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Implementation of RFID Technology In Library – Book Exhausting and Retrieval For Readers

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Abstract

Recently the wireless location systems become an important issue for all libraries. RFID is an innovative automated library system for automatic identification and pathway of library material. An automated library with the support of RFID technology would be a “self service center for library. Utilizing RFID-tagged book retrieval is a purpose advance for the library search system namely Library Book Exhausting Retrieval Supporting System. This paper presents the development of this utilizing RFID implementation flow and as well as the laboratory scale system structure. The book list mode offers a corresponding list of the bookshelves and the misplaced books regularly for a librarian to localize all misplaced books in the wrong bookshelves and will prove immediate and long term benefits to library in traceability and security.
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Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science & Humanities 25
IMPLEMENTATION OF RFID TECHNOLOGY IN LIBRARY –
BOOK EXHAUSTING AND RETRIEVAL FOR READERS
Dr. P. Chellappandi
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Library and Information Science, Madurai Kamaraj University,
Madurai - 625 021, Tamilnadu
S. Sivankalai
Chief Librarian, Paavai College of Engineering, Paavai Nagar, Namakkal – 637 018
Abstract
Recently the wireless location systems become an important issue for all
libraries. RFID is an innovative automated library system for automatic identification
and pathway of library material. An automated library with the support of RFID
technology would be a “self service center for library. Utilizing RFID-tagged book
retrieval is a purpose advance for the library search system namely Library Book
Exhausting Retrieval Supporting System. This paper presents the development of
this utilizing RFID implementation flow and as well as the laboratory scale system
structure. The book list mode offers a corresponding list of the bookshelves and the
misplaced books regularly for a librarian to localize all misplaced books in the wrong
bookshelves and will prove immediate and long term benefits to library in
traceability and security.
Keywords: RFID Technology, Book Retrieval System, Sensing Network, library Security
Systems
Introduction
RFID is used for library automation access control (check out, check in and
renewal) and fee collection, security books and journals tracking. One of the more
promising new RFID applications is RFID tags that contain sensors to measure
temperature, humidity shock and other environmental conditions, sensor enabled
RFID provides us the ability to remotely monitor a products condition in same vases
even when the product is inside a sealed freight container. One growing use of
sensor enabled RFID tags is for monitoring refrigerated book storage. Because these
tags do not require wring, they can be placed in an optimal location, depending on
the current need. And they can be easily moved to another location when needs
change. The “Search system software program” component consists of a software
program that performs the localization process of the localization system. The
software program also acts as middleware software that interfaces between the RFID
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Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science & Humanities 26
reader and the system server. This allows user to control the RFID reader for various
functions such as increase in the RFID reader output power level using only the
software program graphical user interface which is host in the system server.
A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, books, and
services, and the structure in which it is housed. Apart from books many libraries are
now also repositories and access points for maps, prints, or other documents on
various storage media such as microform (microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, CDs,
LPs, cassettes, videotapes, and DVDs. Libraries have materials arranged in a
specified order according to a library classification system, so that items may be
located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently. Reference stacks are
different which has only reference books and only selected members
..
Among the many uses of RFID technology is its deployment in libraries. This
technology has slowly begun to replace the traditional barcodes on library items
(books, CDs, DVDs, etc.). The RFID tag can contain identifying information, such as a
book's title or material type, without having to be pointed to a separate database (but
this is rare in North America). The information is read by an RFID reader, which
replaces the standard barcode reader commonly found at a library's circulation desk.
The RFID tag found on library materials typically measures 50×50 mm in North
America and 50×75 mm in Europe. It may replace or be added to the barcode,
offering a different means of inventory management by the staff and self service by
the borrowers. It can also act as a security device, taking the place of the more
traditional electromagnetic security. Worldwide, in absolute numbers, RFID is used
most in the United States (with its 300 million inhabitants), followed by the United
Kingdom and Japan. It is estimated that over 30 million library items worldwide now
contain RFID tags, including some in the Vatican Library in Rome. At the time of
2010, the largest RFID implementation in academic library is the University of Hong
Kong Libraries which have over 1.20 million library items contain RFID tags;
whereas the largest implementation for public institution has been installed in Seattle
Public Library in the United States.
