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Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract, essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes

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The dichloromethane-methanol extract, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Nepeta parnassica, and the isolated 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone were evaluated for their repellent effect against the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards and Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskål. The chemical analysis of N. parnassica essential oil, dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (87 %), revealed 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (36.8 %), 1,8-cineole (25.5 %), and 4aα,7β,7aβ-nepetalactone (11.1 %) as the major constituents. The results of the insect bioassays showed that the essential oil and the dichloromethane-methanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Culex pipiens for up to 2 h post application. The isolated 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone showed very high mosquito repellency for periods of at least 2 h against both species.
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... The consistent expression of such a characteristic response to nepetalactol suggests that the response has an important adaptive function for cats. On the basis of reports that nepetalactone from catnip has mosquito-repellent activity when applied to humans (27)(28)(29), we hypothesized that the characteristic rubbing and rolling against plants allows cats to transfer nepetalactol or nepetalactone onto the fur for chemical defense against mosquitoes and possibly also against other biting arthropods. In this study, we tested whether nepetalactol is repellent to Aedes albopictus, a mosquito common in Japan and China (30). A. albopictus avoided both silver vine leaves (five leaves, containing approximately 100 g of nepetalactol) and nepetalactol alone (50 g, 200 g, and 2 mg) compared to a solvent control, when each was placed separately into test cages that had shelters into which A. albopictus could move ( Fig. 4A; ANOVA, effect of stimulus F 4,15 = 79.93, ...
... Although we only tested for a repellent effect on A. albopictus in this study, we might also expect nepetalactol to be repellent to other mosquito species including A. aegypti, which is a common vector of yellow fever, dengue, and Zika viruses (42), consistent with the broad repellence of nepetalactone across a range of mosquito and other biting arthropods (27)(28)(29). Our findings suggest that nepetalactol may be a new natural candidate repellent to help reduce mosquito problems in human society. ...
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Domestic cats and other felids rub their faces and heads against catnip ( Nepeta cataria ) and silver vine ( Actinidia polygama ) and roll on the ground as a characteristic response. While this response is well known, its biological function and underlying mechanism remain undetermined. Here, we uncover the neurophysiological mechanism and functional outcome of this feline response. We found that the iridoid nepetalactol is the major component of silver vine that elicits this potent response in cats and other felids. Nepetalactol increased plasma β-endorphin levels in cats, while pharmacological inhibition of μ-opioid receptors suppressed the classic rubbing response. Rubbing behavior transfers nepetalactol onto the faces and heads of respondents where it repels the mosquito, Aedes albopictus . Thus, self-anointing behavior helps to protect cats against mosquito bites. The characteristic response of cats to nepetalactol via the μ-opioid system provides an important example of chemical pest defense using plant metabolites in nonhuman mammals.
... The content of dichloromethane-methanol and 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone isolated from N. parnassica showed very high mosquito repellency for at least 2 hours against both types of mosquitoes. This study demonstrated the potential use of essential oil extracts, especially dichloromethane-methanol and 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone N. parnassica, as control agents for A. cretinus and C. pipiens (Gkinis et al., 2014). ...
... A key intermediate in the generation of most iridoids is nepetalactol 3, which, along with its oxidized product, nepetalactone 4, is well-known for its behavioral effect on cats 9,10 . In addition, the nepetalactone isomers are known to have stereodivergent effects in repelling insects [11][12][13][14] . It is therefore desirable to unlock this structural diversity in order to apply it to this and many other potential applications downstream of 3. ...
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Thousands of natural products are derived from the fused cyclopentane-pyran molecular scaffold nepetalactol. These natural products are used in an enormous range of applications that span the agricultural and medical industries. For example, nepetalactone, the oxidized derivative of nepetalactol, is known for its cat attractant properties as well as potential as an insect repellent. Most of these naturally occurring nepetalactol-derived compounds arise from only two out of the eight possible stereoisomers, 7S-cis-trans and 7R-cis-cis nepetalactols. Here we use a combination of naturally occurring and engineered enzymes to produce seven of the eight possible nepetalactol or nepetalactone stereoisomers. These enzymes open the possibilities for biocatalytic production of a broader range of iridoids, providing a versatile system for the diversification of this important natural product scaffold.
... However, synthetic analogues could be developed that are more actively repellent. It was also observed that nepetalactone and other terpenoids from catnip are better repellent against anopheles' mosquitos that causes malaria, and against several ticks and mites that cause diseases in livestock and poultry [14][15][16]. Efforts are ongoing to control the spread of malaria by searching for novel antimalarial agents from plants and designing new derivatives of artemisinin and tetraoxane-based compounds [17,18]. However, developing mosquito repellents also needs more attention as they can be used for prevention [19]. ...
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Nepetalactones belongs to the group of iridoid monoterpenoids, which are present in the aerial parts of nepeta plants. Nepetalactone is an attractant to feline animals causing euphoric effects, while it is a repellent to mosquitoes and cockroaches. It is also a pheromone for several insect aphid species. The main objective of this research was to study the electronic and spectral properties of nepetalactones. We investigated its structural properties using hybrid density-functional theory of B3LYP and WB97XD functional with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set to optimize the geometry, and then computed the electronic structure, HOMO–LUMO, natural bond orbitals, molecular electronic potential and its contour map. We also obtained spectral signatures of NMR, IR and UV–Vis, and compared them with experimental data from the literature. The DFT study provided different electronic and spectral information that will be of value for further research on making new derivatives of nepetalactones for commercial purposes. Nepetalactones have a promising future in the development of novel mosquito repellents for the control of malaria and arboviral diseases.
