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Metrosideros in cultivation: Rata and other species

Authors:
1
0 New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(2)
Metrosideros in cultivation:
Ra¯ta¯ and other species
The second of a two-part series
Murray Dawson1, Jack Hobbs2, Graeme Platt3 and Jim Rumbal4
Landcare Research
,
PO Box 40
,
Lincoln 7640
,
New Zealand
;
dawsonm@landcareresearch.co.nz
2
Auckland Regional Botanic Gardens, 102 Hill Road, Manurewa, Auckland, New Zealand; hobbsj@rnzih.org.n
z
3
New Zealand Botanical Institute
,
PO Box 302084
,
North Harbour
,
Auckland
,
New Zealand
4
Matarikoriko Road, Waitara, New Zealan
d
Part One of this series
rovided
a
n intro
duc
tion to M
e
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
s
p
ecies and cultivars and traced
cultivar origins for two species
M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
(p
a
o
¯h
u
t
u
k
a
w
a
or
New Zealand Christmas tree
)
and
M. k
e
rm
adece
n
s
i
s
(the Kermadec
s
p
o
¯hutukawa
).
Thi
s secon
d
art
i
c
l
e u
pd
ates
in
f
ormation on
p
o¯
hu
t
uka
w
a
a
n
d
tr
aces
cultivar origins
f
or the remaining
s
p
ec
i
es – t
h
e r
a¯
t
a¯
tr
ees
a
n
d
v
i
n
es
a
n
d
cultivars o
f
non-New Zealand s
p
ecies
.
Po¯hutukawa u
p
date
s
In Part
O
ne we mentioned
n
a
t
u
r
a
li
sa
tion
s
o
f
M. excelsa
and
a
M. kermadecensis
in other countries.
s
Both s
p
ecies are also on Nor
f
olk
Island
,
where
M. excelsa
may be
a
starting to naturalise (de Lange et al.,
2005
)
and
M. kermadecensis
has
s
naturalised
(
Green, 1994
)
. Graeme
Platt has seen
M. kermadecensis
well
s
established at Ball Ba
y
, Norfolk Island,
where Green
(
1994
)
also recorded it.
The expedition to date the
p
o
¯hutukawa
g
rowin
g
at La
C
oruña in
S
pain has been postponed from late
2010 to probabl
y
mid 2011
(
Jonathan
Palmer, pers. comm.
)
. We await the
datin
g
results from the forthcomin
g
tree rin
g
counts with interest.
S
ince
p
ublication of the fi rst
p
art of
this article
,
Lawrie Metcalf informs us
that the mature amenity trees of the
y
ellow-fl owered
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Aurea’
a
g
rowin
g
at Sumner, Christchurch,
were planted b
y
the late Maurice John
Barnett
(
Su
p
erintendent of Parks and
Reserves
,
then Director of Botanic
Gardens
,
Parks and Reserves
,
Christchurch) probabl
y
in the 1950s
.
J
im Rumbal has uncovered
s
om
e
add
ition
a
l inform
a
tion on
t
he
p
o
¯
h
utukawa plantings on the
Waitara River bank
,
Taranaki. As
documented in Part One
,
selections
f
rom these early plantin
g
s were
made by the late Felix Jury and
gave rise to M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Fire
a
Mo
u
nt
a
in’
a
n
d
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Scarlet
a
Pimpernel’. Blair Hortor, a lon
g
-
retired groundsman and gardener
of the former Waitara Borough
C
ouncil (now the New Plymouth
District Council), clearly recalls
t
hat these early plantin
g
s came
f
rom Duncan & Davies nursery
a
n
d
not
f
rom
a
P
a
lm
e
r
s
ton North
N
ursery as suggested in Part One.
A
ccording to Blair (pers. comm.), all
o
f
the plantings in Waitara during
his long tenure came
f
rom Duncan
&
Davies nurser
y
. Some of these
have vibrant orange-scarlet fl owers,
as exemplifi ed by M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Fire
a
Mountain’.
J
im Rumbal is of the
opinion that oran
g
ey fl ower colours
may possibly have arisen throu
g
h
h
y
b
r
idi
sat
i
on
b
etween t
h
e usua
l
re
d-
ow
e
r
ed
M. excelsa
and the yellow-
a
ow
e
r
ed
M
.
e
x
celsa
‘Aurea’.
a
We can now confi rm that the
var
i
e
g
ate
d
se
l
ect
i
on
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘Oho
p
e’ was named after Oho
p
e
Beach
n
ea
r
Whaka
t
a
n
e
.
This
is
poss
ibly
anot
h
er se
l
ect
i
on ma
d
e
by
D
uncan
&
D
av
i
es nurser
y
.
Ji
m
Rumbal has been assessin
g
it for
man
y
y
ears, an
d
cons
id
ers t
h
e t
hi
n
whi
te var
i
e
g
ate
d
mar
gi
n to
b
e qu
i
te
attract
i
ve a
l
t
h
ou
gh
t
h
e se
l
ect
i
on
is not particularly vi
g
orous. Only a
f
ew were propa
g
ated at Duncan &
Davies nurser
y
. Michael Sheerin
(
an emplo
y
ee of Duncan & Davies
nursery and former work collea
g
ue
of Jim Rumbals’) may have
g
iven a
p
lant to his
p
arents who had a beach
bach at Ohope at that time. It ma
y
have been this plant that gave rise to
th
e
cu
ltiv
a
r n
a
m
e.
M. excelsa
Exotica’:
a
for com
p
leteness we should mention
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘Exotica’, an early
a
a
nd illegitimate name “someone
h
as
p
ut on the reverse form [of
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Variegata’]” (Davies,
a
1
968
)
. This selection was not widely
o
ffered under this name.
