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Development of Micro-satellite Technology at the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN)

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The evolution of desain of LAPAN's micro-satellite will be presented in here. Micro satellite systems have been chosen for space technology development in Indonesia due to the cost effectiveness. Starting in 2003, LAPAN has implemented LAPAN-TUBSAT micro-satellite program, which has successfully carried its mission as experimental Earth observation satellite and capacity building tools. The satellite is currently serving its 5 th year of operation. Since 2008, LAPAN is preparing two satellites; named LAPAN-ORARI and LAPAN-IPB. The mission for LAPAN-ORARI is Earth observation using RGB camera, maritime traffic monitoring using AIS, and amateur radio communication (text & voice). The satellite will be launched as auxiliary payloads for ASTROSAT mission which has orbit of be 650 km circular at inclination of 8 0 , expectedly before the end of 2012. The purpose of the project is to develop capability to design, Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT) process of micro-satellite in Indonesia. LAPAN-IPB will cary an experimental 4-bands multispectral imager, as well as AIS and communication for Amateur Radio Community, and to be flown by PSLV SSO mission expectedly before the end of 2013. The three projects shows LAPAN's micro-satellite bus development, that grow in complexity to accomodate more complex mission. The knowledge advancement is expected to prepare the Center for developing operational satellite for supporting the food security program in Indonesia.
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Development of Micro-satellite Technology at the Indonesian National
Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN)
Robertus Heru Triharjanto
Center For Satellite Technology, LAPAN
jl. Cagak Satelit km.4 Rancabungur, Bogor 16310, Indonesia
rtriharjanto@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The evolution of desain of LAPAN’s micro-satellite will be presented in here. Micro satellite systems
have been chosen for space technology development in Indonesia due to the cost effectiveness.
Starting in 2003, LAPAN has implemented LAPAN-TUBSAT micro-satellite program, which has
successfully carried its mission as experimental Earth observation satellite and capacity building
tools. The satellite is currently serving its 5
th
year of operation. Since 2008, LAPAN is preparing two
satellites; named LAPAN-ORARI and LAPAN-IPB. The mission for LAPAN-ORARI is Earth observation
using RGB camera, maritime traffic monitoring using AIS, and amateur radio communication (text &
voice). The satellite will be launched as auxiliary payloads for ASTROSAT mission which has orbit of
be 650 km circular at inclination of 8
0
, expectedly before the end of 2012.
The purpose of the
project is to develop capability to design, Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT) process of micro-
satellite in Indonesia. LAPAN-IPB will cary an experimental 4-bands multispectral imager, as well as
AIS and communication for Amateur Radio Community, and to be flown by PSLV SSO mission
expectedly before the end of 2013. The three projects shows LAPAN’s micro-satellite bus
development, that grow in complexity to accomodate more complex mission. The knowledge
advancement is expected to prepare the Center for developing operational satellite for supporting
the food security program in Indonesia.
I. Introduction
Indonesia is located approximately 5,150 km along the length of the equator (or
about 1/8th of earth circumference), and the widest breadth is around 1,750 km, with more
than 220 million population. With the extensive region with diverse geographical problem,
the utilization of satellites is important for Indonesia to address solutions to the problems of
the nation.
Despite the extensive of satellite technology use since 1970s, Indonesian satellite
communication system is still purchased from other countries. The same with the remote
sensing satellite system, which have been extensively used since 1980s. It is known that
during the Aceh tsunami, the disaster management support is heavily dependent on foreign
satellite services. Economically, in the long term, the technology dependency created great
loss for Indonesia. In addition to that, the dependency made Indonesia prone to political
pressure from technology supplier countries.
The development of micro-satellites has become an opportunity for LAPAN in
developing its satellite program. The development of such satellites requires only limited
budget and facilities, compared to the development of big satellites. Meanwhile, the
capability to develop micro-satellite will brings LAPAN to the readiness state to implement a
future space program that will have measureable economic impact, and therefore
contribute to the country’s sustainable development effort.
II. LAPAN-A1 Satellite
The development of LAPAN-A1, Indonesian 1st microsatellite which is also named
LAPAN- TUBSAT, was started in 2003. Its Assembly Integration and Test was done in 2004-
2005 in Technical University of Berlin, Germany. The satellite payload is a COTS video
camera with 1000 mm lens, resulting into nadir resolution of 5 m and nadir swath of 3,5 km
from 650 km altitude. In addition to that the satellite carries another video camera with 50
mm lens, resulting into 200 m resolution video image with swath of 80 km at nadir. The
uplink and downlink for telemetry, tracking and command (TTC) is done in UHF and downlink
for video is done in S-band analog. The satellite is successfuly launched to SSO of 635 km as
auxiliary payload in Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) C7 from Sriharikota, India on
January 10
th
, 2007, and now has entered its fifth year of operation and still in good
condition.
