ArticleLiterature Review

Annual Research Review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: The nature, prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age

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Abstract

Aims and scope: The usage of mobile phones and the internet by young people has increased rapidly in the past decade, approaching saturation by middle childhood in developed countries. Besides many benefits, online content, contact or conduct can be associated with risk of harm; most research has examined whether aggressive or sexual harms result from this. We examine the nature and prevalence of such risks, and evaluate the evidence regarding the factors that increase or protect against harm resulting from such risks, so as to inform the academic and practitioner knowledge base. We also identify the conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in this relatively new body of research, and highlight the pressing research gaps. Methods: Given the pace of change in the market for communication technologies, we review research published since 2008. Following a thorough bibliographic search of literature from the key disciplines (psychology, sociology, education, media studies and computing sciences), the review concentrates on recent, high quality empirical studies, contextualizing these within an overview of the field. Findings: Risks of cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexual messaging ('sexting') and pornography generally affect fewer than one in five adolescents. Prevalence estimates vary according to definition and measurement, but do not appear to be rising substantially with increasing access to mobile and online technologies, possibly because these technologies pose no additional risk to offline behaviour, or because any risks are offset by a commensurate growth in safety awareness and initiatives. While not all online risks result in self-reported harm, a range of adverse emotional and psychosocial consequences is revealed by longitudinal studies. Useful for identifying which children are more vulnerable than others, evidence reveals several risk factors: personality factors (sensation-seeking, low self-esteem, psychological difficulties), social factors (lack of parental support, peer norms) and digital factors (online practices, digital skills, specific online sites). Conclusions: Mobile and online risks are increasingly intertwined with pre-existing (offline) risks in children's lives. Research gaps, as well as implications for practitioners, are identified. The challenge is now to examine the relations among different risks, and to build on the risk and protective factors identified to design effective interventions.

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... Because parents are an active part of children's, adolescents', and young adults' lives, it is highly probable that there are opportunities for parents to discuss ways to avoid online harm and provide recommendations on effective coping strategies for dealing with depression. Such a proposal is supported by research linking parental social support to lower levels of cyberbullying involvement and depression [23,34,36,48,54,55]. Parents provide advice and support, which helps reduce cyberbullying involvement and depressive symptoms [36,54]. ...
... Parents provide advice and support, which helps reduce cyberbullying involvement and depressive symptoms [36,54]. Research suggests that parents provide strategies for ways to avoid online risks and that such discussions might reduce vulnerability to cyberbullying involvement and associated negative outcomes [36,55]. ...
... Friends, similar to parents, might provide opportunities to discuss strategies for avoiding online risks amongst each other. As with perceived social support from parents, supportive friends diminish adolescents' cyberbullying involvement and depression through providing advice, strategies, and support for reducing risks and negative outcomes [23,36,54,55]. ...
Article
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One aim of this study was to investigate differences in cyberbullying involvement (i.e., victimization, bystanding, perpetration) across four age groups, including 234 elementary school students (4th and 5th grades; 51% female), 363 middle school students (6th through 8th grades; 53% female), 341 high school students (9th through 12th grade; 51% female), and 371 university students (all four years; 60% female). Another aim was to examine age group differences in the associations between cyberbullying involvement and depression, as well as the moderating effect of social support from parents and friends. Participants completed questionnaires on cyberbullying involvement, depression, and social support from parents and friends. Findings revealed that middle school students were more often involved in cyberbullying as victims, bystanders, and perpetrators, followed by high school and university students, and elementary school students. High school and university students did not differ on their cyberbullying involvement. Gender moderated these relationships for elementary school students, with boys more often involved in cyberbullying perpetration and victimization than girls. In addition, female university students witnessed cyberbullying more so than males. Social support from parents buffered against the negative effects of cyberbullying involvement on depression across all age groups. Results were similar for social support from friends, but only for middle school and high school students. Gender did not influence the associations among age group, cyberbullying involvement, and depression. The results have implications for designing prevention and intervention programs and ensuring that such programs consider age.
... Studies show that most online sexual contact is between peers, consensual and viewed as positive experiences (Jonsson et al., 2019;Livingstone & Smith, 2014). However, some children experience unwanted sexual contact, often by older people, where they feel coerced or pressured to do sexual things online. ...
... For unwanted sexual solicitation (defined as requests to engage in sexual activities or sexual talk or give personal sexual information that is unwanted or, whether wanted or not, made by an adult), studies have shown prevalence rates from 5% to 36% (see, for instance, Baumgartner et al., 2010;Jones et al., 2012;Jonsson et al., 2019). One recent meta-analysis found that one in nine young people had experience of unwanted sexual solicitation (Madigan et al., 2018), whereas Livingstone and Smith (2014) found in their review of risks of cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexting and pornography that less than one in five young people had reported such experiences. Surprisingly rates do not seem to be rising despite increased access to online technologies (Jones et al., 2012;Livingstone & Smith, 2014), although studies are not conclusive, definitions of online sexual abuse vary and little is known about the possible underreporting of abuse (Katz et al., 2021;Kloess et al., 2014). ...
... One recent meta-analysis found that one in nine young people had experience of unwanted sexual solicitation (Madigan et al., 2018), whereas Livingstone and Smith (2014) found in their review of risks of cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexting and pornography that less than one in five young people had reported such experiences. Surprisingly rates do not seem to be rising despite increased access to online technologies (Jones et al., 2012;Livingstone & Smith, 2014), although studies are not conclusive, definitions of online sexual abuse vary and little is known about the possible underreporting of abuse (Katz et al., 2021;Kloess et al., 2014). ...
Research
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There is growing public and expert concern that young people’s digital activities on the internet may worsen their mental health, although the research literature remains contested. This report investigates whether gaining digital skills makes a difference to improving young people’s wellbeing outcomes. As well as drawing on the burgeoning literature on youth digital skills, we were also able to learn from the perspectives of those with lived experience of diverse mental health difficulties. To discover whether young people develop distinctive skills because of the particular risks and opportunities they encounter online, we conducted in-depth interviews with 62 young people aged 12 to 22 in Norway and the UK with experience of mental health difficulties of varying severity, most of whom had received treatment in the recent past. The report asks three research questions: 1. What is the relevance of different dimensions of digital skills in the lives of young people experiencing mental health difficulties? 2. How do young people experience the role of digital skills in aiding or worsening their mental health difficulties, including their capacity to cope? 3. What recommendations can be drawn from young people’s experiences that may inform mental health professionals, schools, companies, regulators and the public to support young people’s digital lives? Although it had been expected that the differing cultures of childhood between Norway and the UK might have resulted in different digital skills and outcomes for young people growing up in these countries, their lives bear striking similarities.
... Technological advancements in the last few years have led to increased social interactions that have negative consequences, known as cyberbullying [1]. Being bullied in adolescence is considered a global public health issue concerning the psychological development of adolescents that oftentimes persists into adulthood [2,3]. ...
... Being bullied in adolescence is considered a global public health issue concerning the psychological development of adolescents that oftentimes persists into adulthood [2,3]. Features of cyberbullying such as publicity, permanence (i.e., single acts leading repeated harassments through views and distribution by others) and permeability of online messaging exacerbate the negative effects on adolescents' mental health [1,4]. It is documented in multiple studies that adolescents who are cyberbullied by their friends or peers are at greater risk for mental problems including lower levels of self-esteem, feeling of loneliness, depression and suicidal ideation [5][6][7]. ...