O
ther
r
everse-variegated p
o
¯h
u
t
u
k
a
w
a
i
n
c
l
ude
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘C
entennial’ and
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Upper Hutt’.
a
M. excelsa
‘Mini Christmas’:
a
since Part
O
ne of this article was
pu
bli
s
h
e
d
,
M
urray
D
awson
h
as
uncovered Australian records o
f
a
cu
l
t
i
var name
d
M
.‘Mini
C
hristmas’
(
and
M
.
Mini Xmas’
)
. This low
g
row
i
ng cu
l
t
i
var
i
s sa
id
to atta
i
n 1 m
tall (
C
uria Plants online catalogue,
2010
)
and is almost certainl
y
a
selection of
M
. excels
a
.
M. ex
c
els
a
‘Octopussy’:
a
a
nother new
p
o¯
hu
t
u
k
a
w
a
cu
ltiv
a
r
h
as come to li
g
ht. This cultivar,
na
m
ed
M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Octopussy’, has
a
a
distinctive weepin
g
to spreadin
g
g
rowth habit. It arose as an open
pollinated seedling at the Naturally
Native NZ Plants Auckland nursery
i
n 2004. Althou
g
h the ori
g
inal
plant died, propa
g
ation material is
m
aintained through cuttings. It is
e
stimated that this cultivar will grow
to 1.5–3 m tall and some
p
lants
a
re also bein
g
sold as standards
(
Esmé Dean,
p
ers. comm.
)
.
New Zealand Plant Variety Ri
g
hts
h
as been a
pp
lied for
(
Serra Kilduff,
p
ers. comm.
)
.
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(2)
11
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘White
C
a
p
s’:
G
raeme Platt recentl
y
selected and
named a white-
owered
p
o¯
h
utu
k
awa.
H
e
di
scovere
d
i
t at
Pih
a
B
eac
h,
west of Auckland
C
ity, during late
D
ecem
b
er 2009.
Th
e
p
arent tree was
found
p
lanted in a reserve where it is
thriving. It is a vigorous and healthy
tree regardless of its unusual white
owers
(
Fig. 1A–B
)
. The aerial roots
running down the trunk have white
ti
p
s
(
instead of the usual reddish-
brown colour
)
that mirror the lack of
pigmentation of its fl owers.
M
. excels
a
‘White
C
a
p
s’ is named after its fl ower
colour and the sea wind blowing
the to
p
s of waves into whiteca
p
s. It
is currently under propagation with
the purpose of introducing it into
wider cultivation. Denis Hughes of
Blue Mountain Nurseries was the
rst person to collect cuttings off the
p
arent tree for commercial
p
roduction.
Fig. 1
M
etrosideros excels
a
‘White Caps’.
a
A
,
tree in fl ower.B, close-up of fl owers.
Photos: Graeme Platt.
R
a
¯
t
a¯
trees
Metrosideros
bartlett
ii
s
(
Bartlett’s r
a
¯
t
a
¯
)
Incredibly, this lar
g
e tree
(
which
can attain 25 m in hei
g
ht
)
escaped
notice until 1977 when the late John
Bartlett discovered it. Bartlett found
it at Radar Bush
,
Te Paki
,
in the far
n
ort
h
an
d
J
o
h
n
D
awson name
d
i
t
after him when formally describin
g
it
as a new s
p
ecies
(
Dawson, 1985
)
.
M. bartlettii
is probably a specialised
i
epiph
y
te under most circumstances
i
n the wild but eventually
g
rows into
an inde
p
endent tree
(
John Dawson,
p
ers. comm.
)
. It has distinctive
whitish, tissue-
p
a
p
er like bark and
d
ark green leaves up to 5 cm long in
a dense canopy, with masses of small
white fl owers in
O
ctober to November
.
The conservation status of
M
. bartlettii
i
s ‘Nationall
y
C
ritical’ as it is onl
y
k
nown from 29 adult plants in the wild
(
de Lange et al., 2010; New Zealand
Plant
C
onservation Network website,
2010
)
.
Al
t
h
oug
h
i
ts natura
l
h
a
bi
tat
i
s swampy
groun
d
,
M. bartlettii
also grows well
i
i
n average gar
d
en con
di
t
i
ons
i
n
Auckland
(
Fig. 2A–B; Hobbs, 1992;
Anon., 2001b).
G
raeme Platt believes
t
h
at
i
t
h
as cons
id
era
bl
e potent
i
a
l
as
a street tree an
d
t
h
at
i
t may
b
e more
co
ld
to
l
erant t
h
an most
M
. exce
l
s
a
selections.
C
onsidering its rarity in
t
h
e w
ild
, t
hi
s spec
i
es s
h
ou
ld
b
e grown
m
ore widely and is available
f
rom
specialist native plant nurseries
(
e.g.,
G
addum, 1997, 1999a, 1999b, 2001).
Fig. 2
M
etrosideros bartletti
i
.
A
,
tree in
ower. Photo: Jack Hobbs. B
,
close-up o
f
owers. Photo: Naturally Native NZ Plants.
Metrosideros
ro
b
ust
a
s
(
northern r
a¯
t
a¯
)
I
n relatively undisturbed forest,
n
ort
he
rn r
a
¯
t
a
¯
i
s a spec
i
a
li
se
d
ep
i
p
h
yte
an
d
can
b
ecome a ta
ll
upr
igh
t tree to
30 m.
Lik
e ot
h
er spec
i
a
li
se
d
ep
i
p
h
yt
i
c
Me
tro
side
ro
s
,
i
t can a
l
so
g
row on t
h
e
g
round in sunny sites, often where
a forest has been destroyed by fi re.
N
ort
he
rn r
a¯
t
a¯
t
ha
t
es
t
ablishes
on
th
e
g
roun
d
may not
b
ecome as ta
ll
as those that are initiall
y
epiph
y
tic
(
John Dawson,
p
ers. comm.
