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The Differential Effect of Ad Novelty and Message Usefulness on Brand Judgments

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Abstract

We examine the differential effects of ad novelty and message usefulness—frequently conceptualized as the two major dimensions of ad creativity—on the following variables: attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, brand trust, ad recall, and brand recall. Novelty and usefulness influence attitude toward the brand, but only usefulness influences brand trust. Both relationships are mediated by attitude toward the ad. We also investigate how novelty and usefulness influence recall by both type (brand and ad) and duration (short term and long term). We find that novelty leads to better short-term ad recall, whereas usefulness leads to better short-term and long-term brand recall.

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... Trustworthiness is a vital criterion determining investors' attitudes toward creators and their projects (Belanger et al., 2002). Similar to the criterion that VCs use to appraise startup founders (Fried and Hisrich, 1994), trustworthiness refers to the extent to which creators deserve to be viewed as reliable and worthy of investors' confidence (Sheinin et al., 2011). Activeness indicates the level of a creator's enterprising attitude (Koh and Kim, 2003). ...
... Societal contribution was defined as the extent to which a project positively impacts the society (Davidsson, 1995) and was measured using four items, including "The value that the project creates would be very important for the society." Trustworthiness reflected the degree to which the creator displayed reliability (Sheinin et al., 2011) and was measured using three items, including "The creator of the project is dependable." Activeness reflected the degree of the creator's enterprising attitude (Koh and Kim, 2003) and was measured using three items, including "The creator of the project actively updates investors on project progress." ...
... The degree to which a creator of the project shows reliability (Sheinin et al., 2011) Activeness ...
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While studies focus on how crowdfunding promotes the launch of innovative products or services through two-sided (creator-investor) platforms and digital tools, knowledge on the creator-side motivation is limited. To address this knowledge gap, our study identifies four types of crowdfunding project creators—social entrepreneur, fund seeker, indie producer, and daring dreamer—based on four motivations—achievement, monetary need, prosociality, and relationship building. We also examine how crowdfunding projects’ characteristics differ by the creator type and which characteristics are critical for enhancing projects’ performance. The study extends crowdfunding literature by deepening knowledge of creator-side motivation and contributes to crowdfunding practices by suggesting platform operators ways to attract and promote different types of project creators.
... Ad creativity dimensions and dual persuasion processes Creativity is indispensable to an ad campaign's success, and previous literature has identified three key dimensions of ad creativity: ad novelty (Ahmad & Mahmood, 2010;Ang, Leong, Lee, & Lou, 2014;Ang & Low, 2000;Heiser, Sierra, & Torres, 2008;Lehnert, Till, & Ospina, 2014;Rosenkrans, 2009;Sheinin, Varki, & Ashley, 2011;Smith, Chen, & Yang, 2008;Smith & Yang, 2004;Yang & Smith, 2009), message usefulness (Ahmad & Mahmood, 2010;Ang et al., 2014;Ang & Low, 2000;Lehnert et al., 2014;Sheinin et al., 2011;Smith et al., 2008), and ad-consumer association (Ang et al., 2014;Ang & Low, 2000;Smith et al., 2008;Smith & Yang, 2004;Yang & Smith, 2009). To date, only a few studies have examined all the three dimensions (e.g., Ang, Lee, & Leong, 2007;Ang et al., 2014). ...
... Ad creativity dimensions and dual persuasion processes Creativity is indispensable to an ad campaign's success, and previous literature has identified three key dimensions of ad creativity: ad novelty (Ahmad & Mahmood, 2010;Ang, Leong, Lee, & Lou, 2014;Ang & Low, 2000;Heiser, Sierra, & Torres, 2008;Lehnert, Till, & Ospina, 2014;Rosenkrans, 2009;Sheinin, Varki, & Ashley, 2011;Smith, Chen, & Yang, 2008;Smith & Yang, 2004;Yang & Smith, 2009), message usefulness (Ahmad & Mahmood, 2010;Ang et al., 2014;Ang & Low, 2000;Lehnert et al., 2014;Sheinin et al., 2011;Smith et al., 2008), and ad-consumer association (Ang et al., 2014;Ang & Low, 2000;Smith et al., 2008;Smith & Yang, 2004;Yang & Smith, 2009). To date, only a few studies have examined all the three dimensions (e.g., Ang, Lee, & Leong, 2007;Ang et al., 2014). ...
... However, these studies failed to explore the differential effect of various dimensions of ad creativity on ad effectiveness. Sheinin et al. (2011) investigated the differential effect of ad novelty and message usefulness; however, their study did not examine the third dimensionad-consumer association, which indicates that a creative ad needs to connect with its target audience (Maclnnis & Jaworski, 1989). Another issue is that although the use of AR technology in advertising has been increasing in the past decade, there is lack of literature examining this important aspect of creative strategy in advertising that pertains to the use of AR technology to draw attention to the ad and the advertised brand. ...
Article
This study aims to examine the role of ad creativity in YouTube video ads featuring augmented reality (AR) technology. Through an online experiment, we compared people who hold positive pre-existing attitudes toward a familiar brand, people who hold negative pre-existing attitudes toward a familiar brand, and people who are unfamiliar with a brand in terms of their perceived creativity of a video ad featuring AR technology. Further, we explored the differential effect of three dimensions of ad creativity, namely, message usefulness, ad novelty, and ad-consumer association, on short and long-term brand name recall, short and long-term brand message recall, ad attitudes, and brand attitudes. Results demonstrated that for a familiar brand, people’s perceived creativity of an ad is biased by their pre-existing brand attitudes. For an unfamiliar brand, since people do not hold pre-existing attitudes toward it, their perceived creativity of an ad for the unfamiliar brand is mostly shaped by their ad evaluations. Moreover, results revealed that the three dimension of ad creativity play different roles in ad effectiveness.