... Further, several cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies have reported that cyberbullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, self-harm and suicide attempts [8][9][10][11][12]. Extant literature has examined various factors such as lack of peer support, emotional intelligence, violent behaviour, substance use and access to social media and internet that may influence the association between cyberbullying victimisation and diverse forms of mental health disturbances [1,[13][14][15][16][17]. Also, in multiple studies, adolescent girls' mental health was more compromised than of boys due to exposure to cyberbullying [18,19]. ...
Article
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Background Cyberbullying victimisation is considered a global public health issue concerning the psychological development of adolescents that oftentimes persists into adulthood. The current study explored the longitudinal relationship between cyberbullying victimisation and depression and suicidal ideation among adolescents and young adults, given the scarcity of such studies in poor-resource settings like India. Methods Data were drawn from the “Understanding the Lives of Adolescents and Young Adults” (UDAYA- 2015-16 and 2018–19) surveys conducted in two most-populated Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis was conducted to fulfil the objectives of the study using a sample of 4428 and 11,864 adolescent (aged 10–19 years) male and female cohorts, respectively. Results The prevalence of cyberbullying victimization increased from 3.8% to 6.4% among female respondents and 1.9% to 5.6% among male respondents over three years. About 33% of females and 16.6% of males had depressive symptoms in their young adulthood. Nearly 7.5% females compared to 2.3% of males, reported that they have seriously considered attempting suicide in the past one year. Adolscents who experienced cyberbullying victimization were 2.07 times more likely to have depressive symptoms comapared to those who did not experience cyberbullying victimization. Similarly, adolescents who experienced cyberbullying victimization were 2.50 times more likely to have suicidal ideation than their counterparts with no experience of cyberbullying victimization. Conclusion The findings suggest that cyberbullying victims are at higher risk of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts and these adverse effects persist for longer period. Therefore, cyberbullying and related mental health problems need to be addressed with more efficient strategies such as increased awareness of nuances of online harassments among adolescent and young adult population.
... The increasing amount of time adolescents spend online underscores the importance of understanding these online spaces and contexts of both risk and resilience (Livingstone & Smith, 2014;Nesi et al., 2018;Twenge et al., 2019). While youth in general face opportunities and challenges from online environments, both sexual minority (i.e., youth with identities such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, same-gender-loving, pansexual, asexual, queer/questioning, two-spirit, etc., youth who report same-gender sexual or romantic attraction or behavior) and gender minority youth (youth whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth, such as agender, non-binary, transgender, two-spirit, gender nonconforming, etc.) may experience online environments differently than their heterosexual and/or cisgender peers (i.e., youth whose sex assigned at birth aligns with their current gender identity). ...
... Much of the discussion around adolescent sexting has focused on the risks associated with this online behavior (Lippman & Campbell, 2014;Livingstone & Smith, 2014). While there are potential negative ramifications associated with sexting (i.e., legal issues surrounding sexualized imagery of minors, potential for images to be widely shared within social networks), this behavior, like sexual behaviors in general among adolescents, needs to be considered developmentally. ...
... Given the interplay between online and offline contexts (Ash-Houchen & Lo, 2018), making online spaces safer for SGMY involves making their offline spaces safer, such as increasing the presence of supportive adults while decreasing incidents of discrimination and violence. While researchers emphasize the novel challenges posed by online settings for adolescent development in general, they caution against seeing online spaces as being radically distinct from offline environments (Livingstone & Smith, 2014;Nesi et al., 2018;Peter & Valkenburg, 2011). Said another way, online activities should not be perceived as occurring in foreign and uncharted areas, but rather as an extension of in-person contexts where adolescents seek out: information, socialization, support, sexual and romantic partners, and entertainment. ...
Article
Adolescents, in general, are spending more time in online environments, and understanding how youth navigate these contexts may be particularly important for addressing and improving outcomes among sexual and gender minority youth. Taking a developmental perspective, this review discusses online environments as contexts of both risk and resilience for youth in gender and sexual minority communities. In particular, we review literature highlighting how online environments provide a context for many salient aspects of adolescent development, including the promotion of identity development and the exploration of intimate, romantic and sexual behavior. The potential for online environments to serve as contexts for discrimination and victimization for gender and sexual minority youth are also discussed. Specific recommendations for parents, teachers and sexual and gender minority youth themselves are made for creating and promoting positive wellbeing in online spaces.
... Vladimir M. Simović, PhD 35 and Marina M. Simović 36 in their paper Child Pornography In The Light Of Computer Crimes: International Standards And Law Of Bosnia And Herzegovina, addressed an international standards from a number of universal (UN) and regional (Council of Europe) documents, a large number of national legislations, including positive law of Bosnia and Herzegovina, that pro- 32 Ombudsmen BiH; Full professor, Law Faculty, APEIRON, Banja Luka 33 Ministry of Interior, Republic of Srpska 34 Senior Associate, Child Ombudsman Republic of Srpska 35 Prosecutor in the BIH Prosecutors Office, Full Prof. Law Faculty University Vitez. 36 Secretary in Child Ombudsman Republic of Srpska, Assoc. ...
... Vladimir M. Simović, PhD 35 and Marina M. Simović 36 in their paper Child Pornography In The Light Of Computer Crimes: International Standards And Law Of Bosnia And Herzegovina, addressed an international standards from a number of universal (UN) and regional (Council of Europe) documents, a large number of national legislations, including positive law of Bosnia and Herzegovina, that pro- 32 Ombudsmen BiH; Full professor, Law Faculty, APEIRON, Banja Luka 33 Ministry of Interior, Republic of Srpska 34 Senior Associate, Child Ombudsman Republic of Srpska 35 Prosecutor in the BIH Prosecutors Office, Full Prof. Law Faculty University Vitez. 36 Secretary in Child Ombudsman Republic of Srpska, Assoc. ...
... It is now commonly accepted that social media and other platforms use certain tools to manipulate opinions and impact the decision-making of consumers (Darmody & Zwick, 2020: 1). More broadly, the algorithms have become "the fundamental arbiters of human experience" even though they are "designed, programmed, and implemented by imperfect people who exist in a profit-first kind of world" (Johnson, 2021: [34][35][36][37]. They determine what is going to be visible to whom according to their calculations and analyses of behavioural data. ...
Conference Paper
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The article provides a review of the developments and characteristics of video visitation in PCI Sremska Mitrovica, with a focus on the contact between offenders and their families and children. The study draws upon data from fieldwork interviews with the prison employees and aims to understand experiences of using video visitation and their importance in the offender behavior as well as the prison system. The study gives voice to field experts with the knowledge and skills to suggest how video visitation impacts the offender behavior and its relevancy in the context of familial relationships. Moreover, it reflects on the nature of digital technologies in prisons and considers how they are embraced and managed in Serbia. Special focus is on the legislative framework in the Republic of Serbia.
... In line with the widely argued social construction of children as angels (who are vulnerable and need protecting) and devils (who need controlling) (Valentine, 1996);, debates about the impacts of technology have often had a 'pessimistic' (Livingstone and Bovill, 2002) focus when they consider children and young people. In a variety of socio-political spaces, concerns have been raised about technological change, and the context of a digital world, affecting both children's lives and parenting (Ofcom, 2017;Plowman, Stephen and McPake, 2010;Livingstone and Smith, 2014). For example, Livingstone and Smith (2014) highlight some of the concerns of children engaging with social media as being: "cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexual messaging ('sexting') and pornography" (p.636). ...
... In a variety of socio-political spaces, concerns have been raised about technological change, and the context of a digital world, affecting both children's lives and parenting (Ofcom, 2017;Plowman, Stephen and McPake, 2010;Livingstone and Smith, 2014). For example, Livingstone and Smith (2014) highlight some of the concerns of children engaging with social media as being: "cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexual messaging ('sexting') and pornography" (p.636). They argue that these concerns have, at times, become the subject of large scale political, and public, debates which attract the interest of a variety of people(s) including parents and carers, educationalists, and clinicians (Livingstone and Smith, 2014). ...