)
. The
l
ea
v
es
of
M. robusta
are up to 5 cm
a
or more long and crimson fl owers
appear mainly from November to
January (Fig. 3A–B). This species
occurs naturally on the Three Kings
Islands, is scattered throughout the
North I
s
l
a
n
d
wh
e
r
e
it
used
to
be
more wides
p
read, and is abundant
in the
S
outh Island in North-West
N
e
l
s
on
a
n
d
W
es
tl
a
n
d
s
o
u
th to n
ea
r
G
reymouth (Allan, 1961; Simpson,
2005
)
.
Fi
g
. 3 Metrosideros robust
a
.
A
,
botanical
illustration (then as M.
orid
a
) in
C
urtis’
s
Botanical Ma
g
azin
e
,
London
,
Vol. 75
(
= Ser. 3, Vol. 5): Tab. 4471, 1849. Image
courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden, www
.
b
otanicus.or
g
.
B
,
p
lant in fl ower. Photo:
©Paul Ashford, www.NZPlantPics.com
.
M. robusta
is commonly available
a
th
roug
h
t
h
e nursery tra
d
e.
Al
t
h
oug
h
not as w
i
n
d
h
ar
d
y as
M
. exce
l
s
a
,
M. robusta
is more cold tolerant
a
(
Bannister, 1990
)
and makes an
e
xce
ll
ent s
p
ec
i
men tree w
i
t
h
an
upright growth habit for an exposed
A
B
A
B
A
B
1
2 New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(2)
site. When fully mature,
M
. ro
b
ust
a
i
s a
l
ar
g
e tree
i
n t
h
e w
ild
,
b
ut
i
t
g
rows s
l
ow
l
y an
d
can
b
e mana
g
e
d
i
n
cul
t
i
v
a
t
i
on w
he
r
e
i
t t
akes
se
v
e
r
al
y
ears to
ower when raised
f
rom
seed. A
f
ew selections have been
made from this s
p
ecies:
M
. ro
b
ust
a
‘Kawa Copper’:
a
a new
cultivar that arose in 2001 from a
batch of otherwise uniform seedlings
raised by Deane Keir
(
pers. comm.
)
. It
was selected for its uni
q
ue form and
foliage colour. It has a bushy stocky
habit that can be trimmed. Mature
leaves are dark green and shiny
but the commercial potential of this
selection lies in its attractive copper
y-
red-coloured new
g
rowth. This new
growth is reminiscent o
f
Ph
ot
i
n
ia
‘Red
a
R
o
bi
n
an
d
M
. ro
b
ust
a
‘Kawa Copper’
a
w
ill
b
e su
i
ta
bl
e as a
h
e
d
g
i
ng p
l
ant
i
n
a s
i
m
il
ar way to
Ph
ot
i
n
ia
.
M
. ro
b
ust
a
‘Kawa
C
opper’ is cold hardy and
owers are expected to be dark red.
It has been success
f
ully propagated
t
h
roug
h
cutt
i
ngs an
d
i
s current
l
y on
tr
i
a
l
at t
h
e
N
atura
ll
y
N
at
i
ve
NZ
Pl
ants
nursery at
T
auranga.
Thi
s se
l
ect
i
on
i
s not yet ava
il
a
bl
e to t
h
e pu
bli
c an
d
i
s su
bj
ect to a
N
ew
Z
ea
l
an
d
Pl
ant
Variety Rights
(
PVR
)
application
(
NZPVR
J
ourna
l
, No. 119, 14
O
ctober
2009
)
.
M. robusta
‘Krinkley’:
a
a cu
l
t
i
var w
i
t
h
unusua
l
tw
i
ste
d
l
eaves t
h
at are
d
ar
k
green w
i
t
h
a
b
r
i
g
h
t creamy-ye
ll
ow
centra
l
var
i
egat
i
on
h
e
ld
on
b
r
i
g
h
t re
d
youn
g
stems
(
Fi
g
. 4
)
. This reverse-
varie
g
ated cultivar was fi rst published
un
d
er t
h
e name
M
. ‘Krinkley’
(
Hobbs,
1992
)
which, although never sold
as that, takes priority. It was
rst
mar
k
ete
d
b
y
D
uncan
&
D
av
i
es
nursery
i
n 1996 un
d
er t
h
e name
M
. ro
b
ust
a
‘Tane’s Gold’ (e.g., Plantlife
a
P
ropagators on
li
ne cata
l
ogue,
2010
)
and is also currently sold as
M.
‘Twistie’
(
e.g., Lyndale Nurseries
online catalogue, 2010
)
.
Fi
g
. 4
M
etrosidero
s
robust
a
‘Krinkley’, a
a
cultivar with variegated and twisted leaves.
Photo: L
y
ndale Nurseries
.
Metrosideros
umbellata
s
(
southern r
a¯
t
a¯
)
Thi
s s
h
ru
b
or sma
ll
tree
g
rows to
15 m or more an
d
lik
e ot
h
er r
a
¯
t
a
¯
t
rees
can start life as an epiph
y
te
(
John
Dawson,
p
ers. comm.
)
. It has narrow
pointed leaves to 6 cm or more long
and masses of small, usually red,
owers occurring sporadically from
N
ovember to March. It is found mainly
in high rainfall, lowland to montane,
sometimes subal
p
ine forests and
shrubland of the
S
outh Island
(
west
of the Main Divide
)
,
S
tewart Island,
a
n
d
th
e
A
uc
kl
a
n
d
I
s
l
a
n
ds
s
o
u
th
of New Zealand.
