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I>Kuramosciadium (Umbelliferae): A New Genus from the Uzbekistanian Part of the Western Tian Shan Mountains

Authors:
  • Institute of Botany, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences

Abstract

Kuramosciadium corydalifolium, a new genus and species of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) from the Kurama Ridge (Western Tian Shan Mountains) in Uzbekistan is described and illustrated. The new taxon is not closely related to any other genus in the flora of Middle Asia or adjacent countries. The analyses of fruit morphology and anatomy and nrDNA ITS sequence data reveal a distant affinity to Ligusticum s. 1. and Cnidium s. 1. and their allies in the traditional family classifications. In particular, Kuramosciadium is most similar to Sphaenolobium, Paulita, and Seselopsis. The new genus differs from its morphologically closest relative, Sphaenolobium, in its monocarpic life-form, unbranched rootstock, bipinnate leaves with almost sessile segments, brownish (not light yellow) petals, distinctly unequal umbel rays, narrow mericarp commissure, and winged dorsal ribs of mericarps. Kuramosciadium corydalifolium appears to be a rare, narrowly endemic, and its natural populations need protection.
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Systematic Botany (2011), 36(2): pp. 487–494
© Copyright 2011 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists
DOI 10.1600/036364411X569679
487
Middle Asia, especially its mountainous parts, is one of the
most important centers of diversity for Umbelliferae, both
in Asia and globally. At present, 458 species of the family
(belonging to 110 genera) are known for Kirghizia, Uzbekistan,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan. Within this ter-
ritory 256 species are endemic, as are 15 genera ( Autum-
nalia Pimenov, Fergania Pimenov, Kafirnigania Kamelin &
Kinzik., Karatavia Pimenov & Lavrova, Komarovia Korovin,
Kosopoljanskia Korovin, Ledebouriella H. Wolff, Lipskya (Koso-
Pol.) Nevski, Mogoltavia Korovin, Paulita Sojak, Pilopleura
Schischk., Schtschurowskia Regel & Schmalh., Sclerotiaria
Korovin, Sphaenolobium Pimenov, Sphaerosciadium Pimenov
& Kljuykov). The region is frequently referred to as “Central
Asia” in today’s political geography, but, according to tradi-
tional botanical-geographical usage ( Lavrenko 1965 ; Grubov
1959 ; Ovczinnikov 1971 ; Kamelin 1973 ; Takhtajan 1978 ),
Middle Asia and Central Asia are regarded as different phy-
togeographic regions. Middle Asia (previously known as
Russian Turkestan) is the easternmost part of the ancient Medi-
terranean area and is thus characterized by a Mediterranean
climate (i.e. moist spring and hot and dry summer) and a
rich flora, similar to that of the Iranian region. Sixteen addi-
tional genera ( Cephalopodum Korovin, Dimorphosciadium
Pimenov, Galagania Lipsky, Hyalolaena Bunge, Kozlovia Lipsky,
Krasnovia Popov, Ladyginia Lipsky, Lomatocarpa Pimenov,
Mediasia Pimenov, Oedibasis Koso-Pol., Ormopterum Schischk.,
Paraligusticum V. N. Tikhom., Parasilaus Leute, Pastinacopsis
Golosk., Schrenkia Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Seselopsis Schischk.) are
subendemic to the Middle Asia, being also distributed in adja-
cent regions (west China, north Afghanistan, northeast Iran)
with similar natural conditions. By contrast, Central Asia is
an extremely arid land with minimal precipitation, poor flora,
and lacking spring ephemeral and ephemeroid plant blossom.
The endemic and subendemic genera listed above were
described during a 150 year period of botanical exploration
of Middle Asia. Given this long history, it may seem that the
generic diversity of Umbelliferae from Middle Asia has been
largely discovered, but this is far from true. The discovery of
an unusual umbellifer in the Kurama Ridge of the Western
Tian Shan Mountains by the Tashkent botanist Dr. Komiljon
Tojibaev provides clear evidence of this. The plant was
first collected on July 20, 2009, on the southern slope of the
Kurama Ridge at the sources of Novbulak River, at an eleva-
tion of 2,700–2,900 m ( Fig. 1 ). The observed population cov-
ers less than three hectares, and within a plot of 10 m × 50 m,
more than 50 plants were found, 10% of which were sterile.
