström et al., 2014), by accentuating the value that the LL, itself, can deliver to firms as beneficiaries of LL services. The project objectives and outcomes identified in this study are summarised in Table 3 and compared against existing studies. ...
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Living Labs (LLs) are complex multi-stakeholder environments that enable real-life testing and experimentation of products, services, and systems. Despite increasing attention by practitioners as well as policymakers, and growing scholarly interest in the field, the literature exploring congruency between organisational objectives and outcomes when utilising LLs is still scarce. To fill this gap, a qualitative case study is employed to gain an in-depth understanding of objectives and project outcomes of organisations utilising LLs. The LL JOSEPHS® was chosen as this study's empirical context, in which 14 different projects were analysed. In-depth interviews revealed eight categories of measurable project outcomes: market acceptance, price acceptability, exposure, product testing, market intelligence, legitimisation, method testing, and networking. This study not only highlights what companies have achieved in comparison to their original project objectives, but also identifies additional unplanned outcomes that they accomplished. The findings offer important project-level insights into the potential and limitations of LLs. The results form a basis upon which to develop a better understanding of how innovation performance can be nurtured in LLs. Insights from the study may also help firms and facilitators by providing a deeper understanding of LLs at an individual project-level, and by articulating potential objectives and outcomes associated with organisations' involvement in LLs.
... Moreover, a lot of other collaborative innovation types and labs that operate in parallel with living labs have emerged such as Fab Labs, makerspaces, innovation labs, innovation spaces, and policy labs, etc. (Schuurman & Tõnurist, 2017;Leminen et al., 2021). Further, there are also a plurality of themes and topics 2014;Leminen et al., 2020), as well as industrial sectors, as well as their theoretical and managerial underpinnings (Schuurman, 2015;Greve et al., 2020;Greve et al., 2021). ...
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A special issue on the theme of Living Labs in the Technology Innovation Management Review was selected and developed from papers presented at the DLDD and the XXXII ISPIM Innovation Conference, both held virtually in 2021. “DLDD stands” for Digital Living Lab Days 2021, which is organized by the European Network of Living Labs. ISPIM - the International Society for Professional Innovation Management - is a network of researchers, industrialists, consultants, and public bodies who share an interest in innovation management for which the innovation conference is their main annual event.
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Municipalities are increasingly involved in energy transition planning. There are, however, doubts about whether municipalities are an adequate organization and scale level for this. In this context, the article aims to picture developments of local young technology firms in bringing energy inventions to market, in particular, how municipalities have provided support to them. Such aim, in the context of energy transition, is new. Derived from study in Nordic countries and The Netherlands, two findings make a valuable contribution to literature. Firstly, a share of almost 40% of young technology firms fails in market introduction, and if reached the market, a 30% is rather late. Barriers stem from high risk-taking, late (no) collaboration, and limiting circumstances in metropolitan cities. Secondly, municipalities’ initiatives appear useful in filling young technology firms’ needs, but the initiatives are fragmented and miss priority. However, partnering in professional start-up organizations tends to improve the situation, indicating that the municipal level is promising in transitional change with regard to new technology. In contrast, driving energy transition through regional cluster building, includes different levels of functional interdependence, territorial scale, networking and governance, causing manifold complexity and uncertainty. Not all (large) municipalities seem able to act in a promising manner, however, much empirical research needs to be done.
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In Europe, 60% of the forest area is privately owned, with a significant proportion of nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) being highly fragmented with, in particular, low intensity forest management. Numerous typologies have therefore been developed to provide detailed guidance to policy makers for the design of policy instruments to involve these owners in forest management approaches. However, these policy instruments fail to involve all categories of owners and there is no method made by and with people locally in charge of policy implementation to increase the commitment of NIPF owners. The main objective of this study is to adapt the persona method, which is a central user-centered design tool, to design typologies of NIPF owners as future users of policy instruments. We have designed our personas in the Vosges territory (France), in the context of the main French forest policy objective of increasing timber harvesting and NIPF sustainable management. Our results designed eight types of personas as well as a six-part composition of the persona sheet. The main interest is to provide a general methodology to forest policy and forest managers based on rigorous concepts of usercentered design processes and co-creation, to implement operational tools for NIFP management. Finally, both future developments and methodological limitations are discussed in a global research perspective.
