Article

The Effects of Automated Scatter Feeders on Captive Grizzly Bear Activity Budgets

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Although captive bears are popular zoo attractions, they are known to exhibit high levels of repetitive behaviors (RBs). These behaviors have also made them particularly popular subjects for welfare research. To date, most research on ursid welfare has focused on various feeding methods that seek to increase time spent searching for, extracting, or consuming food. Prior research indicates an average of a 50% reduction in RBs when attempts are successful and, roughly, a 50% success rate across studies. This research focused on decreasing time spent in an RB while increasing the time spent active by increasing time spent searching for, extracting, and consuming food. The utility of timed, automated scatter feeders was examined for use with captive grizzly bears (Ursis arctos horribilis). Findings include a significant decrease in time spent in RB and a significant increase in time spent active while the feeders were in use. Further, the bears exhibited a wider range of behaviors and a greater use of their enclosure.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Environmental enrichment is a combination of techniques with the aim to enhance the quality of life of zoo-housed animals by providing environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological and physiological wellbeing [9][10][11][12]. Good environmental enrichment programmes facilitate the expression of species-specific behaviours by increasing behavioural diversity [9,10,13,14], including extending foraging time and problemsolving [15], reducing extended periods of inactivity and undesired behaviours [15][16][17][18] and lowering the frequency of aggressive behaviours [13,19]. Environmental enrichment programmes also aim to increase the animal's sense of control and ability to choose [12], which is an important contributor to animal welfare since the perception of unpredictable situations, being unable to choose and not having a sense of control over the environment, have been related with stress [11]. ...
... Environmental enrichment is a combination of techniques with the aim to enhance the quality of life of zoo-housed animals by providing environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological and physiological wellbeing [9][10][11][12]. Good environmental enrichment programmes facilitate the expression of species-specific behaviours by increasing behavioural diversity [9,10,13,14], including extending foraging time and problemsolving [15], reducing extended periods of inactivity and undesired behaviours [15][16][17][18] and lowering the frequency of aggressive behaviours [13,19]. Environmental enrichment programmes also aim to increase the animal's sense of control and ability to choose [12], which is an important contributor to animal welfare since the perception of unpredictable situations, being unable to choose and not having a sense of control over the environment, have been related with stress [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Decisions on environmental enrichment programmes are sometimes based on the assumption that non-natural or artificial looking items negatively affect visitor experiences. In this study, we developed a questionnaire to assess zoo visitor attitudes towards enrichment appearance in an outdoor walk-through enclosure for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Naturalistic and artificial looking enrichment items were alternately provided in the enclosure. A total of 371 visitors filled out the questionnaire: 174 in the naturalistic and 197 in the artificial conditions. Both researchers and visitors conducted behavioural observations of the lemurs. Our results suggest that the appearance of the items did not have an effect on visitor attitudes and that visitors recognised both naturalistic and artificial items as enriching for the animals. Moreover, the behaviour and visibility of the lemurs had a greater effect on the visitors’ attitudes. We suggest that during the design of enrichment items, less concern should be placed on the appearance of the items and more on their effect on animal behaviour. Ultimately, this would improve both animal welfare in captivity and the visitor experience.
... While scent has been explored in a wide array of species (e.g., Andrews & Ha, 2014;Kitchener & Asa, 2010;Leonard, 2008;Nelson, 2009;Price, 2010;Rafacz & Santymire, 2014;Schneider, Nogge, & Kolter, 2014;Wells, 2004), the versatility of this enrichment approach has received little attention. For example, a caretaker can mix and match scents in order to create nearly infinite novelty. ...
... They have retained scent receptors and complex nasal turbinates (Kishida, Kubota, Shirayama, & Fukami, 2007) and often utilize scent to recognize conspecifics in the wild (Pitcher, Harcourt, Schaal, & Charrier, 2011). Still, olfactory enrichment has been relatively overlooked as a functional modality for improving the welfare for pinnipeds in human care, despite its effectiveness in improving welfare outcomes in other caniform species (e.g., Andrews & Ha, 2014;Kitchener & Asa, 2010;Leonard, 2008;Nelson, 2009;Price, 2010;Rafacz & Santymire, 2014;Schneider, Nogge, & Kolter, 2014;Wells, 2004). These findings just scratch the surface in describing the nearly infinite possibilities for olfactory enrichment, and it is the author's hope that innovative caretakers will expand upon these findings to improve the lives of the sea lions in their care. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zoological institutions are constantly seeking new and innovative methods of improving captive animal welfare through the use of diverse enrichment techniques. Evaluating these new approaches is critical in ensuring that animals in human care receive the highest welfare standards. One such evaluation, which focused on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), demonstrated the effectiveness of olfactory enrichment in reducing stereotypies, such as circle swimming and voluntary emesis. This paper advocates for the inclusion of this enrichment approach for pinnipeds in human care.
... Increased activity levels are often associated with improved captive welfare, but not if the activity stems from stereotypic behaviours (Bashaw et al. 2003;Andrews and Ha 2014): using dead-reckoned tracks we could investigate this in unprecedented detail (see below). Both individuals collared in London Zoo showed higher daily VeDBA values when a partial pony carcass had been fed compared to rabbits but days where esh chunks had been fed showed greatest variability in VeDBA ( Figure 5). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Zoos are valuable resources for research, providing scientists with access to rare and elusive species in an easy to observe environment. Animal-attached loggers (aka biologgers) offer profound insight into animal behaviour. Their use in zoos has high yet largely untapped potential to collect data relevant for wild animal research and conservation but also welfare and enrichment monitoring of the zoo animals themselves. However, affixing biologgers to study animals can be problematic in captive settings, limiting the accessibility of this technology for use on zoo species which ordinarily need to be sedated for the fitting of such devices, including large carnivores. Here we show that biologging collars and crate-training allow collection of novel datasets on captive animals with high welfare and conservation value, using endangered African wild dogs ( Lycaon pictus ) tagged with tri-axial accelerometer and tri-axial magnetometer loggers, as a case study. These methods are used to describe immediate recovery from anaesthesia (where used), investigate whether activity levels are higher on days with carcass feeds as opposed to feeds of meat pieces given using tongs, and explore refinements to the dead-reckoning analysis procedure through studying animals in a known, enclosed area. Two yearling female wild dogs were fitted with biologging collars while sedated in preparation for translocation from London to Whipsnade Zoo, with data collected for 10-26 hours until collar detachment. Two adult male wild dogs at London Zoo were trained to accept collars in a modified crate in exchange for a food reward, which allowed fitting and detaching the collars without sedation, with data collected for 28 days. First, we show how accelerometer and magnetometer data allow detection of fine-scale individual differences in the recovery from sedation as well as within- and between-individual variation in activity patterns in relation to the type of food received (tong-feeding meat pieces vs rabbit and pony carcass). Using the vectorial dynamic body acceleration metric (VeDBA), a proxy for movement-related energy expenditure, further shows that daily energy expenditure was higher on days with partial pony carcass feeds compared to rabbit feeds but varied considerably between days where flesh pieces were fed with tongs. Using the dead-reckoning method allowed reconstruction of fine-scale (1 Hz locations) movement paths within enclosures, indoors and outdoors, allowing visualisation and quantification of fine-scale movement and space use differences between individuals and over time, for example in response to different enrichment methods. Using multi-sensor biologgers, combined with training captive animals to accept collars without the use of anaesthetic, can enable flexible, experimental approaches to data collection with minimal impact on study animals, providing novel understanding of relevance for both zoo and wild animals.