The aspect of the slope in this locality was south to southwest,
and the slopes were formed by screes of macro- and micro-
schistaceous fragments. The dominant species of the plant
community include Artemisia dracunculus L. subsp. turkestan-
ica Krasch. (Asteraceae) and Nepeta mariae Regel (Lamiaceae),
both of which indicate strong grazing pressure, as well as
Astragalus subinduratus Gontsch. (Fabaceae) and more rarely
Eremurus fuscus (O. Fedtsch.) Vved. (Asphodelaceae). The
new species is not represented in neighboring ecotopes.
The original collection was quickly recognized as a new
taxon, as no similar plants are known in the floras of Middle
Asia or the neighboring countries (China, Iran, Afghanistan).
However, establishing its affinity to other genera in the
family in the absence of fruits was problematic. Therefore,
Dr. Tojibaev undertook another expedition on September 27,
2009, during which he collected the plant from a nearby
locality in the Kurama Mountains. Fortunately, these sam-
ples included several persistent mature fruits. These collec-
tions provided sufficient material to describe the new species.
As to its generic attribution, we have investigated the plant
using both comparative carpoanatomical and molecular-
phylogenetic methods, and the results are described herein.
Materials and Methods
Morphology and Micromorphology— The description of the new
species is based on both of Dr. Tojibaev’s herbarium collections ( Fig. 2 )
made in the Kurama Mountains. Temporal cross-sections of mature fruits
were prepared by hand using a razor blade and treated with floroglucinol
and hydrochloric acid. Standard terminology to describe umbelliferous
fruit anatomical features follows Kljuykov et al. (2004) . Scanning electron
microscope (SEM) micrographs were taken at 15 kV using a CamScan S-2
microscope (Cambridge, England, U. K.). Fruits were coated with 25 nm
layer of Au-Pd using Eiko IB-3 sputter coater.
DNA Extraction, Purification, and Sequencing— For molecular phy-
logenetic analysis, the nrDNA ITS sequences of Sphaenolobium coria-
ceum and of the new genus were generated. Total DNA was extracted
from herbarium specimens using the NucleoSpin plant isolation kit
Kuramosciadium (Umbelliferae): A New Genus from the Uzbekistanian
Part of the Western Tian Shan Mountains
Michael G. Pimenov , 1
,
3 Komiljon Tojibaev , 2 Eugene V. Kljuykov , 1 and Galina V. Degtjareva 1
1 Botanical Garden, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, Moscow 119991, Russia
2 Scientific-Production Center “Botanica”, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 32 Durmon Juli Str.,
Tashkent 100125, Uzbekistan
3 Author for correspondance (mgpimenov@mail.ru)
Communicating Editor: Kenneth M. Cameron
Abstract— Kuramosciadium corydalifolium , a new genus and species of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) from the Kurama Ridge (Western Tian
Shan Mountains) in Uzbekistan is described and illustrated. The new taxon is not closely related to any other genus in the flora of Middle Asia
or adjacent countries. The analyses of fruit morphology and anatomy and nrDNA ITS sequence data reveal a distant affinity to Ligusticum
s. l. and Cnidium s. l. and their allies in the traditional family classifications. In particular, Kuramosciadium is most similar to Sphaenolobium,
Paulita, and Seselopsis. The new genus differs from its morphologically closest relative, Sphaenolobium, in its monocarpic life-form, unbranched
rootstock, bipinnate leaves with almost sessile segments, brownish (not light yellow) petals, distinctly unequal umbel rays, narrow mericarp
commissure, and winged dorsal ribs of mericarps. Kuramosciadium corydalifolium appears to be a rare, narrowly endemic, and its natural popu-
lations need protection.