O
n the Auckland
I
s
l
a
n
ds
it i
s
th
e
d
omin
a
nt tr
ee
in low
coastal forest
,
whereas in the North
I
s
l
an
d
i
t
i
s rat
h
er uncommon an
d
restricted to a few montane areas
(
Allan, 1961; Sim
p
son, 2005
)
. It is not
on Cam
p
bell or the Snares islands
e
ven thou
g
h Allan
(
1961
)
says it is
(
John Dawson,
p
ers. comm.
).
I
n cu
l
t
i
vat
i
on sout
h
ern ra
¯
t
a¯
i
s re
l
at
i
ve
ly
s
l
ow
g
row
i
n
g
,
h
as attract
i
ve
d
ense
folia
g
e, and makes an excellent shrub
an
d
spec
i
men tree.
Pl
ants can ta
k
e
many years to
ower when
g
rown
from seed
(
Metcalf, 1987, 2000
)
.
M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
is best suited for
a
g
rowin
g
in cool-climate
g
ardens with
moi
s
t
s
oil
s
r
a
th
e
r th
a
n th
e
w
a
rm
and humid gardens of Auckland and
man
y
North Island areas. Several
cu
ltiv
a
r
s
h
a
v
e
bee
n n
a
m
ed
a
n
d
they are slower
g
rowin
g
and more
diffi cult to propa
g
ate than M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
.
For these reasons
,
M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
cu
l
t
i
vars are
p
ro
d
uce
d
an
d
so
ld
i
n
sma
ll
er
q
uant
i
t
i
es
i
n
N
ew
Z
ea
l
an
d
an
d
t
h
e
i
r or
igi
ns
h
ave not
b
een as
w
ell
d
o
cu
m
e
nt
ed
.
M. umbellata
is
a
success
f
ully
g
rown in milder parts o
f
t
h
e
UK
w
h
ere t
h
ere
i
s
g
oo
d
potent
i
a
l
to ex
p
ort and market further cultivars
.
M. umbellata
‘Christmas Dream’
a
an
d
M. umbellata
‘St Nicholas’:
a
two se
l
ect
i
ons ma
d
e
b
y
D
en
i
s
Hughes
(
pers. comm.
)
and named
by the late Margaret Hughes of Blue
M
ounta
i
n
N
urser
i
es,
T
a
p
anu
i
.
B
ot
h
were selected from trees growing
w
ild
at
L
a
k
e
M
ana
p
our
i
,
Fi
or
dl
an
d
,
i
n
t
h
e
l
ate 1970s.
Th
ey
b
ot
h
h
ave goo
d
r
ed
fl o w
e
r
c
olo
u
r
s
a
n
d
a
r
e
s
o n
a
m
ed
because they fl ower at Christmas
t
i
m
e.
M. umbellata
Fireball’:
a
di
scovere
d
i
n 1993
b
y
D
eane
K
e
i
r
(
pers. comm.
)
growing on the
S
tockton Plateau in an area called the
burnin
g
mine’, an historic abandoned
c
o
a
l min
e
th
a
t h
as
bee
n on
r
e
s
in
ce
t
he early 1900s. The ori
g
inal plant
w
as noticed because of its round
squat s
h
ape an
d
ver
y
s
h
ort
i
nterno
d
a
l
g
rowth. The leaves are slightly smaller
t
han is typical for the species and
it produces bright crimson fl owers.
T
he parent plant was successfully
propagated by cuttings in 1994. Many
plants were sold by Deane Keir as
g
rowing-on lines to various wholesale
n
u
r
se
ri
es
a
ro
u
n
d
N
e
w Z
ea
l
a
n
d
between 1
99
4 and 1
998
.
M. umbellata
Firecracker’
:
a
selected in about 1995 by Jeff
Elliott, of Elliott’s Wholesale Nursery,
A
mberley, from a plant
g
rowin
g
wild
at Whan
g
anui Inlet, North-West
Nelson. This selection has dark
g
reen
leaves and a compact
g
rowth habit
t
hat forms a bun-shaped plant. It has
medium-sized deep-red fl owers and
blooms heavily durin
g
November and
December.
M
. umbellat
a
‘Firecracker’
a
has been available since about 2005
(
Jeff Elliott,
p
ers. comm.
)
.
M
.
M
M
umbellata
‘Harlequin’:
a
f
ound in the earl
y
to mid-1980s in
th
e w
ild
as a var
i
e
g
ate
d
b
ranc
h
sport
b
y
Joe
C
artman (pers. comm.) of
C
hristchurch. He found the varie
g
ated
side-branch on a
f
ull
y
mature tree on
t
he roadside near Nu
gg
et Point in the
C
atlins and successfully propa
g
ated
it from cuttin
g
s. Leaves are
g
lossy
g
reen w
i
t
h
consp
i
cuous var
i
egate
d
yellow margins
(
Fig. 5
)
. This cultivar
had PVR protection
f
rom 1992 to
2009
.
Fig. 5
M
etros
id
eros um
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Harlequin’.
a
P
hoto: Chris Barnab
y.
M
.
M
M
u
m
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Gold Nugget’:
a
a
l
so ra
i
se
d
by
p
l
antsman
J
oe
C
artman. It arose around 1992
as a branch sport of
M
.
u
m
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Harlequin’ (Joe
C
artman,
pers. comm.
)
. This cultivar has
g
olden-yellow new leaves with a thin
red ed
g
e
(
Fi
g
. 6
)
. The
g
old colour
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(2)
13
of these leaves persists for many
mont
hs
a
n
d
t
he
o
ld
lea
v
es
a
r
e
t
he
stan
d
ar
d
g
reen co
l
our.
M
.
u
m
bella
t
a
‘Gold Nu
gg
et’ has PVR protection
f
rom 1996. It seems to be
g
rown
in the
U
K also under the name
M
.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
‘Lownug’ (
a
RH
S
Plan
t
Fin
der
online, 2010).
r
Fi
g
. 6
Me
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
‘Gold Nugget’.
a
P
hoto:
©
Paul Ashford, www.NZPlantPics.com
.