... For example, Livingstone and Smith (2014) highlight some of the concerns of children engaging with social media as being: "cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexual messaging ('sexting') and pornography" (p.636). They argue that these concerns have, at times, become the subject of large scale political, and public, debates which attract the interest of a variety of people(s) including parents and carers, educationalists, and clinicians (Livingstone and Smith, 2014). ...
Chapter
Technology is increasingly part of society's institutional fabric (Van Dijck, 2013), and is changing communication (Kitchin et al., 2013), how social space is produced, and how lives and geographies are represented. The advancement of a digital age (Walshe and Healy, 2020) has sparked debates about the opportunities and challenges these changes bring. Livingstone and Bovill (2002) conceptualise these debates as existing between optimists (who perceive that technological advancements offer opportunities for the evolution of democracy), and pessimists (who raise concerns about challenges to traditional authority and systems). These debates are often of particular concern when considering children and technology. This chapter examines how the evolution of, and access to, technology (specifically Web 2.0, including social media) has changed children's geographies. To do this it draws on both academic debate and my doctoral research, endeavouring to include and represent young people in these discussions. It then critically considers how, and why, these changes (and children's geographies more broadly) are of value to geography education in schools.
... Harmful or dangerous behaviors have become so common in social media that they have recently attracted the interest of many researchers (Lawson 2018;Fritz and Gonzales 2018;Wood et al. 2019;Page et al. 2018;Linabary and Corple 2019;Mitchell et al. 2014;Lerman et al. 2017;Guan et al. 2015;Zhu et al. 2016;Pater and Mynatt 2017;Robert et al. 2015). Further analyses have been carried out to assess the role of social platforms with regard to sexual or aggressive behaviors that place youth at risk (Livingstone and Smith 2014). Finally, several researchers have investigated online self-injury and cyber-suicide (Patton et al. 2014;Muñoz-Sánchez et al. 2018;Khasawneh et al. 2020). ...
... Social media have provided enormous opportunities for communication and knowledge seeking (Zhang and Wang 2013). However, they also present many risks, including cyberbullying, dangerous contacts with strangers, pornography, self-harm activities, and even suicide (Livingstone and Smith 2014;Smahel et al. 2020). This is a topic much debated by researchers who study human behavior in social platforms. ...
Article
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One of the key aspects that distinguish TikTok from other social media is the presence of challenges. A challenge is a kind of competition that starts when a user posts a video with certain actions and a certain hashtag and invites other users to replicate the same video in their own way. Most challenges are fun and harmless, but sometimes dangerous challenges are launched as well. The authors of these challenges use various tricks to bypass TikTok’s controls. In this paper, we analyze the lifespans of some TikTok challenges and show how they are very different for non-dangerous and dangerous ones. Then, we deepen our analysis by identifying some time patterns that characterize the two types of challenges. Finally, we test the accuracy of the results obtained on a large set of challenges different from those used during the detection of time patterns. The focus of this paper is the detection of time patterns allowing the classification of challenges in dangerous and non-dangerous ones. This could represent a first step towards an approach for the early detection of dangerous challenges in TikTok.
... Cyberbullying and suicide represent a concern for researchers given the presence of other papers among the most cited [69,70]. Cyberbullying affects mental health, empathy, risk factors, self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-control, support from parents and friends, and the need for prevention and intervention programs are important topics given the papers most cited by researchers [32,41,[71][72][73][74] and author keywords. Additionally, concepts such as Cyberbullying perpetration, victimization or the role of bystanders seem to generate greater interest in the most recent publications [25,62,63]. ...
Article
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Cyberbullying prevalence is increasing in the world, being a form of abuse that follows victims into their most intimate settings. Cyberbullying affects victims' mental health, self-esteem, emotions, and academic performance. Cyberbullies present low levels of self-control and empathy. This research aimed to map scientific research on Cyberbullying and the Psychological Dimensions of the Self. A bibliometric analysis of scientific documents published in journals indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) was performed. Traditional bibliometric laws were applied and VOSviewer was used to generate visualizations. The annual publications followed exponential growth. Computers in Human Behaviour was the journal with the most publications. Researchers from the USA and Spain were the most prolific. Sameer Hinduja and Justin Patchin were the most cited authors. Hence, there is a growing interest among researchers in Cyberbullying and the emotional aspects of children and adolescents. The USA and Spain were the leading countries in research on this subject. Rosario Or-tega-Ruiz, Sameer Hinduja and Justin Patchin were the most prolific and influential authors.
... 122 Children will actively search for more connections, because they are seeking validation and acceptance. 123 These needs increase as teenagers get older. 124 For their online activities, this means they will prefer to use their own mobile phone over shared computers for instance. ...
Research
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This study identifies the most effective child safety by design measures that can be taken to prevent harm to children online. Protecting children while still enabling their access to, and participation in the online environment is a challenge. In this report, the Down to Zero Alliance’s Building Back Better programme provides a clear path through the complexity. Informed by a systematic review of literature, an international panel of 20 senior online safety experts, and focus group discussions with 141 children (aged 11 to 16) in ten countries, a set of concrete safety by design solutions are posed to those with the power to bring about change.
... For example, educational apps and e-books could build early literacy competencies for children by providing exposure to letters, phonics, and vocabulary (Radesky et al., 2015). Nevertheless, excessive screen time with no parental control has been found to be risky for children's psychosocial development, including social behaviors (Council on Communications and Media, 2016;Livingstone & Smith, 2014). In the light of this twosided perspective, we attempt to examine children's screen time in relation to their social behaviors. ...
Article
Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design, the present study examined children’s screen time and social behaviors through parents’ perceptions. The participants were 113 children and their parents for the quantitative strand and 42 randomly selected parents for the qualitative strand of the study. Parents reported on children’s social behaviors and screen time in the quantitative strand, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents in the qualitative strand of the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using cluster analyses, and qualitative data were analyzed using an open-coding system; following that, the quantitative and qualitative results were collaboratively discussed. Using cluster analyses, children were categorized into two groups (positive and relatively social negative behaviors) that reflect their social behaviors during peer play context. Qualitative analyses identified parents’ perceptions of their children’s social behavior and screen time. Accordingly, qualitative results consistently supported the two groups categorized in the quantitative strand. In addition, parents’ use of screen-related strategies was related to children’s positive social behaviors. Findings from the current study suggest that considering children’s engagement with screen time may contribute to a greater understanding of children’s social behaviors.
... Moreover, parent's knowledge and understanding are important factors to combat cyberbullying. According to Livingstone and Smith (2014), family beliefs have an important role in preventing cyberbullying. Similarly, Caivano et al. (2020) reported that the first step to prevent and intervene in cyberbullying is increasing parental knowledge and awareness. ...
Article
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Cyberbullying awareness of parents is significant to reduce exposure to cyberbullying. However, it is noteworthy that there are limited studies on the factors affecting parents’ knowledge and competencies about cyberbullying and the change of these factors according to the education level of the child. This study aims to determine the relationships among cyberbullying knowledge and competence levels of parents with children studying in K-12 and mediation in children’s Internet use, family harmony and technology usage experience and examine how it differs according to the child’s education level. This study was done with a representative sample consisting of 662. It was found that the competencies of the parents in preventing cyberbullying were related to positive harmonious relationships within the family, technology use experience and parental mediation. The results indicate that positive parental involvement can be predicted from higher scores in parental knowledge in cyberbullying, perception of parental competence, risk adjustment, and attribution of parental responsibility. In addition, instead of parents’ restrictive mediation styles in their children’s use of technology, the co-use, active mediation, and supervision styles can help reduce the likelihood of children being exposed to risks such as cyberbullying and victimization. In the multi-group analyzes made, it is seen that the research model works at the primary school level with the highest explanation rate. Moreover, it was concluded that different mediation types were effective for primary, secondary, and high school levels.