Keywords— Apiaceae , DNA sequencing , fruit anatomy , Middle Asia , morphology , taxonomy.
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488 SYSTEMATIC BOTANY [Volume 36
(Macherey-Nagel, Düren, Germany). Details of PCR amplifications
of ITS region and sequencing strategies used (including primer loca-
tions and characteristics) are provided in Valiejo-Roman et al. (2002) .
Amplification products were purified using the DNA cleaning kit from
Cytokine (St. Petersburg, Russia). Direct sequencing was performed on
the ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City,
California), using ABI Prism BigDye terminator cycle sequencing ready
reaction kit for cycle sequencing reactions. Forward and reverse strands
of all ITS samples were sequenced. Both of the newly obtained sequences
have been deposited in GenBank [the GenBank accession for the new
species is GU306178 (Uzbekistan, Kurama Mts., Parda Tursun, sources of
Novbulak River, 2,700–2,900 m, 20.07.2009, Tojibaev s. n, MW), and that
of Sphaenolobium coriaceum is GU306177 (Southern Kazakhstan, Syr-Darya
Karatau Mts., village of Ak-bash-tau, 10.07.1973, Pimenov et al. 1454, MW)].
Aligned data matrix was submitted to TreeBASE (study number S10878).
Molecular-Phylogenetic Analysis— An initial set of taxa for compari-
son with Kuramosciadium was determined by using the BLAST option of
the GenBank database. This search suggested that Sphaenolobium, Paulita,
Seselopsis, and Conioselinum were most similar. Similarity values from the
BLAST search were: Sphaenolobium tianschanicum: ITS1–97%, ITS2–92%;
Conioselinum tataricum: ITS1–93%, ITS2–92%; Conioselinum chinense: ITS1–
90%, ITS2–92%; Seselopsis tianschanica: ITS1–2–92%, Paulita ovczinnikovii:
ITS1–92%, ITS2–90%. These taxa belong to a clade currently known infor-
mally as Ligusticeae, and relationships within this group have been stud-
ied in detail by Valiejo-Roman et al. (2006) . The published dataset from
this study was used to determine more precisely the position of the new
genus within the molecular–phylogenetic tree. After preliminary analy-
ses, the initial dataset was reduced and designed to cover most of the
relevant representatives of Ligusticeae, and the trees were then rooted
with Ligusticum scoticum, based on results of Valiejo-Roman et al. (2006) .
In total, 91 species, including the outgroup, were included in the present
analysis. The ITS data matrix was analyzed using both maximum parsi-
mony (MP) and the Bayesian inference (BI).
Parsimony analysis involved a heuristic search conducted with PAUP*
(version 4.0b8; Swofford 2003 ) using TBR branch swapping and equal
weighting of characters, and treating gaps as missing data. One-hundred
replicates with random taxon addition were performed and all shortest
trees were saved. Bootstrap analysis ( Felsenstein 1985 ) was performed to
assess the degree of support for particular branches on the tree, and boot-
strap values were calculated using 100 replicates with TBR branch swap-
ping and random addition of taxa. One thousand most parsimonious trees
from each replicate were saved.
Bayesian inference was explored using MrBayes version 3.1
( Huelsenbeck and Ronquist 2001 ; Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003 ). The
GTR + I + G model of sequence evolution was selected using the Akaike
information criterion from an analysis using the program Modeltest
( Posada and Crandall 1998 ). A total of 20,000,000 generations were per-
formed and trees from the first 1,400,000 generations were discarded. The
number of generations to be discarded was determined using cold chains
log-likelihood observation.
Results and Discussion
Morphological Data— The fruits of Kuramosciadium ( Fig. 3 )
are brownish to brown and glabrous. Their mericarps are
F ig . 1. Type locality of Kuramosciadium corydalifolium on the Kurama Ridge of the Western Tian Shan, Uzbekistan.
