ArticlePDF Available


Definition of motivation is the following “Powering people to achieve high levels of performance and overcoming barriers in order to change”. Motivation is the driver of guidance, control and persistence in human behavior. What strengthens a person's behavior? What guides such behaviors or conducts then in a certain direction? What enhanced or maintained the behavior? It is called motivation. On the importance of motivation, researches have shown that employees with high job motivation show, greater commitment to their job; on the other hand Workers who feel more commitment even when things are not moving forward according to the procedure , minimize the impact of this problem.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 31 (2012) 820 – 824
1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Prof. Hüseyin Uzunboylu.
Social and
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000000
WCLTA 2011
The effects of motivation in education
Hamid Tohidi*, Mohammad Mehdi Jabbari
Department of Industrial Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Definition of motivation is the following “Powering people to achieve high levels of performance and overcoming barriers in
order to change”. Motivation is the driver of guidance, control and persistence in human behavior. What strengthens a person's
behavior? What guides such behaviors or conducts then in a certain direction? What enhanced or maintained the behavior? It is
called motivation. On the importance of motivation, researches have shown that employees with high job motivation show,
greater commitment to their job; on the other hand Workers who feel more commitment even when things are not moving
forward according to the procedure , minimize the impact of this problem.
Keywords: Motivation;Education ; performance.
1. Introduction
One of the most important topics in the industrial and organizational management, in recent decades is the
motivation [2]. Though one can hardly pass a research journal, in the field of organizational behavior, industrial
psychology or public area of management without devoting at least some of it to the issues of work motivation.
According to the PMBOK definition, motivation is "Powering people to achieve high levels of performance and
overcoming barriers in order to change."Psychologists have provided different definitions according to attitude to
the motivation phenomenon which are briefly mentioned below [4,7,8]:
Motivation was inspired of the Latin term "Move" For the first time, means movement and it is an English word.
Motivation is a force which cause people to behavior particularly and according to management point of view, the
aim of creating motivation in employees is to have a behavior in which brings the highest benefits for the
organization .Although motivation researchers study this issue based on how behavior strengthens and how it leads
to specific goals, consequently study of motivation is a research for “Event condition” which gives power and
direction to behavior. Whenever, if we consider an event condition, for powerful and guided behavior, wet enter to
the territory of motivation. Motivation is the force that causes movement in human. In fact, any agent that causes
(internal or external) activity in living creature is considered as a kind of motivation [1,9,16].
What is certain and must be acceptable to the marked individual differences is that people have different motives,
so before acting on the motivation they need to be known the Personal characteristics in their driving forces which-
* Hamid Tohidi
E-mail address:
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Hamid Tohidi and Mohammad Mehdi Jabbari / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 31 (2012) 820 – 824
Hamid Tohidi / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000000
can be more easily identified. Generally motivation is the driver of guidance, control and persistence in human
In other words; 1 - what strengthens a person's behavior? 2 - What guides such behaviors or conducts them in a
certain direction? 3 What enhanced or maintained the behavior? It is called motivation. The perennial questions in
which human forced with in the study of motivation are: Why does one begin a treatment, continue it and end it?
And which forces determine the severity of behavior over time?
On the importance of motivation, researches have shown that employees with high job motivation show, greater
commitment to their job; on the other hand Workers who feel more commitment even when things are not moving
forward according to the procedure , minimize the impact of this problem.
2. Motivation concepts
2-1. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within
the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and
educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high
educational achievement and enjoyment by student‟s evaluation theory. Students are likely to be intrinsically
motivated if they: Attribute their educational results to factors under their own control (e.g., the effort
expended),Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by
luck),are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades. Extrinsic motivation
comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion
and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat
others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also
extrinsic incentives.
Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to over justification and a subsequent
reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were)
rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in
subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition and to children who
received no extrinsic reward Self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalized by the
individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs.
The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be
highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests), yet
unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Yale School of Management Professor Victor Vroom's
"expectancy theory" provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self-control to pursue a
particular goal.
Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an
incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the
behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food;
whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a
manner pleasing to others. By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of
training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to
perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process.