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International policies have set sustainable development goals that put emphasis on bioeconomy strategies based on renewable resources. The forestry sector, by providing bio-based products, is expected to take part in this bioeconomy with, among other things, the reduction of society's dependence on fossil fuels. Nevertheless, in Europe, the forestry sector is facing an increase in the number of small private forest ownerships, called non-industrial private forests (NIPF), where wood mobilization is difficult due to both ownership fragmentation and the lack of interest of non-industrial forest owners in existing forest-wood chains. Although many policy instruments have been put in place to address this situation, the problem persists for two main reasons. First, a lack of use of policy instruments by forest owners and second, a lack of collaboration between stakeholders. To provide solutions, we propose a methodology to design territorial projects with non-industrial forest owners in the framework of a Living Lab innovation process. This paper presents both the general method developed and analyzed through open and user-centered innovation concepts and its practical implementation in the Vosges department in France. Our results show how the Living Lab approach can improve the acceptance, adoption and use of policy instruments by NIPF owners and how it promotes multi-stakeholder collaborations to design and deploy innovative solutions. The main interest of our study is to provide a methodology to pilot a forestry Living Lab for policy makers and practitioners, based on rigorous concepts of innovation management. Finally, future developments and limitations of our study are discussed in a global research perspective.
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Situé à la frontière du management de l’innovation et de la géographie urbaine, ce papier analyse la mise en pratique des stratégies dites de smart city portées par les acteurs publics locaux qui s’appuient sur les expérimentations urbaines et les dispositifs de type Urban Living Labs (ULLs). Il apporte un éclairage empirique sur leur rôle dans les proces- sus d’innovation ouverte opérés à l’échelle des villes. La recherche se fonde sur l’analyse d’expérimentations sociotechniques qui alimentent les stratégies urbaines portées par les métropoles européennes, et sur le rôle des « tiers-acteurs » qui les accompagnent, les ULLs. Elle étudie deux projets d’expérimentation situés au Royaume-Uni (projet « Careview ») et en France (projet « Tierce Forêt ») à partir d’une méthodologie qualitative, et défend l’idée que les ULLs se saisissent de leur position d’intermédiation pour centraliser les connaissances et opérer une forme de contrôle sur les innovations déployées dans la ville (expérimentations), et pour engager sa plateformisation. Par leur accompagnement au déploiement des expéri- mentations, ces dispositifs contribuent à accroître l’acceptabilité sociale et l’appropriation des services testés (territorialisation) ; par leur encadrement des acteurs socioéconomiques et de leurs offres, ils contribuent à enclencher une dynamique de plateformisation de la ville (pérennisation des offres, mise en relation, déterritorialisation, etc.). Ces processus s’intègrent dans le cadre plus général des stratégies dites smart city et organisent l’émergence distribuée d’innovations locales.
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New integrative, collaborative, and innovative approaches are needed to overcome global sustainability challenges. Exploring the diversity of collaborative innovation in six Nordic cities, this study aims to advance our understanding of collaborative innovation for sustainability in urban contexts. By adopting a multiple case approach, we investigate 49 cases aiming at collaborative innovation for sustainability, including co-working spaces, Fab labs, green public procurement, hackathons, hubs, makerspaces, participatory budgeting, and living labs. Our findings reveal a diverse range of models supporting collaborative innovation for sustainability. Further, we develop a conceptual framework that identifies four archetypes of collaborative innovation and apply it to analyse how those archetypes advance sustainability. The results illustrate how collaborative innovation archetypes contribute to sustainability in urban areas.