M
.
M
M
umbellata
‘Moonlight’:
a
arose a
t
P
attersons
N
urser
i
es,
I
nvercarg
ill
,
a
b
out 2000–2001 as a vegetat
i
ve
side-branch mutation o
f
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
G
old Nugget’ which the nursery
was growing under licence
(
Noel
Patterson, pers. comm.
)
.
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
Moonlight’ is a reversion to
variegation, but
(
compared to
M
.
u
m
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Harlequin’) is a reverse
a
var
i
egat
i
on w
i
t
h
t
h
e cream, ye
ll
ow
an
d
go
ld
tones
i
n t
h
e centra
l
part
o
f
the lea
f
. This cultivar also di
ff
ers
f
rom
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Harlequin’ in leaf
a
colouration with an overall
f
oliage
appearance o
f
lighter green and
less yellow (Fig. 7;
C
hris Barnaby,
pers. comm.
)
.
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Moonlight’
a
h
as
PVR
protect
i
on s
i
nce 2004.
Thi
s
cu
l
t
i
var
h
as a
l
so
b
een
g
rown
i
n t
h
e
UK
un
d
er t
h
e name
M
.
u
m
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Lowmoo’
(
RHS Plant Finder
online,
r
2010
)
.
Fig. 7
Me
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
‘Moonlight’.
a
Photo: Chris Barnab
y.
M. umbellata
‘Mt Augustus’:
a
a
l
ow
-
grow
i
ng an
d
co
ld
h
ar
d
y se
l
ect
i
on.
I
t was se
l
ecte
d
i
n t
h
e
l
ate 1
9
7
0
s
by Louise Salmond (pers. comm.)
of Hokonui Al
p
ines in Gore, from a
p
l
ant
g
row
i
n
g
at
M
t
A
u
g
ustus on t
h
e
S
tockton Plateau by an abandoned
coa
l
m
i
ne.
Th
e nursery
h
as spe
l
t t
h
e
cu
ltiv
a
r
M
.
Mt Au
g
usta’” but it should
be correctly spelt
f
ollowin
g
the locality
a
f
ter which it is named. Because
Hokonui Alpines is a small family-
run nursery, few plants have been
d
i
s
tri
bu
t
ed.
M. umbellata
‘Red Tips’ and
a
M. umbellata
‘Silver Beacon’:
a
both named after the colour of their
new leaves and selected in the
mid- to late 1990s b
y
Les
C
leveland
(
pers. comm.
)
from an island in Lake
W
anaka,
O
tago. Both are very cold
hard
y.
N
ote t
h
at
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Red Tips’
a
raised by Les
C
leveland has different
origins to the in
f
ormally named
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
red-tipped form selected
a
b
y
D
eane
K
e
i
r.
Al
so,
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
silver tips” was an in
f
ormal name
used by Les
C
leveland for his
se
l
ect
i
on,
b
ut
i
s so
ld
as
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
S
ilver Beacon’ (
C
live Wallis,
pers. comm.
).
M. umbellata
‘Scarlet Beacon’:
a
a selection raised b
y
Les Cleveland
(p
ers. comm.
)
and chosen for its
e
arly fl owerin
g
.M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
‘Scarlet
a
Beac
on’ h
as
bee
n
a
v
a
il
ab
l
e
s
in
ce
about 2002
,
and like most of Les’s
se
l
ec
tion
s
i
s
a
v
a
il
ab
l
e
from W
a
lli
s
s
N
urseries, Mos
g
iel.
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Sparrow’s Hybrid’:
a
rst grown in May 1987 at the
former Works Property
S
ervices
(
now Kiwifl ora Nurseries
)
near
C
hristchurch. It was named after a
Mr
Sp
arrow who was a customer of
the nursery. He provided propagation
material from a plant cultivated in
C
hristchurch
C
ity, alongside the
Avon River and between Madras and
Manchester
S
treets
(
Janet
O
rchard,
pers. comm.
)
. It was commercially
released at Kiwifl ora Nurseries in May
1994
(
Janet
O
rchard,
p
ers. comm.
)
and is currently available in
N
ew Zealand (e.g.,
G
addum,
1999a
,
1999b
,
2001
;
Plantlife online
catalogue, 2010
)
. Although the name
M.
S
parrow’s Hybrid’ suggests that
it may be an interspecifi c hybrid, it is
more likely to be a strai
g
ht selection
o
f M. umbellat
a
.
M.
S
parrow’s Hybrid
is similar to M. umbellat
a
‘Firecracker’
a
but more vi
g
orous and taller
g
rowin
g
(
Lex Kenny, pers. comm.
)
.
M. umbellata
orange form:
a
i
n
J
anuar
y
1973,
D
r
B
r
i
an
M
o
ll
o
y
(
pers. comm.
)
discovered an oran
g
e
-
owered plant growing wild at Deer
S
pur Track, Peel Forest,
C
anterbur
y
.
M
ater
i
a
l
was grown on v
i
a see
dli
ngs
at the then Botany Division, D
S
IR, at
Lincoln
(
Allan Herbarium s
p
ecimen
C
HR 386491
)
but was not introduced
into wider cultivation.
M. umbellata
pink form:
a
a pink-
owered selection made from a
l
arge o
ld
tree t
h
at grows at
K
a
k
a
Point,
O
tago. In the late 1990s,
Denis Hughes
(
pers. comm.