... Plant-based products are the most recently researched alternatives, showing great results in mosquito control (4) (5) . However, although there are few studies that investigate the use of fungi as a control measure, some fungal species have shown promising results against insects (6) (7) . ...
Article
Introduction: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.
... GC-MS analysis revealed that R. mucronata possesses variety of biopesticidal compounds. Gkinis et al. (2014) in Greece found that the results of the insect bioassays showed that the Nepeta parnassica essential oil and the dichloromethanemethanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Cx. pipiens for up to 2 h post application. ...
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Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm 2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of O. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm 2 , while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm 2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm 2 , compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm 2 , respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito–borne pathogens.
... The percentage of repellency was 89 % when 10 mg/L of S. wightii methanol extract was applied in the study done by Kumar et al. (2012). On the other hand, essential oils from terrestrial plants have been widely reported for their adulticidal and repellent properties (de Lima et al. 2013;Gkinis et al. 2014). ...
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Seaweeds are one of the most widely studied natural resources for their biological activities. Novel seaweed compounds with unique chemical structures have been reported for their pharmacological properties. The urge to search for novel insecticidal compound with a new mode of action for development of botanical insecticides supports the relevant scientific research on discovering the bioactive compounds in seaweeds. The mosquitocidal potential of seaweed extracts and their isolated compounds are documented in this review paper, along with the discussion on bioactivities of the major components of seaweeds such as polysaccharides, phenolics, proteins, terpenes, lipids, and halogenated compounds. The effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward different life stages of mosquito (egg, larva, pupa, and adult), its growth, development, and reproduction are elaborated. The structure-activity relationships of mosquitocidal compounds are discussed to extrapolate the possible chemical characteristics of seaweed compounds responsible for insecticidal properties. Furthermore, the possible target sites and mode of actions of the mosquitocidal seaweed compounds are included in this paper. The potential synergistic effects between seaweeds and commercial insecticides as well as the toxic effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward other insects and non-target organisms in the same habitat are also described. On top of that, various factors that influence the mosquitocidal potential of seaweeds, such as abiotic and biotic variables, sample preparation, test procedures, and considerations for a precise experimental design are discussed. The potential of active seaweed extracts and compounds in the development of effective bioinsecticide are also discussed.
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Chapter
Pesticides are represented by natural or chemical substances or mixtures of substances used for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest (virucides, bactericides, fungicides, algaecides, herbicides, desiccants, insecticides, nematicides, molluscicides, rodenticides, avicides, piscicides). Despite their beneficial effects exhibited by the inhibitory effects against pests harmful for plants and animals, the chemical pesticides could also be toxic for other organisms and pollutants for the environment. Biopesticides, which are naturally occurring or derived materials from living organisms or their metabolites, have instead low negative effects as compared to chemical pesticides. Currently, under the pressing issues of food security and the need for implementation of a more sustainable agricultural system globally, there is much interest in the development of new biocontrol agents. The purpose of this chapter was to review the progress made in biopesticides development, focusing on microbial and plant-derived products and in the field of chemical pesticides biodecontamination by using microbial enzymes.
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
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The description of the unknown pupa of Aedes cretinus and a key to the known pupae of the albopictus subgroup, scutellaris group, subgenus Stegomyia, genus Aedes are presented. The three species of subgenus Stegomyia, genus Aedes, which occur in Europe, are characterized.
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Mosquitoes and Their Control presents a wealth of information on the bionomics, systematics, ecology, research techniques and control of both nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes in an easily readable style, providing practical guidelines and important information for professionals and laymen alike. Ninety-two European species and more than 100 globally important vector and nuisance species are included in the book. Most of them, including all European species, are described in the fully illustrated identification keys, followed by a detailed description of the morphology, biology, distribution and medical importance of each species, including over 700 detailed drawings. Mosquitoes and Their Control includes: Systematics and biology medical significance research techniques illustrated identification keys for larval and adult mosquito genera morphology, ecology, and distribution of the species identified in the keys biological, chemical, physical and genetic control of mosquitoes Mosquitoes and Their Control is a valuable tool for vector ecologists, entomologists, and all those involved with mosquito control, biology, ecology, and systematics world-wide. It will especially benefit those professionals, scientists and students dealing with mosquitoes and their control on a day-to-day basis. Society as a whole stands to gain from improved, environmentally responsible mosquito management programs designed on the basis of a broader understanding of mosquitoes and their control, as provided in this enlightening book. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003, 2010. All rights reserved.
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Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, an invasive mosquito species of great medical importance, was first recorded in Athens, Greece, in 2008. Its presence raised awareness among people and as a consequence numerous "tiger-like" mosquito specimens were sent to Benaki Phytopathological Institute for identification and relevant information. The results of the adult mosquito specimens, collected for three years (2009-2011), revealed that Aedes albopictus occurs in many municipalities around Athens, in Attica Prefecture, and in many parts of the country. The mosquito samples confirmed also the presence of the native species Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus. Our data, based on people awareness and annoyance, suggest the need to implement appropriate surveillance programs for monitoring the presence and population densities of Stegomyia mosquitoes in the frame of an integrated mosquito control program.