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This paper reflects upon the potential of real-world laboratories (RWLs) to promote sustainable urban development. RWLs strive for knowledge production through collective action in experimental settings. Their implementation in urban studies faces two major challenges: (1) the ambiguity of roles university researchers need to fill, and (2) the variety of expectations among team members from different institutional backgrounds. Based on research in one trans-European and three German RWLs, we propose a stronger focus on team development to help researchers in RWLs address these challenges more systematically. In particular, this means support in terms of resources and infrastructure (time, space, and training). We argue that the improvement of RWL team performance has great impact on the potentials of RWLs in transformative urban studies. Thus, the article contributes to the ongoing debate on the city as a laboratory and site of experimentation in times of multiple crises.
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De vraag is hoe Leven Lang Ontwikkelen in de logistiek vormgegeven kan worden, om daarmee het innovatievermogen van de sector te versterken. Learning Communities lijken een kansrijk middel om dit vraagstuk aan te pakken. In deze bijdrage gaan we dieper in op het concept Learning Communities. We schetsen het belang hiervan voor het vormgeven van LLO in de logistiek en het innovatief vermogen van de sector. Vervolgens illustreren we dit via een praktijkvoorbeeld uit de logistiek – de TIP-ontwikkelmethode. We sluiten af met een actieagenda voor de toekomst.
Chapter
Die Digitalisierung prägt nicht nur unsere Gesellschaften sowie Wirtschaft und Politik, sondern auch massiv die öffentliche Verwaltung. Diese braucht neue, innovative Ansätze, um – neben anderen Herausforderungen wie demografischem Wandel, Migration, Stadtentwicklung oder Klimawandel – geeignete Antworten auf den gesellschaftlichen Transformationsprozess zu finden. Speziell die digitalen Herausforderungen für Staat und Verwaltung haben im Verlauf der letzten Jahre und Jahrzehnte eine starke Beschleunigung und Diversifizierung erfahren und verlangen nach neuen Instrumenten und Möglichkeiten des Umgangs mit ihnen.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2021, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2021, in conjunction with the IFIP WG 8.5 IFIP International Conference on Electronic Participation (ePart 2021) and the International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government Conference (CeDEM 2021). The 23 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 63 submissions. The papers are clustered under the following topical sections: digital transformation; digital services and open government; open data: social and technical perspectives; smart cities; and data analytics, decision making, and artificial intelligence. Chapters "Perceived and Actual Lock-in Effects Amongst Swedish Public Sector Organisations when Using a SaaS Solution" and "Ronda: Real-time Data Provision, Processing and Publication for Open Data" are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
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The purpose of this paper is to identify the roles municipalities take when engaging in Open Government Data (OGD) and the expectations of user’s roles they imply. According to the output delivered, the user can relate to data or data-based solutions. OGD is data released by public organisations to enhance government transparency, innovation, and participation. The realization of those benefits involves different roles, from providing data, developing solutions, to using them for a certain purpose. However, the definition of the municipalities’ and users’ roles in that context is unclear, which can impact the realization of the OGD benefits. This study uses Role Theory’s concepts as an analytical lens, following the Design Science Research approach to create a typology. We conducted a hermeneutic literature review, identified, and analysed 52 papers, to build a typology of the municipalities’ roles based on the goals, tasks, output delivered, and the expected users’ roles they generate. It results in seven classes of roles coming in pairs. We tested the typology on empirical cases: the 28 Belgian and 158 Swedish municipalities engaged in OGD. Five role pairs were encountered in the empirical cases, and two occurred only in previous literature. The typology can help municipalities to understand how their role choice calls for a certain type of users that cannot be generalized as a “citizen”. Role Theory opens new perspectives of research to understand their interdependence and raises fundamental role-related questions that should be given the same importance as technical and technological challenges.
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A growing interest in living labs as a mechanism for innovation has drawn significant attention to both the different flavours of this methodology and to the organizations that put it into practice. However, little has been done to assess its impact and to compare its contribution to other innovation methodologies. This article aims to cover that gap by summarizing the most common European living labs approaches and positioning them in the landscape of user-contributed innovation methodology. The merits and appropriateness of living labs in these settings are also assessed.