... Although online pornography is legally produced exclusively for adults, it is, nevertheless, widely used by adolescents (Bloom and Hagedorn, 2015;Ybarra and Mitchell, 2005). Especially as adolescents are spending more time online and having more privacy in their computers and other mobile device usages (e.g., it is difficult for parents to constantly monitor their online activities, Livingstone and Smith, 2014), they are provided access to view, consume, and even create and distribute sexually explicit content (Behun and Owens, 2019). Across all demographics, the accessibility and affordability of pornography have increased continuously (Cooper, 1998). ...
Chapter
Sexual content is prevalent across a wide range of media programs. In this chapter, we introduce the types, topics, and prevalence of sexuality-related content in a variety of media genres/platforms, then review the literature on the relationship between adolescents’ engagement in media sexual content and their sexual attitudes and behaviors. Note that a line of research shows a positive relationship between the use of sexual media and risky sexual behaviors, which calls for collective efforts from parents, educators, researchers, and adolescents themselves to promote healthy sexual practices. Importantly, we also reviewed research that identified opportunities to leverage the power of media to encourage healthy sexual behaviors among adolescents.
... There is also a link between this and the fact that children's mental health is getting worse. In addition, studies have shown that children who use digital technologies for extended periods of time have poorer language skills and their imaginations are severely constrained (Livingstone & Smith, 2014;Pagani et al., 2016;Radesky et al., 2014). This was suggested because of the common practice of introducing children to various forms of technology at a young age. ...
... (Livingstone & Smith, 2014), ya que el internet y las redes sociales proporcionan herramientas que facilitan la creación de vínculos afectivos y su mantenimiento, así como aumentan la satisfacción de los mismos (Piquer et al., 2017). Sin embargo, su crecimiento ha provocado que plataformas, como por ejemplo Facebook, representen un potencial para mantener el conflicto y posibles agresiones en la pareja (Fox et al., 2014) y, de igual manera, podría fungir como una herramienta para el control y la vigilancia (Van Ouytsel et al., 2016).Aunado a lo anterior, algunos antecedentes sobre la materia han revelado que el uso inadecuado del internet y las TIC en los adolescentes y jóvenes, puede favorecer a la aparición de conductas indeseables en sus relaciones interpersonales como, por ejemplo, la Ciberviolencia en el noviazgo o CDV (Donoso-Vázquez et al., 2017), la cual se puede definir como el ejercicio reiterado de conductas abusivas por medio del internet y las redes sociales, con el objetivo de aislar, controlar, devaluar y dominar a la pareja o expareja (Muñiz et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Con la aparición del COVID-19 las relaciones de pareja se han modificado debido al papel protagónico de las TIC en la iniciación y preservación de los vínculos afectivos, sin embargo, el uso inadecuado de estas puede desembocar en el fenómeno denominado Ciberviolencia en el noviazgo (CDV). Por ello, el objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar este fenómeno y algunos factores asociados en una muestra de 230 jóvenes mexicanos, donde se evaluó la CDV, el estilo de apego y la satisfacción con la relación. A partir de los análisis realizados se determinó que en la muestra femenina se hallaron conductas de control cometido y sufrido, una relación de la CDV con el apego evitante y ansioso, así como con la satisfacción con la relación; asimismo, se determinó una asociación positiva entre la duración de la relación y la CDV de control cometido y sufrido. Por su parte, los varones señalaron haber sufrido y perpetrado agresión directa y control, también se hallaron vínculos entre el control cometido y sufrido, y la agresión cometida y sufrida. En conclusión, los datos obtenidos sugieren que la Ciberviolencia es un fenómeno bidireccional, el cual se relaciona con el apego y la satisfacción con la relación.
... In addition, adolescents often engage in imaginative audience behavior which suggests that they tend to be preoccupied with their appearance as they overestimate the extent to which others are evaluating their actions (Elkind and Bowen 1979;Valkenburg et al. 2006). Furthermore, as adolescents are frequently exposed to environments mediated by SMPs (Livingstone and Smith 2014), they quickly begin to experience the benefits associated with disclosure, which in turn, shape the norms that they familiarize themselves with and grow accustom too (Christofides et al. 2009). This may gradually change the behavior of adolescents subsequently resulting in a diminished value of privacy (Sherman et al. 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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Understanding the societal impact of IT use is a critical step towards preventing harmful activities online. In particular, Vulnerable Groups [VGs] using Social Media Platforms [SMPs] are exposed to a variety of risks. Our research aims to understand how a particular VG, adolescent females, engage with Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat differently. Qualitative analysis of 22 semi-structured interviews reveals that the platform, tangible authority figures, risk normalization and risk awareness collectively influence how this group engaged with SMPs. With a low presence of adults and a high presence of their own peers, the participants engaged with Instagram and Snapchat to a greater extent than Facebook. In addition, high-risk disclosures were more likely to occur on Instagram and Snapchat as the participants felt more comfortable with expressing themselves openly on these platforms. Findings and future research directions are discussed. Full text: https://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2022/sig_sc/sig_sc/4/
... Other problems are security related. For example, with the advent of social media, we have witnessed the rise of cyberbullying in all its forms (Finkelhor, 2014, Khurana, Bleakley, Jordan & Romer, 2015Livingstone & Smith, 2014;Wohab & Mubarak, 2015). Moreover, many young people do not seem aware of the dangers associated with sharing information with strangers (Wohab & Mubarak, 2015). ...
... But focussing too narrowly on externalising behaviours can underplay the significance of contextual factors in increasing the likelihood of an adolescent encountering risk in their day-to-day life. For example, the greater amount of time spent away from the constraints of parental supervision, with friends or new associates and in settings which may be unfamiliar, can increase exposure to risk-whether that be in real or in virtual settings (Livingstone and Smith, 2014). The relevance of environmental 'threats' (those which exist outside the family-in the local area, in school or online) to adolescents' safety has increasingly been acknowledged, for example, in the emergence of the 'contextual safeguarding' model in England (Firmin, 2020;DfE, 2018). ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on children’s vulnerability manifested in economic and social context. Key aims are to examine the influence of economic and peer-group vulnerability on children’s subjective well-being and feelings of safety—a key domain of well-being. Data for this paper were obtained from over 2000 primary and secondary school children aged between 10 and 14 years in Bangladesh. For data collection, a questionnaire was developed and administered as part of the third Wave of the Children’s Worlds International Survey on Children’s Well-Being (ISCWeB). Children’s economic and peer-group vulnerability are found to have statistically significant influence on their assessment about their safety and subjective well-being. Vulnerability in material resource and peer-group victimisation appear to have respectively the first and second highest effect on self-perceived safety and children’s subjective well-being. Lower level of safety and well-being are associated significantly with those children who reported higher vulnerability in both material deprivation and peer-group relations. These findings are discussed in the context of previous empirical studies on child well-being, safety, and vulnerability. Suggestions for future research are also put forward.
... There are several specific online risks which have been identified as being disproportionately experienced by those with mental health difficulties. For example, depression has been found to predict online sexual solicitation and online grooming (Whittle et al., 2013;Hornor, 2020), whilst sexting and accessing online adult sites has been associated with psychological difficulties (Livingstone and Smith, 2014). Online communities are often established amongst individuals with mental health difficulties who seek support from their peers. ...