3.History of motivation
822 Hamid Tohidi and Mohammad Mehdi Jabbari / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 31 (2012) 820 – 824
Hamid Tohidi / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000000
Question about the behavior and reasons of that are generally discussed as old as human life and it can be traced
since Aristotle era. Plato (Socrates pupil) believed that spirit of the three components of physical, emotional and
logical links and has a hierarchical order.
Aristotle, Plato's student confirmed this view, by changing in Appling terms related to motivation. According to
Aristotle's view physical and emotional parts related to the body and nature, were motivational and provided
motivation for growth and physical relaxation and sensory experience; such as pleasure and pain (emotional) .These
two parts together, were the basis of irrational and impulsive forces of motivation. The logical part includes all
rational aspects of soul and related thought that was intellectual and had willed‟s feature.
Ancient Greeks supposed obvious that with these three components (Spiritually that is hierarchically arranged)
First theoretical justification for the proposed activity has been motivated .Desire of body, pleasure and pain
sensation and voluntary efforts. Hundreds of years later, Greeks spirit of the tripartite soul fell to the two
components; were included passion and intelligence of the mind and body. Thomas Aquinas suggested irrational
impulses motivating the body provides and based on enjoyments. The mind, provide incentives that are reasonable
and are based on the will; the dichotomy here is to be emphasized [13, 15].
After the Renaissance, Rene Descartes, with the distinction between active and non-active aspects of motivation, the
body is not operating as motivation, and the desire would be the active agent. From his perspective, the body
completely is in physical nature and the food was motivated and through the senses, his reflections and physiology
will respond to the external environment and used physiological analysis to understand the physical motivation.
Nature of mind, mental, spiritual and mental benefits that will be targeted.
If they want understand the targeted incentives. They will analyze the desire. Like his predecessors, he believed that
the motivation can be induced by body or desire. For example, on keeping the fire provokes physical passion,
cravings, but does not stimulate determination. Therefore determination always is the motivational force that
determination begins operation and he was directing it. Descartes allocate impulse exclusive power of the will of
man, the first high theory impulse for preparing philosophy.
Putting aside the question of where the motivation are came from, philosophy initially had to determine where they
determination come. And the complex situation created for the philosophers. Therefore new science of psychology,
motivational principles found in search is less confusing and more machine. After of that were not performed
attempts at philosophy and in the field of physiology and biology began.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Hobbes said the reasons people give for their behavior is the behavior of
his desire to gain pleasure and avoid pain. Opinion of “hedonism” still plays a major role in motivating certain
4. Controlling motivation
4-1. Employee motivation
Workers in any organization need something to keep them working. Most times the salary of the employee is
enough to keep him or her working for an organization. However, sometimes just working for salary is not enough
for employees to stay at an organization. An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. If
no motivation is present in an employee, then that employee‟s quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate.
When motivating an audience, you can use general motivational strategies or specific motivational appeals. General
motivational strategies include soft sell versus hard sell and personality type. Soft sell strategies have logical
appeals, emotional appeals, advice and praise. Hard sell strategies have barter, outnumbering, pressure and rank.
Also, you can consider basing your strategy on your audience personality. Specific motivational appeals focus on
provable facts, feelings, right and wrong, audience rewards and audience threats.
4-2. Education
Hamid Tohidi and Mohammad Mehdi Jabbari / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 31 (2012) 820 – 824
Hamid Tohidi / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000000
Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student
learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs
qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields [5,10].
Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter.
It can: Direct behavior toward particular goals, Lead to increased effort and energy, Increase initiation of, and
persistence in, activities, Enhance cognitive processing, determine what consequences are reinforcing, Lead to
improved performance. Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated
motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates [6,11].
The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize that distinctive needs of
students should be considered in regard to orientation information provided at the be ginning of the higher education
experience. Research done by Whyte in 1986 raised the awareness of counselors and educators in this regard. In
2007, the National Orientation Directors Association reprinted Cassandra B. Whyte's research report allowing
readers to ascertain improvements made in addressing specific needs of students over a quarter of a century later to
help with academic success. There are two kinds of motivation:
Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them
pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant. It has been shown that
intrinsic motivation for education drops from grades 3-9 though the exact cause cannot be ascertained. Also, in
younger students it has been shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstract
manner increases the intrinsic motivation of these students [3,12].
Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to d o something or act a certain way because of
factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).Cassandra B. Whyte researched and reported about the
importance of locus of control and academic achievement. Students tending toward a more internal locus of control
are more academically successful, thus encouraging curriculum and activity development with consideration of
motivation theories.
Motivation has been found to be an important element in the concept of Andragogy (what motivates the adult
learner), and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in Pivotal Response Therapy.
5. Conclusion
Motivation is the cause and manner of the organization to force people to do certain behaviors. Stimulus needs may
be considered as attempts to deal of competence are getting involved. Rather, a combination that made certain
aspects of behavior is describing.
Motivation is not the behavior, one thing or a specific event it can be directly observed.
Two aspects of behavior are described with the concept of motivation include: Explained that the target behavior
or behavior that is learned behavior in which fitness and energy is spent.
In other words, when we can get that behavior is motivated When behavior is motivated to pursue a certain goal or
When the incidence or severity and the surface energy is different from the previous situation , Thus, the term
motivation refers to two different problems. What activate people? And the other thing, what similar activities on
other activities will dominate?
1.Daniels S., Collura M., Aliane B., Nocito-Gobel J. 2005, Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual
Conference & Exposition,
2.C. Chua,Perception of Quality in Higher Education, School of Business Management, Ryerson University
3. F.Husain, ,Education service delivery and students' satisfaction: a study of private colleges in Malaysia, Thesis.
4.K. Kitchroen, Literature Review: Service Quality in Educational Institutions
5. S. Westbrook,2005,Student Perceptions of Academic Service and Instructional Quality over a Four-Year Academic Experience, Journal of
Research in Education Volume 15, Number 1,70 83.
824 Hamid Tohidi and Mohammad Mehdi Jabbari / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 31 (2012) 820 – 824
Hamid Tohidi / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000000
6.Nemeth.L ,1997, Measuring Organizational Learning , Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Education, University of Western Ontario
7.Tohidi, H.,2011, „Modelling of Business Services in Service Oriented Enterprises‟, Procedia-Computer Science Journal, Vol. 3, pp.1147 -1156.
8. Tohidi , H., 2011, „The Role of Risk Management in IT systems of organizations‟ Procedia -Computer Science Journal, Vol. 3, pp. 881-887.
9.Tohidi, H., 2011, „Human Resources Management main role in Information Technology project management‟ , Procedia-Computer Science
Journal Vol. 3, pp 925-929.
10. Tohidi , H., Jabbari, M. M., 2011, „The main requirements to implement an electronic city‟ Procedia-Computer Science Journal, Vol. 3,
11.Tohidi, H., 2011,„Review the benefits of using Value Engineering in Information Technology Project Management‟, Procedia-Computer
Science Journal, Vol. 3, pp.917-924.
12. Tohidi, H., 2011, „Teamwork Productivity & Effectiveness in an Organization base on Rewards, Leadership, Training, Goals, Wage, Size,
Motivation, Measurement and Information Technolog‟, Procedia-Computer Science Journal, Vol. 3, pp.1137-1146.
13. Tohidi, H., 2011, „E-government and its different dimensions: Iran‟ ,Procedia-Computer Science Journal, Vol. 3, pp.1101 -1105.
14.Tohidi,H., Afshar,A.A., Jafari, A. 2010, „Using Balanced Scored Card in Educational Organizations‟, Procedia - Social and Behavioral
Sciences Vol. 2 Issue 2, pp.5544-5548.
15.Tohidi, H., Afshar, A.A., Jafari, A., 2010, „Strategic planning in Iranian educational organizations‟, Procedia - Social and Behavioral
Sciences, Vol. 2,Issue 2, pp.3904-3908.
16.Tohidi, H., Tarokh, M.J., 2006, „Productivity Outcomes of Teamwork As an Effect of Information Technology & Team Size,
International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 103,Issue 2, pp.610-615.