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Living labs bring experimentation out of companies’ R&D departments to real-life environments with the participation and co-creation of users, partners, and other parties. This study discusses living labs as four different types of networks characterized by open innovation: utilizer-driven, enabler-driven, provider-driven, and user-driven. The typology is based on interviews with the participants of 26 living labs in Finland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa. Companies can benefit from knowing the characteristics of each type of living lab; this knowledge will help them to identify which actor drives the innovation, to anticipate likely outcomes, and to decide what kind of role they should play while "living labbing". Living labs are networks that can help them create innovations that have a superior match with user needs and can be upscaled promptly to the global market.
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Living Labs are environments for involving users in innovation and development, and are regarded as a way of meeting the innovation challenges faced by information and communication technology (ICT) service providers. Living Labs have thus generated a great deal of interest in the field of ICT in the course of the last few years. However, the current body of Living Lab research literature indicates a lack of common understanding of how Living Labs can be used for ICT innovation and development. Moreover, there appears to be little agreement regarding needed future research. In order to establish a basis for future work on Living Labs, a review of the Living Lab literature related to ICT innovation and development has been carried out. Literature searches were made in four academic archives, as well as the ISI Web of Knowledge, Google and Google Scholar. Thirty-two relevant academic papers were retrieved. An overview of the literature was established and the literature was analyzed with regard to (1) common and diverging perspectives on Living Labs, (2) the state-of-the-art of Living Lab processes and methods, and (3) theoretical foundations of Living Labs. On the basis of the analyses, a common Living Lab definition is suggested. Two emerging Living Lab trends, as well as a pressing need for future research on Living Lab processes and methods, are introduced and discussed.
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Strategic networks such as collaborative networked organisations (CNOs) and virtual customer communities (VCCs) show a high potential as drivers of value co-creation and co-innovation. Both look at the network structures as a source of jointly value creation and open innovation through access to new skills, knowledge, markets and technologies by sharing risk and integrating complementary competencies. This collaborative endeavour is able to enhance the adaptability and flexibility of CNOs and VCCs value creating systems in order to react in response to external drivers such as collaborative (business) opportunities. Strategic business networks are active entities continuously adapting to their environment in order to enhance their capabilities to respond to short-term business opportunities, and therefore allow their business ecosystems to follow the rhythm of industry dynamics, and customers’ changing needs and preferences. Value co-creation is the new trend in open-business models trying to integrate organisations’ competencies and involve customers’ individual preferences into network and community formations for the co-creation of the next level of value for products, services and experiences to be launched into the market. This article presents a literature review on value co-creation and co-innovation concepts and styles, and proposes a reference framework for creating interface networks, also known as ‘experience-centric networks’, as enablers for linking networked organisations and customer communities in order to support the establishment of sustainable user-driven and collaborative innovation networks.
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This study investigates the role of certain boundary spanning individuals, labelled gatekeepers, in the transfer of information in an R&D setting by comparing the performance of project groups with and without gatekeepers. Results indicate that gatekeepers perform a linking role only for projects performing tasks that are locally oriented while universally oriented tasks were most effectively linked to external areas by direct project member communication. Evidence also suggests that gatekeepers do more than mediate external information; they may facilitate the external communication of their more local project colleagues.
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The image of the project champion fighting corporate inertia, rallying support, and leading a project to success makes for a great story, but that story may not reveal the true nature of the champion's role. All those off-tom tales about champions fail to provide hard evidence of the techniques that champions use, the activities they, perform, and the effects that champions have on project success, Stephen K, Markham addresses this knowledge gap in a study that examines how champions influence other people and what effects champions have on projects and the people those projects involve. The study uses responses from 53 champions of innovation projects in four large firms as well as team members from those projects. Rather than look at the champions' work oil project tasks, the study focuses on the influence champions have oil other people to support their projects, The results of the study only partially support the idea that champions affect projects by influencing people. In the four firms studied, champions use cooperative rather than confrontative tactics to influence other people. However, the champions' choice of influence tactics does not affect the level of compliance or the willingness to participate in the project that those people demonstrate. On the other hand, the champions appear to have a strong influence on their target's behavior if the champions enjoy positive personal relationships with those people, In general, the tactics used by the champions do not seem to play an important role in the projects studied. Front the perspective of the team members, the results of this study do not support the notion that champions make a positive contribution to project performance. However, the champions in this study consistently hold a more positive view of the project than those of the team members. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.