RFID taking a large burden off staff could also mean that fewer staff will be
needed, resulting in some of them getting fired, but that has so far not happened in
North America where recent surveys have not returned a single library that cut staff
because of adding RFID. In fact, library budgets are being reduced for personnel and
increased for infrastructure, making it necessary for libraries to add automation to
compensate for the reduced staff size. Also, the tasks that RFID takes over are largely
not the primary tasks of librarians. A finding in the Netherlands is that borrowers are
pleased with the fact that staffs are now more available for answering questions. A
concern surrounding RFID in libraries that has received considerable publicity is the
issue of privacy. Because RFID tags can — depending on the RFID transmitter &
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reader — be scanned and read from up to 350 feet or 100 m (eg Smart Label RFID's),
and because RFID utilizes an assortment of frequencies (both depending on the type
of tag, though), there is some concern over whether sensitive information could be
collected from an unwilling source. However, library RFID tags do not contain any
patron information, and the tags used in the majority of libraries use a frequency
only readable from approximately ten feet.Also, libraries have always had to keep
records of who has borrowed what, so in that sense there is nothing new. However,
many libraries destroy these records once an item has been returned. RFID would
complicate or nullify this respect of readers' privacy. Further, another non-library
agency could potentially record the RFID tags of every person leaving the library
without the library administrator's knowledge or consent. One simple option is to let
the book transmit a code that has meaning only in conjunction with the library's
database. Another step further is to give the book a new code every time it is
returned. And if in the future readers become ubiquitous (and possibly networked),
then stolen books could be traced even outside the library. Tag removal could be
made difficult if the tags are so small that they fit invisibly inside a (random) page,
possibly put there by the publisher.
Benefits of RFID in Library
Times saving, fast accessing of books and eliminating manual errors are the
main benefits of the RFID in Library. Although RFID can be used in library anti-theft
systems, this doesn’t mean that it is a highly secure technology. RFID tags can easily
be shielded by a thick layer of Mylar, a few sheets of aluminum foil, or even an
aluminum gum wrapper, so that they won’t be detected by the reading device. There
is, however, some potential savings because a single tag serves many different
functions. The library saves some time in processing new items because it only has to
affix one technology to the item. It may also save some money due to the integration
of circulation and security with a single vendor and into a single system.
Library Security For RFID Tags
Access to secure areas is already being controlled through the use of a variety
of AIDS Technology. Bar codes, RFID, and biometrics are leading technologies used.
Given recent lapses I security at U.S.A governmental facilities, one can expect greater
use of AIDC for internal security and asset tracking, not just access control. Along
with library or companies door openers, an early major use of RFID was books,
journals and documents identification. Live stock could be tagged or collared, for
example, to control access to feeding stations at feedlots.
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Disk / Coin tags
One common format is the disk or coin tag with the disk or coin format, a
round plastic casing, which usually contains a central hole for fastening, encloses
the tag
Fig.1 Disk / Coin tags
Absorption
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way by which the
energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom. Thus,
the electromagnetic energy is transformed to other forms of energy for example, to
heat. The absorption of light during wave propagation is often called attenuation.
Usually, the absorption of waves does not depend on their intensity (linear
absorption), although in certain conditions (usually, in optics), the medium changes
its transparency dependently on the intensity of waves going through, and the
saturable absorption.
Active tags
Electronic article surveillance (EAS) is a technological method for preventing
shoplifting from retail stores or pilferage of books from libraries. Special tags are
fixed to merchandise or books. These tags
are removed or deactivated by the clerks
when the item is properly bought or
checked out. At the exits of the store, a
detection system sounds an alarm or
otherwise alerts the staff when it senses
active tags. For high-value goods that are
to be manipulated by the patrons, wired
alarm clips may be used instead of tags.
Fig. 2 Active tags
Contact-less Smart card
A smart card label is a paper-thin tag with its antenna coil in the form of foil
etched or printed onto the back of the plastic. After it is printed, a smart label is
laminated and then coated with an adhesive.
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Integrated circuit (IC)
In electronics, an integrated circuit (also known as IC, chip, or microchip) is a
miniaturized electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well
as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate
of semiconductor material. Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic
equipment in use today and have revolutionized the world of electronics.
Computers, cellular phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts
of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the low cost of production of
integrated circuits.
Passive tags
In an RFID system the transponder which contains the data to be transmitted
is called an RF tag. Passive RF tags obtain operating power generated from the RF
reader. They are smaller and
lighter than active tags but
have a shorter communication
range and require a high
powered reader. Passive tags
are generally read-only and as
such, once it is programmed
with data, that data cannot be
modified.
Fig.3 Passive tags
Supporter of self check-out / check-in
RFID has many library applications that can be highly beneficial, particularly
for circulation staff. Since RFID tags can be read through an item, there is no need to
open a book cover or DVD case to scan an item. This could reduce repetitive-motion
injuries. Where the books have a barcode on the outside, there is still the advantage
that borrowers can scan an entire pile of books in one go, instead of one at a time.
Since RFID tags can also be read while an item is in motion, using RFID readers to
check-in returned items while on a conveyor belt reduces staff time. But, as with
barcode, this can all be done by the borrowers themselves, meaning they might never
again need the assistance of staff. Next to these readers with a fixed location there are
also portable ones (for librarians, but in the future possibly also for borrowers,
possibly even their own general-purpose readers). With these, inventories could be
done on a whole shelf of materials within seconds, without a book ever having to be
taken off the shelf.
