ArticleLiterature Review

Jojoba in dermatology: A succinct review

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Abstract

Phytomedicine has been successfully used in dermatology horizon for thousands of years. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a long-lived, drought resistant, perennial plant with interesting economic value as it is processed for liquid wax production. The jojoba plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. The liquid wax is an important substrate for a variety of industrial applications and is used in skin treatment preparations. The oil from the jojoba plant is the main biological source of wax esters and has a multitude of potential applications. The review of literatures suggest that jojoba has anti-inflammatory effect and it can be used on a variety of skin conditions including skin infections, skin aging, as well as wound healing. Moreover, jojoba has been shown to play a role in cosmetics formulas such as sunscreens and moisturizers and also enhances the absorption of topical drugs. The intention of the review is to summarize the data regarding the uses of jojoba in dermatology for readers and researchers.

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... Jojoba is well known for its seed oil (liquid wax esters) which mainly composed of straight chain monoesters in the range of C 40 -C 44 [7] . Jojoba oil is used in cosmetics in a number of skin care products, mainly as a moisturizer, as well as in hair conditioners and as lubricant [8] . Research studies suggest that the seed oil has an anti-inflammatory effect [9] , antioxidant [10] and promote wound healing properties and can be used as a remedy, mainly for skin disorders [6] . ...
... Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, accurate mass measurements and by comparing with the reported data. The ten known flavonoids were identified as quercetin 3'methyl ether (isorhamnetin) (1) [28] , quercetin 3-methylether (2) [17] , quercetin 3,3'-dimethyl ether (3) [17] , quercetin (4) [28] , isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) [29] , quercetin 3-O-glucoside (6) [30] , isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside (7) [31] , quercetin 3-Orutinoside (8) [32] , isorhamnetin 3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (Typhaneoside) (9) [33] , isorhamnetin 3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)β-D-galactopyranoside (10) [34] , and four lignans as (+)-lyoniresinol 4,4'-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11) [20] , (+)-lyoniresinol 4,9'-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12) [35] , 5,5'dimethoxylariciresinol 4,4'-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (salvadoraside) (13) [36] and syringaresinol diglucoside (eleutheroside E) (14) [37] . All physical and spectral data of these compounds were in agreement with the respective published data. ...
... (DPPH) and 178.4 (β-carotene) µmol/L] compared with those of BHT. Table 1 Antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibition activities for isolated compounds (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14) The enzyme inhibition assay for isolated compounds was evaluated on soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. For flavonoids, the free aglycones exhibited strong promising activity. ...
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Objective: To isolate and identify chemical constituents with antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) leaves. Methods: The alcoholic extract was subjected to successive solvent fractionation. The antioxidant active fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions) were subjected to a combination of different chromatographic techniques guided by the antioxidant assay with DPPH. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. The antioxidant activity was assessed quantitively using DPPH and β-carotene methods. The inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase was assessed on soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. Results: Ten flavonoids and four lignans were isolated. Flavonoid aglycones showed stronger antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects than their glycosides. Lignoid glycosides showed moderate to weak antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. Conclusions: A total of 14 compounds were isolated and identified from Simmondsia chinensis; 12 of them were isolated for the first time. This is the first report that highlights deeply on the phenolic content of jojoba and their potential biological activities and shows the importance of this plant as a good source of phenolics in particular the flavonoid content.
... Of the fatty acids, oleic acid (30%-45%) and 11-eicosenoic (20%-40%) acid are predominant. The wax esters produced by JJO are very similar to human skin sebum [31]. Jojoba is the only plant species currently known for synthesizing a 'liquid wax', which accounts for approximately 40%-60% of the dry weight of mature jojoba seeds [8,30]. ...
... Studies have suggested that JJO helps during the wound healing process [8,31,48] and has some anti-microbial benefit [49], lending itself to acne product formulations [50]. Other studies have shown beneficial effect in the management of scalp psoriatic plaques [51]. ...
... Given the nature of EPO, SAO and JJO, each lend themselves to applications addressing sensitive skin, especially baby and juvenile skin types [31,59,60]. Diaper dermatitis studies have demonstrated that an SAO-based emollient was able to protect against recurrent dermatitis in 90% of cases [61]. ...
Article
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Renewed consumer and industry interest in natural ingredients has led to a large growth of natural cosmetics. This has put pressure on formulation skills and product claims when it comes to using natural compounds. Taking a strategic and comprehensive approach in viewing natural ingredients, including natural oils, as ‘active’ ingredients rather than just providing for so-called ‘natural’ claims, aids both innovation and development. Given the ever-increasing consumer demand for natural ingredients, and more importantly the demand for effective natural ingredients including plant oils, it is important for the cosmetic industry to re-evaluate them in this context. The objectives of this review are to provide an update of three popular cosmetic plant oils - Sweet Almond, Evening Primrose, and Jojoba - in terms of their cosmetic applications as ‘active’ ingredients. This review highlights the activity of these oils, in the management of dry skin, ageing skin, juvenile skin, atopic dermatitis, scalp conditions, and their wider potential. Attention is given to formulation considerations where the content of these oils impacts product oxidation, skin penetration and stratum corneum homeostasis. Benefits of these oils have been well documented both pre-clinically and clinically. Historically, they have been used for hundreds if not thousands of years for their management and treatment of various skin and other ailments. Given the discrepancies in some clinical data presented for a variety of dermatoses, the importance of the choice of oil and how to formulate with them within the context of the epidermal barrier function, skin penetration, and toxicity, cannot be underestimated. Care should be taken in terms of the quality and stability of theses oils, as well as ensuring best formulation type, if the reported activities of these oils are to be achieved with consistency. Despite discrepancies in the literature and questionable study designs, it is clear, that Sweet Almond, Evening Primrose and Jojoba oils, do have skin care benefits for both adult and juvenile applications. They are effective ingredients for skin care preparations to strengthen stratum corneum integrity, recovery, and lipid ratio. Nevertheless, further experimental data are required concerning the impact on stratum corneum physiology and structure.