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All of us enact a variety of social roles: age roles, occupational roles, family roles, and the like. Over the course of life we will, cocoon-like, slough off one role and take on another many times. Such changes are ubiquitous throughout life and across cultures over the world. Consider, as examples from this book, the following cases: a woman is divorced; a worker loses his job; a couple retires; a person becomes leader of a group; a man changes his job; a person goes into or out of prison; a family emigrates to a new country; a couple become parents, etc. As diverse as these events appear at first glance, we suggest that our understanding will be enhanced by concentrating on the psychological processes they have in common rather than stressing features that distinguish among them.
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Last decades and especially since the massive generalization of web 2.0, we have assisted to a blossoming of the role of users, either as generators of contents or as direct contributors in the innovation process. However these contributions are better characterized as lacking structure and governance making it difficult to actively build on them in terms of both business process and policy. On the other side, broadening the inflows of companies in the innovation process in order to capture the benefits of globalization posses a massive filtering problem: How to be aware, reach and select the right ideas. This problem, massive per se, becomes even greater if we include user contributions. Living Labs, small organizations that aim to capture users’ insights, prototype and validate solutions in real life contexts, aim to contribute to both problems providing structure and governance to the user involvement and methodologies and organizations to filter and sense user insights. This work aims to situate their contribution in the context of Open Innovation at micro level and in Systems of Innovation at macro level while providing insights on both where are there more effective and where their main limitations lie.
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The increasing adoption of more open approaches to innovation fits uneasily with current theories of business strategy. Traditional business strategy has guided firms to develop defensible positions against the forces of competition and power in the value chain, implying the importance of constructing barriers rather than promoting value creation through openness. Recently, however, firms and even whole industries, such as the software industry, are experimenting with novel business models based on harnessing collective creativity through open innovation. The apparent success of some of these experiments challenges prevailing views of strategy. At the same time, many of these experimenters now are grappling with issues related to value capture and sustainability of their business models, as well as issues of corporate influence and the potential co-option of open initiatives. These issues bring us back to traditional business strategy, which can offer important insights. To make strategic sense of innovation communities, ecosystems, networks, and their implications for competitive advantage, a new approach to strategy—open strategy—is needed. Open strategy balances the tenets of traditional business strategy with the promise of open innovation.
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When is open innovation superior to closed innovation? Through a formal simulation model we show that an open approach to innovation allows the firm to discover combinations of product features that would be hard to envision under integration. However, when partners have divergent goals, open innovation restricts the firm's ability to establish the product's technological trajectory. The resolution of the trade-off between benefits of discovery and costs of divergence determines the best approach to innovation.
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Several interpretations converge in defining innovation networks as formed by heterogeneous actors, mainly identified in universities, research centers, and business companies. While the issue of actors' heterogeneity has generated active debate in strategy and organization studies, there has been little discussion so far in exploring the role of this diversity in innovation networks.Drawn from previous literature, we identify six attributes of actors' heterogeneity which seem to matter for the development of collaborative innovation: goals, knowledge bases, capabilities and competences, perceptions, power and position, culture. This paper is aimed at pursuing issues in need of further investigation. In particular 1. how the interplay of diverse actors' attributes shapes the interaction process in the development of collaborative innovation; 2. if and how combinations of their attributes are more likely to generate certain consequences in interaction; and 3. the degree to which heterogeneity is preferable to homogeneity for the effectiveness of innovation networks. In a recursive relationship, we also call for more research on the mechanisms that lead actors' attributes to change as an effect of interaction as well as on the interaction capabilities actors apply to manage heterogeneity.