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2011] PIMENOV ET AL.: KURAMOSCIADIUM GEN. NOV. FROM UZBEKISTAN 489
ovate-lanceolate in outline, 6.5–7 mm long, 2–3 mm broad,
slightly compressed dorsally, with narrow winged ribs; the
marginal ribs are slightly broader than the dorsal ones. The
fruit surface ( Fig. 3C -F) in the furrows differs from that at
the ribs. In the furrows the cell borders are usually scarcely
distinguished, being more definite only in some places, the
fruit surface is irregularly wrinkled and the cuticle is not
sculptured. In the rib regions, by contrast, the cell borders
are rather clearly distinguished, the outer cell walls are con-
cave and the cuticle is tuberculate. The exocarp is composed
of small cells. It is interrupted near the carpophore, resulting
in a narrow commissure. The mesocarp is parenchymatous,
but the cells at the ends of the ribs are lignified and have pit-
ted cell walls. The vascular bundles are situated near the rib
bases, as is usual for genera in tribe Apieae. Vittae (a type of
secretory ducts) are thin and solitary in each furrow but with
two on the commissure. Another type of duct, called rib secre-
tory ducts, are located in the outside of the vascular bundles
and are more variable in size and shape; sometimes they are
broad and solitary, but they may also be small to inconspicu-
ous. The endocarp comprises one to two layers of tangentially
elongated cells with slightly lignified walls. The endosperm is
almost flat or slightly emarginate on the commissural side.
Fruit anatomy studies clearly demonstrate that the new
plant belongs to subfamily Apioideae, and most likely, to
tribe Apieae, the largest and most complex tribe in the sub-
family. Apieae seem to be a polyphyletic group and includes
over half of all species of Umbelliferae (e.g. Valiejo-Roman
et al. 1998 ). Within this huge tribe, no taxa share all of the
carpo-anatomical characters found in Kuramosciadium . Some
peculiarities suggest that Kuramosciadium may be related to
a group of Ligusticum within Apieae known informally as
Ligusticeae (“Verwandtschaftskreis der Gattung Ligusticum
of Leute [ 1969 ]), but comparative studies of nucleotide
sequences ( Valiejo-Roman et al. 2006 ) showed that group to
be nonmonophyletic.
Molecular Data— The alignment of 91 ITS sequences
resulted in a matrix of 427 nucleotide positions after exclud-
ing 98 ambiguous positions. Of the remaining sites, 215 char-
acters were parsimony-informative, 87 variable in only a
single taxon and 125 were constant. Maximum-parsimony
analyses recovered 77,000 shortest trees with 1,064 steps (CI =
0.460, RI = 0.711). Bayesian inference yielded a congruent
tree that was slightly better resolved than the maximum par-
simony strict consensus tree (tree not shown). The Bayesian
phylogram is presented in Fig. 4 . In both MP and BI trees,
F ig . 2. Kuramosciadium corydalifolium Pimenov, Kljuykov & Tojibaev (A – isotype specimen, Tojibaev , 20.07.2009, MW; B – paratype specimen, Tojibaev ,
27.09.2009, MW).
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490 SYSTEMATIC BOTANY [Volume 36
F ig . 3. Fruit of Kuramosciadium corydalifolium, 27.09.2009 Tojibaev s. n. (MW). 3A-B. General view of mature mericarp, scales = 1 mm. 3A. Dorsal sur-
face. 3B. Commissural surface; 3C-F. Details of fruit surface in the middle part of the fruit (SEM). 3C. Furrow region with irregularly wrinkled surface and
nonsculptured cuticle. 3D-F. Rib region. 3D. Rib surface with clearly distinguished cell borders. 3E. Tuberculate cuticle on the apex of the rib. 3F. Striate
cuticle on the side of the rib. 3G-H. Cross-section of mericarp. 3G. Schematic transect, scales = 1 mm. 3H. Dorsal rib, scales = 0.1 mm. 1 – exocarp; 2 – paren-
chyma cells of mesocarp; 3 - parenchyma cells of mesocarp with lignified pitted walls; 4 – vascular bundles; 5 – vallecular and commissural vittae; 6 – rib
secretory ducts; 7 – endocarp; 8 – seed coat; 9 – endosperm.