)
of
B
lue Mountain Nurseries collected
cuttings and has a limited number
of plants available under the name
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Kaka’.
a
M. umbellata
whit
e
f
o
rm:
a
di
scovere
d
a
b
out 1937 as a s
i
n
gl
e
t
r
ee
w
i
t
h
le
mon-
c
r
ea
m
c
o
l
o
u
r
ed
owers from Soaker Hill
,
MacLennan
R
an
g
e, in the Catlins, Ota
g
o. It was
discovered b
y
emplo
y
ees of Latta
B
rothers Ltd, sawmillers of Pa
p
atowai
w
hile buildin
g
a tramline for a local
sawmill
(
Neil Jenks and Albert
McTainsh,
p
ers. comm.
)
. Albert’s
f
ather
,
the late Alexander Ernest
M
c
T
a
i
ns
h,
was a
l
oca
l
l
an
d
owner an
d
part o
f
the bush tramwa
y
team who
f
ound it in
ower b
y
a bankside close
t
o t
he
tr
a
m
li
n
e
.
T
he ori
g
inal white-fl owered tree in
t
he
C
atlins is still alive and known
b
y
some of the locals. It is estimated
t
o be less than 150
y
ears old and is
relativel
y
slender
(
c. 70 cm diameter
at chest hei
g
ht
)
and of low stature
(
c. 15 m
)
. The leaf pi
g
mentation is also
a paler lemon-
g
reen when compared
t
o typical red-fl owerin
g
M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
(
Neil Jenks,
p
ers. comm.
)
.
S
ometime in the 1980s propa
g
ation
material was
g
iven
(
probably
b
y
a forestr
y
worker at the then
New Zealand Forest
S
ervice) to
Les
C
leveland
,
Diack’s Nurseries
,
and Blue Mountain Nurseries.
B
lue Mountain Nurseries sell it
under the name M. umbellat
a
‘Alba’
a
(Les
C
leveland, Denis Hu
g
hes,
pers. comm.).
G
reenish-
y
ellow
owered forms are found elsewhere
(as described below) but the
C
atlins
t
ree has the palest fl owers known in
t
he wild.
M. umbellata
yellow form:
a
several
y
ellow-fl owered selections of
thi
s s
p
ec
i
es
h
ave
b
een ava
il
a
bl
e
i
n
cul
t
i
v
a
t
i
on.
1
4 New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(2)
An historic yellow-fl owered variant is
g
row
i
n
g
on t
h
e
D
enn
i
ston
Pl
ateau,
W
es
tl
a
n
d
. Thi
s
v
a
ri
a
nt w
as
fi r
s
t
discovered b
y
the residents o
f
Denniston in the earl
y
1900s and is
reasonabl
y
well known locall
y
. There
are at least two yellow-fl owered plants
currently growing there and in 1995
Deane Keir
(p
ers. comm.
)
made a
concerted effort to propagate one
of th
e
m
a
n
d
d
i
s
tri
bu
t
e
m
a
t
e
ri
a
l to
interested parties. Many plants were
grown on and given to charity groups
or sold locally and nationally to people
who h
ad
hi
s
tori
ca
l link
s
to th
e
town.
Plants of this selection have light
green leaves that are rather stiff and
pointed, attractive lime-green yellow
new-
g
rowth stems, black buds, and
sulphur-yellow fl owers. This selection
is slow growing with short internodes
and can be ex
p
ected to reach 1 m
2
in fi ve or more years. It has been
r
e
f
e
rr
ed
to
as
M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
‘Denniston
a
Y
e
llow’.
Two yellow-
owered plants o
f
M. umbellata
were recorded by Ruth
a
Mason and Neville Moar
(
1955;
C
HR 80876A–B). These plants
were grow
i
ng near eac
h
ot
h
er west
of Burma Road,
S
tockton Plateau,
W
est
l
an
d
.
H
owever, w
i
t
h
t
h
e
cont
i
nue
d
m
i
n
i
ng act
i
v
i
ty at t
h
at s
i
te
i
t
i
s un
lik
e
l
y t
h
at t
h
ey are st
ill
a
li
ve
.
Another
y
ellow-fl owered plant,
g
rowin
g
wild at Otira Gor
g
e, was
discovered b
y
Peter Croft (Par
k
Ran
g
er, Arthur’s Pass National Park).
Cuttin
g
s of it were brou
g
ht to the
then Botany Division, D
S
IR, Lincoln
(
now part of Landcare Research
)
, by
b
otan
i
st
F
u
l
ton
Fi
s
h
er
i
n
F
e
b
ruary
1960
(
Landcare Research garden
records
)
. A fi ne mature specimen
was cu
l
t
i
vate
d
up to t
h
e m
id
-1990s at
Landcare Research, Lincoln, before
a
b
u
ildi
ng pro
j
ect encroac
h
e
d
an
d
an unsuccessful transplant attempt
kill
e
d
i
t.
H
owever, a mature ye
ll
ow
-
owered plant is still growing in
the
C
hristchurch Botanic
G
ardens
(
Metcalf, 1987, 2000
)
. According
to Lawrie Metcalf
(
pers. comm.
)
,
i
t was p
l
ante
d
at t
h
e gar
d
ens
b
y
J
ames
Y
oung somet
i
me
i
n t
h
e ear
l
y
1920s an
d
pro
b
a
bl
y represents
an early gathering of propagation
material from the same tree that
grew at
O
tira. This original tree was
nally washed away by a landslide
(
Lawrie Metcalf, pers. comm.
)
. The
C
hristchurch Botanic
G
ardens
mater
i
a
l
w
ill
a
l
most certa
i
n
l
y
b
e t
h
e
sa
m
e
cl
on
e
as
m
a
t
e
r
ial
t
ha
t w
as
g
iven to Les Cleveland in Ota
g
o. Les
g
rew seedlin
g
s o
f
it on to produce
a better
y
ellow
ower colour, and
cuttin
g
-produced plants o
f
his
bes
t
se
l
ec
tion
a
r
e
s
ol
d
a
t W
a
lli
s
s
N
urseries, Mosgiel, as
M
.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
G
old Beacon’
(
Les
C
leveland and
C
live Wallis,
p
ers. comm.