... There are many reports concerning the sterol content of jojoba oil [5,19]. The major content of the sterols fraction is cholesterol (7), β-Sitosterol (8), campesterol (9), stigmasterol (10), and isofucosterol (11). Most of these sterols are sketched in Figure 2, and the composition is tabulated in Table 3 [22]. ...
... It was first reported in 1789 by the Mexican historian Francisco J. Clavijero that the Amerindians of Baja California highly prized the fruit for food and the oil as a medication [10,33]. "Two to three jojoba seeds taken in the morning are said to be good for the stomach. ...
... These changes contribute to the overall softness of the skin and make it possible to accommodate stretching and movement without cracks and tears, perceived as scaliness, developing on the surface. That surface suppleness changes rapidly in response to the application of water or known emollients [6,8,10,11,44]. Jojoba oil in single-phase and emulsion systems shows an excellent lubricity without the oily, greasy feel of other lipids, especially lanolin and petrolatum [45]. It can also contribute to superior transpirational water control in the skin, thus reducing evaporation without blocking the passage of gases and water vapor. ...
Article
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Jojoba is a widely used medicinal plant that is cultivated worldwide. Its seeds and oil have a long history of use in folklore to treat various ailments, such as skin and scalp disorders, superficial wounds, sore throat, obesity, and cancer; for improvement of liver functions, enhancement of immunity, and promotion of hair growth. Extensive studies on Jojoba oil showed a wide range of pharmacological applications, including antioxidant, anti-acne and antipsoriasis, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperglycemia activities. In addition, Jojoba oil is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially in cosmetics for topical, transdermal, and parenteral preparations. Jojoba oil also holds value in the industry as an anti-rodent, insecticides, lubricant, surfactant, and a source for the production of bioenergy. Jojoba oil is considered among the top-ranked oils due to its wax, which constitutes about 98% (mainly wax esters, few free fatty acids, alcohols, and hydrocarbons). In addition, sterols and vitamins with few triglyceride esters, flavonoids, phenolic and cyanogenic compounds are also present. The present review represents an updated literature survey about the chemical composition of jojoba oil, its physical properties, pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical and industrial applications, and toxicity.
... Due to its similarity to natural sebum, jojoba oil is widely used in the cosmetic industry [44]. It is including plant oils and butters [44,49]. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory effects, it is also used in therapeutic preparations for acne, dandruff, burns, including sunburns, and hard-to-heal wounds [49,51,52]. ...
... It is including plant oils and butters [44,49]. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory effects, it is also used in therapeutic preparations for acne, dandruff, burns, including sunburns, and hard-to-heal wounds [49,51,52]. Combined with avocado and jojoba oils, sweet almond oil is excellent for extremely dry and damaged skin [9]. ...
Article
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Aromatherapy massage is a treatment in which essential oils are used. It combines the beneficial effects of manual massage technique, essential and carrier oils. Base oils are the mediators of aromatherapy; they improve contact between the masseur`s hands and the patient`s body and have nurturing properties. The present paper focuses on plant oils used for aromatherapy massages, such as olive, sesame, jojoba, almond, wheat germ, grape seed or peach oils.
... Jojoba oil is widely used in cosmetic formulas such as sunscreens and moisturizers. It has been shown to be effective in enhancing the absorption of topical drugs [132][133][134]. The high content of wax esters makes jojoba oil a good repair option for dermatoses with altered skin barriers, such as seborrheic dermatitis, eczematous dermatitis, AD, and acne [98]. ...
... The high content of wax esters makes jojoba oil a good repair option for dermatoses with altered skin barriers, such as seborrheic dermatitis, eczematous dermatitis, AD, and acne [98]. Jojoba oil also has a proven anti-inflammatory effect, with potential uses in a variety of skin conditions including skin infections, skin aging, and WH [99,132]. ...
Article
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Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.
... It resembles the oil secreted by human skin, so it is less likely to build upon the skin and clog pores. It is hypoallergic, moisturizing, and has potential applications in cosmetics and topical formulations to protect, soothe, lubricate the skin (16) and reduce inflammation commonly associated with dermatological formulations (17). Jojoba oil contains natural antioxidants alpha, gamma, and delta tocopherols, which present high stability toward oxidation and hydrolysis and help stabilize other unstable ingredients in the formulation. ...
... It is composed of a mixture of long-chain esters of monounsaturated fatty acids and fatty alcohols, with an average total carbon chain length of 42 carbons. It differs from vegetable oils in that it has only one alcohol group and is a straight-chain molecule (16,38). ...
Article
Background and purpose: Microemulsions are gaining an increased interest in transdermal drug delivery. Microemulsions are stable, easy to prepare, and provide high solubilizing capacity for various drugs. The aim of this work was to prepare microemulsions from jojoba oil for transdermal delivery of ketorolac and lidocaine HCl with improved permeation. Experimental approach: Microemulsions based on jojoba oil as the oil phase were formulated for transdermal delivery of lidocaine HCl and ketorolac. Brij 97 was selected as surfactant and hexanol as cosurfactant. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed. Selected microemulsion formulations were characterized for their physical properties and in vitro drug permeation. Findings/Results: Water-in-oil microemulsions were obtained with droplet sizes not more than 220 nm. The viscosity of the microemulsions was linked to the viscosity of the surfactant used. Improved drug permeation rates were observed for both model drugs. The significant increase in permeation rate in presence of hexanol was due to its impact on skin integrity as indicated by the histopathological study. Drug permeation enhancements were caused by the surfactant, the cosurfactant used, jojoba oil itself, and the microemulsion formulation. Higher surfactant content showed lower lag times and better flux. Conclusion and implications: Jojoba oil microemulsions are considered promising vehicles for transdermal delivery of ketorolac and lidocaine HCl with improved drug permeation. Jojoba oil-based microemulsion would present a safe and effective means for delivering drugs through the skin.