17.Tohidi, H., Tarokh, M.J., 2006, „Modeling and Analysis of Productivity Teamwork Based on Information Technology‟, International Journal
of Production Research, Vol. 44,No.9, p.p3023-3031.
... That means people who are motivated to do something are enthused in doing it. Motivated learners invest more time, energy, effort, and persistence to achieve their language learning goals (Tohidi & Jabbari, 2012). They demonstrate a heightened eagerness to engage in the language learning process and seek language exposure and opportunities to practice; a willingness to confront and overcome challenges and be active and have sustained participation in learning activities; and an insatiable appetite for further learning. ...
Full-text available
This research employed a case study to examine motivational factors which influenced two learners’ participation in course-adjunct English activities. The first participant was a high-motivation learner who joined many of the activities, while the second one was a low-motivation learner who rarely attended the activities. An in-depth interview was conducted with each of them to investigate the cases, and the interviews were described narratively. Three main motivational factors based on self-determination theory: autonomy, competency, and relatedness, were used as the framework for the analysis. The findings revealed that the high-motivation learner was clearly driven by intrinsic motivation, a sense of autonomy, mastery experiences in improving her own English proficiency, and feelings of relatedness in the learning context. The low-motivation learner, on the other hand, did not show a sense of autonomy. For him, scores were the main motive for completing the activities. If they had not been compulsory, he would not have joined the activities as he did not experience feelings of relatedness in the learning context. The findings implied that the two learners’ motivational factors played a crucial role in their decision of whether or not to participate in course-adjunct English activities.
... An individual who is intrinsically motivated engages in behaviors for their intrinsic worth (such as happiness or enjoyment) rather than for an outside reward. According to the self-determination theory, having their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness met might help people develop intrinsic motivation (Tohidi & Jabbari, 2012). Intrinsic motivation plays a crucial role in academic settings, as it has been linked to higher academic performance, increased engagement, and greater satisfaction with one's work. ...
Full-text available
Motivation describes the process of encouraging and influencing someone to perform in a particular way. The process that starts, directs, and sustains goal-oriented behaviors is known as motivation. There are two types of motivation the first one is intrinsic motivation and the second is extrinsic motivation. The main focus of the current study was intrinsic motivation. The purpose of the study was to find out the intrinsic motivational factors’s affect doctoral students’ performance and to identify how these intrinsic motivational factors have an impact on doctoral degree completion. In the current study, a descriptive method of research was used. So for data collection, a questionnaire was used to take the required information from PhD research scholars. The sample of the study was 100 PhD research scholars from the universities of Southern Punjab such as The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahudin Zikriya University Multan, Government Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur, and Women University Multan. Based on the analysis of the study majority of students agree that the thesis writing process is interesting. Students, on average, express a high level of interest in learning new things about research. The study further explains that students agreed to some extent that they face problematic situations in conducting research. Moreover, students somewhat agree that the literature in doctoral studies is demanding and extensive.
... Motivation plays the crucial role to develop education among learners. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter [2]. However, few men (students) who are less motivated in learning activities when confronted with the activities involved in the learning process [3]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Learning motivation is the collective term for the internal and external factors that support or strengthen a learner's desire and willingness to acquire new knowledge. Every prospective teacher must acquire the skills necessary to do their job well, and learning is accelerated by learning motivation. Therefore, developing a standardised Learning Motivation Scale (LMS) is crucial for assessing the level of learning motivation among prospective teachers in West Bengal. The goal of the present study was to create a LMS to assess learning motivation level among prospective teachers. Method: Fifty (50) prospective teachers from West Bengal, India, were given a self-administered version of the LMS, which consists of twenty-eight (28) items, to collect the data. The learning motivation scale was subjected to item analysis following the data collection in order to remove the poor items. Following that, the final scale's internal consistency was evaluated using the 225 participants (prospective teachers) who participated in the Cronbach's alpha method. Result: The scale primarily consists of two subscales, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, each with twenty-eight (28) items measuring learning motivation. Following item analysis, the learning motivation scale's seven (7) poor items are eliminated in accordance with the discrimination index. As a result, 21 items from each of the two LMS subscales were kept. The scale's final iteration discovered 0.783 alpha values, a high level of statistically significant correlation. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the Scale is a useful tool that researchers and instructors can use to effectively gauge the level of learning motivation among prospective teachers.