... Creativity is essential to an advertising campaign's success, and a creative ad is defined as one that is both novel and relevant (Ang, Leong, Lee, and Lou 2014;Lang 2006;Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). Novelty refers to the extent to which ad execution diverges from consumers' expectations (e.g., unusual and surprising design) and is usually related to terms such as fresh, unique, and divergent (Belch and Belch 2004), whereas message relevance pertains to the extent to which a novel ad execution adds to the identification of key benefits of a product/brand ( Ang et al. 2014;Sheinin et al. 2011). ...
... Creativity is essential to an advertising campaign's success, and a creative ad is defined as one that is both novel and relevant (Ang, Leong, Lee, and Lou 2014;Lang 2006;Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). Novelty refers to the extent to which ad execution diverges from consumers' expectations (e.g., unusual and surprising design) and is usually related to terms such as fresh, unique, and divergent (Belch and Belch 2004), whereas message relevance pertains to the extent to which a novel ad execution adds to the identification of key benefits of a product/brand ( Ang et al. 2014;Sheinin et al. 2011). Since a creative ad needs to be both novel and relevant ( Ang et al. 2014), the usage of AR in OOH advertising as a novel component might not be perceived as creative by consumers if the adoption of AR is irrelevant to the brand. ...
... Past research has examined the effects of ad creativity along all the three dimensions (cogni- tive, effective, conative), and noted that novelty and message relevance play different roles. In terms of the cognitive dimension, previous studies noted novel cues might elicit consumers' orienting responses to the novel execution and increase consumers' short-term memory of the ad information; however, novel cues may divert people's attention away from the brand ( Ang et al. 2014;Lang 2006;MacInnis, Moorman, and Jaworski 1991;Sheinin et al. 2011;Smith, Chen, and Yang 2008). On the other hand, message relevance propels consumers to process brand-related information and affects consumers' long-term memory of a brand ( Ang et al. 2014;Sheinin et al. 2011). ...
Article
When examining ad creativity, previous research focused on traditional forms of advertising. The present research extended previous research to a new form of dvertising—augmented reality (AR) out-of-home (OOH) campaigns uploaded on social media. Over the past few years, advertisers have adopted AR in OOH advertising to boost its creativity. To overcome the geographic limit, advertisers also film the interaction between people and virtual objects in AR OOH campaigns and upload promotional videos on social media. Through a qualitative textual analysis of viewer comments with an adoption of both machine coding and human coding, this exploratory study attempted to interpret consumer conversations around four YouTube videos featuring AR OOH campaigns. Results revealed that viewer conversations can be divided into six types. We also propose a theoretical framework to predict different types of consumer responses to YouTube videos featuring AR OOH campaigns and discuss managerial implications for marketers and advertisers, as well as future research direction.
... Novelty. According to Sheinin et al. (2011), novelty refers to the extent to which ad execution diverges from consumers' expectations (e.g. unusual and surprising design) and is related to terms like fresh, unique and divergent. ...
... Prior research yielded some evidence on the impact of different ad features on consumer responses to advertising. On the basis of elaboration likelihood model (ELM), Sheinin et al. (2011) noted that ad informativeness acts as a central cue and propels consumers to process brand-related information, and thus helps them understand brand feature. Particularly, Yoo and MacInnis (2005) found that the primary outcome from informational ad execution concerns favorable evaluative thoughts regarding the ad's believability. ...
... In addition, based on ELM, previous research noted that novelty acts as a peripheral cue, attracts consumers' attention to an ad and enhances their enjoyment during ad exposure. Thus, novel execution generates positive attitudes towards an ad (Sheinin et al., 2011). We then developed the following hypothesis: ...
Article
Purpose Over the past few years, advertisers have adopted augmented reality (AR) technology in advertising campaigns. To overcome the geographic limit, advertisers record the interaction between people and virtual objects in AR campaigns and upload promotional videos on social media, such as YouTube. This study aims to develop and validate a measurement instrument to gauge the content characteristics of YouTube videos featuring AR ad campaigns. Design/methodology/approach To this end, possible items were generated via a review of prior literature, and supplemented by content analysis and a free association task. The measurement instrument was then refined and validated using a pretest of a general consumer sample, and further validated using a second general consumer sample with two online experiments. Findings Results indicate that the content characteristics of YouTube AR campaigns can be measured using a 15-item, four-construct (informativeness, novelty, entertainment and complexity) instrument. This study also found the direct and indirect relationships between each content characteristic and ad efficacy variables. Practical implications The measurement instrument provides practitioners with a broad measure of the content characteristics of YouTube AR campaigns. The results also reveal the effect of different content features of YouTube AR campaigns on the outcome of successful advertising execution. Originality/value This study contributes to the body of knowledge in marketing communications via exploring the primary content characteristics of AR advertising campaign videos uploaded on YouTube. It also develops an understanding of the impact of AR technology on consumer behavior and on the experience that it delivers.
... While this effort hinders speedy comprehension, unfamiliar items attract and demand more attention. The extreme version of unfamiliarity is novelty and novelty, in general and among other factors, determines how much attention an ad can attract ( Pieters et al., 2002, Sheinin et al., 2011). ...
... The attention advantage found here is difficult to align with findings from previous, memoryinferred attention effects (Ahn andLa Ferle, 2008, Lerman andGarbarion, 2002) where memory advantages of foreign or unknown brand names were traced back to their relative novelty, which is an attention driver in advertising (Sheinin et al., 2011). The present design required languageneutral brand names. ...