... Simmondsia Chinensis is a plant with a tenacious life span and drought tolerance ability. The oil produced from it is the main biological source of wax fat, which can be used for various skin injuries, including skin infections and wounds (Pazyar et al., 2013). In vitro, jojoba liquid wax significantly enhances the wound closure of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. ...
Article
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Under normal circumstances, wound healing can be summarized as three processes. These include inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The vast majority of wounds heal rapidly; however, a large percentage of nonhealing wounds have still not been studied significantly. The factors affecting wound nonhealing are complex and diverse, and identifying an effective solution from nature becomes a key goal of research. This study aimed to highlight and review the mechanisms and targets of natural products (NPs) for treating nonhealing wounds. The results of relevant studies have shown that the effects of NPs are associated with PI3K-AKT, P38MAPK, fibroblast growth factor, MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways and involve tumor growth factor (TNF), vascular endothelial growth factor, TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and expression of other cytokines and proteins. The 25 NPs that contribute to wound healing were systematically summarized by an inductive collation of the six major classes of compounds, including saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids, anthraquinones, polysaccharides, and others, which will further direct the attention to the active components of NPs and provide research ideas for further development of new products for wound healing.
... Microemulsion was successfully prepared from the utilized components; jojoba oil, labrasol and plurol isostearique. The selection of jojoba oil as the oily phase had two folds benefit; the first one is that owing to its waxy three dimensional nature, it was shown to exhibit tazarotene localization in the skin [28], secondly jojoba oil was reported to possess antiinflammatory effect and moisturizing effects on the skin, hence, aiding in psoriasis treatment [38,39]. Labasol is a well-defined mixture of mono-di-and triglycerides and mono-and di fatty acid esters of polyethyleneglycol; known for its ability to increase the accumulation of drugs into the skin [40]. ...
Article
Background: Nanotechnology has provided substantial benefits in drug delivery, especially in the treatment of dermatological diseases. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which topical delivery of antipsoriatic agents is considered the first line treatment. Objective: To investigate whether the encapsulation of the synthetic retinoid tazarotene in a nanocarrier based on jojoba oil would decrease its irritation potential and clinically improve its therapeutic outcome in psoriatic patients. Method: A microemulsion system based on jojoba wax and labrasol/plurol isostearique was prepared and characterized. Results: The selected formula displayed spherical morphology, particle size of 15.49 ±2.41 nm, polydispersity index of 0.20 ±0.08, negative charge and low viscosity. The microemulsion provided two folds increase in skin deposition of tazarotene, correlating with higher reduction in psoriatic patients PASI scores after treatment (68% reduction in PASI scores versus 8.96% reduction with the marketed gel). No irritation was encountered in patients using microemulsion, with redness and inflammation reported with the marketed gel-treated patients. Conclusion: Jojoba oil microemulsion proved to be advantageous in reducing the irritancy of tazarotene, enhancing its skin deposition and achieving better therapeutic outcome in psoriatic patients.
... Examples of imported semi-finished ingredients are shea butter, jojoba oil, and grapeseed oil. These substances are widely used for skinand hair-related products such as soaps, skin moisturizers, sunscreens, lip balms, anti-wrinkle formulations, anti-stretch mark creams, hair conditioners, baby oils, and ointments against skin inflammation [50][51][52]. They are also, together with the leaf juice from A. indica and/or P. amboinicus, common constituents of facial masks. ...
... S. chinensis is also notorious for its seeds oil (liquid wax esters) which is mainly composed of straight chain monoesters in the range of C40-C44 (14). As far as cosmetics are concerned, S. chinensis oil incorporates a set of skin care products, mainly as a moisturizer, hair conditioner and a lubricant (15). Based on research studies, it is suggested that the seeds oil possesses an anti-inflammatory effect (16) and an antioxidant feature (17) and it promotes wound healing proprieties. ...
Article
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The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and biological activities of Simmondsia chinensis (S. chinensis) seeds oil were studied. The results revealed that the physiochemical characteristics of S. chinensis seeds oil were as follows: acid values 1.15 mg KOH/g, peroxide values 8.00 meq O2 Kg⁻¹, iodine values 80.00 g/100 g of oil and saponification values 92.00 mg KOH/g, phenolic content 50.91 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Gas chromatography analysis indicated that eicosenoic (55.50 %), erucic (20.43 %) and oleic (19.01 %) acids were the most abundant, saturated and unsaturated, fatty acids in the oil. Moreover, the evaluation of their antioxidant (DPPH, TAC), antibacterial, antidiabetic and acetylcholinesterase evinced interesting results. Seeds of S. chinensis constitute a substitute source for stable vegetable oil and protein with regard to nutritional and industrial applications.
... Inactive vehicle ingredients, jojoba seed oil and natural beeswax, can manage moisture without causing maceration in the wound or periwound area. 15 Studies also have shown that jojoba oil facilitates cutaneous penetration of active ingredients. 16,17 Ethics statement A written authorization for release of information was obtained from the patient, and he consented to have the case details and any accompanying images published. ...
Article
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Caroline E Fife,1 Raphael A Yaakov,2 Thomas E Serena2 1CHI St. Luke’s Health, Wound Care Clinic, The Woodlands, TX, USA; 2SerenaGroup, Clinical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), often referred to as the butterfly disease, is a group of rare genetic conditions characterized by skin that is delicate and fragile as butterfly wings. The skin blisters in response to friction, minor injury, or trauma. In certain types of EB, other organs, such as the esophagus, can also be affected, and secondary complications may require multiple interventions. While there has been significant progress in classifying the disease – identifying genes and proteins involved – there have been few advances in the treatment of the disease. The care of the EB patient focuses on management of symptoms, protecting the skin, and preventing complications. In this case report, the use of a multivalent wound-healing ointment (Terrasil®) was evaluated in a 60-year-old patient with a history of junctional EB. A polymerase chain reaction-based culturing was utilized to quantitatively test for bacteria and fungi at baseline and follow-up visits. Pain assessment and wound area were also documented at each visit. Following the application of the wound care ointment, there was a reduction in wound surface area on central (96%) and distal mid-back (92%) by treatment visit three, and there was a 96% reduction on the left shoulder blade ulcer by treatment visit four. Moreover, there was a noticeable drop in the percentage of bacteria detected by polymerase chain reaction. The wound care ointment was also effective in eliminating the fungal species and reducing pain, itching, blistering, and cracking around the wound. Keywords: mechanobullous disorders, adjunctive therapy, bioburden, therapeutic management
... Jojoba wax has also been used in topical medications to enhance drug absorption. In addition, it is used in skin care products and in cosmetics such as sunscreens and moisturizers [43]. ...