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There is strong evidence showing that vulnerable children and adolescents, such as children who are carers for their family, in care themselves, or who have a physical disability or special educational needs, are at greater risk of mental health problems and poor social wellbeing. Recent research indicates this heterogenous but vulnerable group is also disadvantaged online and may be at greater risk of harm. This study aimed to examine participants’ vulnerability (vulnerable vs. non-vulnerable), psychological distress, parental e-safety support, and online lives, specifically their experiences of online risk. The roles of psychological distress and parental e-safety support were explored as possible mediators and moderators, respectively, for the relationship between vulnerability and online risk. Survey data was collected from 15,278 participants (11–17 years old; M = 12.60, SD = 1.44), 46.6% identified as females, 46.6% identified as males and 6% identified as “other”. Participants were recruited from schools/colleges in different parts of England, of whom 3,242 were categorised as vulnerable. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) the results showed that, when compared to the non-vulnerable participants, the vulnerable groups (single or multiple vulnerabilities) experienced more psychological distress and online risks. They also received less e-safety support from parents or carers. Furthermore, mediation and moderated mediation analysis showed that the relationship between vulnerability and online risk was significantly and partially mediated by psychological distress. Parental e-safety support was found to moderate the relationship between psychological distress and online risk and between vulnerability and online risk. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that vulnerability offline is mirrored online. Psychological interventions and parental e-safety support are required to navigate the internet safely. Children’s services and practitioners should consider online risks in their assessments and interventions.
... Adolescents have reported being exposed to harmful content, such as ways to physically self-harm or commit suicide, hate messages, and violent images (18), and some are targets of bullying (19), cyber victimization (20), and sexual harassment and solicitation (21). One third of European 15-16 year olds have reported having negative online experiences that made them feel upset, scared, or uncomfortable (18), but the prevalence of negative online experiences vary considerably (22). ...
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Objectives To investigate the association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and a) frequency and daily duration of social media use, and b) self-reported negative experiences on social media platforms. Methods The present study is based on the cross-sectional school-based “LifeOnSoMe”-study ( N = 3,415) recruiting high school students aged 16 years or more in Bergen, Norway. Subjective SES was the independent variable and measured by perceived family affluence. The dependent variables included self-reported amount of social media use, and eight different types of negative experiences on social media. Self-reported age, gender, country of birth and type study were used as covariates. Statistical analyses included multinomial logistic regression and negative binomial regression models. Results For amount of social media use, we only found relatively weak and inconsistent associations with SES. In contrast, the associations between SES and separate variables gauging negative experiences were robust in crude models as well as in models adjusted for age and gender. The number of different negative experiences were increased by 1.25 times for those with low and by 1.10 times for those with medium socioeconomic status, compared to those with high socioeconomic status in fully adjusted models. For composite measures of “negative acts and exclusion” and “unwanted attention from others,” the difference between low and high SES was equivalent to a small-to-moderate effect size even after adjustments for age, gender, country of birth, type of study and amount of social media use. Conclusions In the present study, we found consistent and strong support for an association between SES and negative experiences on social media even after adjustments for age, gender, country of birth, type of study, and amount of social media use. The potential link between SES and negative experiences on social media as reported in this study is likely to have a public health impact. As the reported findings are novel, they need to be replicated in forthcoming studies based on other study populations. Future research should also focus on other aspects of SES and negative experiences, as well as endeavor to investigate potential longitudinal associations.
... Longitudinal studies reveal a range of adverse emotional and psychosocial consequences. Some children are more vulnerable than others due to several risk factors: personality factors (sensation-seeking, low self-esteem, psychological difficulties), social factors (lack of parental support, peer norms) and digital factors (online practices, digital skills, specific online sites) (Livingstone and Smith, 2014 Aggressive behavior. Psychiatrists are also studying the increased risks of aggressive behavior among adolescents. ...
Conference Paper
Children and adolescents increasingly use mobile phones worldwide. The Report Information and Communications for Development 2012 shows that between 2000 and 2012 the world-wide use of mobile phones has grown from 1 to about 6 billion, resulting in a mobile revolution that is changing our lifestyles. After less than forty years, mobile phones, initially complex, heavy and expensive have become light, handy, economic, visually attractive and multifunctional. These technological and aesthetic improvements allowed high usability for all, especially for children. The physical, cognitive and social ergonomic characteristics of mobile phones for younger users need to be considered in order to ensure their wellbeing: physical ergonomics implies for example the prevention of awkward postures, musculoskeletal disorders, eye sight and hearing overload, electromagnetic fields exposure; cognitive ergonomics includes the prevention of dual tasks (such as texting while driving/walking), over connection, addiction and abuse; social ergonomics might prevent cyberbullism, sex messaging, self and other aggressive and violent behavior. As an example of precaution, this paper discusses how different countries have started education campaigns for the safe use of mobile phones among children, by minimizing radiofrequency exposures, according to international recommendations and the precautionary principles.
... Cyberbullying is defined as aggression that is intentionally and repeatedly carried out via electronic means, such as emails, chats or text messages and intended to harm others that cannot easily defend themselves [7,8]. According to a review of Livingstone and Smith [9], prevalence estimates for cyberbullying vary substantially, depending on the demographic characteristics of the sample investigated (e.g., age, sex/gender, geographic region/country) and the definition and operationalization of cyberbullying used. Populationbased studies globally report prevalences that range from 10 to 40% for cyberbullying victimization and from 3 to 50% for cyberbullying perpetration [6]. ...
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Due to modern technological innovations, aggressive behaviors have expanded into the cyberspace, creating a new matter of public concern: cyberbullying. Antisocial and aggressive behaviors, including bullying are characteristic for children and adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD), raising the question whether these youths are highly involved in cyberbullying experiences, too. 206 participants with CD versus typically developing controls (TDCs) aged 9–19 years (57% girls) were included in the study. Individuals completed several self-report measures investigating cyber- and traditional bullying experiences, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to explain the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration with demographic and clinical variables. Experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration were significantly higher among youth with CD compared to TDCs, and this was accompanied by significantly higher scores on a measure of traditional bullying in CD versus TDCs. CD diagnosis, female sex and higher levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits were each uniquely associated with increased experiences of cyberbullying victimization, whereas CD diagnosis, higher levels of CU traits and older age were each uniquely associated with increased experiences of cyberbullying perpetration. Individuals with CD, compared to TDCs are at higher risk of becoming cyberbully victims and perpetrators, hence representing an important novel aspect in the assessment and treatment of these youths.
... Wisniewski [11] cautions that this narrative may be potentially counterproductive because it victim-blames teens for not being able to make complex privacy decisions that research has consistently shown are equally difficult for adults [12,13]. Sonia Livingstone, a leading expert in child online safety, also argues that there is little evidence that online risks present more harm than the risks teens typically encounter offline [14]; therefore, we should be careful to not treat online risks as an epidemic that plagues our youth. ...
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Late adolescence represents an important life stage where children are becoming more independent and autonomous from their parents but are not quite old enough to go out on their own. Teenagers are also avid users of mobile devices and social media and actively use their smartphones to connect with friends and share their lives. Much of the research looking at teen technology use has employed a risk-centric approach; in other words, it takes the view that teens are putting themselves at risk by sharing personal information online, so the privacy-oriented solutions typically involve parental monitoring or technology restrictions. In this chapter, we review the research on teens, technology use, and privacy and discuss why such risk-centric models may be problematic to teens’ maturation. Instead, we argue that—much like it was for prior generations—risk-taking is a learning process critical to becoming a young adult and that teens do think about their privacy online, albeit in different ways than their adult counterparts. We offer design heuristics for developing tools for teens that allow for appropriate levels of risk-taking while protecting their privacy and ensuring their safety.