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2011] PIMENOV ET AL.: KURAMOSCIADIUM GEN. NOV. FROM UZBEKISTAN 491
F ig . 4. Bayesian inference tree of ITS sequence data, showing the position of Kuramosciadium corydalifolium within the Ligusticeae group. Only rela-
tionships with greater than 0.50 posterior probabilities are shown, nodes with lower resolution are collapsed. Numbers above clades indicate Bayesian
posterior probabilities (> 0.50); numbers below clades indicate parsimony bootstrap support (> 50%). Branch lengths are proportional to the number of
expected nucleotide substitutions, scale bar corresponds to one substitution per 10 sites.
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492 SYSTEMATIC BOTANY [Volume 36
the closest relatives to Kuramsciadium are two species of
Sphaenolobium, and this relationship is supported by a pos-
terior probability (PP) value of 1.00, and bootstrap (BS) value
of 97%.
Therefore, both carpological and molecular data inde-
pendently suggest that there are no closely related taxa for
the Kurama plant among different endemic, subendemic or
more widely distributed Umbelliferae genera of Middle Asia.
Molecular data revealed an affinity to the genus Sphaenolobium
and, more distantly to the genera Paulita and Seselopsis from
the informal Ligusticeae group, which are all endemic or
subendemic to Middle Asia. The morphological differences
among these genera, including Kuramosciadium , are impor-
tant (see, the new genus description below). For instance,
Kuramosciadium differs from Sphaenolobium in its monocarpic
life-form, unbranched rootstock, bipinnate leaves with almost
sessile segments, brownish (not light yellow) petals, distinctly
unequal umbel rays, narrow mericarp commissure, and
winged dorsal ribs of mericarps. The Kurama plant is hereby
described as a new genus and species.
Taxonomic Treatment
Kuramosciadium corydalifolium Pimenov, Kljuykov &
Tojibaev, gen. et sp. nov.—TYPE: UZBEKISTAN.
Uzbekistania, jugum Kurama, Parda Tursun, juxta fon-
tem fluminis Novbulak, in detritis mobilibus, h = 2,700–
2,900 m supra mare, 20 July 2009, Tojibaev (holotype:
TASH!, isotype: MW!)
Descriptio Generico-specifica— Genus hoc generibus
Sphaenolobium, Paulita et Seselopsis affine est sed bene differt:
a Sphaenolobio biomorpha monocarpica (non polycarpica),
caudicis eramosis, caulibus a basi (non a medio) ramosis,
foliis bipinnatisectis (non bitri-ternatisectis), segmentis pri-
mariis vix sessilibus (non longepetiolulatis), petalis fuscid-
ulis (non flavis), radiis umbellis valde inaequalilongis (non
subaequalibus), mericarpiis commissuris angustis, jugis dor-
salibus aliformis (non commissuris latis, jugis dorsalibus
carinatis), vittis jugalibus mericarpiorum bene evolutis (non
parvis);
a Paulitae et Seselopsi radicibus non inflatis (non tuberiforme
digitatimque incrassatis), caulibus a basi (non a medio) ramo-
sis, radiis inaequalilongis (non fere aequalibus), dentibus caly-
cinis triangulatis (non nullis); petalis fuscidulis (non albis),
vittis jugalibus mericarpiorum bene evolutis (non nullis).