... Oil obtained from jojoba seeds is 50% colourless and odourless which is being used in several cosmetics. The oil is composed of straight chain monoesters of C-20 and C-22 acids and alcohols and two double bonds [48][49][50] and helps in the treatment of acne and psoriasis [51]. ...
Article
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Acne is the most common skin condition with substantial cutaneous and psychological disease burden characterized by different areas of scaly red skin, papules, blackheads and whiteheads, nodules and pimples. The pathogenesis and existing treatments for acne is difficult. The severity of acne varies greatly among the individuals and genetic background plays a vital role in its development. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acne) have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria which triggers the inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Indian medicinal plants against the etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Pathogenic factors include increased sebum production, hyper cornification of pilosebaceous ducts, abnormal bacterial function, and production of inflammation. The therapy includes yearlong administration of synthetic medicines, which can cause severe side effects. Hence, the less toxic and safe substances are needed for the treatment. Herbal or herbal based medicines are safe alternatives in which extracts of natural origin are used as medicines. The aim of herbal therapy is to provide safe, efficient and economical medicines so that the people can utilize them. In present review input of herbs in the treatment of acne is summarized. Different databases were searched for retrieving all the medicinal plants with anti-acne activity.
... The results from the present study show that serum NEFA levels are elevated upon topical administration of jojoba oil in mice. Jojoba oil has anti-inflammatory effects, anti-skin-aging effects, wound healing effects, antioxidant effects, antibacterial effects, and antifungal effects [7,[23][24][25]. However, no studies have reported the effects of transdermal application of jojoba oil on lipid metabolism. ...
Article
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Background and objectives: Aroma therapy is a complementary therapy using essential oils diluted with carrier oils. Jojoba oils have been widely used as carrier oils. However, limited information is available regarding their effects on blood biochemical parameters. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transdermal administration of jojoba oil on blood biochemical parameters in mice. Materials and Methods: Eight-week-old male hairless mice were randomly divided into naïve control and treatment groups. In the treatment group, mice were topically administered 4 μL of jojoba oil, per gram of body weight, on the dorsa 30 min before euthanasia. Thereafter, serum biochemical parameters were assayed, and gene expression was analyzed in various tissues via a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels increased significantly 30 min after topical application of jojoba oil (p < 0.05). Atgl was significantly upregulated in the liver (p < 0.05), and Atgl upregulation in the liver was positively correlated with serum NEFA levels (r = 0.592, p < 0.05). Furthermore, a trend of decreasing fatty acid trafficking-related gene (FABPpm, FATP-1, FATP-3, and FATP-4) expression in the skin after topical application of jojoba oil (p = 0.067, 0.074, 0.076, and 0.082, respectively) was observed. Conclusions: Serum NEFA levels were elevated 30 min after transdermal administration of jojoba oil. The mechanisms of elevated serum NEFA levels might be related to both enhanced lipolysis in the liver and reduced fatty acid trafficking in the skin.
... such as seborrhic, eczematous and atopic dermatitis (Lin et al., 2018;Pazyar et al., 2013). E Soudant et al. devised a topical formulation comprised of jojoba oil that has proven to be effective in promoting skin barrier functions and also improved the skin texture (Soudant et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Background: Atopic eczema a chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting 2-3% of world's population worldwide and is characterised by the appearance of rashes, itchiness and excessive dryness on the skin. The manifestation is triggered by the genetic and environmental factors hampering with the integrity of skin barrier and increasing its susceptibility to enhanced penetration by various allergens/pathogens worsening the condition further and could result in lethal hypersensitivity reactions too therefore listing as one of the most serious ailments globally. Methods: Application of synthetic drugs suffers from the worst kind of side effects and long-term adverse reactions affecting the quality of life adversely. As per the literature available, medicinal plants possess compounds with varying chemical configuration including free fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sterols, terpenoids, alkaloids destined to modulate pathological conditions hence used. The article reviews many such structures and their related chemistry along with the recent advances in knowing their mechanism of action and pharmacological function executed by them owing to the presence of stereo-specific and regio-selective chemical structures present in them. Discussion and Conclusions: Nimbidin, nimbolide, morgolon, tocopherols, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, rosmarinic acid, gamma linoleic acid are some of the prominent ones used to manage the skin infections, possessing the excellent ability to heal the eczematous skin and the lesions associated with atopic eczemaby maintaining the integrity of skin, retaining its hydration capacity and normal tone, balancing skin pH and supporting its microbial flora. They have been found to protect the outer layers of epidermis from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, virus and many more invaders as they do possess the effective penetration tendency and able to seep into the depth of stratum thus providing complete relief in comparatively short duration with almost minimal side effects.
... Moreover The plant has emollient action and also enhance the absorption of topical drugs. [13,14] ...