Conference Paper
Marketing communication in many non-native English speaking countries frequently uses English although research suggests that this practice deteriorates message comprehension and annoys some consumers. One plausible justification for marketers’ persistent use of English may be the intention to raise attention. So far, effects of foreign language use on consumer attention have been tested only indirectly via memory variables. The present study measured directly the attention for English elements in non-English advertising contexts in an eyetracking experiment. Sixty-six native German consumers viewed print advertisements with German or English text and otherwise equivalent pictorial elements. Each ad was presented for a given time and we tracked how long participants looked at text or picture elements, respectively. We controlled for comprehension and proficiency, tested recognition and attitudes. Results revealed a significant attention advantage regarding the use of English, independent of proficiency and recognition. We discuss processing and emotional explanations for the effect and implications for marketing communication.
... and standard deviation (5.22) confirms the confidence level of this scale. Perceived trust in the brand by [33] was adopted and used to measure consumer's perception of electronic banking as "reliable and worthy of trust" [cited in [2, p. 373]. The original studies reported composite reliability of the scales ranging from 0.77 and 0.89 in study one and two respectively [33]. ...
... Perceived trust in the brand by [33] was adopted and used to measure consumer's perception of electronic banking as "reliable and worthy of trust" [cited in [2, p. 373]. The original studies reported composite reliability of the scales ranging from 0.77 and 0.89 in study one and two respectively [33]. The perceived trust scale has a Cronbach's alpha (0.773), mean (m=9.56) and standard deviation (3.09) confirmed the satisfactory level of internal confidence in this scale. ...
Article
Electronic banking (e-banking) is a growing phenomenon in the world of the seamless, dynamic business environment. E-banking allows customers to conduct financial banking transactions through the interface of electronic devices. Thus, the purpose of this research is to investigate customer susceptibility to e-banking among retail banking clients of The Gambia. A quantitative, survey approach was adopted. A total of 144 respondents participated in the study. Results of the empirical, multiple linear regression confirm that all predictor variables (independent variables) such as perceived risk, security, and privacy concerns have a significant impact on a model outcome (perceived trust). It can be deduced from the findings, that despite the growing adoption of e-banking practices in our economies, we are seeing significant customer susceptibility to e-banking. For example, highly internet proliferated economies have a greater desire for increase e-banking, while the reverse perhaps the case for clients in the third world economies, particularly in The Gambia.
... These statistics shed light on the novel format of 360-degree videos. According to existing literature, perceived ad novelty refers to the extent to which the novel ad execution differs from consumers' expectations (Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). Ang and Low (2000) defined perceived ad novelty as "a sense of uniqueness or originality" and "a divergence from the norm" (p. ...
... The underlying mechanism can be explained by information incongruence theory, which posits that incongruity triggers consumers' desire to decode the message, which engenders a pleasurable response when understanding is attained (Berlyne 1971;Smith and Yang 2004). When consumers successfully resolve ad incongruity, the positive affect is transferred into more favorable ad evaluations and, subsequently, positive brand evaluations (Ang and Low 2000;Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011;Yang and Smith 2009). Previously, we predicted that for a video ad with a moderate degree of narrative structure, the 360-degree version will outperform the standard version in terms of generating perceived ad novelty (hypothesis 2a). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we compared three 360-degree video ads with their counterparts—three standard video ads—in terms of perceived ad novelty, presence (i.e., spatial presence, engagement, ecological validity), ad attitudes, and brand attitudes. We proposed hypotheses based on the narrative processing literature, presence literature, the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP), and novelty literature. We tested our hypotheses through three experiments. Results demonstrated that the superiority of 360-degree video advertising, compared with standard video advertising, is maximized when its standard version features a moderate degree of narrative structure and is attenuated when its standard version depicts either a low or a high degree of narrative structure.
... helpful (measured bySheinin et al. [2011] scale) than word-only reviews (M hybrid = 4.79, M word-only = 4.28, F (1, 91) = 9.49, p < .01), which was consistent with our expectations stated in Hypothesis 1a. ...
... 95% CI = −0.3462 to 0.4683).Furthermore, when we replaced trustworthiness as the mediating variable, we found that the mediating effect of trustworthiness was not significant (95% CI = −0.0547 to 0.1838). Thus, the alternative explanation of trustworthiness could not be supported.In sum, Pilot Study 2 showed (a) the superiority effect of hybrid review format on perceived helpfulness; (b) the mediating role of perceived amount of information (while ruling out theSheinin et al. (2011) was used in following studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
The hybrid review format (verbal reviews accompanied by pictures) is increasingly prevalent in online consumer reviews. However, the mechanism behind the superiority effect of hybrid reviews is still unclear. Unlike previous studies based on information processing theory that emphasize the imagery‐provoking ability of the verbal information, we contend that imagery in hybrid reviews is the information that adds more diagnostic value to online reviews and thus makes the reviews more helpful. Our experimental studies found that hybrid reviews were perceived as more helpful than word‐only reviews, and this effect was explained by the perceived amount of information. Moreover, the superiority effect of hybrid reviews on perceived helpfulness was found to be contingent on the review extremity and viewing tasks. These results confirmed our hypothesis of picture as information, explaining the superiority effect of hybrid reviews and pinpointed the conditions under which such an effect would occur or disappear.
... While creativity is generally associated with "divergence" or "originality," it is much more (Rosengren et al. 2020) than that, and creative ads are those that are both original and relevant. Originality refers to an ad's novelty, divergence, unexpectedness, and newness (Kim, Han, and Yoon 2010;Koslow, Sasser, and Riordan 2003;Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011;Smith et al. 2007). Relevance refers not only to the appropriateness or alignment of the ad with a brand's strategy and positioning but, importantly, to its usefulness and pertinence to consumers' needs and preferences (Ang, Lee, and Leong 2007;El-Murad and West 2004). ...