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ZET Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin gelişimi ile birlikte günlük yaşantının vazgeçilmezleri arasında yer alan internet, çocuklar için eğlence, iletişim, öğrenme ve eğitim kaynağı haline gelmiştir. Bu platformun ebeveyn kontrolü olmadan uygunsuz kullanımı çocuklarda ve gençlerde farklı sorunların ortaya çıkmasına zemin hazırlamaktadır. Çocuğa kötü muamele olarak tanımlanan çocuk istismarı çevrimiçi ortamlarda sık karşılaşılan bir sorundur. Çevrimiçi cinsel istismar hem insan haklarının hem de çocuk haklarının açık bir ihlalidir. Çocukların çevrimiçi ortamlarda denetimsiz ve uzun süre zaman geçirmeleri birçok risk faktörünü de beraberinde getirmektedir. Yanlış internet kullanımı; küçük yaşlarda şiddet, cinsellik gibi içeriklere maruz kalmak; internet bağımlılığı, oyun bağımlılığı, olumsuz kullanıcı davranışları, nefret söylemi, siber zorbalık gibi birçok olumsuz durumun gelişmesine neden olmaktadır. Çocukların çevrimiçi yollarla cinsel istismara maruz kalması, depresyon, kaygı, düşük benlik saygısı, madde kullanımı, kendine zarar verme vb. davranışlarla ilişkilidir. Çocukların sanal platformları uygunsuz kullanmaları sonucu, failler yeni stratejiler geliştirmektedir. Böylelikle çocukların çevrimiçi yollarla cinsel istismara maruz kalma riski artmaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı çevrimiçi çocuk istismarının yaygınlığı, mağdur ve fail açısından risk faktörlerine yönelik bilgi vermek ve ruh sağlığı çalışanlarına yönelik farkındalık oluşturmaktır. ABSTRACT With the development of information and communication technologies, the internet, which is among the indispensables of daily life, has become a source of entertainment, communication, learning and education for children. Nappropriate use of this platform without parental control paves the way for different problems in children and young people. Child abuse, defined as child maltreatment, is a common problem in online environments. Online sexual abuse is a clear violation of both human rights and children's rights in general. The fact that children spend unsupervised and long time in online environments brings with it many risk factors. Incorrect internet use; being exposed to content such as violence and sexuality at a young age; It causes the development of many negative situations such as internet addiction, game addiction, negative user behaviors, hate speech, and cyber bullying. Exposure of children to sexual abuse through online means, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, substance use, self-harm, etc. associated with behavior. As a result of children's inappropriate use of virtual platforms, perpetrators develop new strategies. Thus, the risk of children being exposed to sexual abuse online increases. The purpose of this review is to provide information on the prevalence of online child abuse, risk factors for victims and perpetrators, and to raise awareness for mental health professional.
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Gdy mówimy o pozytywnej aktywności młodego człowieka jako istoty społecznej, mamy przede wszystkim na myśli: po pierwsze jego funkcjonowanie w rodzinie czy wśród rówieśników, po drugie zachowania prospołeczne, czyli takie, które oznaczają dobrowolne działania mające na celu przyniesienie korzyści innym (Eisenberg i Mussen, 1989; Morris i in., 2011; Steinbeis, 2018), oraz po trzecie zaangażowanie obywatelskie, czyli wkład, który człowiek może wnieść do społeczeństwa. Taki wkład może mieć charakter zarówno behawioralny (np. partycypacja obywatelska), jak i związany z różnymi formami poznania (np. wiedza obywatelska, umiejętności obywatelskie) oraz funkcjonowania społeczno-emocjonalnego (np. poczucie obywatelskiego obowiązku lub odpowiedzialności; Boyd i Dobrow, 2011). Wymienione aktywności będą przedmiotem niniejszego rozdziału. Przyjmujemy tutaj, zgodnie z aktualną teorią i badaniami, że funkcjonowanie młodych ludzi odbywa się obecnie jednocześnie on- i offline, a światy te wzajemnie się przenikają. Dlatego przyglądając się poszczególnym aspektom pozytywnego funkcjonowania dzieci i młodzieży w społeczeństwie, będziemy jednocześnie analizować przejawy ich zaangażowania cyfrowego – czy to w kwestiach obywatelskich, czy altruistycznych i wolontarystycznych.
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Digitisation can be considered as the continuing convergence of both real and virtual worlds by transforming data from analogue to electronic format. This has been the primary driver of innovation and change in various sectors of the economy. The exponentially growing amount of data has made it essential for firms to transform them into digital format for ensuring better flow and sharing of information across the organisation. Digitisation has been referred to as the process of converting various diverse forms of information, such as text, images, sound or voice, into an electronic format that leads to improved operations and reduced costs for firms. The research paper has discussed this digitisation process of a firm and analysed its consequent impact on the corporate governance. In this regard, various articles have been explored for the purposes of understanding how digitisation can improve or threaten corporate governance of firms. Digitisation has created some big disruptive storms some of which have resulted in a reimagined manner of doing business, affecting demand and supply principles in any company. As a result, in order to gain market confidence, businesses must establish credibility and integrity.
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Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TICs) proporcionan un acceso constante e inmediato a una amplia gama de información y recursos. Los/as adolescentes, habitualmente considerados/as nativos/as digitales, utilizan los medios tecnológicos y los espacios virtuales para explorar su dimensión sexuada accediendo a contenidos pornográficos. La revisión bibliográfica que se presenta en este trabajo tiene un doble objetivo: evaluar el consumo de pornografía entre los adolescentes españoles y analizar las variables asociadas desde una perspectiva de género El estudio consiste en una revisión sistemática de trabajos sobre adolescentes españoles publicados entre 2016 y 2020. Los resultados muestran que acceden a contenidos pornográficos por primera vez alrededor de los 12 años, y que el consumo de pornografía se consolida durante la adolescencia, especialmente en el caso de los varones, que son los principales consumidores. También muestran que la pornografía es una fuente de información para muchos adolescentes que no reciben suficiente educación sexual ni en casa ni en la escuela. El consumo de pornografía durante la adolescencia está asociado a una serie de consecuencias, como el sexismo, la violencia y el consumo de sustancias, y puede conducir a una visión distorsionada de la sexualidad. La situación que revelan estos resultados pone de manifiesto la necesidad de apoyar la educación sexual en la familia y en la escuela para dotar a los jóvenes de las herramientas necesarias para disfrutar de su sexualidad de forma plena y responsable.
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Young people encounter and experience both risks and opportunities when participating as actors and interactors in online spaces. Digital skills and resilience are considered important parts of a “rights-based” approach to keeping young people “safe” online in ways that enable them to avoid harm while benefiting from the opportunities. The present paper discusses findings from focus group research conducted in England with 60 young people aged 13 to 21. The research explored their perspectives on responding to different online harms, including online hate, unwanted sexual content, and unrealistic body- and appearance-related content. The findings are discussed in terms of scholarship on digital citizenship, specifically regarding the social, affective, and technical dimensions of online life and the skills required for resilience. The analysis suggests that there was a tension between young people’s individualistic responsibilisation of themselves and one another for responding to risk online and the socio-emotional aspects of online life as perceived and recounted by them in the focus groups. It is concluded that a youth-centred approach to resilience is required that encapsulates the multidimensional nature of encountering, experiencing, and responding to risk online.