... However, a few noteworthy studies include examinations that have used common applied behavior analytic procedures to assess and enhance the welfare benefit of enrichment practices. For instance, preference assessments have been used to determine both the type and effectiveness of potential enrichment (Clayton & Shrock, 2020;Dorey et al., 2015;Fernandez et al., 2004;Fernandez & Timberlake, 2019b;Mehrkam & Dorey, 2014, and feeding schedules, including fixedand variable-time schedules, predictable versus unpredictable feeding schedules, and live prey feeding events have been used as forms of enrichment (Andrews & Ha, 2014;Bloomsmith & Lambeth, 1995;Fernandez, 2020;Fernandez, Myers, & Hawkes, 2021;Wagman et al., 2018). In all of the above, a core element, as stressed by Forthman and Ogden, is a functional evaluation of the physical variables of interest. ...
Article
Full-text available
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper reexamines and updates Forthman and Ogden's original points, with attention to the 5 categories they detailed: (a) promotion of species‐typical behavior, (b) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (c) animal handling, (d) pest control, and (e) animal performances. In addition, we outline 3 current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (a) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (b) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (c) single‐case designs and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
... Thus, an extensive examination of each of these studies is not possible within this review (see Swaisgood & Shepherdson, 2005;Zhang et al., 2021 for a selection of meta-analyses conducted on aspects of enrichment involving zoos or aquariums). However, a few noteworthy studies include examinations that have used common applied behavior analytic procedures to assess and enhance the welfare benefit of enrichment practices, such as the use of preference assessments to determine both the type and effectiveness of potential enrichment (Clayton & Shrock, 2020;Dorey et al., 2015;Fernandez et al., 2004;2019b;Mehrkam & Dorey, 2014; as well as the use of feeding schedules, including fixed-and variable-time schedules, predictable vs. unpredictable feeding schedules, and live prey feeding events as forms of enrichment (Andrews & Ha, 2014;Bloomsmith & Lambeth, 1995;Fernandez, 2020;Fernandez, Myers, & Hawkes, 2021;Wagman et al., 2018). In all the above, a core element, as stressed by Forthman and Ogden, is a functional evaluation of the physical variables of interest. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper reexamines and updates Forthman and Ogden's original points, with attention to the five categories they detailed: (1) promotion of species-typical behavior, (2) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (3) animal handling, (4) pest control, and (5) animal performances. In addition, we outline three current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (i) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (ii) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (iii) within-subject methodology and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
... Such time-consuming procedures and their associated limitations clearly emphasise the need for the development and application of more cost-effective and yet non-invasive methods for the assessment of welfare in captive wild animals. So far, the incorporation of technology into zoo research has been mainly applied to promote good welfare via enrichment challenges [19,20] such as touchscreen computers, computer-controlled feeding systems, interactive projections, or computer-based cognitive tasks [21][22][23][24]. Indeed, providing animals with increased choices and better control of their environment may help to improve their welfare state [25,26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A top priority of modern zoos is to ensure good animal welfare (AW), thus, efforts towards improving AW monitoring are increasing. Welfare assessments are performed through more traditional approaches by employing direct observations and time-consuming data collection that require trained specialists. These limitations may be overcome through automated monitoring using wearable or remotely placed sensors. However, in this fast-developing field, the level of automated AW monitoring used in zoos is unclear. Hence, the aim of this systematic literature review was to investigate research conducted on the use of technology for AW assessment in zoos with a focus on real-time automated monitoring systems. The search led to 19 publications with 18 of them published in the last six years. Studies focused on mammals (89.5%) with elephant as the most studied species followed by primates. The most used technologies were camera (52.6%) and wearable sensors (31.6%) mainly used to measure behaviour, while the use of algorithms was reported in two publications only. This research area is still young in zoos and mainly focused on large mammals. Despite an increase in publications employing automated AW monitoring in the last years, the potential for this to become an extra useful tool needs further research.
... Given that route tracing was infrequently observed and not related to any other environmental enrichment variable, it is possible that this was a result of the animal care staff providing more diverse enrichment in an attempt to decrease a pre-existing behavior as opposed to enrichment eliciting the behavior. Providing environmental enrichment has previously been shown to successfully reduce stereotypic behavior [72][73][74][75]. Therefore, it is feasible that facilities were implementing this strategy by providing an array of enrichment to decrease route tracing and increase behavioral diversity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cetaceans are long-lived, social species that are valued as ambassadors inspiring the public to engage in conservation action. Under professional care, they are critical partners with the scientific community to understanding the biology, behavior, physiology, health, and welfare requirements of this taxonomic group. The Cetacean Welfare Study was a highly collaborative research effort among zoos and aquariums accredited by the Alliance for Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums and/or the Association of Zoos & Aquariums that provided important empirical and comparative information on the care and management of cetaceans. The goal was to identify factors that were related to the welfare of bottlenose dolphins and to develop reference intervals and values for common and novel indicators of health and welfare for common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus ), beluga whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ), and Pacific white-sided dolphins ( Lagenorhynchus obliquidens ). Data were collected from cetaceans at 43 accredited zoos and aquariums in seven countries in 2018 and 2019. This overview presents a summary of findings from the initial research articles that resulted from the study titled “Towards understanding the welfare of cetaceans in zoos and aquariums.” With multiple related objectives, animal-based metrics were used to advance frameworks of clinical care and target key conditions that were associated with good welfare of cetaceans in zoo and aquarium environments. As a result of this collaboration, species-specific reference intervals and values for blood variables and fecal hormone metabolites were developed and are freely available in an iOS application called ZooPhysioTrak. The results suggested that environmental enrichment programs and social management factors were more strongly related to behaviors likely indicative of positive welfare than habitat characteristics for common and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. These findings can be widely applied to optimize care and future science-based welfare practice.
... Enriched areas of habitats are associated with increases in social interactions, activity, and foraging behaviors as well as a decrease in stereotypic behaviors [3,14,15]. Similarly, provisioning of foraging enrichment increases the rate of exploration and a decrease in stereotypic behaviors [16][17][18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The way an animal uses its habitat can serve as an indicator of habitat appropriateness for the species and individuals. Bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus and Tursiops aduncus ) in accredited zoos and aquariums experience a range of habitat types and management programs that provide opportunities for dolphins to engage in species-appropriate behaviors and potentially influence their individual and group welfare. Data in the present study were collected as part of a larger study titled “Towards understanding the welfare of cetaceans in zoos and aquariums” (colloquially called the Cetacean Welfare Study). Non-invasive bio-logging devices (Movement Tags) recorded the diving behavior and vertical habitat movements of 60 bottlenose dolphins at 31 zoos and aquariums that were accredited by the Alliance for Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums and/or the Association of Zoos & Aquariums. Bottlenose dolphins wore a Movement Tag one day per week for two five-week data collection periods. Demographic variables, environmental enrichment programs, training programs, and habitat characteristics were associated with habitat usage. Longer dive durations and use of the bottom third of the habitat were associated with higher enrichment program index values. Dolphins receiving new enrichment on a monthly/weekly schedule also used the bottom third of the habitat more often than those receiving new enrichment on a yearly/year+ schedule. Dolphins that were managed in a group that was split into smaller subgroups during the day and were reunited into one group at night spent less time in the top third of the habitat than those who remained in a single group with consistent members at all times. Dolphins that were managed as subgroups with rotating members but were never united as one group spent less time in the bottom third of the habitat than those who remained in a single group with consistent members at all times. Taken together, the results suggested that management practices, such as enrichment and training programs, played a greater role in how dolphins interacted with their environment relative to the physical characteristics of the habitat.