... While ad manipulation techniques in many ways democratize creativity in advertising, ironically, they may also make creativity more challenging to accomplish, especially as this relates to originality which to date is the best-documented dimension of creativity (Rosengren et al. 2020). Originality is also associated with novelty, divergence, unexpectedness, and newness (Kim, Han, and Yoon 2010;Koslow, Sasser, and Riordan 2003;Sheinin et al., 2011;Smith et al. 2007). If more sophisticated manipulation techniques make it possible for advertisers to set their ads in exotic locales or have actors perform gravity-defying stunts, then more and more ads may utilize such tactics, rendering them commonplace or dull. ...
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Full-text available
Traditionally, the production and distribution of advertising material has relied on human effort and analog tools. However, technological innovations have given the advertising industry the digital and automatic tools enabling advertisers to automate much of the advertising processes, and produce "synthetic ads," or ads comprising content based on the artificial and automatic production and modification of data. The emerging practice of synthetic advertising, to date the most sophisticated form of ad manipulation, relies on various AI techniques such as deepfakes and generative adversarial networks (GANs), to auto-create content that depicts an unreal, albeit convincing, artificial version of reality. In this paper, a general framework is constructed to better understand how consumers respond to all forms of ad manipulation. It is anticipated that this paper will help to explain how consumers respond to the more sophisticated forms of synthetic ads-such as deepfakes-that are emerging at an accelerating rate. To guide research in this area, a research agenda is developed focusing on three manipulated advertising areas-ad falsity, consumer response, and originality. Furthermore, the implications for theory and industry are considered.
... It is the processing of novel stimuli that leads individuals to experience increased pleasure and gratification (Biederman and Vessel 2006). Novelty also results in positive Aad (Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). Berlyne's (1970;1971) theory on aesthetic preference, proclaims that a stimulus high in novelty but low in complexity has average arousal potential. ...
... Novelty features as a prominent driver of the visual metaphor with extended "white" space advertising effectiveness. In this sense, the present paper extends previous research addressing the role of novelty on the development of positive Aad (Hopp and Gangadharbatla 2016;Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). The present paper also supports Berlyne's (1970) assumption that medium arousal leads to more positive aesthetic preference. ...
Article
Contemporary advertising is increasingly upon the successful implementation of two creative design tools, visual metaphors and “white” space. Yet, despite their established coexistence, there is not enough research on the mechanism that takes place to affect consumers’ attitude toward the ad (Aad). The present study builds on the scarce evidence in the combination of visual metaphors with “white” space to decipher the role of “white” space on the effectiveness of metaphoric advertising. Originally, a content analysis of 405 international print ads establishes the broad use of visual metaphors (fusions) with extended “white” space (monochrome, in shades of grey). Based on Berlyne’s theory of aesthetic preference this study proposes a serial mediation model with novelty, arousal, aesthetic response and pleasure as successive mediating factors on the impact of visual metaphors (and especially visual metaphors with “white” space) on Aad. Three between-subjects (two with a Greek sample and one with U.S. and U.K. sample) experiments provide solid evidence in support of the proposed model. The attested sequence of effects fire starts a discussion on the significant creative opportunities and the associated communication implications for both academics and practitioners. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02650487.2021.1914446
... Additionally, work related to advertising engagement suggests that engaging advertisements could increase attitudes toward advertising (Kim et al., 2017;Wang, 2006). Complementing these findings, previous work also documents a relationship between novelty and attitude toward the ad (Sheinin et al., 2011). Overall, this suggests that because consumers perceive AR ads as novel and engaging, the use of AR is likely to have a positive impact on attitude toward the ad. ...
Chapter
Despite marketing practitioners’ increasing application of augmented reality (AR) to communication and brand-image development, research related to how AR influences consumers’ advertising perceptions has remained underdeveloped. The primary purpose of this research is to explore how and why augmented reality influences advertising effectiveness.
... We reviewed the prior literature on online reviews and identified three main knowledge gaps. First, most previous studies examine the impacts of review information archives on consumer judgment and decision-making [67], perception and evaluation [68], and sales volume [65]. The literature on the influences of review information archives further diverges into two streams, with one focusing on review content information [31,47] and the other on review contextual information [25,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since most of today’s consumers make purchase decisions based on online reviews, managers and researchers have been keen to determine how best to present review information in an online shopping context to maximize their persuasive power. Most online reviews are presented post-by-post, whereby individual reviewers express their respective opinions but lack group dynamism. As a result, it is worth asking what would happen if individual reviews are presented as a group? Drawing on social presence theory and information adoption literature, we propose a research framework to investigate the influences of two alternative presentation forms of review information (i.e., individual-based vs. group-based) on multiple-facet consumer evaluation of reviews, as well as their adoption of review information. By conducting two experiments (Study 1: N = 319; Study 2: N = 101), we find that, when given the same review information, consumers presented with the grouped review information rated higher review quality and credibility, but lower understandability, than consumers who were presented with individual review information. In addition, review quality, credibility, and understandability mediated the influence of review presentation forms on the consumer adoption of review information. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... En fait, la création publicitaire est une démarche de création d'un message publicitaire par un créatif [23] [24]. [36]. ...
Conference Paper
Ce travail de synthèse contribue à une meilleure compréhension de la notion de la créativité des annonces figuratives ainsi que son impact sur la persuasion publicitaire. Ainsi, il est important de proposer un modèle conceptuel dans le domaine de communication publicitaire et de développer les éléments qui doivent exister dans une annonce figurative perçue créative permettant de mieux influencer les récepteurs cibles.
... Videos, including those that pop-up automatically, are common on websites, perhaps diminishing the novelty of the actor in our study. This aligns with previous research demonstrating that novelty affects only short-term memory (Sheinin, Varki, & Ashley, 2011), which is what we captured in this study. ...