Article
Introduction The Internet provides a powerful potential tool for sexual predators. Experiencing trauma, including sexual abuse, can increase child and adolescent risk of experiencing online sexual solicitation. Method A retrospective chart review was conducted for the detailed information of all children and adolescents aged 8–18 years presenting to the Child Advocacy Center of large, tertiary care, Midwestern U.S. pediatric hospital with concerns of sexual abuse. Results Three-hundred twenty-five children and adolescents were seen in the Child Advocacy Center during the 9 months; 139 (42.8%) denied talking to anyone online that they had not met offline (face to face in real life), 88 (27.1%) reported talking to individuals online that they had not met offline but never talking about sex; 65 (20%) reported online sexual solicitation with individuals they had not met offline; and 33 (10.2%) reported highest-risk behaviors online involving meeting someone offline or having sex with someone offline whom they had met online. Discussion The number of youth involved in online sexual solicitation illustrates that children who have been sexually abused are at increased risk for sexual solicitation. This study also suggests that young children are vulnerable to online sexual solicitation. Youth engaged in these concerning online behaviors with individuals of all ages.
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This chapter focuses on the social media vulnerabilities due to excessive usage among the youth in developing countries like India. The increasing psychological dependence and ubiquitousness in the availability of technological gadgets make interaction possible at any time to anyone making the act of cyberbullying easier. The vulnerable sections of every society, especially the children, youth, and women, face incremental psychological health issues due to the negative impact of ever-increasing cyberbully-ing in one way or another. The chapter reports descriptively the extensive damages that are inflicted by social media platforms on the productivity of the developing countries due to the negative influence on the youth and working population of the developing countries including India.
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The internet has altered the way we interact with other people, making the world a global village. Since the explosion of the internet, many aspects of our lives have not only been eased but aided with more harmful consequences. The secrecy of the internet has resulted in its swiftly becoming a breeding ground for illegal activities that continue to grow as internet child exploitation (ICE), a form of child abuse by their peers or adults using the internet. However, the threats children are confronted with are still indefinite. To determine this in Nigeria, a total number of 20 Nigerian children between the age range of 11 and 17 years from five junior secondary schools were interviewed using measures of internet child abuse. The study revealed that elements of internet child exploitation exist such as sexual exploitation, cyberbullying, nudity, and wasting judicious time on chatting and playing video games. These may eventually have harmful consequences on children.
Article
Despite extensive research, the question remains regarding what shapes cyber delinquency. Using Korean child and adolescent panel data, this study conducted a comparative examination of the factors affecting cyber and traditional offline delinquencies from a holistic perspective. The results show that cyber and traditional offline delinquencies have both distinctive and common factors. Both groups were affected by direct and indirect delinquency-related experiences, such as delinquent friends and victimization by delinquency. Intriguingly, cyber delinquency was not associated with many factors that strongly affected traditional offline delinquency, such as gender, aggression, and academic achievement. Rather, it was affected by other factors, such as depression, lack of attention, Internet use for social communications, and relationships with teachers. The results of this study suggest that cyber delinquents may be qualitatively different from traditional delinquents in many aspects, and therefore a more differentiated approach is needed to efficiently prevent cyber delinquency.
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The aim of this research was to analyze the aspects of the communication processes between fathers, mothers and their adolescent children that have a positive or negative effect on the dysfunctional behavior that teenagers display on social networks. The sample consisted of 2399 Spanish adolescents aged 11 to 18 from 6th grade primary to final year at high school. The study used a quantitative methodology based on correlation, discriminant and multivariate analyses. The results show how strong social network dependency, violence and rejection suffered or inflicted online, and social network use to make new friends are all linked to conflict communication styles, in particular offensive over avoidant communication, involving both parents, but mothers slightly more. On the other hand, adolescents who enjoy more open communication with both parents are less dependent on social networks and, generally, display less dysfunctional behavior online.
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This chapter introduces relevant privacy frameworks from academic literature that can be useful to practitioners and researchers who want to better understand privacy and how to apply it in their own contexts. We retrace the history of how networked privacy research first began by focusing on privacy as information disclosure. Privacy frameworks have since evolved into conceptualizing privacy as a process of interpersonal boundary regulation, appropriate information flows, design-based frameworks, and, finally, user-centered privacy that accounts for individual differences. These frameworks can be used to identify privacy needs and violations, as well as inform design. This chapter provides actionable guidelines for how these different frameworks can be applied in research, design, and product development.
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This chapter studies the relationship between two important, often conflicting paradigms of online services: personalization and tracking. The chapter initially focuses on the categories and levels of online personalization, briefly overviewing algorithmic methods applied to achieve these. Then, the chapter turns to online tracking specific to mobile and web technologies, as well as the more advanced behavioral tracking. Following this, the chapter ties the streams of personalization and tracking together and discusses various aspects of their relationships, including the currently deployed tracking methods for personalization. Privacy implications of personalization via online tracking, highlighted by organizations and researchers, are also illustrated. Lastly, this chapter discusses the ways to balance personalization benefits and privacy concerns. This includes the state-of-the-art practices, current challenges, and practical recommendations for system developers willing to strike this balance.
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End-user privacy mechanisms have proliferated in various types of devices and application domains. However, these mechanisms were often designed without adequately considering a wide range of underserved users, for instance, people with disabilities. In this chapter, we focus on the intersection of accessibility and privacy, paying particular attention to the privacy needs and challenges of people with disabilities. The key takeaway messages of this chapter are as follows: (1) people with disabilities face heightened challenges in managing their privacy; (2) existing end-user privacy tools are often inaccessible to people with disabilities, making them more vulnerable to privacy threats; and (3) design guidelines are needed for creating more accessible privacy tools.
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As healthcare shifts towards the digital realm and healthcare delivery steers to patient-centric solutions, new privacy risks emerge. Such risks are acknowledged, but understanding and addressing them with privacy-enhanced technologies is practically challenging. This chapter describes privacy concerns and risks that emerge with the digitization of healthcare services, the availability of Internet-of-care-things, and the usage of online services for medical data. To ensure patients’ privacy, collaborative efforts from stakeholders are necessary. Patients, practitioners, and family members play an important role, along with medical organizations, including hospitals, insurance companies, and clinics. Privacy-preserving mechanisms go beyond the protection of patients’ data to the infrastructure of medical devices, networks, and systems. The data life cycle, from collection to disposal, must be considered when implementing privacy protections. Principles, policies, and regulations addressing privacy are limited and costly to implement, failing to cover novel technologies that collect and transmit medical data. In the USA, HIPAA is the de facto policy standard. Nevertheless, HIPAA disregards data collected by wearable sensors, fitness trackers, and smartwatches. It does not consider social media networks, mobile applications, and discussion forums where users share medical information. Lastly, genetic data available through online profiles rises privacy issues that are neither known nor regulated.
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This article presents an analytical review of international publications, for the period from 2012 to 2020, that focused on the influence of the digital space as a new social factor that changes the lifestyle of the younger generation and creates new health risks. The literature search was conducted in PubMed using the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science. Digital technologies provide positive opportunities of online education of students and schoolchildren, including greater availability of educational and preventive programs. The main health risks associated with the intensive use of digital technologies in education and leisure include manifestations of visual overstrain (computer visual syndrome), disorders of the musculoskeletal system (pain in the neck, back, and hands), and negative lifestyle changes. Adolescents are more susceptible than adults to such negative consequences of intensive use of digital space, which leads to the development of Internet addiction, sleep disorders, eating disorders, psychosocial manifestations, poor academic performance, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior. Aggressive behaviors of some young people in the Internet space include harassment (cyber-bullying) and sending sexual messages (sexting) accompanied by cyber-attacks. Against the background of the growing use of digital tools, including the availability of smartphones, parents, teaching, and medical staff of universities and schools should provide early prevention interventions of the above-mentioned negative phenomena. Preventive online programs can be used by college students during the period of adaptation to new learning conditions to reduce alcohol consumption, smoking, and formation of stereotypes of proper nutrition.