... Environmental enrichment can be defined as stimuli and/or events that are added to or modify an animal's environment and result in some measurable improvement in behavioral and/or physiological wellbeing/welfare (Fernandez et al., 2021a;Fernandez & Timberlake, 2008;Hoy et al., 2010;Mellen & MacPhee, 2001;Newberry, 1995;Shepherdson, 1998). Some examples of enrichment include the use of foraging devices and feeding schedules, both automated and non-automated (Andrews & Ha, 2014;Bashaw et al., 2016;Fernandez, 2010;Fernandez, 2021;Shepherdson et al., 1993), changes in enclosure presentations, including choice between enclosures Coe, 2004;Sherwin et al., 1999), and the presentation of auditory, olfactory, and/or visual stimuli Fernandez & Timberlake, 2019a;Graham et al., 2005;Platt & Novak, 1997;Wells & Irwin, 2008). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Husbandry training and environmental enrichment are both important advancements associated with current behavioral welfare practices. Additionally, the use of training procedures has been proposed as a form of enrichment, with the implication that training can produce beneficial behavioral welfare results. This paper examines the concept of training as enrichment through three distinct ways training procedures could enrich: (1) training facilitates enrichment usage, (2) training modifies interactions, conspecific or otherwise, and (3) training expands behavioral repertoires. Within each category, the paper focuses on past research that provides empirical support for training functioning as enrichment, as well as related areas of research that provide additional evidence. Previous studies support the claim that training is enriching, with additional research necessary to better understand how prevalent and under what conditions training procedures function as enrichment. Future training research should examine these potential enrichment effects, including methodology that allows for comparisons to traditional enrichment, the use of welfare diversity/variability indices, and the effects of learning on trainers and trainees alike.
... Increased activity levels are often associated with improved captive welfare, but not if the activity stems from stereotypic behaviours (Bashaw et al., 2003;Andrews and Ha, 2014); using dead-reckoned tracks we could investigate this in unprecedented detail (see below). Both individuals collared in London Zoo showed higher daily VeDBA values when a partial pony carcass had been fed compared to rabbits but days where esh chunks had been fed showed greatest variability in VeDBA (Fig. 5). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Zoos are valuable resources for research, providing scientists with access to rare and elusive species in an easy to observe environment. Animal-attached loggers (aka biologgers) offer profound insight into animal behaviour. Their use in zoos has high yet largely untapped potential to collect data relevant for wild animal research and conservation but also welfare and enrichment monitoring of the zoo animals themselves. However, affixing biologgers to study animals can be problematic in captive settings, limiting the accessibility of this technology for use on zoo species which ordinarily need to be sedated for the fitting of such devices, including large carnivores. Here we show that biologging collars and crate-training allow collection of novel datasets on captive animals with high welfare and conservation value, using endangered African wild dogs ( Lycaon pictus ) tagged with tri-axial accelerometer and tri-axial magnetometer loggers, as a case study. Two yearling female wild dogs were fitted with biologging collars while sedated in preparation for translocation from London to Whipsnade Zoo, with data collected for 10–26 hours until collar detachment. Two adult male wild dogs at London Zoo were trained to accept collars in a modified crate in exchange for a food reward, which allowed fitting and detaching the collars without sedation, with data collected for 28 days. First, we show how accelerometer and magnetometer data allow detection of fine-scale individual differences in the recovery from sedation as well as within- and between-individual variation in activity patterns in relation to the type of food received (tong vs. rabbit and pony carcass). Using the vectorial dynamic body acceleration metric (VeDBA), a proxy for movement-related energy expenditure, further shows that daily energy expenditure was higher on days with partial pony carcass feeds compared to rabbit feeds but varied considerably between days where flesh pieces were fed with tongs. Using the dead-reckoning method allowed reconstruction of fine-scale (1 Hz locations) movement paths within enclosures, indoors and outdoors, allowing visualisation and quantification of fine-scale movement and space use differences between individuals and over time, for example in response to different enrichment methods. Using multi-sensor biologgers, combined with training captive animals to accept collars without the use of anaesthetic, can enable flexible, experimental approaches to data collection with minimal impact on study animals, providing novel understanding of relevance for both zoo and wild animals.
... Environmental enrichment can be defined as stimuli and/or procedures that are added to or modify an animal's environment and result in some measurable improvement in the behavioural and/or physiological well-being (i.e., welfare or wellness) of an exhibited animal [10][11][12][13]. Some examples include the use of foraging devices and feeding schedules, both automated and non-automated [14][15][16][17][18][19][20], changes in enclosure presentations, including choice between enclosures [21,22], the presentation of auditory, olfactory, and/or visual stimuli [23][24][25][26][27], and the use of operant conditioning and various other animal training practices [28,29]. In addition to the welfare benefits for enriched animals, increased animal activity has also been correlated with increased visitor attention to those exhibited animals [30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Penguins are considered among the most popular animals for zoo and aquarium visitors to observe. Swimming is considered a desirable activity, both for the visitor experience and the welfare of the penguins. However, little is known about the amount of time exhibited penguins spend swimming, or how such swimming is related to regular feeding events. We examined the effects of introducing live prey in the form of trout on 22 Humboldt penguins living at the Woodland Park Zoo. Of primary interest was how the live feeds changed (1) daily and hourly swimming activity, and (2) variability in enclosure use. We hypothesized that the live feedings would increase swimming activity prior to and during the delivery of the live trout, as well as create an overall increase in total swimming activity for live feed days compared to non-live feed days. We also predicted that the penguins would be more likely to use the entire exhibit around these live feeds, since they are likely to chase fish throughout the exhibit. Penguins did show an increase in swimming activity in the hour prior to and during the live feed, with a small decrease in swimming activity following the live feed when compared to non-live feed days. There was also a more than 30% increase in the total swimming activity for live feed days when compared to all other non-live feed days. In addition, a single measure of variability in enclosure use (entropy) showed greater overall enclosure use for the live feed days compared to the non-live feed days. These results demonstrate that live fish can be a useful way of enriching the behavioural welfare of Humboldt penguins.
... More recent devices, such as the Treat N Train™, allow for automatic fixed-and variable-time schedules to be implemented for such purposes (Yin et al., 2008). Likewise, automated, random feeding devices have also been successful in reducing stereotypic activity in grizzly bears (Ursus acrtos horribilus; Andrews and Ha, 2014). Future enrichment strategies for polar bears, ursids, carnivores, and possibly other captive species could potentially benefit from the use of such automatic feeding devices. ...
Article
Stereotypies in captive animals have been defined as repetitive, largely invariant patterns of behavior that serve no obvious goal or function. Stereotypies are commonly attributed to boredom or stress and are typically treated by enriching captivity with distracting, appealing stimuli. These stimuli often include food presented at times other than regular feedings, and as a result, engage species-typical foraging behaviors that reduce stereotypies. The present work on captive polar bears is based on the view that stereotypies are due in part to inadequate support for the expression of species-typical foraging "loops" and can be reduced by increasing support for a more complete expression of foraging responses. We tested this view through 4 experiments that presented small samples of food and scents on several schedules, examining their effects prior to, during, and after the schedule. Most schedules reduced stereotypies and increased general activity prior to and during the schedule. These data support three conclusions: (1) individual stereotypies appear related to incomplete, repeating loops of foraging behavior; (2) providing stimuli supporting a more complete sequence of search behaviors reduces stereotypies and increases non-stereotypic activity; and (3) a descriptive, analytic approach based on how foraging behaviors relate to the captive feeding procedures can facilitate understanding of stereotypies and suggest methods to reduce them.