Figure 1. 3-roda cement factory, West Java (taken by LAPAN-TUBSAT 25 May 2010)
III. LAPAN-A2 Satellite
Gaining experience in developing, launching, and operating micro-satellite as well as
in developing and operating satellite’s ground station, LAPAN continue in developing its 2
nd
satellite, named LAPAN-A2. The mission for LAPAN-A2 is Earth observation using RGB digital
camera, maritime traffic monitoring, and amateur radio communication.
Since Indonesian territory is spread along the equator, LAPAN study the operation of
satellite at low inclination orbit, so that the satellite may pass Indonesia as much as SSO
orbit pass the North/South pole (14 times in 24 hours at 600 km orbit). The study shows that
in order to be able to cover the entire Indonesia with surveilance camera oriented at nadir,
the inclination needed is 10
0
. Therefore, when ISRO announce that it would launch
ASTROSAT mission which has orbit of be 650 km circular at inclination of 8
0
, LAPAN decided
to put the satellite as auxiliary payloads for the mission. With frequent pass over Indonesia,
the missions are expected to be more useful.
The objective of LAPAN-A2 satellite project is to achieve the design, integration and
operation of micro satellite in Indonesia. LAPAN-A2 main mission is Earth Observation using
digital RGB camera (5 m resolution). In addition to that the satellite carry AIS (Automatic
Identification System) receiver to monitor maritime trafic, a reaction wheel made by LAPAN
for space proofing, and an amateur radio Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS), as
well as amateur radio voice repeater, for Indonesian Amateur Radio Organization (ORARI).
Due to this cooperation, LAPAN-A2 is called LAPAN-ORARI.
Figure 2. AIS payload test result, Surabaya, East Java, 2010
LAPAN-A2 satellite is planned to has two picture operation modes : automatic target
pointing and interactive operation. The 1
st
mode will employ close loop process between
Star Sensor, GPS, and the attitude control actuator. The 2
nd
mode is the same as the
operation of LAPAN-TUBSAT, in which the video camera mode will be used to find the
target, before the high resolution picture is taken.
IV. LAPAN-A3 Satellite
The objective of LAPAN-A3 satellite project is to support the national food
sustainability program. Therefore the payload requirement is defined by Institut Pertanian
Bogor (IPB). IPB in an academic institution that specialized in agricultural science and
technology, which is awarded as national academic reference for Indonenesian food
sustainability program. Based on such cooperation, the satellite is also named LAPAN-IPB
satellite. The multi-spectral imager will serve the data acquisition related to crop
growth/yield estimation as well as coastal environment monitoring, which are important for
the food security management. The satellite is planned to be launched to SSO altitude 650
km by PSLV expectedly mid 2013.
The main payload of the satellite is a 4-band multi-spectral imaging line imager
(using 4 Kodak 8023 sensor with spectral filter on 450 - 520 nm, 520-600 nm, 630-690 nm,
and 760-900 nm) with 1000 mm Nikor Lens, to produce spatial resolution of 18 m, swath
width of 110 km. The satellite will also carry digital camera similar to LAPAN-A2 with 1,6 m
lens, so that it may provide image with 3,5 m resilution. In addition to that, the satellite will
carry AIS and APRS to support global maritime monitoring mission and worldwide radio
amateur community.
Figure 3. Multispectral imager flight test, Bogor, West Java, 2010
V. Upgrade on satellite bus
Table 1. Advancement in LAPAN’s satellite bus
LAPAN-TUBSAT
LAPAN-ORARI
LAPAN-IPB
Power generation
4 Silicium solar panels (432x243
mm). Each panel has 34 cells in
series, provide 14 W max power
4 GaAs Solar panels (465x262 mm).
Each panel has 30 cells in series,
provide 32 W max Power
Power storage
configured in
series. The batteries would provide
nominal voltage of 12.5 V, 8 Ah
capacity
3 Lithium
-
Ion batteries in paralel, 4
Cells per pack in series, 15 V Nominal
Voltage, 17 Ah total capacity
Attitude sensor
1
CMOS star sensor
1
CMOS star sensor
+ 1
CCD star
sensor
4 solar panel + 2
solar cell sun
sensor
6 solar cell sun sensor
Orbit determination
N
one
GPS
ACS mode
Manual drive mode & support anti
-
sun camera pointing mode (close
loop main computer, -Z solar panel,
and Wheel Drive Electronics
s
upport automatic
orientatio
n of the
camera to capture specific target
location (close loop Star Sensor, GPS,
main computer and Wheel Drive
Electronics)
Payload data support
Analog
data
switch
solid state memory
& multi
-
payload
data handling system
Payload data
transmision system
S
-
band analog
LAPAN
-
A2 : S
-
band analog & digital (6
Mbps)
LAPAN-A3 : X-band digital (100
Mbps)
Table 1 shows that the capacity of LAPAN’s satellite bus increases from its 1st
generation to the next. LAPAN’s 1st satellite weights around 55 kg, its 2nd generation
weight arround 70 kg. Structural layout of each satellite is as follows.