Article
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The wide popularity, acceptability and demand of herbal cosmetics has been increased in recent years due to awareness of harmful side effects and adverse reactions caused by synthetic cosmetics ingredients. Herbs, plant materials and plant products were used as cosmetics since ancient times. Various essential oils, juices, fixed oil, plant exudates, extracts, isolated compound obtained from natural sources have been used for their skin care potential in various herbal cosmetics. Herbal cosmetics getting more popularity and belief among the people due to safety, higher bio-compatibility, cost effectiveness, easy availability, lower side effects, environmental friendly nature and traditional experience of uses. Such reliability on herbal cosmetics encourage to screen more herbs, plant materials and natural ingredients for their cosmetic potential. Scientific review of available data and new researches on medicinal plants can provide basis to use more plants for their skin care potential. This review attempts to emphasize the use of some common medicinal plants for their skin care potential in herbal cosmetics.
... Biotechnological research investigated terrestrial plants for several decades highlighting a number of potential applications for the pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and nutraceutical industries. For examples, extracts from plants such as Simmondsia chinensis (Pazyar et al., 2013), Argania spinosa (Avsar et al., 2016), and Aloe vera (Hekmatpou et al., 2019) are commonly used for skin protection and personal care products. A recent and exhaustive review on cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical products from plants is provided by Dorni et al. (2017). ...
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The exploitation of petrochemical hydrocarbons is compromising ecosystem and human health and biotechnological research is increasingly focusing on sustainable materials from plants and, to a lesser extent, microalgae. Fatty acid derivatives include, among others, oxylipins, hydroxy fatty acids, diols, alkenones, and wax esters. They can occur as storage lipids or cell wall components and possess, in some cases, striking cosmeceutical, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical properties. In addition, long chain (>20) fatty acid derivatives mostly contain highly reduced methylenic carbons and exhibit a combustion enthalpy higher than that of C14–20 fatty acids, being potentially suitable as biofuel candidates. Finally, being the building blocks of cell wall components, some fatty acid derivatives might also be used as starters for the industrial synthesis of different polymers. Within this context, microalgae can be a promising source of fatty acid derivatives and, in contrast with terrestrial plants, do not require arable land neither clean water for their growth. Microalgal mass culturing for the extraction and the exploitation of fatty acid derivatives, along with products that are relevant in nutraceutics (e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids), might contribute in increasing the viability of microalgal biotechnologies. This review explores fatty acids derivatives from microalgae with applications in the field of renewable energies, biomaterials and pharmaceuticals. Nannochloropsis spp. (Eustigmatophyceae, Heterokontophyta) are particularly interesting for biotechnological applications since they grow at faster rates than many other species and possess hydroxy fatty acids and aliphatic cell wall polymers.
... Jojoba oil is a liquid, unsaturated wax composed mainly of an ester of long carbon chain fatty acid and alcohol (C20-C22). Jojoba oil exerts a dermal anti-inflammatory effect in addition to its inclusion in cosmetic formulations such as moisturizers and sunscreens [131]. Many studies have reported that jojoba oil contributes to the skin barrier in addition to acting as a permeation enhancer [30,127,132]. ...
Article
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Oils, including essential oils and their constituents, are widely reported to have penetration enhancement activity and have been incorporated into a wide range of pharmaceutical formulations. This study sought to determine if there is an evidence base for the selection of appropriate oils for particular applications and compare their effectiveness across different formulation types. A systematic review of the data sources, consisting of Google Scholar, EMBASE, PubMed, Medline, and Scopus, was carried out and, following screening and quality assessment, 112 articles were included within the analysis. The research was classified according to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, dosage form, in vitro/in vivo study, carrier material(s), penetration enhancers as essential oils, and other chemical enhancers. The review identified four groups of oils used in the formulation of skin preparations; in order of popularity, these are terpene-type essential oils (63%), fatty acid-containing essential oils (29%) and, finally, 8% of essential oils comprising Vitamin E derivatives and miscellaneous essential oils. It was concluded that terpene essential oils may have benefits over the fatty acid-containing oils, and their incorporation into advanced pharmaceutical formulations such as nanoemulsions, microemulsions, vesicular systems, and transdermal patches makes them an attractive proposition to enhance drug permeation through the skin.
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In the treatment of acne and rosacea, several essential oils may play a therapeutic role via both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory pathways. The particular microbial target in acne vulgaris appears to be the Cutibacterium acnes bacterium. Essential oils investigated for this review include tea tree oil, Oregon grape root oil, pomegranate seed oil, rosemary oil, witch hazel, rose oil, rosehip oil, orange/citrus oil, Korean fir oil, frankincense oil, chamomile oil, clary sage oil, lavender oil, ylang-ylang oil, juniper berry oil, and clove basil oil. Many of these essential oils need a carrier oil to avoid evaporation, and carrier oils reviewed here include olive oil, jojoba, coconut, sesame seed, grape seed, sweet almond, and sunflower seed oil. Of those listed, tea tree oil is the most common and well-known essential oil with evidence available in both acne and rosacea treatments.
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Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) wax is used for various dermatological and pharmaceutical applications. Several reports have previously shown beneficial properties of Jojoba wax and extracts, including antimicrobial activity. The current research aimed to elucidate the impact of Jojoba wax on skin residential bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), fungal (Malassezia furfur), and virus infection (herpes simplex 1; HSV-1). First, the capacity of four commercial wax preparations to attenuate their growth was evaluated. The results suggest that the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Malassezia furfur was unaffected by Jojoba in pharmacologically relevant concentrations. However, the wax significantly attenuated HSV-1 plaque formation. Next, a complete dose-response analysis of four different Jojoba varieties (Benzioni, Shiloah, Hatzerim, and Sheva) revealed a similar anti-viral effect with high potency (EC50 of 0.96 ± 0.4 µg/mL) that blocked HSV-1 plaque formation. The antiviral activity of the wax was also confirmed by real-time PCR, as well as viral protein expression by immunohistochemical staining. Chemical characterization of the fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition was performed, showing high similarity between the wax of the investigated varieties. Lastly, our results demonstrate that the observed effects are independent of simmondsin, repeatedly associated with the medicinal impact of Jojoba wax, and that Jojoba wax presence is required to gain protection against HSV-1 infection. Collectively, our results support the use of Jojoba wax against HSV-1 skin infections.