... Although, as noted above, mate-seeking behavior may be causally related to the May through July occurrence of stereotypies, the times at which these stereotypies occurred still appeared entrained to the feeding schedules. Past research has shown similar patterns for stereotypic pacing in zoo bears, with pacing occurring in anticipation of food events and reduced as a result of providing multiple feeding opportunities [26,37,[59][60][61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Captive grizzly bears, like their wild counterparts, engage in considerable variability in their seasonal and daily activity. We documented the year-long activity of two grizzly bears located at the Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle, Washington. We found that behaviors emerged in relation to month-to-month, seasonal, and time of day (hour-to-hour) observations, and events that occurred on exhibit, such as daily feedings. Seventeen behaviors split into seven classes of behavior were observed during their on-exhibit time over a 13-month period. Inactivity was the most frequent class of responses recorded, with most inactive behaviors occurring during the winter months. Both stereotypic and non-stereotypic activity emerged during the spring and summer months, with stereotypic activity occurring most frequently in the morning and transitioning to non-stereotypic activity in the latter part of the day. Results are discussed with respect to how captive grizzly bear behaviors relate to their natural seasonal and daily activity, as well as how events, such as feeding times and enrichment deliveries, can be used to optimize overall captive bear welfare.
... It is not clear why this was the case, although other researchers have used "noncontingent reinforcement" (NCR) procedures to decrease aberrant (undesired) responses and increase desired behaviors (for reviews, see [38,39]). Similarly, response-independent schedules have been successful at reducing stereotypic activity and increasing naturalistic foraging responses in zoo animals [40,41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Shaping through differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a target response has been a cornerstone procedure for the training of novel behavior. However, much of how it has traditionally been implemented occurs through informal observation, rather than any direct, systematic measurement. In the present study, we examine the use of response-independent food schedules and shaping for increasing approach and contact behaviors in petting zoo sheep. In Experiment 1, a fixed-time (FT) 15 s food schedule was used to effectively increase approach and contact behaviors in one sheep. In Experiment 2, negative reinforcement in the form of removal of the presence of a trainer was made contingent on the successful completion of approximations within a shaping procedure and later switched to food rewards. A changing-criterion design was used to empirically examine the effects of the shaping procedure during each step of the program. The result is one of the first studies to demonstrate the utility of using negative reinforcement within a shaping procedure to successfully intervene on approach/avoidance behaviors in an applied animal setting.
... One purpose of enrichment is to increase naturalistic behaviors of exhibited animals through the introduction of stimuli and/or changes in feeding opportunities. Included among these have been the use of particular food presentations with bears (Andrews & Ha, 2014;Carlstead, Seidensticker, & Baldwin, 1991;Law, Boyle, Johnston & MacDonald, 1990), and with felids (Lyons, Young, & Deag, 1997;Shepherdson, Carlstead, Mellen, & Seidensticker, 1993), effects of acoustic "prey" on African leopards (Markowitz, Aday, & Gavazzi, 1995), inedible, manipulable objects given to zoo and aquarium animals (Altman, 1999;Bashaw, Gibson, Schowe, & Kucher, 2016;Clark, Davies, Madigan, Warner, & Kuczaj, 2013), enclosure manipulations, including choice between enclosures (Carlstead, Brown, & Seidensticker, 1993;Sherwin, Lewis, & Perry, 1999), and access to conspecifics or stimuli associated with conspecifics (Bourgeois & Brent, 2005;Mills & Riezebos, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
The modern zoo has brought about two major advances in the behavioral welfare of their exhibited animals: (a) The use of environmental enrichment to promote naturalistic behaviors and (b) the use of training to improve voluntary husbandry care. Whereas training itself has been talked about as an effective enrichment strategy, little has been done to combine training procedures with enrichment. Typically, enrichment is treated as a trial and error process, where potential enrichment items or procedures are cycled through until successful enrichment is found. The use of shaping or other training techniques has seldom been documented to increase engagement with possible enrichment items or procedures. The following study examined the possibility of combining training and enrichment to produce continued interactions with enrichment devices. Two species of penguin, Magellanic and southern rockhopper penguins, were studied. Two measures were taken: Time spent swimming and contact with enrichment devices. The enrichment devices could be manipulated by placing fish within and hanging out of each device. During baseline sessions, no hits to either device were observed. During training sessions, several hits were recorded when fish were in the devices and overall swimming time increased during these conditions. When baseline was reintroduced without fish in the devices, contact with the enrichment devices rapidly declined and swimming time for the rockhopper penguins decreased. When the devices were reintroduced with fish but without training, the greatest number of enrichment device contacts and the highest percentage of time spent swimming were observed for the rockhopper penguins.
... With respect to examining non-adventitious reinforcement functions related to response-independent schedules, much of the human-oriented research suggests operant-related functions, such as satiation or response extinction (Carr et al., 2000;Kahng et al., 2000). Other research implementing response-independent schedules for applied purposes have examined their effects on stereotypic pacing in captive bears (Andrews and Ha, 2014;Carlstead et al., 1991;Fernandez, 2010). Future research could benefit directly from examinations of the potential environmental enrichment functions related to eliciting species-typical appetitive behavior as a result of fixedand variable-time schedules. ...
... Several behavioural indicators of welfare have been used to assess the effects of feeding enrichment programs. In carnivores, feeding enrichment has been shown to decrease stereotypies [14,17], improve behavioural diversity [18,19], increase exploration [20] and activity levels [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of two feeding enrichment programs on the behaviour of a captive pack of European wolves (Canis lupus lupus) and their correlation with both zoo visitors’ interest towards the exhibit and their overall perception of the species. Behavioural data (exploration, stereotypies, social interactions, activity/inactivity rates) were collected on four male wolves during four two-week long phases: initial control, hidden food, novel object, final control. Three observation sessions were performed daily: before, during and after feeding. Number of visitors and their permanence in front of the exhibit were recorded. After watching the wolves, visitors were asked to fill out a brief questionnaire in order to investigate their perception of captive wolf welfare, as well as their attitude towards wolf conservation issues. Despite the high inter-individual variability in their behavioural response, all wolves seemed to benefit from feeding enrichment. With regard to visitors, interest in the exhibit increased when enrichment was provided. Visitors’ perception of the level of welfare of wolves improved if they attended a feeding session, especially during the novel object phase. Visitors’ attitude towards wolf conservation issues also improved during feeding sessions, regardless of enrichment provision.