Article
This study examined the use of an actor to communicate prescription drug risks on pharmaceutical websites. Participants viewed risk information for a fictitious drug in one of several static visual formats or as a paragraph plus an animated actor; and with or without a signal directing them to the risk information text. The signal had little effect on outcomes. Format did not affect risk processing, but participants in the actor condition thought the website placed less emphasis on benefits. Actors communicating risk information on a pharmaceutical website do not appear to improve consumers' understanding of prescription drug information.
... Prior research on the effect of novelty suggests that new advertising methods, such as animation, should produce an overall positive effect on attitude toward the brand and the advertisement (Fasolo et al. 2006;Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). We argue that if the effects of animation were attributable only to perceptions of novelty, we might find a global, positive impact of animation on evaluation independent of when the animation is used. ...
Article
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has noted that animation within direct to consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising may impact perceptions of risk or benefit, and that there have been few if any comprehensives studies of the impact animation may exert upon consumers. This paper proposes that the use of animation in pharmaceutical advertising potentially disrupts the encoding process in the mind of the consumer, impacting perceptions of prescription drug benefits and risks. Using novel stimuli employing a rotoscoping technique, it is found that animation significantly reduces perceptions of perceived risk (but not benefits), and that this effect is driven by disruptions in encoding (Study 1). These findings are extended to examine deeper consumer inferences (Study 2). Implications for the pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection agencies, and consumers are considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The novelty of a message has been shown to lead to greater enjoyment (Baek & Kim, 2016), as well as short-term recall (Sheinin, Varki, & Ashley, 2011). Further, a lack of message novelty decreases the likelihood that one may send that message to someone else (Harrigan, Achananuparp, & Lim, 2012) and predicts how much attention a message will receive (Wu & Huberman, 2007). ...
... Brand credibility was measured using Erdem and Swait's (1998) well-established six-item scale. Brand attitude was assessed with three-item scale adapted from prior research (Sheinin et al., 2011;Yoo and Brand experience and brand attitude Donthu, 2001). Table II provides all items and properties of our measures; Table III reports the descriptive statistics and the correlation matrix. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the interplay of brand experience and brand attitude and its influence on brand attitude. Specifically, it proposes that the relationship will be mediated by brand credibility. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual model is tested by estimating a structural equation model with survey data from a sample of new automobile users ( n =405). Findings The analysis reveals a full mediation of brand credibility; that is, brand credibility is an underlying mechanism through which the effect of brand experience on brand attitude materializes. In addition, contrary to the general expectation, there was no direct effect of brand experience on brand attitude. Originality/value This study enables a new perspective on how experiential marketing underpins a brand’s influence on certain aspects of consumer behaviour. By elucidating the mediating role of brand credibility, this study adds to the understanding of how brand experience shapes brand credibility, leading to favourable brand attitude.
... For the application part of the study, questionnaire technique was used. One of the scales used in the research was the emoji usage scale, Gökaliler and Saatçioğlu's (2016); scales related to advertising message,) Sheinin et al. (2011) and Haws et al. (2010). The questionnaire consists of 17 questions and three sections. ...
... Therefore, examining how ad-evoked memory outcomes and attitude changes persist over time to influence behavior is an important research goal (De Jans et al., 2019). Overall, the delayed effectiveness of ads is influenced by the characteristics of ad messages and receivers, such as ad novelty (Sheinin et al., 2011), media richness (Saat and Selamat, 2014), and involvement or elaboration (Muehling and Laczniak, 1988). Chattopadhyay and Nedungadi (1992) found that the immediate positive effects of an ad on brand attitude may no longer exist after one week. ...
Article
New virtual reality technology presents hotels with wide-ranging marketing, training, and customer service opportunities. The purpose of this study was to explore both the immediate and delayed effects of hotel VR commercials as compared to traditional video commercials. Based on the perceptual load theory and elaboration likelihood model, this study designed and conducted a 2 × 2 laboratory experiment with two stages of data collection. The study demonstrated that VR commercials produced better immediate effects than the traditional commercials, especially for participants with high elaboration likelihood levels. However, the findings also revealed significant decreases in purchase intention among participants watching VR commercials and a significant improvement in attitudes among participants watching traditional commercials. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed to leverage the power of VR in marketing.
... As previously outlined, advocates of newsjacking argue that deploying topical news stories embedded within content makes it more interesting, rewarding and arousing to the recipient (Hunter and Burkhart, 2013;Scott, 2011). Research supports the view that when content is novel, recipients have a higher level of motivation to encode and then decode the message, engaging central, rather than peripheral, processing (Sheinin et al., 2011). Adopting the perspective that newsjacking enhances perceived content novelty, we expect recipients to respond more favorably in their affective evaluations. ...
Article
Newsjacking (real-time deployment of news stories in communications) is now ubiquitous for brands using social media. Despite its pervasiveness, little analysis of its effectiveness exists. In this research we test if newsjacking positively influences various consumer responses (attitude towards content, brand attitude, purchase intent). Taking an audience perspective supported by the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), the research also establishes if a higher level of news involvement, as well as an ability to recognize the story behind the content, enhances the effectiveness of newsjacking content. An experimental design using taglines (newsjacking versus non-topical content) from a real BMW campaign was tested on a sample of 252 consumers. Three research questions pertaining to the effectiveness of newsjacking were specified and analyzed within a structural equation modelling framework. The findings support the conclusion that newsjacking is an effective communication tool. More favorable consumer responses were elicited in the newsjacking condition, as compared to content deploying a non-topical tagline. In addition, recipients reporting a higher level of news involvement rated the content more favorably in the newsjacking (versus the non-topical) condition. Deploying news stories that are more recognizable, increases the chances of successful newsjacking. Messages received by those with higher product involvement (category-level: cars) were more effective regardless of the type of appeal. We contribute to the communications and social media literatures by investigating the effectiveness of an emerging but popular tactic leveraged by content creators. Our work builds upon the limited research that has tested consumer responses to newsjacking. From a practical perspective, the research provides insight into the type of audience and situations most likely to yield a favorable outcome from newsjacking
... Organizational reputation was measured using the 15-item corporate reputation scale developed by Walsh et al. (2009). Trust in the organization was measured using an adaptation of the three-item trust in the brand scale developed by Sheinin et al. (2011). Attitude toward the organization was measured using a three-item measure with endpoints favorable/unfavorable, good/bad, and positive/negative. ...