11
In Umeå, Sweden, RFID is being used to assist visually impaired
people in borrowing audio books. In Malaysia, Smart Shelves are used to pinpoint
the exact location of books in Multimedia University Library, Cyberjaya. In the
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Netherlands, handheld readers are being introduced for this purpose. The Dutch
Union of Public Libraries ('Vereniging van Openbare Bibliotheken') is working on the
concept of an interactive 'context library', where borrowers get a reader/headphones
set, which leads them to the desired section of the library (using triangulation
methods, rather like GPS) and which they can use to read information from books on
the shelves with the desired level of detail (e.g. a section read out loud), coming from
the book's tag itself or a database elsewhere, and get tips on alternatives, based on
the borrowers' preferences, thus creating a more personalized version of the library.
This may also lead them to sections of the library they might not otherwise visit.
Borrowers could also use the system to exchange experiences (such as grading
books). This is already done by children in the virtual realm at mijnstempel.nl, but
the same could be done in physical form. Borrowers can grade the book at the check-
in desk. The use of RFID reduces the amount of time required to perform circulation
operations. The most significant time savings are attributable to the anti-collision RF
algorithm that allows many tags to be read simultaneously with excellent accuracy.
The other time savings realized by circulation staff are enhanced if the RFID
tags replace both the EM security strips or RF tags of older theft detection systems
and the barcodes of the automated library system. There can be as much as a 50
percent increase in throughput. For library patrons using self-check-out, there is a
marked improvement because they do not have to carefully place materials within a
designated template and they can check-out multiple items simultaneously. Staff is
relieved further when readers are installed in book-drops.
Currently bar codes have
been used for libraries last
few years to identify and
track critical books, journals
and documents. They also
have been used to inventory
the files in law offices and to
identify and track library
books issue, return,
searching.
Fig.4 Library management Systems Retrieval for Library Books
Because paper is still so pervasive in today’s society, identifying the location
and use of important documentation has greatly assisted firms in effectively
managing their sources for library. Another application of RFID technology is
automated materials handling. This includes conveyer and sorting systems that can
move library materials and sort them by category into separate bins or onto separate
carts. This significantly reduces the amount of staff time required to ready materials
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for re-shelving. Once a user has located a resource within the catalog, they must then
utilize navigational guidance to retrieve the resource physically; a process that may
be assisted through RFID tagging. Using RFID tags to track library books could
increase security and ease laborious stock takes. The RFID tag attached with the
books contains the book number. The books will be searched with the help of the
RFID handheld reader using any of the parameters like book no, book name, author
name and publisher name. If the book no. is directly given as a searching parameter,
the client s/w will start locating the book
immediately. The beep sound will be given as
soon as the particular book is identified. If other
parameters like book name, author name and
publisher names are given as a searching
condition, then the client s/w communicates with
the server program to get the required book id
from database by matching those parameters. If
more than one book, are satisfying the search
condition, then the librarian will be asked to select
a particular book among those books
.
Fig.5 Books Retrieval System
The book list mode will produce a corresponding list of the bookshelves and
the misplaced books through data detection and calculation by RFID readers. The list
records the bookshelves that all books with tracking tags are most possibly placed in
the localization area. The book list mode will be suitable for a librarian to find out all
books that are misplaced during the off day each month or the off hours every day.
All side readers and the center readers detect and record the new detected RFID tags
while power level increases at first. The tags include the bookshelf tags and the
boundary tags.
Fast and flexible locating increases productivity of staff and enhances the
customer experience. UHF RFID tags to track the location of each book on the shelf,
and items can be classified by genre, author, subject, or other characteristics much
like you see to today's bookstores. The middleware that runs system can integrate
with a library's ILS (Integrated Library System), allowing customers to search for
books and identify which shelf in the library they are on, even if they are misplaced
in a different section.
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Conclusion
The RFID technology is found to be suitable to be use to implement
intelligent robotic system with the ability to speeds up book borrowing, monitoring,
books searching processes and thus frees staff to do more user-service tasks. The
RFID tag using the proposed antenna has exhibited a very good exhausting retrieval
pattern, which has shown great potential for item-level RFID applications in
restaurants or libraries for tracking the items such as plates and books.
References
Garfinkel, Simson and Rosenberg, Beth, eds. 2006. RFID: application, security
and Privacy. Pearson Education ISBN-8131701662.pp11
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Full-text available
With the introduction of computers and other forms of communication technology, library services have undergone a significant transformation. Libraries have been automated, networked, and are currently being converted into virtual or paperless libraries. This article is dedicated to many aspects of cloud computing, including different kinds and applications. There is a discussion about the advantages and drawbacks of cloud computing in academic libraries. The article also includes recommendations for professional librarians and academic libraries across the globe on how to take advantage of cloud computing resources. This article may be of use in the development of cloud-based services for university libraries. The article claims that cloud providers' high quality of service, the expansion of Internet bandwidth, and the rapid transfer of information should all contribute to improving academic library services in the future. Cloud computing is essential for today's information innovation, and it is vital for university libraries.
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