... In terrestrial canids, scent is critical for effective foraging (Apfelbach, 1992;Gittleman, 1991;Hughes, Price, & Banks, 2010;Schwartz, Miller, & Haroldson, 2003;Ylönen, Sundell, Tiilikainen, Eccard, & Horne, 2003), navigation (Rogers, 1988), and social behaviors (Beckoff, 1981;Rothman & Mech, 1979). Accordingly, environmental enrichment for these species has focused on scent (i.e., Andrews & Ha, 2014;Kitchener & Asa, 2010;Price, 2010;Rafacz & Santymire, 2014;Schneider, Nogge, & Kolter, 2014) but has not been evaluated scientifically in pinnipeds. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the wild, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide variety of sensory information, which cannot be replicated in captive environments. Therefore, unique procedures are necessary for maintaining physiological and psychological health in nonhuman animals in captivity. The effects of introducing natural scents to captive enclosures have been investigated in a variety of species, yet they have not been examined in marine mammals. This project explored the behavioral effect of scent added to the environment, with the goal of improving the welfare of sea lions in captivity. Two scent types were introduced: (a) natural scents, found in their native environment, and (b) non-natural scents, not found in their native environment. This study examined not only scent enrichment but also the possible evolutionary underpinnings of pinniped olfaction. Scent enrichment was found to significantly impact sea lion behavior as demonstrated by a reduction in pattern swimming, an increase in habitat utilization, and a reduction in stereotypical behavior. However, there were no differences in behavior between natural and non-natural scent conditions.
... Frequently described enrichment benefits include an increase in the expression of species-specific behavioral patterns (Reinhardt and Reinhardt, 2011) and a reduction/elimination of abnormal repetitive behaviors (for a review, see Mason et al., 2007), which can occupy a significant percentage of the animal time (e.g., 23% of tigers' daytime in Mohapatra et al., 2014). Several reports of increased active and social behaviors and reduction in stereotypies after the introduction of various forms of enrichment can be found in the scientific literature [e.g., white-lipped peccaries (Nogueira et al., 2011); African wild dogs (Rafacz and Santymire, 2014); grizzly bears (Andrews and Ha, 2014)]. There are many other similar examples in the scientific literature, but a detailed review is outside the scope of this article. ...
Article
The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the effects of two forms of environmental enrichment (i.e., branched tree-trunk and brushes) on the behaviour of a group of eight captive blackbucks. Animals were directly observed for four hours a day (09:30-11:30 and 12:30-14:30), on days 1, 3, 6 (pre-enrichment phase, before the new individual was born), 8, 10, 15, 17 (pre-enrichment phase, after the birth of the new individual), 22, 24, 29, 31, 43, 64 (enrichment phase), using instantaneous scan sampling every minute. Video-recordings were also performed in days 24, 43, 64, from 09:30 to 11:00 and from 12:30-14:00, and analyzed using a continuous behavioral sampling method, for activities directed to the tree-trunk. Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were performed both on the total number of scans and on the percentage of scans in which the animals were not out-of-sight. The blackbucks interacted significantly more with the tree trunk than with the brushes (p=0.012). The duration of the interactions with the tree trunk declined over time (p<0.001). The animals increased their feeding activity and decreased their rumination while in the standing position in the enrichment phase in comparison with the two preceding phases. The results of this preliminary study suggest a slightly beneficial effect of the provision of a tree trunk for blackbucks as a form of environmental enrichment, and highlights some problems when observing this prey species.
... Scent has been established as critical for effective foraging (Apfelbach, 1992;Gittleman, 1991;Hughes, Price & Banks, 2010;Schwartz, Miller, & Haroldson, 2003;Ylönen, Sundell, Tiilikainen, Eccard, & Horne, 2003), navigation (Rogers, 1988) and even many social behaviors (Beckoff, 1981;Rothman & Mech, 1979). As such, many enrichment approaches for these species tend to focus on scent (i.e., Andrews & Ha, 2014;Kitchener & Asa, 2010;Leonard, 2008;Nelson, 2009;Rafacz & Santymire, 2014;Schneider, Nogge, & Kolter, 2014;Wells, 2004). ...
Thesis
In the wild, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide array of sensory information at all times. However, it is impossible for captive environments to provide this level of complexity. Therefore unique procedures and practices are necessary for the maintenance of physiological and psychological health in captive animals (Wells, 2009). This project aims to explore the behavioral effect of scent added to the environment, with the goal of improving the welfare of captive sea lions by introducing two scent types: 1.) Natural scents, found in their native environment, and 2.) Non-natural scents, not found in their native environment. The use of scent to add complexity to the captive environment has been utilized with big cats (Szokalski, Litchfield & Foster, 2012; Wells, 2009), canids (Steele & Steele, 2005), and other zoo-housed species (Wells, 2009) yet this method has not been explored in marine mammals. Nor has this approach been documented in the scientific literature for use with captive sea lions, despite caretaker reports that scents may be a fruitful approach for captive sea lion enrichment. Scent enrichment was found to significantly impact sea lion behavior, as demonstrated by a reduction in pattern swimming, increased habitat utilization, and reduction in stereotypical behavior, however, there appears to be no relationship between these variables and a preference between natural and non-natural scents.
... One purpose of enrichment is to increase naturalistic behaviors of exhibited animals through the introduction of stimuli and/or changes in feeding opportunities. Included among these have been the use of particular food presentations with bears (Andrews & Ha, 2014;Carlstead, Seidensticker, & Baldwin, 1991;Law, Boyle, Johnston & MacDonald, 1990), and with felids (Lyons, Young, & Deag, 1997;Shepherdson, Carlstead, Mellen, & Seidensticker, 1993), effects of acoustic "prey" on African leopards (Markowitz, Aday, & Gavazzi, 1995), inedible, manipulable objects given to zoo and aquarium animals (Altman, 1999;Bashaw, Gibson, Schowe, & Kucher, 2016;Clark, Davies, Madigan, Warner, & Kuczaj, 2013), enclosure manipulations, including choice between enclosures (Carlstead, Brown, & Seidensticker, 1993;Sherwin, Lewis, & Perry, 1999), and access to conspecifics or stimuli associated with conspecifics (Bourgeois & Brent, 2005;Mills & Riezebos, 2005). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The modern zoo has brought about two major advances in the behavioral welfare of their exhibited animals: (a) The use of environmental enrichment to promote naturalistic behaviors and (b) the use of training to improve voluntary husbandry care. Whereas training itself has been talked about as an effective enrichment strategy, little has been done to combine training procedures with enrichment. Typically, enrichment is treated as a trial and error process, where potential enrichment items or procedures are cycled through until successful enrichment is found. The use of shaping or other training techniques has seldom been documented to increase engagement with possible enrichment items or procedures. The following study examined the possibility of combining training and enrichment to produce continued interactions with enrichment devices. Two species of penguin, Magellanic and southern rockhopper penguins, were studied. Two measures were taken: Time spent swimming and contact with enrichment devices. The enrichment devices could be manipulated by placing fish within and hanging out of each device. During baseline sessions, no hits to either device were observed. During training sessions, several hits were recorded when fish were in the devices and overall swimming time increased during these conditions. When baseline was reintroduced without fish in the devices, contact with the enrichment devices rapidly declined and swimming time for the rockhopper penguins decreased. When the devices were reintroduced with fish but without training, the greatest number of enrichment device contacts and the highest percentage of time spent swimming were observed for the rockhopper penguins.
Article
Full-text available
Husbandry training and environmental enrichment are both important advancements associated with current behavioural welfare practices. Additionally, the use of training procedures has been proposed as a form of enrichment, with the implication that training can produce beneficial behavioural welfare results. This paper examines the concept of training as enrichment through three distinct ways training procedures could enrich: (i) training facilitates enrichment usage; (ii) training modifies interactions, conspecific or otherwise; and (iii) training expands behavioural repertoires. Within each category, the paper focuses on past research that provides empirical support for training functioning as enrichment, as well as related areas of research that provide additional evidence. Previous studies support the claim that training is enriching, with additional research necessary to better understand how prevalent and under what conditions training procedures function as enrichment. Future training research should examine these potential enrichment effects, including methodology that allows for comparisons to traditional enrichment, the use of welfare diversity/variability indices, and the effects of learning on trainers and trainees alike.