).
Rare yellow-fl owered plants are
still to be found in the
O
tira area
(
Fig. 8A–B
)
. In 1983, Dr Ian Payton
of Landcare Research collected
(
C
HR 550734) and photographed
(
Fig. 8A
)
a greenish-yellow fl owered
specimen and observed 13 trees in
the wild with this fl ower colour on the
e
ast side of the
O
tira Valley between
O
tira township and Aickens Railway
S
tation (Ian Payton, pers. comm.).
I
n
l
ate
J
anuary or ear
l
y
F
e
b
ruary
2
010, Joe
C
artman (pers. comm.)
observed two yellow-
owered trees
in the same area.
O
ne tree, far off
i
n t
h
e
di
stance, appeare
d
to
h
ave
bright yellow fl owers
(
Fig. 8B
)
that
seem more
i
ntense t
h
an t
h
e green
i
s
h
-
yellow-
owered plant introduced
50 an
d
90 years ago.
Al
t
h
oug
h
J
oe
C
artman’s new discovery has not
b
een
i
ntro
d
uce
d
i
nto cu
l
t
i
vat
i
on,
i
t
wou
ld
b
e wort
h
cr
i
t
i
ca
ll
y compar
i
ng
i
t
with
C
leveland’s
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Gold
a
B
eacon’
f
or distinctiveness
.
Fi
g
. 8
M
etrosideros umbellat
a
from Otira,
a
Arthur’s Pass National Park. A, sam
p
les o
f
yellow-fl owered
(
left
)
and the usual red
-
owered plant (ri
g
ht) collected from the wild.
P
hoto: Ian Pa
y
ton.
B
,
one exceptionall
y
y
ellow-fl owered plant is readil
y
visible
(
centre, arrowed) amon
g
a population of
the usual red-
owered
f
orms. Photo:
J
oe
C
artman.
Metrosideros
i
n the UK
s
A
few s
p
ecies o
f
M
etros
id
ero
s
are cu
l
t
i
vate
d
i
n m
ild
er re
gi
ons
of En
g
land, Scotland and Ireland
(e.
g
.,
RHS Plant Finder
, 2010;
rr
G
ary Dunlop, pers. comm.).
Remarkably, fully mature trees
of
Metrosideros excelsa
and
a
M. kermadecensis
are growing
s
in the virtuall
y
frost free,
e
q
uitable climate of the Tresco
A
bbe
y
Gardens in the Isles
of Scill
y
. Elsewhere, onl
y
the
cold-hard
y
M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
(and to
a
a
l
esse
r
e
xt
e
nt
M
. ro
bus
t
a
)
are
suited for
g
rowin
g
unprotected
o
uts
id
e
i
n m
ild
er re
gi
ons.
B
oscawen
(
1923
)
, Thurston
(
1930
)
, Cox and Stoker
(
1938
)
,
and Arnold-Forster
(
2000
)
discuss
M
.
u
m
bella
t
a
(under
a
i
t
s
ea
r
lie
r n
a
m
e
M
.
lucida
)
,
M
. ro
bus
t
a
,
and a few other
species growing at notable
gardens in Cornwall, England.
J
ohnson
(
2007
)
and Grimshaw
and Bayton
(
2009
)
update
t
h
ese
ea
rli
e
r r
efe
r
e
n
ces
a
n
d
also re
p
ort that M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
is thriving at Logan Botanic
G
arden in western
S
cotland and
at Ilnacullin
(
Garnish Island
)
,
B
all
y
walter Park and Mt Stewart
in Ireland (Fig. 9A–B).
F
i
g. 9
M
etros
id
eros um
b
e
ll
at
a
growing at Tir Na n’Og, Mt Stewart,
County Down, Ireland.
A
,
tree in
ower.
B
, close-u
p
of fl ower.
Photos: Gary Dunlop.
A
B
A
B
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(2)
15
R
a¯
t
a¯
v
i
n
es
There are six climbin
g
(lianoid)
s
p
ecies o
f
M
e
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
. In
cu
ltiv
a
tion
the
y
can be used as small shrubs or
g
roun
d
covers to cover a
b
an
k
or wa
ll
.
All s
p
ecies will form shrubs rather
than climbers when propagated from
cuttings taken off adult growth
.
Metrosi
d
eros al
b
ifl or
a
(lar
g
e white
r
a
¯
t
a
¯)
This s
p
ecies climbs to 10 m tall and
has large, leathery leaves up to 9 cm
long and large white fl owers during
October to March. It naturally occurs
in th
e
North I
s
l
a
n
d
from T
e
P
a
ki to
the Kaimai Range where it has a
fairl
y
local distribution and is mostl
y
found in kauri forest
(
Allan, 1961
)
.
Graeme Platt has noted free-standing
shrubby specimens growing amongst
re
g
eneratin
g
native ve
g
etation on the
ran
g
es near Waima in Northland
.
M.
a
l
b
ifl or
a
prefers a shady position
and should be reasonably hardy in
cultivation. Although this species
is well worth
g
rowin
g
, it is seldom
available from
p
lant nurseries
(
Metcalf, 1987, 2000; Gaddum,
1999a, 1999b, 2001
)
.
M
etros
id
eros carm
i
ne
a
(
crimson r
a
¯
t
a
¯
)
When
g
rown from seed this species
g
rows into a climber to 15 m or more
tall and when
g
rown from cuttin
g
s of
the adult folia
g
e it becomes a small
com
p
act shrub.