Plantae perennes, monocarpicae, fuscidulo-virides, 25–30
cm altae, subglabrae, radicis palaribus, cylindricis, basi ad
1 cm in diam. Cauli a basi ramosi, ramis numerosis, interno-
diis inferioribus brevibus, prope basin costati, in parte superi-
ore tenuiter sulcati, subrotundi. Folia radicalia longipetiolata,
petiolis 5–8 cm longis, laminis, ambitu lanceolatis, bipinna-
tisectis, 4–7 cm longis, 1–2.5 cm latis, segmentis primariis
in jugis 5–7 dispositis, pinnatisectis, petiolulis brevissimis,
lobis terminalibus 3–5 mm longis, ovatis vel ovato-lanceola-
tis, dentibus 1–5 inaequalibus, magnis, obtusis, glabris, tan-
tum margine breve aculeolatis. Folia caulina simplificata,
petiolata, laminis parvis, pinnatis, lobis terminalibus lance-
olatis. Umbellae pedunculis longis, 5–7 cm in diam, radiis
5–7, distincte inaequalibus, 3–8 cm longis, sectione subro-
tundis, vix incrassatis, bracteis 4–5, triangulatis, acutis, mar-
gine albomembranaceis. Umbellulae 6–9 = florae, pedicellis
vix incrassatis, 2–15 mm longis, arcuatis, vix divaricatis,
costulatis, bracteolis 4–6, triangulare-lanceolatis, acutis, mar-
gine albomembranaceis, pedicellis valde brevioribus. Dentes
calycini breves, triangulati, crassiusculi. Petala fuscidula, ad
1.3 mm longa, elliptica, subintegra, basi fere exunguiculata,
apice angustata, attenuata, incurvaque, canalis secretoriis
solitariis, latis, fuscis. Stylopodia breveconica, stylodia 0.8–
1.2 mm longa, dorso reflexa. Fructus fusco-brunnei, glabri;
carpophorum usque ad basin bipartitum. Mericarpia ambitu
ovato-lanceolata, 6.5–7 mm longa, 2–3 mm lata, dorsaliter vix
compressa, jugis anguste alatis, marginalibus fere latioribus.
Exocarpium cellulis minutis, interruptum prope carpophorii;
commissura angusta. Mesocarpium cellulis parenchymati-
cis, in partis distalis jugorum cellulis membranis tenuibus,
lignescentibus, porosis, fasciculis conductoriis basi jugorum
sitis. Vittae valleculares tenues, solitarii, commissurales duae;
canaliculi secretorii jugales variabili in sectione transver-
sali (probabiliter breves) – interdum lati, interdum parvi vel
inconspicui. Endocarpium 1–2-stratosum cellulis tangentali-
ter elongatis, membranis vix lignescentibus. Spermoderma
cellulis minutis. Endospermium ventre subplanum vel non
profunde emarginatum.
Monocarpic perennial herbs, brownish-green, 25–30 cm tall,
somewhat glabrous. Tap-root cylindric, to 1 cm in diam. at the
base. Stem branched from the base with numerous branches;
lower internodes short, ribbed near base, finely furrowed in
upper part, almost circular in cross-section. Basal leaves long-
petiolate (5–8 cm long), their blades lanceolate, bipinnati-
sect in outline, 4–7 cm long, 1–2.5 cm broad, with 5–7 pairs
of chief pinnatisect short-petiolulate segments; the ultimate
lobes ovate or ovate-lanceolate, almost glabrous, toothed
on the margin; the teeth 1–5, unequal, large, obtuse, shortly
prickly. Stem leaves less divided, petiolate, with smaller pin-
nate blades, their ultimate lobes lanceolate. Umbels 5–7 cm in
diam., with long peduncles; rays 5–7, noticeably unequal, 3–8
cm long, almost circular in cross-section, scarcely thickened;
bracts 4–5, triangular, pointed, white-membraneous on the
margin. Umbellules 6–9 flowered; pedicels slightly thickened,
2–15 mm long, arched, somewhat divaricate, slightly ribbed;
bracteoles 4–6, triangular-lanceolate, acute, white-membrane-
ous on the margin, much shorter than pedicels. Calyx teeth
short, triangular, rather thick. Petals dark brownish, up to 1.3
mm long, elliptic, nearly entire, almost without claws, nar-
rowed at the tip, attenuate and curved inwards, with solitary
broad brown secretory ducts. Stylopodia short-conic, styles
0.8–1.2 mm long, reflexed at the dorsal mericarp side. Fruit
brown, glabrous; carpophore bifid to the base. Mericarps
ovate-lanceolate in outline, 6.5–7 mm long, 2–3 mm broad,
slightly compressed dorsally, with narrowly winged ribs;
marginal ribs slightly broader than the dorsal ones. Exocarp
composed of small cells, interrupted near the carpophore;
commissure narrow. Mesocarp composed of parenchyma
cells; in distal parts of the ribs, of cells with thin walls, becom-
ing woody, pitted with small holes; vascular bundles situated
near the rib bases. Vittae thin, solitary in valleculae, two on
the commissure; rib secretory ducts variable, ranging from
broad to sometimes small or inconspicuous in fruit cross-sec-
tion. Endocarp of 1–2 cell layers with tangentially elongate
cells having slightly lignified walls. Sead coat of small cells.