Article
Repetitive pacing behavior is exhibited by many species in zoos and is particularly prevalent in carnivores with large home ranges, such as bears. Pacing can be a behavioral indicator of poor welfare, however, understanding this behavior can be challenging. As many bears that pace are singly housed, efforts to systematically examine and ameliorate pacing may be strengthened by multi-institutional studies. However, there is currently no standardized method to quantify pacing, which makes cross-institutional analyses of causal factors and intervening measures challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare multiple sampling methods and definitions for quantifying pacing in bears to understand how they affect outcome measures. We analyzed video recordings of two grizzly and two black bears pacing, using three sampling methods (continuous, instantaneous 30-s interval, instantaneous 1-min interval), and three definitions of pacing (AB—two repetitions of the path, ABA—three repetitions, ABAB—four repetitions). A generalized linear mixed model revealed that continuous and instantaneous 30-s interval methods captured more pacing than instantaneous 1-min methods, and definitions captured a decreasing amount of pacing from AB to ABA to ABAB. AB also captured the highest number of pacing bouts. The importance of comparability across institutions is growing, and a standard methodology and definition for recording pacing would be useful. We suggest that the combination of instantaneous sampling and the ABA definition presents a good balance between capturing the right data and being flexible enough for a variety of institutions to implement. Research Highlights • We found that different sampling methods and definitions used to observe pacing in bears do affect the amount of pacing behavior recorded. • We recommend using instantaneous sampling and the ABA definition of pacing for bear behavior studies.
Article
Behavioural observation is an essential part of routine welfare assessment protocols for captive wild animals and Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA) can be included as measure of their emotional state. This study aims to develop a QBA Fixed List (FL) for brown bears (Ursus arctos), to test its reliability and to investigate the potential effect of the individual characteristics of the bears and season on the QBA outcomes. Observations and/or video-recordings were performed on 24 brown bears kept in three FOUR PAWS (FP) Sanctuaries. A list of 20 terms was created based on preliminary observations and assessments. Reliability between four observers was tested by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of the four main Principal Components (PC) and each QBA term scored on 20 two-minute videos, after online training sessions. The correlation between direct versus video observations was investigated through Spearman rank correlations calculated on the first two PC of QBA performed by one observer on 32 twenty-minute observations. Finally, the effect of sex, age, time since rescue (Length of Stay -LoS-), and season was investigated using non-parametric analysis on QBA PC performed by the same observer on 41 twenty-minute videos. Results showed a good sampling adequacy. The agreement between observers was met in all four PC with ICC values from 0.63 to 0.95 and in most terms with ICC values from excellent (> 0.90) to moderate (0.50-0.75), except for Apathetic and Bored. Data from direct and video observations showed a significant correlation among each PC (Rs=0.69 for PC1, p<0.001; Rs=0.67 for PC2; p<0.001). The four main PC on QBA performed on the 41 twenty-minute videos, used to test the effects of sex, age, LoS, and season, explained 74.5% of variance. Positive and negative mood descriptors loaded on PC1, PC2 described activity levels, PC3 dealt with emotions of joy and suffering and PC4 with frustration. Sex affected PC2, females were more Positively occupied and Inquisitive. Older bears (>20 years) were more Bored and In pain than younger bears. Newly arrived bears (<6 months) expressed more negative emotions than bears in FP Sanctuaries for ≥4 years. Bears showed more positive mood during spring and more negative during summer. Results of the study encourage the application of the developed FL in routine welfare assessments in FP Sanctuaries to monitor bear welfare throughout the seasons, their adaptation process from rescue onwards and to promptly identify changes due to the aging of the animals.
Article
Full-text available
After four years of field work and widespread studies, the Asiatic Black Bear project in Hormozgan province in southern Iran has developed a strategic plan for conservation of the species, based on IUCN guidelines. Hormozgan province in southern Iran is the westernmost global distribution of the Asiatic Black Bear (ABB). The ABB is listed globally as “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. The subspecies of ABB in Iran, called the Baluchistan black bear (Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus), occurs only in Iran and Pakistan, and has previously been classified as “Critically Endangered”. Considered as an “Endangered species” by Iran Department of Environment, the ABB in Iran is one of the rarest mammal species in the country and in urgent need for conservation action. The Asiatic Black Bear project, which we describe in this report, aims to take effective steps toward ABB conservation.
Article
Full-text available
Cross-institutional studies that combine non-invasive physiological measures of stress responses and the assessment of individual differences in behaviour and temperament have great potential as tools for assessing the well-being of zoo animals and for identifying key environmental stimuli relevant to well-being. In addition, such studies allow comparison of animals under a wide variety of conditions and enable researchers to obtain sufficiently large samples sizes for statistical data analyses. Faecal corticoid measurements, a method recently developed to monitor adrenal activity in wildlife and domestic species, can be obtained non-invasively as part of the normal husbandry routine. While basic techniques still need improvement, and interpretation of the acquired measures can be challenging, assessment of faecal corticoid concentrations can provide a useful indicator of stress responses under a variety of captive conditions. Here we report on three studies that illustrate this approach and the results that can be obtained. An on-going study reveals significant differences in the pattern of variability of faecal corticoid concentrations between polar bears that are reported by keepers to perform stereotypic behaviour and those that do not. In another study, faecal corticoid measures indicated that stress responses to certain extraneous noises might interfere with the breeding of Hawaiian honeycreepers in captivity. In a study of clouded leopards, higher faecal corticoid concentrations were measured when cats were kept on public display or near potential predators compared to individuals maintained off exhibit or in the absence of visible predators. The findings of an on-going experimental study suggest a causal relationship between the provision of additional hiding spaces and a decline in faecal corticoid concentrations in clouded leopards.