Article
To fully understand legitimacy as a complex construct, it is necessary to capture both collective perceptions and individual judgments. Much of the empirical research on legitimacy has focused on measuring the collective perceptions of groups of evaluators or critical institutions. This research develops and validates a psychometric measure of individual perceptions of pragmatic, moral, and cognitive legitimacy. Across seven studies, we demonstrate consistent reliability and scale structure, as well as convergent, discriminant, nomological, and predictive validity. We further show the generalizability and robustness of the measure across a variety of organizations and industries. This measure will advance empirical research on legitimacy by enabling researchers to capture the perceptions of individual evaluators directly and permit the comparison of results across studies.
... External validity is an important problem in causal inference and several papers studied the external validity under a variety of different scenarios such as politics [16] and education [17]. In the context of A/B tests, the external validity of A/B tests could be affected by a variety of factors, such as novelty/primacy effects [15] or weekday/weekend effects. ...
Conference Paper
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On-line experimentation (also known as A/B testing) has become an integral part of software development. To timely incorporate user feedback and continuously improve products, many software companies have adopted the culture of agile deployment, requiring online experiments to be conducted and concluded on limited sets of users for a short period. While conceptually efficient, the result observed during the experiment duration can deviate from what is seen after the feature deployment, which makes the A/B test result biased. In this paper, we provide theoretical analysis to show that heavy-users can contribute significantly to the bias, and propose a re-sampling estimator for bias adjustment.
... As previously outlined, advocates of newsjacking argue that deploying topical news stories embedded within content makes it more interesting, rewarding and arousing to the recipient (Hunter and Burkhart, 2013;Scott, 2011). Research supports the view that when content is novel, recipients have a higher level of motivation to encode and then decode the message, engaging central, rather than peripheral, processing (Sheinin et al., 2011). Adopting the perspective that newsjacking enhances perceived content novelty, we expect recipients to respond more favorably in their affective evaluations. ...
... In addition, scholars have called for consideration of familiarity in celebrity endorsement studies (Ang & Low, 2000;Till & Shimp, 1998). Novelty influences the retrieval of related details from memory (i.e., recall and recognition) and assists in attitude formation (Sheinin et al., 2011). Therefore, brand novelty is a critical factor in initial cognition that affects subsequent information processing about an ad. ...
Article
Th is research addresses how positive and negative publicity about athlete endorsers infl uences motivational mechanisms (appetitive and aversive) underlying cognitive and aff ective processing and evaluation to ads. Participants viewed an ad for a soft drink brand that featured an athlete endorser while psychophysiological measures of cognition, emotion, and arousal were collected. Each ad was preceded by a news story that contained either positive or negative information about the athlete's off-fi eld behavior. Results indicate that cog-nition and arousal were enhanced in response to ads paired with negative news stories compared to ads paired with positive news stories. Findings suggest that aversive motivational activation elicited by the negative news stories transfers to processing and evaluation of the ads.
... The motivation for creativity comes from within the person, an intrinsic motivation, on the contrary, some of the motivation comes from external forces to find out new creative ideas. Creativity helps to create a positive attitude concerning brands (Sheinin et al., 2011) and that is why now-a-days companies start producing more creative advertisements (Ang et al., 2007) to pursue the targeted consumer. The findings to (Till and Baack, 2005) suggest that creative advertisements help to create more recall than no creative advertisements. ...
... In order to measure the constructs joy, narrative structure and narrative transportation, we use the items established by Dessart (2018). Brand distinctiveness scale was adapted from Wang and Tang (2018) and the attitude Toward Novelty in Advertising was adapted from Sheinin et al. (2011). ...
Chapter
Over the years, consumer needs have changed, and today’s communication and marketing strategies are distinct. Nowadays, trends are different, and, in content production, brands are trying to attract consumers to their products through the means at their disposal. Advertising emerges as one medium that allows information to be transmitted through images, sounds and videos. Thus, in the production of video advertising content, using storytelling, the narrative structure plays a decisive role in the interpretation of the message and, in this context, the perceived joy contributes to the engagement of each consumer with storytelling in advertising. Consequently, consumers can perceive brands as unique and distinct from others, what is crucial in marking tactics. In this context, this cross-sectional study presents a research model that relates narrative structure, joy and narrative transportation with brand distinctiveness. This model was tested using the PLS-SEM methodology using a sample of 326 participants and showed that narrative structure and joy influence narrative transportation as well as brand distinctiveness. From this study, theoretical and practical contributions to strategic marketing are suggested.
... The basic theme is in the notion that no one else thought of it earlier. Novelty is how differently an ad is being executed in contrast to other ads in the same category (Ang & Low, 2000;Sheinin, Varki & Ashley, 2011). Thus, novelty is the key factor that needs to be given utmost importance when determining about a product's creativeness, irrespective of another likely criterion (Jackson & Messick, 1965;White & Smith, 2001). ...