Figure 4. LAPAN-TUBSAT layout
Figure 5. LAPAN-ORARI & LAPAN-IPB layout
The commonality in LAPAN’s satellite buses are the mechanical packaging, i.e using
the 2-shelves base, and star-configuration type computing system. Extrapolating the
capacity of the Center for Satellite Technology for the next 5 years, LAPAN would be capable
to develop 100 kg class satellite. Such satellite bus would be able to support battery capacity
34 Ah (at 15 V) and charging capacity 120 W, which will be able to serve more power
demanding mission.
Figure 6. LAPAN’s 100 kg class satellite
VI. Conclusions
From the facts above, it can be seen that LAPAN’s satellite program is technology is growing,
froim simple satellite for capacity building puposes to more complex satellite designed to serve more
complex mission.
In developing its satellite program, LAPAN always involve partnership with other institution
interestd in satellite tehnology. LAPAN will always looking for new partner, as well as maintain its
current partner, to work together on its next satellite program.
VII. References
1. Triharjanto, R.H.; Hasbi, W.; Widipaminto, A.; Mukhayadi, M; Renner, U.; LAPAN-TUBSAT : Micro-
Satellite Platform for Surveillance and Remote Sensing; Proceeding of Small Satellite System and
Services Symposium; La Rochelle, France, 2004
2. Hardhienata, S; Triharjanto, R.H. (Editors); LAPAN-TUBSAT : From Concept to Early Operation;
Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional; 2007
3. Hasbi, W.; Widyastuti, R.; The Use Of LAPAN-TUBSAT Satellite Video Data For Earth Observation;
Earth Observation Small Satellites for Remote Sensing Application Conference, Kuala Lumpur,
November 2007
4. Triharjanto, R.H.; Widipaminto, A.; Video Camera System on LAPAN-TUBSAT Micro-Satellite; 3
rd
Asian Space Conference, Singapore March 2007
5. Triharjanto, R.H.; Mukhayadi, M; LAPAN-TUBSAT Attitude Control : Operational Implementation
of Angular Momentum Bias on SSO Satellite; 6th Regional Conference on Aerospace Science,
Technology and Industry; Bandung, June 2007
6. Renner, U.; Buhl, M; First Flight Result with LAPAN-TUBSAT; 6
th
Symposium Small Satellite for
Earth Observation, Berlin, 2007
7. Renner, U.; Buhl, M.; High Precision Interactive Earth Observation With LAPAN-TUBSAT;
Proceedings of the 4S Symposium Small Satellites, Systems and Services, Rhodos, Greece, May
2008
8. Hasbi, W.; Mukhayadi, M.; Budiantoro, P.A.; Syafrudin, H.; Tahir, A.M.; Kadri, T.M.; Penentuan
Spesifikasi Optik Kamera Pengamatan Bumi di Satelit LAPAN-A2 dan LAPAN-A3; Satelit Mikro
untuk Mitigasi Bencana dan Ketahanan Pangan; IPB Press; November 2010
9. www.lapantubsat.org
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LAPAN-TUBSAT : From Concept to Early Operation; Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional
  • S Hardhienata
  • R H Triharjanto
Hardhienata, S; Triharjanto, R.H. (Editors); LAPAN-TUBSAT : From Concept to Early Operation; Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional; 2007
Penentuan Spesifikasi Optik Kamera Pengamatan Bumi di Satelit LAPAN-A2 dan LAPAN-A3
  • W Hasbi
  • M Mukhayadi
  • P A Budiantoro
  • H Syafrudin
  • A M Tahir
  • T M Kadri
Hasbi, W.; Mukhayadi, M.; Budiantoro, P.A.; Syafrudin, H.; Tahir, A.M.; Kadri, T.M.; Penentuan Spesifikasi Optik Kamera Pengamatan Bumi di Satelit LAPAN-A2 dan LAPAN-A3; Satelit Mikro untuk Mitigasi Bencana dan Ketahanan Pangan; IPB Press; November 2010
Buhl, M; First Flight Result with LAPAN-TUBSAT; 6 th Symposium Small Satellite for Earth Observation
  • U Renner
Renner, U.; Buhl, M; First Flight Result with LAPAN-TUBSAT; 6 th Symposium Small Satellite for Earth Observation, Berlin, 2007
From Concept to Early Operation
  • Lapan-Tubsat
LAPAN-TUBSAT : From Concept to Early Operation;