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Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Recent progression in investigational studies aiming to integrate natural products and plant oils in developing new dosage forms that would provide optimal therapeutic effect. Therefore, the aim of the present exploration was to inspect the influence of jojoba oil in boosting the anti-inflammatory effect of colchicine natural product. To our knowledge, there is no formulation comprising colchicine and jojoba oil together to form a niosomal emulgel preparation anticipated for topical application. Colchicine is a natural product extracted from Colchicum autumnale that has been evidenced to show respectable anti-inflammatory activity. Owing to its drawbacks and low therapeutic index, it was preferable to be formulated into topical dosage form. The current study inspected colchicine transdermal delivery by developing niosomal preparation as a potential nanocarrier included into emulgel prepared with jojoba oil. Box Behnken design was constructed to develop 17 niosomal emulgel formulations. The optimized colchicine niosomal emulgel was evaluated for its physical characteristics and in vitro release studies. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was estimated via carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema method. The developed colchicine niosomal preparation revealed particle size of 220.7 nm with PDI value 0.22, entrapment efficiency 65.3%. The formulation was found to be stable showing no significant difference in particle size and entrapment efficiency up on storage at 4 °C and 25 °C for 3 months. The optimized colchicine niosomal emulgel exhibited a pH value 6.73, viscosity 4598 cP, and spreadability 38.3 mm. In vitro release study of colchicine from niosomal emulgel formulation was around 52.4% over 6 h. Apparently, the proficient anti-inflammatory activity of colchicine niosomal emulgel was confirmed via carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test. Overall, the results recommend the combination of niosomal preparation with jojoba oil-based emulgel that might signify a favorable delivery of anti-inflammatory drug such as colchicine.
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Before the advent of the modern food industry, vegetable oils (triglycerides) from many sources had a long history of use as condiments in cooking, personal care, and other therapeutic applications. Industrial applications of vegetable oils outside of food usage, on the other hand, have been limited on account of the shorter shelf-life durability of these oils resulting from the natural unsaturation (carbon–carbon double bonds) in the structure of most triglycerides. In seeking to explore expanded utilization of this renewable resource, we have eliminated the above weakness by chemically modifying the double bonds in the material in an attempt to stabilize the oil. We have used FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy to characterize the derivative whereas the physical and chemical properties of the product in terms of stability and flow characteristics have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), pressure DSC, rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis. In this modification of corn oil the data obtained indicate that the resulting poly-hydroxylated acids are more stable than the native corn oil. Additionally, the obtained properties are unique and such that this product will be amenable to use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other industrial uses especially as a lubricity enhancing additive in fuel applications. KeywordsCorn oil–Epoxidation–Corn polyhydroxy triglycerides–Corn polyhydroxy fatty acids–DSC–Pressure DSC–Rheometry–Thermogravimetric analysis
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Jojoba oil-based emulgel formulations were prepared using different concentrations of various gelling agents, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934 P and combination of both. The prepared emulgels were physically evaluated for their stability after temperature cycle test, centrifugation and long-term shelf storage for 1 year at room temperature. The in vitro release at 37 °C was studied to define the effect of the concentration and type of the gelling agent. A comparison between the formulated emulgels and two commercially available products, Candistan® and Canesten® creams, was carried out to judge their efficacy and stability. The prepared emulgels exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior with little or no thixotropy. Four emulgels showed excellent stability as they demonstrated consistent rheological model under different treatment conditions. The in vitro release test showed variation in the extent of percent drug released. The drug release from the commercial preparation was lower than some of the prepared emulgel formulae. One formula containing combination of the two gelling agents (HPMC and Carbopol 934 P), showed excellent stability and high extent of clotrimazole release was microbiologically evaluated against Candida albicans using cylinder and plate method. The selected formula showed superior antimycotic activity compared to the commercially available formulation. Further in vivo animal studies for the obtained stable formula is recommended.
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Emulgel topical formulation is a vehicle of potential for topical delivery of antifungal drugs. The imidazole derivative antifungal drug, clotrimazole (CZ), was formulated into emulgels using two grades of hydrophobically modified co-polymers of acrylic acid, namely Pemulen TR1 and TR2. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their rheological properties, short- and long-term stability, in vitro release at 37°C. Microbiological evaluation of the formula showed that optimum stability and release was carried out to measure its antifungal activity. All formulae showed non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior with little thixotropy or antithixotropy. Five of the prepared formulae showed good physical stability under different treatment conditions. Isopropyl myristate (IPM) emulgels exhibited higher rate of CZ release than either jojoba oil (JB) or liquid paraffin-based emulgels. A selected formula containing JB together with a combination of Pemulen TR1 and TR2 showed excellent stability as well as high rate of CZ release. Microbiological evaluation of the selected formula containing similar amount of CZ revealed 1.2-folds increase in the antifungal activity compared to commercially available formulation. Emulgel dosage form based on Pemulen polymeric emulsifier and JB is a promising vehicle for topical delivery of CZ and further in vivo animal studies are recommended.
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The antiviral activity of Callissia fragrans and Simnondsia chinensis aquatic and ethanol leaf extracts, as well as purified fractions from these extracts was studied against herpetic viruses in vitro. Ethanol extract of C. fragrans effectively inhibited the infection of Vero cells by HSV-1, HSV-2 in vitro, while its aquatic extract inhibited only VZV. Although S. chinensis leaf extract strongly inhibited all studied viruses, the selectivity index of this extract was very low, due to its high toxicity. However, the majority of its fractions showed low toxicity and higher antiviral activity and therefore very high SI. Strong interactions between virus and extracts were found.