M. carminea
has
a
sma
ll
s
hi
ny green
l
eaves up to 3.5 cm
long and bright carmine fl owers that
appear from August to
O
ctober. This
species naturally occurs in the North
Island, from North
C
a
p
e to East
C
a
p
e
and Taranaki
(
Allan, 1961
)
.
The bright fl owers are so prolifi c that
when in full bloom little else can be
seen of the plant – for this reason it is
the best of the climbing ra
¯
ta
¯
sp
e
cies
to grow. It is frost tender and prefers
a sunny position. A few cultivars
g
rown from cuttin
g
s of the adult form
(
Fi
g
. 10A–B
)
have been selected
:
F
i
g. 10
M
etros
id
ero
s
c
arm
i
ne
a
.
A
, p
l
ant
i
n
full fl ower. Photo:
J
ack Hobbs.B
,
close-up of
fl o w
e
r
s
. Photo: Ro
be
rt L
a
m
be
rt
s.
M
.
M
M
carminea
‘Carousel’:
a
a
ro
se
as
a varie
g
ated sport of
M
.
ca
rmin
ea
F
e
rri
s
Wh
ee
l’ with l
ea
v
es
th
a
t h
a
v
e
ye
ll
ow mar
gi
ns.
B
e
i
n
g
ve
g
etat
i
ve
l
y
propa
g
ated from the adult form of
t
h
e spec
i
es
i
t
i
s
l
ar
g
e
l
y non-c
li
m
bi
n
g
and
g
rows as a shrub
(
Metcalf, 1987,
2
000
)
. It was introduced b
y
Duncan
&
Davies nurser
y
in 1987
(
Edwards,
1987b
)
.
M
.
C
arousel’ had PVR
p
rotection from 1983 to 2008.
M
.
M
M
carminea
F
e
rri
s
Wh
ee
l’:
a
a
non
-
climbin
g
compact plant that fl owers
heavil
y
(
Metcalf, 1987, 2000
)
. Duncan
&
Davies nurser
y
rst introduced it as
M
. carm
i
ne
a
adult foliage in 1978–
a
1980. When they fi rst
g
ave it a cultivar
name several
y
ears afterwards, the
y
mistakenl
y
spelt it
Ferrous Wheel”.
This was quickl
y
corrected to
Ferris
W
heel”, named after the American
e
n
g
ineer,
G
.W.
G
. Ferris (Lawrie
Metcalf, pers. comm.
).
M.
c
armine
a
‘Red Carpet’:
a
imported from Australia b
y
Naturall
y
N
ative NZ Plants many years a
g
o
(Fi
g
. 11) and is probably no different
to M.
ca
rmin
ea
‘Ferris Wheel’ or plants
a
propa
g
ated from mature folia
g
e of the
s
p
ecies
(
Esmé Dean,
p
ers. comm.
).
F
i
g. 11
M
etrosidero
s
c
armine
a
‘Red Carpet’.
a
Ph
oto:
N
atura
ll
y
N
at
i
ve
NZ
Pl
ants.
M
etros
id
eros co
l
enso
i
(r
i
a¯
t
a¯
)
Thi
s c
li
m
b
er atta
i
ns 6 m an
d
h
as
w
eep
i
n
g
b
ranc
h
es t
h
at arc
h
out
an
d
h
ang
d
own w
i
t
h
sma
ll
h
a
i
ry
l
eaves up to 2 cm
l
ong.
Fl
owers are
whi
t
i
s
h
, somet
i
mes
pi
n
k
, an
d
a
pp
ear
November to January.
M
.
c
ol
e
n
s
oi
occurs naturally in coastal and
lowland forest where it is often
(
but not always
)
associated with
limestone areas. Allan
(
1961
)
stated
t
hat M. colenso
i
occurs from latitude
i
35°S to 42°S with the northernmost
occurrence based u
p
on a historic
record from the Bay of Islands.
However
,
G
raeme Platt’s observations
a
n
d
cu
rr
e
nt h
e
r
ba
ri
u
m r
ec
or
ds
indicate that it is mainly south of
latitude
3
S
in the North Island and
in the South Island as far south as
G
reymouth and Kaikoura
.
Thi
s spec
i
es
i
s not w
id
e
l
y cu
l
t
i
vate
d
but is available
f
rom specialist native
plant nurseries (e.g.,
G
addum, 1997,
1999a, 1999b, 2001
)
.
M
etros
id
eros
diff
us
a
(white r
a
a
¯
t
a
¯
)
T
his species climbs to 6 m tall and
has small shiny leaves up to 2 cm or
more. Flowers are white or pale pink
occurrin
g
in
O
ctober to January. This
is the most common climbin
g
r
a
¯
t
a
¯ in
t
he wild, found naturall
y
in lowland
f
orests throu
g
hout the North,
S
outh
and
S
tewart islands (Allan, 1961).
C
ultivated
p
lants fl ower better in a
sunny pos
i
t
i
on.
I
t
i
s not w
id
e
l
y
g
rown
but is available
f
rom s
p
ecialist native
plant nurseries (e.
g
., Gaddum, 1997,
1999a, 1999b, 2001
)
.
A
n early nursery catalogue (William
Martin and Son catalogue of plants,
25, 1906/07
)
listed a selection
as
M. hypericifolia
variegata. The
a
botanical name is a synonym
f
or
M. diffusa
and the cultivar name may
a
i
n
dica
t
e
t
ha
t t
he
r
e
w
as
a
n
his
tor
ic
variegated selection re
f
errable to
M.
d
i
ffusa
.
M
.
diff
us
a
‘Crystal Showers’:
a
a variegated
f
orm o
f
M. diffusa
that
a
h
as creamy marg
i
ns aroun
d
i
ts
leaves. It was discovered by
C
olin
B
eattie (pers. comm.) on
S
tewart
I
s
l
an
d
somet
i