... It was found that attitude towards brand for both familiar and unfamiliar brand, have a significant part in influencing the customer's purchase intention (Goldsmith et al., 2000). Numerous researches have also stated ad attitude as an intermediary of ad effects on brand attitude and purchase intention (Homer, 2006;Lee andMason, 1999 andSheinin et al., 2011). If ad inventiveness has constructive impacts on customer's attitudes, it will affect purchase intention positively. ...
... Existing literature in marketing has offered empirical evidence of how advertising executions can signal brand trust through the articulation of claims and messages (Li and Miniard 2006), personalization (Bleier and Eisenbeiss 2015), use of spokescharacters (Garretson and Niedrich 2004), and creativity (Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). We contribute to this literature exploring trust judgments by identifying implied motion direction in advertising executions as another innocuous cue that can affect brand trust perceptions among consumers. ...
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Integrating research on visual marketing, spatial associations, and brand inferences, the authors conduct four studies demonstrating that when consumers see an ad featuring an object moving in a left-to-right, rather than a right-to-left, direction, their trust toward the featured brand increases. This effect is mediated by an enhanced sense of “feeling right” resulting from the fit between how Western consumers are accustomed to envisioning action and information unfolding (from left to right), and the direction of implied motion in the ad. The authors identify stereotypical gender associations of the brand as a theoretically relevant moderator, such that the favorable influence of a left-to-right motion direction on brand trust is enhanced when the advertised product is strongly (versus weakly) associated with masculine characteristics.
... In the advertising context, the best documented dimension of creativity is originality. This dimension has also been referred to as novelty, divergence, unexpectedness, and newness (Kim, Han, and Yoon 2010;Koslow, Sasser, and Riordan 2003;Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2012;Smith et al. 2007). Originality has positive effects on consumer responses to advertising, as originality makes advertising more likely to be attended and processed (Pieters, Warlop, and Wedel 2002;Smith, Chen, and Yang 2008). ...
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Although creativity is often considered a key success factor in advertising, the marketing literature lacks a systematic empirical account of when and how advertising creativity works. The authors use a meta-analysis to synthesize the literature on advertising creativity and test different theoretical explanations for its effects. The analysis covers 93 data sets taken from 67 papers that provide 878 effect sizes. The results show robust positive effects but also highlight the importance of considering both originality and appropriateness when investing in advertising creativity. Moderation analyses show that the effects of advertising creativity are stronger for high- (vs. low-) involvement products, and that the effects on ad (but not brand) reactions are marginally stronger for unfamiliar brands. An empirical test of theoretical mechanisms shows that affect transfer, processing, and signaling jointly explain these effects, and that originality mainly leads to affect transfer, whereas appropriateness leads to signaling. The authors also call for further research connecting advertising creativity with sales and studying its effects in digital contexts.
... Past research has found that the novelty effect may influence information processing and recall (Sheinin, Varki, and Ashley 2011). For example, Rupp et al. (2016) found that the novelty of VR experiences overwhelmed learners who watched a 360-degree educational video with augmented reality ads and led to less information recall. ...
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Virtual reality (VR) can enhance game players’ experience by creating a hyper-realistic environment through telepresence. While marketers have found opportunities for advertising in this new medium, little is known about how consumers process displayed ads in VR. This study examines the impact of telepresence and active control on the effectiveness of embedded in-game ads in a custom-built car racing game. Eighty-eight undergraduate students participated in a 2 (telepresence: VR vs. flat screen) × 2 (active control: playing vs. viewing) between-subject experiment. Brand recall, brand recognition, product purchase intention, and advertised product price estimates were measured. The results showed that billboard ads were the least likely to be remembered by players and the most likely to be remembered by viewers. We did not find a difference in brand recall and recognition between the VR and flat screen conditions. However, regardless of game control, VR led to higher price estimates. We also found an interaction effect of telepresence and control on purchase intention.
... Creativity helps to create a positive attitude concerning brands (Sheinin et al., 2011) and that is why now-a-days companies start producing more creative advertisements (Ang et al., 2007) to pursue the targeted consumer. The findings to (Till and Baack, 2005) suggest that creative advertisements help to create more recall than no creative advertisements. ...
... Similar results have been reported for meaningfulness. Prior research also shows that meaningfulness is positively related to attitude towards the brand message (Feng & Xie, 2019;Sheinin, Varki, & Ashley, 2011;Smith et al., 2007), brand attitude (Feng and Xie, 2017;Smith et al., 2007), as well as purchase intention (Smith et al., 2007). Yet, less attention has been paid to the effects of craftsmanship as a dimension of creativity. ...
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A challenge in digital content marketing is to create meaningful messages on meaningful moments. To do so, brands frequently align social media messages with topical moments, also known as Real-time Marketing (RTM). While RTM aims to make meaningful connections, the creative development is subject to time pressure due to its real-time nature, which could have a negative effect on originality and craftsmanship, two other creativity dimensions besides meaningfulness which drive consumer responses. We address this tension by examining the creative crafting of RTM on Instagram and its consequences. Based on a content analysis of 516 Instagram messages, we indeed found a meaningfulness bias for RTM, such that meaningfulness comes at the expense of originality and craftsmanship. However, the findings from the content analysis, as well as an additional experiment (N = 245), showed that only craftsmanship and originality, and not meaningfulness, positively induced consumer responses. Implications are discussed.
... As hypothesized, our study also found that creative advertisements were more memorable than standard advertisements, confirming previous observations (e.g., Ang, Lee, & Leong, 2007;Baack et al., 2008;Sheinin, Varki, & Ashley, 2011;Till & Baack, 2005;Smith, MacKenzie, Yang, Buchholz, & Darley, 2007). Creative advertising has many characteristics that are different from standard advertisements, such as the involvement of novel expressions or concepts, the use of unique and distinctive ideas or styles and the appeal arising from a striking visual appearance. ...