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Herbal therapy is becoming increasingly popular among patients and physicians. Many herbal preparations are marketed to the public for various ailments including those of the skin. Herbal therapies have been used successfully in treating dermatologic disorders for thousands of years in Europe and Asia. In Germany, a regulatory commission oversees herbal preparations and recommended uses. In Asia, herbal treatments that have been used for centuries are now being studied scientifically. Currently, the United States does not regulate herbal products, as they are considered dietary supplements. Therefore, there is no standardization of active ingredients, purity, or concentration. There are also no regulations governing which herbs can be marketed for various ailments. This has made learning about and using these treatments challenging. Information compiled in a practical fashion may enable more patients to benefit from these treatments currently used worldwide. We reviewed the herbal medications that show scientific evidence of clinical efficacy, as well as the more common herbs shown to be useful in the treatment of dermatologic disorders. The safety of each herb has been addressed to better enable the physician to know which herbal therapies they may want to begin to use in practice. Common drug interactions and side effects of herbal medicines that may be seen in the dermatologic setting were also studied.
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Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.
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Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.
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The lipophilic character of five vehicles (or co-vehicles): diethylhexylmaleate, dimethicone, light mineral oil, octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol and eight botanical oils: Aloe vera oil, coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil, grape leaf oil, grape seed oil, hazelnut oil, jojoba oil and safflower oil was determined by partitioning esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) between them and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The results were compared to those obtained with 1-octanol. The most lipophilic effects were observed with octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol for the vehicles (or co-vehicles), coconut oil, jojoba oil and safflower oil for botanical oils. Light mineral oil showed the least lipophilic effect. With butylparaben, it was observed that oleyl alcohol, octyldodecanol, coconut oil and jojoba oil were 0.94, 0.91, 0.74 and 0.68 times as lipophilic as 1-octanol respectively. The study indicates that octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol could be good substitutes for 1-octanol in partition coefficient determination. The estimated permeability coefficients of the parabens suggest that octyldodecanol, oleyl alcohol, coconut oil and jojoba oil could be potential dermal permeation enhancers.
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Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment.
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The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coliconfers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos ofBrassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes.
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Liquid wax ester extracted from the seeds of the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is used commercially in the cosmetics industry. For this reason, it is a potentially profitable crop for the arid regions of Chile. This study evaluates the yields, and physical and chemical properties of jojoba seeds grown experimentally in Chile, compared with literature values and commercial sources in the United States, Israel, Peru, and Argentina. Cuttings from promising jojoba plants were gathered from abandoned plantations in various arid regions of Chile and propagated for study at a Chilean research station. Seed samples originating from 17 selected clones were analyzed for oil content, weight per 1000 seeds, and protein and simmondsin contents. The seed oil was analyzed for acid value, wax ester profile, fatty acid profile and fatty alcohol profile. The Chilean seeds had physical properties similar to commercial sources and literature values. However, there were differences in the chemical composition. The molecular weights of the wax esters and their fatty acid moieties were significantly higher than the literature values and commercial seed samples. The wax ester profile of the Chilean seeds had higher C42 and lower C38 content than the commercial sources. In addition, the total simmondsins content in the Chilean seed was higher than literature values and the simmondsin content with respect to its analogs (simmondsin ferulate, demethylsimmondsin (DMS), and didemethylsimmondsin (DDMS)) was considerably lower.
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The wound healing properties of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) liquid wax (JLW) were studied in vitro on HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, which are involved in wounded skin repair. JLW cytotoxicity was evaluated by the crystal violet staining and the neutral red uptake endpoint. Induction of wound healing by JLW was assessed by scratch wound assay on cell monolayers. The involvement of signaling pathways was evaluated by the use of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and of kinase inhibitors, and by Western blot analysis of cell lysates using anti-phospho antibodies. Collagen and gelatinase secretion by cells were assayed by in-cell ELISA and zymography analysis, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the toxic effects of JLW to these cells are extremely low. Scratch wound experiments showed that JLW notably accelerates the wound closure of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The use of inhibitors and Western blot revealed that the mechanism of action of JLW is strictly Ca(2+) dependent and requires the involvement of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and of the p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. In addition, JLW was found to stimulate collagen I synthesis in fibroblasts, while no effect was detected on the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases by HaCaT or fibroblasts. Taken together, data provide a pharmacological characterization of JLW properties on skin cells and suggest that it could be used in the treatment of wounds in clinical settings.
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Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.
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Background: Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. Aim: A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Method: Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Results: Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P < 0.05) TEWL values occurred in the topical formulations containing 3.75% glycerol and 1.25% K-20W (hydrolyzed jojoba esters) than with glycerol alone in a standard base skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. Conclusion: This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations. Additional mechanistic studies are underway.
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The human skin surface and hair are generally coated with a thin film of liquid phase sebaceous lipids. This surface lipid film contributes to the cosmetic properties of the skin. Synthetic sebum has been used for studies on properties of skin and hair. However, there has been no standardized formulation of synthetic sebum and many of the synthetic sebum formulations that have been used do not closely resemble actual sebum. In this study, a formulation for a standardized and inexpensive synthetic sebum is proposed, and the chemical stability of this lipid mixture is demonstrated under conditions of use and storage. The proposed synthetic sebum consists of 17% fatty acid, 44.7% triglyceride, 25% wax monoester (jojoba oil) and 12.4% squalene. This lipid mixture takes up approximately 6% of its weight in water when equilibrated in an atmosphere saturated with water vapour. It is stable on exposure to the atmosphere at 32 degrees C for at least 48 h, and it is also stable on storage at 4 or -20 degrees C, either dry or in chloroform : methanol solution for at least 6 months. This synthetic sebum could be useful in studies on cosmetic properties of the skin surface or hair, on penetration of chemicals into the skin or in development of standardized tests of laundry detergent performance.
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To compare the survival of four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in pharmaceutical oils, including jojoba oil/tea tree oil, carbol oil, jojoba oil and sesame oil. Oils were spiked with the test bacteria in a concentration of 10(4) CFU ml(-1). Bacteria were extracted from oils with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% Tween 20. Aliquots of the pooled water layers were analysed by solid-phase cytometry and plate counting. Plate counts dropped to zero for all test strains exposed for 24 h to three of the four oils. In contrast, significant numbers of viable cells were still detected by SPC, except in the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture and partly in sesame oil. Exposure of bacteria for 24 h to the two oils containing an antimicrobial led to a loss of their culturability but not necessarily of their viability. The antibacterial activity of the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture supersedes that of carbol oil. These in vitro data suggest that the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture more than carbol oil inhibits bacterial proliferation when used for intermittent self-catherization.