Article
Full-text available
Replication and extension of Skinner's "supersitition" experiment showed the development of 2 kinds of behavior at asymptote: (a) interim activities, related to adjunctive behavior, which occurred just after food delivery; and (b) the terminal response, a discriminated operant, which occurred toward the end of the interval and continued until food delivery. These data suggest a view of operant conditioning (the terminal response) in terms of 2 sets of principles: principles of behavioral variation that describe the origins of behavior appropriate to a situation, in advance of reinforcement; and principles of reinforcement that describe the selective elimination of behavior so produced. This approach was supported by (a) an account of the parallels between the law of effect and evolution by means of natural selection; (b) its ability to elucidate persistent problems in learning, e.g., continuity vs. noncontinuity, variability associated with extinction, the relationship between classical and instrumental conditioning, the controversy between behaviorist and cognitive approaches to learning; and (c) its ability to deal with a number of recent anomalies in the learning literature (instinctive drift, auto-shaping, and auto-maintenance). The interim activities are interpreted in terms of interactions among motivational systems, and this view is supported by a review of the literature on adjunctive behavior and by comparison with similar phenomena in ethology (displacement, redirection, and vacuum activities). The proposed theoretical scheme represents a shift away from hypothetical laws of learning toward an interpretation of behavioral change in terms of interaction and competition among tendencies to action according to principles evolved in phylogeny. (4 p. ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The zoo scientific community was among the first to focus attention on captivity-induced stereotypic behaviors, their causes, and methods of eradication. Environmental enrichment has emerged recently as the main husbandry tool for tackling this problem. An increasing number of research publications have attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment in reducing stereotypic behavior and to develop further concepts to explain how effective enrichment works. A review and meta-analysis of this literature indicates that enrichment is a successful technique for reducing stereotypic behavior in zoo animals. Enrichment was associated with significant reduction in stereotypy performance about 53% of the time. Published enrichment and stereotypy research is lacking for most zoo species, with most studies on large, charismatic, and often endangered species, but it is unclear whether stereotypies are more prevalent in these species. In addition, problems with scientific methods and data presentation, quantitatively detailed in this work, severely limit the conclusions drawn from zoo research. Further understanding of what kinds of enrichment works and what doesn't will require greater attention to experimental design, sample size, statistical analysis, and better descriptions of enrichment properties and the form of stereotypy. We recommend that future studies focus on increasing sample size (e.g., through multi-institutional studies), appropriate repeated measures design (e.g., with multiple baseline and experimental phases), providing full statistical information about the behavioral changes observed (including standard error), and ultimately the development of a predictive science for enrichment, stereotypies, and wellbeing. Zoo Biol 0:1–20, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
This research examined three explanations for the "superstitious" behavior of pigeons under frequent fixed-time delivery of food: accidental response-reward contingency, stimulus substitution, and elicited species-typical appetitive behavior. The behavior observed in these studies consisted of occasional postfood locomotion away from the food hopper, and a predominant pattern of activity directed toward the hopper wall (wall-directed behavior), including approaching, stepping side to side, scratching with the feet, bumping with the breast, pendulum movements of the extended neck, and head bobbing, though not pecking. The consistency of these behavior patterns argued against explanation by accidental response contingencies, and the complexity of behavior was incompatible with the classic stimulus-substitution account. These studies also showed that: (1) response contingencies and prior stimulus experience can modify wall-directed behavior, but within definable limits; (2) pecking sometimes can be obtained in birds of specific strains, and by providing extended training; (3) placing the hopper in the floor at the center of a large chamber replaces wall-directed behavior with circling in a manner that resembles ground foraging for food. We conclude that superstitious behavior under periodic delivery of food probably develops from components of species-typical patterns of appetitive behavior related to feeding. These patterns are elicited by a combination of frequent food presentations and the supporting stimuli present in the environment.
Article
This book is comprised of 11 chapters generally discussing different perspectives of stereotypic behaviour in man and animals. The chapters are divided into 3 parts (normal animal and abnormal environment, stereotypic behaviours as pathologies and treating stereotypic behaviours). The first chapter reviews the extent and nature of research into stereotypic behaviour. Chapters 2-4 (part I) focus on the ethological perspective. Behaviour is discussed, including stereotypies, in terms of its motivated basis (stereotyping subjects are normal animals responding in species-typical ways to an abnormal environment). Chapters 5-8 (part II) emphasize clinical psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience. Three assumptions are presented: stereotypies of focus are the products of dysfunction (animal is abnormal); fullest understanding of stereotypies will come from investigating the neurophysiological mechanisms involved; and processes involved at this level have great cross-species generality. Part III (chapter 9 and 10) illustrates how stereotypies can be tackled and reduced by those concerned about their unaesthetic appearance and/or welfare implications. Chapter 11 provides a synthesis of the book and future research and suggestions on how terminology can be improved.
Article
Captive small felids frequently pace repetitively and/or spend large amounts of time inactive. Presenting a fishing cat with live-fish resulted in more activity (60% less sleeping), increased behavioral diversity, including previously unobserved hunting behaviors, and greater enclosure utilization. Effects persisted for at least 48 h after presentation of live fish, and up to 8 days. In a second study, four leopard cats were fed: (1) once per day, (2) four times per day and, (3) four times per day with food hidden in small piles of brush. Multiple feedings of hidden food increased daily exploratory behavior from 5.5% to over 14%, and increased the diversity of behaviors observed. It also reduced the total duration, and bout length of stereotyped pacing. These studies suggest that providing food to small cats in a way that minimizes predictability of food availability, while maximizing the functional consequences of foraging behavior, can be an effective enrichment technique. These results are discussed in relation to two models of behavioral motivation, one that focuses on the issue of behavioral needs, and the other that emphasizes the importance of information acquisition. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Article
Bears are extremely popular among the zoo-going public, yet while many zoo exhibits have undergone dramatic design changes in recent years, most bears continue to be housed in moated grottos constructed largely of gunite. In these traditional exhibits they frequently demonstrate stereotypic locomotor patterns and are often encouraged by the public to beg. Thus, the manner in which most captive bears are exhibited does not facilitate conservation education. It is possible, however, to provide bears with opportunities to demonstrate species-typical feeding and foraging behaviors, even in standard exhibits. Subjects were four individuals of three bear species. Feeding enrichment was provided to one bear per week during three mornings during the summers of 1989 and 1990. Overall, animals were more active, less passive and less often engaged in abnormal behaviors during sessions with enrichment. Effects showed individual variation and were more profound during the second year of the study, when a greater variety of enrichment items was presented. These results suggest that simple and inexpensive methods of enrichment may have a significant, positive influence on the behavior of captive bears. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The behaviour of 25 tethered sows in an intensive piggery was observed for 1 h before and 1 h after the delivery of food to determine if behavioural stereotypies appeared as adjunctive behaviours. The different components of behavioural stereotypies were found to have different associations with the feeding period. Head-waving, bar-biting, and rubbing the snout against the cage were most common before feeding, and were shown particularly by the older sows. Manipulating the drinker and, for some sows, rubbing were most common after. There was some evidence of polydipsia. Vacuum chewing, playing with the chain, and aggressive behaviours, however, did not appear to be associated with the feeding period. The last two behaviours occurred only rarely. Seven sows showed stereotyped sequences of rapid rubbing or rapid drinking after the delivery of food, and these sows showed more excitement before food was delivered. Rooting was common for the full hour after all food had been consumed, and occurred in conjunction with long duration drinking. I suggest that the occurrence of adjunctive drinking by sows results from the persistence of feeding motivation, perhaps because concentrated food does not provide sufficient stomach distension, combined with the knowledge that food will definitely not be forthcoming. Stereotyped sequences of behaviour may be a means of reducing the arousal generated by the expectation of food.
Article
We estimate that stereotypies are currently displayed by over 85 million farm, laboratory and zoo animals worldwide. This paper investigates their reliability as welfare indicators, by surveying studies relating stereotypy to other welfare measures and by analysing the mechanisms underlying this behaviour. Where data exist, most (approximately 68%) situations that cause/increase stereotypies also decrease welfare. Stereotypy-eliciting situations are thus likely to be poor for welfare, although exceptions exist. Within such an environment, however, most (approximately 60%) accounts link individual stereotypy performance with improved welfare (cf approximately 20% linking it with reduced welfare). Thus, in a sub-optimal environment, non-stereotyping or low-stereotyping individuals could well have the poorest welfare, although again exceptions exist. Examining the mechanisms underlying stereotypy performance, we discuss four processes that could account for these complex links between stereotypy and welfare. Beneficial consequences from performing the specific source-behaviour of the stereotypy ('do-it-yourself enrichment'), or arising from repetition per se ('mantra effects'), may ameliorate welfare in poor environments. In addition, stereotypies that have become centrally controlled (habit-like), or that arise from autistic-like changes in the control of all behaviour (perseveration), are likely to be unreliable indicators of current state because they can be elicited by, or persist in, circumstances that improve welfare. To refine the role of stereotypy in welfare assessment, we suggest the collection of specific additional data to reveal when any of these four processes is acting. Until such research increases our understanding, stereotypies should always be taken seriously as a warning sign of potential suffering, but never used as the sole index of welfare; non-stereotyping or low-stereotyping individuals should not be overlooked or assumed to be faring well; simple measures of frequency should not be used to compare stereotypies that differ in age, form, or the biological or experiential characteristics of the performing animal; enrichments that do not immediately reduce stereotypies should not be assumed failures with respect to welfare; and finally, stereotypies should not be reduced by means other than tackling their underlying motivations.