... In these classes, most students were bored and fatigued; perhaps an enthusiastic teacher could solve this problem properly (10)(11)(12)(13). Most teachers seek new ways to motivate learners, although teachers can facilitate educational work with various teaching materials and equipment (11,14). ...
Full-text available
Background: Mini stories are short, fictional narratives illustrating a particular concept or idea. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of mini-stories as a teaching technique based on teachers' experiences who have used this approach in their classrooms. Methods: A qualitative research approach was used to gather data from teachers using mini-stories as a teaching technique. A total of 8 professors from different scientific fields were selected for this study. Each participant was interviewed individually, and the interviews were recorded and transcribed for analysis. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Student-centered and teacher-centered are two categories extracted with ten Sub-categories extracted, including relevance to the lesson, attractiveness, brevity, informality, creativity, reflection, problem-solving, age appropriateness, effectiveness, and reflection. Conclusions: The study's findings reveal a two-fold teaching approach, encompassing teacher-centered and student-centered modes. Mini-stories represent a valuable teaching technique, captivate students, elucidate complex concepts, and stimulate critical thinking.
One of the initiatives to strengthen the Indonesian economy is entrepreneurship. Concern has been raised about how little entrepreneurship is being pursued by recent college graduates. Several earlier studies have discovered that an entrepreneur can successfully run his business if there is an interest in entrepreneurship. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship intentions, and entrepreneurship motivation affect students’ entrepreneurship interest in entrepreneurship among higher education students in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia. Regarding the geopolitical constellations at the international, national, and regional levels, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, is in a very favorable position. Thus, 180 students who had taken entrepreneurship courses at nine universities in Bandar Lampung were asked to complete a questionnaire, and the information was then analyzed using PLS-SEM. It was determined that entrepreneurship education had no discernible impact on entrepreneurship motivation. Furthermore, entrepreneurship interest was not significantly impacted by entrepreneurship motivation. Additionally, there was no discernible mediating effect of entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial education to entrepreneurship interest. However, the relationship between entrepreneurship motivation and entrepreneurship education was significantly impacted by entrepreneurship intention. These results imply that students at the university in Bandar Lampung believe that entrepreneurship education is like other lectures and do not develop an interest in entrepreneurship.
Full-text available
A measurement tool that is growing in popularity and frequently used in a variety of contexts, particularly in promotion, personnel recruitment and professional development, is the Situational Judgement Test (SJT). The SJT also provides more options for educational teacher selection. This study focuses on non-academic qualities, particularly those based on broad and narrow features, in teacher selection. In order to ascertain the subjects addressed and the methodologies employed for the review, this study utilises a Systematic Literature Review (SLR), which encompasses a review methodology. The SLR method consists of four steps: searching, screening, analyzing, and processing the results based on specific criteria. The review encompasses seven studies conducted between January 2012 and December 2021, which examined the utilization of the Situational Judgement Test (SJT) as a tool for teacher selection. These studies collectively cover a duration of ten years. Based on the seven previous studies, a broad trait was identified, namely consciousness. The seven narrow traits recorded are organisation & planning, empathy & communication, adaptability & resilience, mindset, emotion regulation, professional ethics, and enthusiasm & motivation. Consistent with many other studies, the traits and characteristics found can be used as a basis for teacher selection. However, the traits can only be used in the context of the selection process.
Quality is seen as a tool to achieve competitive advantage, including in design of learning-interface. Purpose of this study is to review literature of Cognitive-Affective Model of Perceived User Satisfaction (CAMPUS) on the design of e-learning interface in increasing competitive advantage. To achieve the objective of this study, the method used are a literature review from past papers from Google Scholar. Result shows that there are some constructs to be considered in e–learning design that are aesthetic, efficiency, effectiveness, and playfulness. A model is proposed based on this construct. Implications of the result is discussed.