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This paper focuses on Living Labs that are open user-centred environments for networked innovation development. Although the concept of open innovation has quickly attracted both the scientific and applied communities, research on Living Labs is scarce, and literature lacks understanding of the characteristics of the Living Labs model. We aim to describe what the Living Labs are from the innovation network perspective. Using a case study of a regional Living Labs initiative, we describe the key participants and their roles in the Living Labs network. In addition, we discuss their motives to participate in the network, as well as the outcomes and perceived challenges of innovation co-creation. According to our findings, Living Labs are a practical way of encouraging open innovation. They are dedicated inter-organisational environments that provide pertinent support for Concurrent Engineering's (CE) networked processes. The integration of users as co-producers in product development is imperative for success in the Living Labs model because it reveals their latent needs and enables unforeseen outcomes.
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This paper provides an insight into and discusses the variety of sources of conflict in linking multiple partners in a network to the product development process. Conflict issues are discussed in relation to focal company strategies for product development within networks. On the basis of three case studies representing three different strategic intentions and network situations, our findings suggest that the sources of conflict are related to the actors' definition and negotiation of the development task at hand. The study suggests that the ability to combine and find complementarities in the strategic intentions of the multiple participating actors is essential to accomplish innovation. The paper concludes that influential actors initiating or acceding to changes are crucial for reaching a positive outcome in joint product development.
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This paper examines the roles for managing in business nets. The roles are studied by applying an initial conceptual framework built on network management research and role theory. The study empirically grounds the framework by using the case of a new mobile service development net. The article answers the question of what are the managerial action-based roles for managing in business nets. The empirical data of the study consists of fifteen interviews and a seven-month participant observation in a net that created and piloted a new mobile service directed at the spectators of a sports team. As a result of this study, an empirically grounded typology of twelve roles for managing in nets is presented. The roles are related to the changes in the net, the service development over time, and to the interpretations of the behaviours by the other actors in the net. Moreover, the study shows how external actors to the net can influence it.
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The complexity of innovation processes led to a tremendous growth in the use of external networks by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Based on a survey to 137 Chinese manufacturing SMEs, this paper empirically explores the relationships between different cooperation networks and innovation performance of SME using the technique of structural equation modeling (SEM). The study finds that there are significant positive relationships between inter-firm cooperation, cooperation with intermediary institutions, cooperation with research organizations and innovation performance of SMEs, of which inter-firm cooperation has the most significant positive impact on the innovation performance of SMEs. Surprisingly, the result reveals that the linkage and cooperation with government agencies do not demonstrate any significant impact on the innovation performance of SMEs. In addition, these findings confirm that the vertical and horizontal cooperation with customers, suppliers and other firms plays a more distinct role in the innovation process of SMEs than horizontal cooperation with research institutions, universities or colleges, and government agencies.
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This paper examines the mechanisms by which new organizations establish their initial network positions, or sets of network ties from which their future tie networks evolve. I develop hypotheses from two competing logics, one based on the effects of previously developed network ties and the human capital of a new organization's founders and the other based on the effects of a new organization's early accomplishments. I test these logics in a study of 92 Internet security ventures forming ties by receiving investments from venture capitalists and other investment organizations between 2000 and 2005. In contrast to how the network positions of established organizations evolve, I find that new organizations forming their first ties early obtain their initial network positions through their founders' ties and human capital, while new organizations forming their first ties later achieve their initial network positions through their organizational accomplishments.
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It's called a ''network organization''-a lean, highly flexible, ''disaggregated' company that operates through a cluster of down-sized, focused business units. Market mechanisms, rather than layers of mid-level decision makers, drive strategy, and senior managers stand ready to outsource any function that does not meet competitive tests. This form of organization, which the authors identified and labeled in the early 1980s, is spreading across industries, giving a sharper edge to competitiveness. Now, Snow, Miles, and Coleman trace the recent history of the network and project its impact into the 21st century. Three forms of network structure have emerged: internal (as exemplified by General Motors' components divisions), stable (such as used by BMW), and dynamic (shown by Lewis Galoob Toys). More important, the spread of network organizations is creating new agendas for both managers and business schools. For current managers, it means playing previously undefined roles related to the design, coordination, and caretaking of the clustered units. For management schools worldwide, it means a basic reconsideration of how tomorrow's managers are trained.