Article
This meta-analysis reports the effect enrichment has on the occurrence of stereotypic behavior exhibited by captive zoo mammals. The analysis also identifies which types of enrichment are most effective, which groups of animals benefit the most, and which types of stereotypes are most affected by environmental enrichment. The analysis included 54 studies that yielded 63 effect size statistics. Fifty-seven of sixty-three effect sizes went in the predicted direction (90%), with the animals participating in less stereotypic behavior during the enrichment condition than in the baseline condition. The mean effect size (correlation coefficient r) was 0.46. The combined P-value using both fixed and random effects methods was reveled to be <0.0000001. A file drawer N-value was calculated to identify the number of unretrieved studies (with a combined effect size of zero) that would be needed to nullify the results of this analysis. The file drawer N-value was 1,726, suggesting that it is highly unlikely that the significant results reported in this analysis are nullified by studies that remain in file drawers. Based on these results it was concluded that enrichment substantially reduces the frequency of stereotypic behavior exhibited by mammals living in zoo environments. Zoo Biol 0:1–21, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The high incidence of stereotypic behaviors in zoo bears (van Keulen-Kromhout: International Zoo Yearbook 18:177–186, 1978) suggests that the environment of these animals lacks essential stimuli for guiding normal behavior. Three experiments investigated ways in which bear husbandry procedures can be altered to promote normal behavior. In experiments 1 and 2, honey-filled logs were given to a sloth (Melursus ursinus), American black (Ursus americanus), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) to determine 1) the role of food in stimulating investigatory behavior, 2) the rate of habituation to manipulable objects introduced into the exhibit, and 3) effects on locomotory behaviors. Results show specific and general habituation to the introduced objects that can be counteracted by refilling the logs with honey and by providing multiple logs in the exhibit. Investigatory activity directed toward honey-logs replaces pacing and walking in the sloth bear and is most effective in doing so when the log is novel. Experiment 3 examined the behavioral effects of feeding an American black bear in three different ways: 1) once daily in the den, 2) once daily with supplemental food from a mechanical feeder, and 3) once daily with food hidden in the exhibit in manipulatable objects. The latter method reduced stereotypic pacing from a median of 150 min/day to 20 min/day; the mechanical feeder method had no such effect. The results of a survey of 67 zoos concerning the diet and manner of feeding these three species of bears, as well as Asian black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are presented. Results are discussed with respect to the ways in which husbandry procedures can be improved to stimulate functional foraging and feeding behavior in confined bears.
Article
Two repetitive avian stereotypies, spot-picking and route-tracing, are examined with respect to the factors which cause the onset of these behaviours.Stereotypies were counted in 5-min observation periods, excluding time spent singing, feeding, drinking, or preening. Twelve of these 5-min periods made up an experimental test series.Several experiments were conducted to determine the effects of various environmental and developmental conditions on the frequency of stereotypies. Route-tracing was reduced in a very large aviary cage and when a swinging-perch arrangement was added to a smaller cage. Spot-picking was reduced when canaries were required to ‘work for food’. Wild-caught birds generally exhibited a greater number of route-traces and few if any spot-picks when compared to laboratory-reared birds, although the type of laboratory rearing (isolated, grouped, mother-reared, hand-reared) seemed to have little effect.It is therefore suggested that route-tracing is associated with the physical restrictions imposed on movement by the cage, while spot-picking results from some deficiency associated with laboratory conditions.
Article
The behaviour of a male American black bear Ursus americanus was observed for over 2400 h across all seasons of the year. Stereotypic pacing was most frequent, oriented away from the exhibit, and performed mainly after feeding during the period May–July; from August–November pacing was oriented towards the exhibit and performed mainly around feeding time. Placing bear odors in the enclosure slightly reduced pacing and increased exploring/foraging in the late spring. Hiding small food items in the exhibit almost completely eliminated pacing in the fall and replaced it with foraging. Comparison with seasonal changes in the behaviour of wild bears suggest that the stereotypy of this bear, and probably zoo bears in general, developed from two main primary behaviours that cannot be performed in a barren zoo environment: mate-seeking behaviour predominating in the late spring and foraging behaviour in the late summer and fall.
Article
Many publications within the field of zoo animal welfare have stated the importance of decreasing stereotypic behavior (e.g., pacing) to help ensure a positive visitor experience. The idea behind these statements is that visitors want to see animals engaged in natural behavior. Additionally, it is thought that watching an animal exhibit species-appropriate behavior could help increase a visitor's connection to wildlife and ultimately their interest in conservation. However, until recently, no information was available to validate such statements. The purpose of this research was to examine people's reaction to viewing an animal engaged in pacing behavior. Participants were randomly selected to fill out a survey after watching a short video of either a tiger pacing or resting (control). Results indicate that having viewed a tiger pacing significantly decreases people's perception of the level of care animals receive at that facility. In addition, people's interest in supporting zoos decreased as a result of viewing this behavior. Results are discussed from an animal welfare, business, and conservation perspective.
Article
The benefits to captive animals of environmental enrichment (EE) are widely recognized. Few studies have, however, studied how to maximise the effect of EE. One issue with EE programs seems to be habituation to the enrichment device. To study the effect of habituation to EE, 14 captive sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) were subjected to two different EE treatments. Treatment one presented EE (logs with honey containing holes) for five consecutive days, whereas treatment two presented EE on intermittent days for five days. Intermittent presentations tended to reduce habituation toward the EE. Both consecutive and intermittent presentations significantly reduced stereotypies; however, the consecutive presentations had a longer-lasting effect. Explorative behaviors increased in both treatments, consistent with earlier findings that EE increase levels of natural behaviors. Other behaviors were unaffected by the EE presentations. The results show that intermittent presentation of EE objects may secure the interest of the animals, but continuous access to enrichment may be more efficient in reducing stereotypies in the long run.
Article
(This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1948, Vol 38, 168–272. The following abstract of the original article appeared in PA, Vol 22:4299.) A pigeon is brought to a stable state of hunger by reducing it to 75% of its weight when well fed. It is put into an experimental cage for a few minutes each day. A food hopper attached to the cage may be swung into place so that the pigeon can eat from it. A solenoid and a timing relay hold the hopper in place for 5 sec at each reinforcement. If a clock is now arranged to present the food hopper at regular intervals with no reference whatsoever to the bird's behavior, operant conditioning usually takes place. The bird tends to learn whatever response it is making when the hopper appears. The response may be extinguished and reconditioned. The experiment might be said to demonstrate a sort of superstition. The bird behaves as if there were a causal relation between its behavior and the presentation of food, although such a relation is lacking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Proportion of observations spent engaged in particular behavioral categories. Data are presented in mean ˙ SE; N D 12. EXP D experimental
  • Note
Note. Proportion of observations spent engaged in particular behavioral categories. Data are presented in mean ˙ SE; N D 12. EXP D experimental. Subscript represents significant polynomial tests (p <.05).