Full-text available
Dünya genelinde özel gereksinimi bulunan başarılarıyla ün kazanmış birçok bilim insanı ve sanatkâr sahip oldukları dezavantajlara rağmen hedefleri doğrultusunda çalışmaktan vazgeçmeyerek önemli başarılar elde etmişlerdir. Söz konusu başarıların arkasındaki motivasyon faktörünü öğrenmek üzere çalışmada örneklem grubunda bulunan bireylere ait biyografik dokümanlar Maslow Hiyerarşisi temelinde incelenerek dezavantajlı bireyler için kendilerini gerçekleştirme motivasyonu oluşturulması hedeflenmektedir. Araştırmanın veri kaynaklarını pek çok bilim insanı ve sanatkâra ait biyografik doküman oluştururken araştırma örneklemi ise farklı özel gereksinim alanlarına dahil olan başarılarıyla ünlenmiş 8 bireye ait biyografik dokümanı kapsamaktadır. Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemi ve durum çalışması araştırma deseni kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın veri toplama yöntemi doküman incelemesi, veri analiz yöntemi ise betimsel analiz yöntemidir. Araştırmada elde edilen bulgular doğrultusunda çalışmadaki kişilere benzer şekilde dezavantajlı bireyler için kendilerini gerçekleştirmeye yönelik yetersizliklerin ve engellerin alt edilemeyecek görünmez duvarlar olmadığı, kullanılan yol sıradan insanlara kıyasla uzun ve engebeli olsa da bitiş çizgisinin herkes için aynı konumda bulunduğu bilincine varılarak bireylerin motivasyonlarını yüksek tutmalarının mümkün olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
The study sought to determine the extent to which students perceive level of self-directedness, motivation, and their performances as a Grade 10 students. The study employed a descriptive-correlational research design. This focused on describing the students' perceptions of the level of self-directedness in TLE in terms of being a dependent learner, interested learner, involved learner, and self- directed learner. The study's findings revealed that student respondents' perceptions of their level of selfdirectedness fall only on being a dependent learner which is the stage 1 on self-directed learner. They are merely dependent on extrinsic variables which most of the learner-respondents always perceive and consider themselves as a dependent learner. This reflected the result on their perceived level of motivation which findings shown that the learners corresponded a lot on extrinsic variables. The study revealed that self-directedness and student’s performance have no significant relationship. However, there is a weak relationship between the learner’s level of motivation and written performance variable. Further research must be conducted along this light, to explore the extent of self-directedness to have positive effect to the students’ performance in TLE.
Full-text available
Learning English is not only conducted at school but can be conducted through alternative media. These include watching English movies, listening to English songs, and playing online games. Online games do not merely have a negative impact, but they can also positively impact the user. Genshin Impact is an online game that is currently booming. Various features in Genshin Impact allow players to interact with other players by entering Co-Op mode. This research aims to discover whether students are motivated to improve their English communication skills through the chat feature in the online game Genshin Impact. This study employed a descriptive quantitative methodology. The data were then analyzed descriptively to answer the research question. 151 respondents from various schools were selected based on the required criteria. From the result data analysis, students perceive that using the chat feature in Genshin Impact can positively influence students' motivation to improve their English communication skills. The findings also revealed that students agree and strongly agree that online games can increase their motivation to learn English. The results of this study's implications encourage teachers to start thinking about the benefits of games in education.
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is Strategic Planning in Iranian educational organizations (especially schools). Although there are lots of problems in educational organizations, strategic planning is used rarely. The results of this article might be useful for managers of educational and related organizations, relating their internal processes to strategies and make them applicable. Using the BSC tool, the author shows how a Strategy Map is planned for educational organizations and how necessary data are gathered with interviews held with managers who had planned strategies for their organizations and who had not. In addition, the BSC abilities and flexibility – in comparison with other strategic planning models – to solve educational organization problems and increasing its effectiveness and efficiency, have been shown in the results.
Full-text available
Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is one of the performance measurement tools that determine intangible assets of the organization. This system is more frequently used in a Strategic Planning than performance assessment. Due to the long domination of traditional management approaches in Iranian educational systems, seldom do they use a balanced performance measurement tool. The author shows how a Strategy Map is planned for educational organizations and how necessary data are gathered with interviews held with managers who had planned strategies for their organizations and who had not, by Using BSC tool.