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This book gathers new empirical findings fostering advances in the areas of digital and communication design, web, multimedia and motion design, graphic design, branding, and related ones. It includes original contributions by authoritative authors based on the best papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Digital Design and Communication, Digicom 2020, together with some invited chapters written by leading international researchers. They report on innovative design strategies supporting communication in a global, digital world, and addressing, at the same time, key individual and societal needs. This book is intended to offer a timely snapshot of technologies, trends and challenges in the area of design, communication and branding, and a bridge connecting researchers and professionals of different disciplines, such as graphic design, digital communication, corporate, UI Design and UX design.
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Using a combination of exploratory and traditional approaches, we replicate and extend previous research on creativity and memory effects. The first study examines creativity's effect on advertising recall using two nontraditional media: airport terminal and preshow cinema advertising. Results suggest that differences in how consumers interact with nontraditional media influence the effect of advertising creativity on memory. For cinema advertising, where media consumption is similar to traditional media, creativity enhanced recall. For airport advertising, where media consumption often occurs when consumers are in a distracted state, creativity had no effect. The second study continues this investigation of exposure context and extends previous creativity research by investigating the recognition dependent variable in a forcedexposure context. Recognition is measured at four time-delay intervals: no delay and delays of one-week, three-weeks, and five-weeks. Creative advertising was found to enhance recognition, and this positive effect increased over time.
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Reports on an experimental study where the effects of ad-brand incongruency on a familiar brand and an unfamiliar brand, respectively, are measured. Building on theory on information incongruency, tests the notion that ads that are incongruent with the brand image may be more effective in raising brand interest and brand memorability. However, this depends on the familiarity of the brand: the incongruency reinforces the existing associations for a familiar brand by increasing elaboration of the brand message, whereas the incongruent associations may take the upper hand for an unfamiliar brand with weaker existing associations. The results show that ad-brand incongruency enhances brand attitude and brand memorability and reduces ad memorability for the familiar brand. The only significant effect of ad-brand incongruency for the unfamiliar brand is a reduced brand memorability.
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C onsumer perceptions of advertising creativity are investigated in a series of studies beginning with scale development and ending with comprehensive model testing. Results demonstrate that perceptions of ad cre-ativity are determined by the interaction between divergence and relevance, and that overall creativity mediates their effects on consumer processing and response. History: This paper was received August 3, 2005, and was with the authors 8 months for 3 revisions; processed by Gerard J. Tellis.
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408 undergraduates participated in 4 experiments examining an associative model of memory, according to which the encoding of an incongruent item will result in the formation of a large number of associative paths between items, facilitating subsequent recall. Ss were better at recalling items that were incongruent with a prior expectancy than those that were congruent, and the difference was as pronounced after a delay of 48 hrs as it was after only a few minutes. Adding incongruent items to the list increased the proportion of congruent items that were recalled, but adding congruent items had no effect on the recall of incongruent items. It is suggested that unexpected or incongruent behaviors are difficult to comprehend and are considered in relation to behaviors already known about the target person during the process of encoding. Requiring Ss to allocate a portion of their processing capacity to an irrelevant task interfered with their ability to form such linkages and reduced the advantage of incongruent over congruent items in a free-recall task. Although the results are consistent with a variety of associative models that allow for the formation of linkages between items, it is suggested that the data place important constraints on the way such models may be formulated. (67 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study explored the influence of dimensions of creativity—novelty (expectancy), meaningfulness (relevancy), and emotion (valence of feelings)—on attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. The results indicate that unexpectedness enhanced ad effectiveness over expectedness when the ad has positive feelings. When the ad contains negative feelings, attitude toward the ad was diluted with unexpectedness vs. expectedness. Relevance was not critical in encouraging favorable responses when the ad is unexpected. With an unexpected–relevant–positive-feeling ad used as the baseline, a creative ad generated more favorable attitude toward the ad than other ad conditions. However, ad creativity resulted in more favorable brand attitude and purchase intention only against selected ad conditions. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed and directions for future research furnished. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Relationship marketing is an old idea but a new focus now at the forefront of services marketing practice and academic research. The impetus for its development has come from the maturing of services marketing with the emphasis on quality, increased recognition of potential benefits for the firm and the customer, and technological advances. Accelerating interest and active research are extending the concept to incorporate newer, more sophisticated viewpoints. Emerging perspectives explored here include targeting profitable customers, using the strongest possible strategies for customer bonding, marketing to employees and other stakeholders, and building trust as a marketing tool. Although relationship marketing is developing, more research is needed before it reaches maturity. A baker’s dozen of researchable questions suggests some future directions.
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The increased priority placed on branding by marketers in recent years offers an opportunity for consumer researchers to provide valuable insights and guidance. In particular, in highly competitive marketplaces, marketers often must link their brands to other entities, for example, people, places, things, or other brands, as a means to improve their brand equity. Understanding this leveraging process requires understanding consumer brand knowledge and how it changes from such associations. In this essay, I identify some promising and productive current research on this topic, and I suggest some important issues for future research. I conclude that adopting broader, more holistic perspectives that synthesize the multidimensionality of brand knowledge is critical to advance branding theory and practice, both in general and with brand leveraging in particular. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
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An experiment, which examines the relationship between cognition and attitude toward a product as a function of time and the presence of information about a competing product, is described. A scheme, which partitions cognitive responses into categories on the basis of their relative abstractness and, therefore, memorability, is proposed. Results show that the proposed scheme accounts for a significant amount of attitude variance and outperforms the traditional cognitive response scheme, especially after a delay. Results also show that, contrary to recent theory and research regarding the lack of correlation between attitude and recall, recall can be a predictor of attitude given the proper context and a theoretically justifiable recall measure.