Endosperm almost flat to slightly emarginate at commissural
side. Figure 2A .
Additional Specimen Examined (Paratype)— UZBEKISTAN: jugum
Kurama, Chorkesar, locum Novbulak, in alveis schistosis fluminis,
41°0747.3” N, 70°4842.3” E, h = 2,831 m, 27 Sep 2009, Tojibaev (TASH,
MW) ( Fig. 2B , 5 ).
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2011] PIMENOV ET AL.: KURAMOSCIADIUM GEN. NOV. FROM UZBEKISTAN 493
Phenology— Flowering in June; fruiting from July to
August.
Conservation Status— The species is distributed narrowly,
with only two closely localized populations. According to the
IUCN (2008) it should be considered as EN (endangered) and
recommended for inclusion in the Red data book of Uzbekistan.
Plants .
Etymology— The generic name originated from Kurama
(its native land) and the Greek word scias (umbel); the specific
epithet reflects the similarity of its leaves to those of Corydalis
fedtschenkoana Regel and some other species of that genus.
In the following key we summarize the differences of
the new genus from the Middle-Asian genera of perennial
Apieae, related to Ligusticum , [ i.e. having bracteoles, glabrous
fruits, with mericarps slightly compressed dorsally, nonlig-
nified pericarp (only parenchyma cells with lignified pitted
walls can be found in ribs), basal rib vascular bundles, soli-
tary vallecular and twin commissural vittae, approximately
equal keeled dorsal and marginal ribs, endosperm at commis-
sural side almost flat or slightly emarginate and belonging to
molecular Sphaenolobium clade]. This includes the genera
Sphaenolobium, Paulita , and nearby Seselopsis.
Key to the Genera KURAMOSCIADIUM, SPHAENOLOBIUM, PAULITA, and SESELOPSIS
1. Calyx teeth triangular, short; plants with rootstocks and vertical nonthickened roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Monocarpic perennials with unbranched rootstock; leaves bipinnate with almost sessile segments;
petals brownish, glabrous; umbel rays distinctly unequal; mericarp commissure narrow; mericarp dorsal ribs winged . . . . . . . Kuramosciadium
2. Polycarpic perennials with branched rootstock; leaves bitri-ternatisect, their segments with long petiolules;
petals light yellow, short pubescent; umbel rays nearly equal; mericarp commissure broad; mericarp dorsal ribs keeled . . . . . . . Sphaenolobium
1. Calyx teeth absent; plants with digitally branched tuberiform roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Bracts lacking or rarely solitary; leaf terminal lobes lanceolate to linear, entire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seselopsis
3. Bracts 2–5; leaf terminal lobes ovate to ovate-lanceolate, toothed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paulita
Acknowledgements. The authors thank Dr. Tagir H. Samigullin and
Prof. Gregory M. Plunkett for comments and suggestions on the manu-
script and the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (RFBR) for the finan-
cial support (grants 07-04-000270 and 08-04-12149).
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