Full-text available
The idea of on demand business combines information technology and business to make the companies more rapid, responsible and profitable. Today, the most important thing that can be considered for an enterprise is flexibility, which, in this context, means having more flexibility in responding to new demands of the market and grasping the opportunities. In order to increase its flexibility, first of all, business enterprise takes a look at its interrelated activities and then specifies which activity is distinct and axial and which can be outsourced. If the companies can combine and coordinate these activities as they desire, then they will enjoy remarkable excellence in market. Extraordinary alignment between information technology and business is a result of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach, which has made the organizations have a special look at this approach for execution of software projects.Business processes are used for modeling internal and external operations of the organizations for several decades and accidentally such a modeling has rapidly become a standard modeling in businesses, companies and enterprises, booming outsourcing market and making the enterprises and companies grow by such modeling and benefit from remarkable savings. But, there is a serious need for new methods for modeling enterprises operations in order to identify and use the common features between companies and enterprises for decrease the costs and enjoy more savings. In this paper, an approach is introduced that is based on business services for service orientation of enterprises. Molding the business services is one of the innovative methods for achieving the objectives concerned in the business.
Full-text available
Cyberspace, especially the Internet, has actively changed governments in the twenty-first century in a large scale. E-government itself is not the aim but id a path towards the renovation of the government to ensure its success to meet the people’s needs in the new age. This article prepares an overall description of e-government and the various aspects and concepts related to that and also criticizes the E-government using in Iran, and finally offers some solutions for the full realization and implementation of electronic government and related issues in Iran.
Full-text available
In this century, information, along with other factors of production, is a valuable and vital component of the organizations. With increasing technology advances, organizations have realized the undeniable benefits of Information Technology (IT) to increase the quality, accuracy and speed of affairs and most managers have become aware of the importance of its use in increasing efficiency and effectiveness of organizations and more satisfied customers and have established and used information systems. Meanwhile for organizations to use the information technology, risk management plays a crucial role in protecting their information. Effective risk management is one of the most important parts of a security program in IT organizations. This paper first explains the importance of risk management and a framework for development of effective risk management in order to identify, assess and reduce the existing risks in IT systems is provided. Also, the chief executives in risk management in organizations will be introduced and appropriate methods of selection for advantageous security controls will be described, and at the end, the keys to a successful risk management program in the IT system will be noted.
Full-text available
Creating easiness in working process in organizations and creating peace and stable area without any inequality, presenting services to citizens of society and increasing quality and efficiency of services along working hours increment in organizations in a way that citizens can access to these services at any time of day or night and at any place is aim and will of human. Now growth and development in communication and information technologies prepare this condition for governments to answer this need of human and implement it. Eˆˆe2ˆˆ80ˆˆ93city implementation and execution need a set of structures and ultra-structures that governments are charged to comply them for citizens needs.In this article, we try to mention basic needs of E-city implementation and some factors causing better accessibility to these services for citizens. Finally, we present types of services which Europe union have convinced its countries to present them for their citizens along with a set of information about amount of countries electronic preparedness.
Organizations are usually represented and evaluated by their output. Therefore, all procedures and models which may affect and improve output attract the attention of researchers. The effects of organizing work teams as one essential resource of organizations, in addition to the structure, size and effectiveness of the team, are also considered important factors. This paper reports on an investigation performed to define a model to explain how the results of teamwork may improve production, while considering the role of IT as an effective parameter. Also, it is shown that if there is a number of IT improvement options, there may be a mix of IT improvement and team size increase that will yield the most cost efficient increase in team output.
In any project, a group of people has to work together. It is very important to have a teamwork that can perform successfully all tasks composing the project. Finding a good team is not easy, because a large number of factors have to be taken into account. Team performance can be evaluated by creating a model through which performance can be measured. In this paper, a quantitative model is presented that focuses on how to build an effective teamwork upon team size and information technology. This model shows a comparison between team size and information technology factors that can effect on team productivity.