Article
Very long chain primary alcohols are significant components in cuticle waxes of plants. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) catalyze the formation of a fatty alcohol from an acyl-CoA. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains eight genes homologous to FAR genes from jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), silk moth, wheat and mouse. Expression of six Arabidopsis FAR homologs in Escherichia coli resulted in production of alcohols from endogenous E. coli fatty acids by five of these genes, confirming that they encode for FAR enzymes. Only a truncated splicing version of the sixth gene was found, and this gene yielded a protein with no FAR activity. The five functional FAR enzymes yielded distinctly different compositions of fatty alcohols when expressed in E. coli, indicating that the different enzymes may be involved in the production of different types of alcohols in plant cells.
Article
The effects of four essential oils (rosemary, ylang, lilacin, and peppermint oils), and three plant oils (jojoba oil, corn germ oil, and olive oil) on the permeation of aminophylline were studied using human skin. The permeation effects of these oils were compared with those of three chemical penetration enhancers. Although, all oils enhanced the permeation of aminophylline, their effects were less than that of ethanol. Jojoba oil was found to be the most active, causing about a 32% peak height decrease of N-H bending absorbances in comparison with the control, while peppermint, lilacin, rosemary, and ylang oils caused 28%, 24%, 18%, and 12% peak height decreases, respectively. Microemulsions containing 10% jojoba oil and 30% corn germ oil were found to be superior vehicles for the percutaneous absorption of aminophylline. Comparision with results obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography shows good agreement.
Article
Ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation produces harmful effects on the skin including sunburn, local immunosuppression, skin photoaging, and cutaneous malignancies. Although application of sunscreens is the "gold standard" for protecting the skin from UV radiation, studies have shown that currently used sunscreens can cause adverse skin and systemic reactions, owing to their penetration into the viable cutaneous strata and to transdermal absorption. This paper presents new nonpermeating sunscreens (NPSUN) suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The basic idea behind the design of the new photoprotectors was to immobilize UV-absorbing moieties in the Jojoba oil chemical backbone. The physicochemical characteristics of NPSUNs allow these derivatives to remain confined to the upper stratum corneum where the sunscreen molecule acts, with no further clearance to deeper dermal strata or systemic circulation. As an example, no permeation across the skin of methoxycinnamate-NPSUN was observed during 24-hour in vitro experiments, after topical application of either unformulated substances or of methoxycinnamate-NPSUNs formulated in oil-in-water cream, in water-in-oil cream, or in Jojoba oil. Another approach to increase the photoprotective effect against the UV radiation is targeting the delivery of alpha tocopherol into the deeper skin layers and across the cell membranes. This is necessary for optimal photoprotection and prevention of malignant processes. For this purpose, ethosomal vitamin E compositions were designed, characterized, and tested. Efficient intracellular and dermal accumulation of vitamin E from ethosomes was demonstrated. A good clinical strategy could be the use of NPSUNs during direct UV exposure followed by the application of alpha-tocopherol compositions after short- or long-term solar radiation.
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Six-hundred-and-three people aged 40 or more years, from Maryborough in central Victoria, were enrolled in a randomized longitudinal study, which required daily application of either a SPF 15+. broad-spectrum, water-resistant sunscreen cream or the cream base without the active ingredients. The study duration was 7 months, from September 1991 until April 1992. One-hundred-and-fourteen (18.9%) of these subjects developed an adverse reaction to the cream they were applying. Patch testing, photopatch testing and scratch testing with the ingredients of the creams revealed that only a small proportion (<10%) of the intlammatory eruptions were allergic in nature. None of the people tested was allergic to the sunscreen active ingredients. History and examination findings, where available, suggested that the majority of adverse responses were consistent with an irritant reaction, both to the sunscreen preparation and the base cream control. A higher than expected proportion of the people who developed an adverse reaction had a personal history consistent with atopy. Other reactions included acneiform eruptions and contact urticaria. A frequency of reactions to sunscreen preparations of over 15% means that further work is necessary to improve both the formulation of such products, and the manner and conditions nnder which they are used, to ensure satisfactory compliance.
Article
The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.
Article
Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.
Article
Enhanced systemic absorption in vivo and percutaneous penetration in vitro was demonstrated after transdermal administration of diclofenac sodium formulated in U-type microemulsion. Diclofenac sodium was solubilized in a typical four-component system consisting of an oil, polyoxyethylene-10EO-oleyl alcohol (Brij 96V) as the surfactant, and 1-hexanol along water dilution line W46 (40 wt % surfactant and 60 wt % oil phase before water titration). Viscosity and small angle X-ray scattering measurements have evidenced bicontinuous structures within water fractions of 0.25 and 0.5 along the dilution line. Self-diffusion NMR studies showed that drug molecules accumulated in the interfacial film and, to some extent, dissolved in the oil. Relative to a commercial macro-emulsion cream (Voltaren Emulgel), microemulsions containing paraffin oil or isopropyl myristate increased the in vivo transdermal penetration rate of diclofenac by two order of magnitude, whereas the rat plasma levels were increased by one order of magnitude. The in vitro data obtained from excised rat skin were comparable to the in vivo results, but suffered from discrepancies from the ideal in vivo-in vitro correlation, which might be explained by optimal in vitro conditions of perfusion and hydration. It has also been found that when jojoba oil is formulated as the oil phase in the microemulsion, the penetration rate of the drug decreases significantly. Based on the three-dimensional structure of jojoba oil, the wax is presumed to prevent the drug from being freely diffused into the skin while migrating from the interfacial film into the continuous oil phase.
Article
Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.