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This chapter addresses how we develop, revisit, and negotiate norms around privacy when confronted with new technologies. The chapter first examines Nissenbaum’s (Washington Law Review 79(1):119–157, 2004) theory of privacy as contextual integrity, a framework that helps unpack how context-relevant norms for appropriateness and transmission can be challenged by new technologies. It then reviews how social norms develop as we build mental models of how a technology works during its diffusion process. The chapter concludes with suggestions for designers about approaches for thinking through implications when a design may challenge a preexisting social norm, or where there is no socially agreed upon norm. This includes careful reflection on who challenges to the current social norms may benefit and who they may hurt.
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Vulnerable populations face unique privacy risks that not only challenge designers’ preconceptions about privacy, these challenges are also frequently overlooked in decisions about privacy design and policy. This chapter defines and describes vulnerable populations and the challenges they face, as well as the research approaches that have traditionally been used to understand and design technologies that respect the privacy needs of vulnerable people. It describes how existing frameworks fail to account for the privacy concerns of people who experience heightened risk. It then introduces alternative ways of thinking about privacy that can help technologists, researchers, policy makers, and designers do a better job of serving the needs of the most vulnerable users of technology. We conclude with concrete guidance around identifying and integrating vulnerable populations into technology design for privacy.
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With the popularity of social media, researchers and designers must consider a wide variety of privacy concerns while optimizing for meaningful social interactions and connection. While much of the privacy literature has focused on information disclosures, the interpersonal dynamics associated with being on social media make it important for us to look beyond informational privacy concerns to view privacy as a form of interpersonal boundary regulation. In other words, attaining the right level of privacy on social media is a process of negotiating how much, how little, or when we desire to interact with others, as well as the types of information we choose to share with them or allow them to share about us. We propose a framework for how researchers and practitioners can think about privacy as a form of interpersonal boundary regulation on social media by introducing five boundary types (i.e., relational, network, territorial, disclosure, and interactional) social media users manage. We conclude by providing tools for assessing privacy concerns in social media, as well as noting several challenges that must be overcome to help people to engage more fully and stay on social media.
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Nowadays, people and enterprises put effort in protecting systems and applications that handle personal data and also in protecting digital footprints, and they realize that the concept of privacy protection is continuously evolving, depending on each environment. Admittedly, there is a plethora of digital products or services that necessitates the provision of personal data. The GDPR came into effect to establish a more concrete framework for the protection of EU citizens’ personal data. The impact of this regulation goes beyond the boundaries of EU in two ways. Firstly, the GDPR acts as a facilitator of non-EU enterprises that wish to do business and interact with EU citizens. Secondly, the GDPR, due to its wide applicability and generality, can be used as a basis and inspiration for other countries to establish their own data protection regulations and legal frameworks. This chapter consists of guidance for organizations to be able to reach compliance with the GDPR, regarding the protection of the personal information they process. Also, this chapter presents the impact that the GDPR has brought to the global landscape, because of its wide territorial scope and the expanded approach of the various definitions of data protection concepts being used.
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An increasing amount of sensitive information is being communicated and stored online. Frequent reports of data breaches and sensitive data disclosures underscore the need for effective technologies that users and administrators can deploy to protect sensitive data. Privacy-enhancing technologies can control access to sensitive information to prevent or limit privacy violations. This chapter focuses on some of the technologies that prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information. These technologies include secure messaging, secure email, HTTPS, two-factor authentication, and anonymous communication. Usability is an essential component of a security evaluation because human error or unwarranted inconvenience can render the strongest security guarantees meaningless. Quantitative and qualitative studies from the usable security research community evaluate privacy-enhancing technologies from a socio-technical viewpoint and provide insights for future efforts to design and develop practical techniques to safeguard privacy. This chapter discusses the primary privacy-enhancing technologies that the usable security research community has analyzed and identifies issues, recommendations, and future research directions.
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Using networks of Internet-connected sensors, the Internet of Things (IoT) makes technologies “smart” by enabling automation, personalization, and remote control. At the same time, IoT technologies introduce challenging privacy issues that may frustrate their widespread adoption. This chapter addresses the privacy challenges of IoT technologies from a user-centered perspective and demonstrates these prevalent issues in the domains of wearables (e.g., fitness trackers), household technologies (e.g., smart voice assistants), and devices that exist in the public domain (e.g., security cameras). The chapter ends with a comprehensive list of solutions and guidelines that can help researchers and practitioners introduce usable privacy to the domain of IoT.
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Imagine that you are a product manager at a software company. When users disclose some information to your product, they can use all the great features you and your team have integrated into the software. Utilizing these features is essential for the success of your product: it makes users satisfied and encourages others to use the software as well. Furthermore, the user and usage data can be used to improve the product and help implementing new features over time. However, since your product collects users’ data, you are worried about privacy-related issues. What causes users’ privacy concerns, and what are the potential consequences of those concerns? The APCO ( A ntecedents → P rivacy C oncerns → O utcomes) and enhanced APCO models provide a summary of the current scientific findings related to these questions and present them in a conceptual model. The APCO framework will help practitioners and scholars to bring different privacy-related aspects of a product to their attention and suggests how these aspects can interrelate. Throughout this chapter, we will consider a use case scenario of a fitness tracker application and discuss how APCO applies to this scenario.
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There are diverse streams of empirical research attempting to study complex privacy behaviors in different scenarios. In this chapter, we connect those streams and present them under three themes: (1) individuals’ uncertainty about their own preferences as well as their uncertainty about the consequences of information disclosure; (2) the context-dependence of individuals’ concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; (3) the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable and prone to manipulations by commercial and government entities. Building on these themes, we discuss the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age.
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This chapter examines privacy as a multilevel concept. While current conceptualizations of privacy tend to focus on the individual level, technological advancements are making group privacy increasingly important to understand. This chapter offers a typology of both groups and group privacy to establish a framework for conceptualizing how privacy operates beyond the individual level. The chapter describes several contemporary practices that influence the privacy of multiple actors and considers the dynamics of multi-stakeholder privacy decision-making. Potential tensions that exist between the rights and preferences of individual group members or between individuals and the group as a whole are also examined. Finally, recommendations for tools and other mechanisms to support collaborative privacy management and group privacy protection are provided.
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This chapter introduces the book Modern Socio-Technical Perspectives on Privacy . The book informs academic researchers and industry professionals about the socio-technical privacy challenges related to modern networked technologies. This chapter provides a working definition of privacy, describes the envisioned audiences of this book, and summarizes the key aspects covered in each chapter. The chapter concludes with an invitation to join our community of privacy researchers and practitioners at modern-privacy.org .
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We interviewed a panel of 13 applied researchers to understand why applied and academic privacy researchers do not collaborate more often. While many agree about the benefits of collaboration, they simply do not collaborate due to real and perceived barriers, such as timelines, goal differences, and data-sharing difficulties. We synthesize the findings and provide actionable recommendations to help bridge the gap between academic and applied research.
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Modern information systems require their users to make a myriad of privacy decisions, but users are often neither motivated nor capable of managing this deluge of decisions. This chapter covers the concept of tailoring the privacy of an information system to each individual user. It discusses practical problems that may arise when collecting data to determine a user’s privacy preferences, techniques to model these preferences, and a number of adaptation strategies that can be used to tailor the system’s privacy practices, settings, or interfaces to the user’s modeled preferences. Throughout the chapter, we provide recommendations on how to develop user-tailored privacy solutions, depending on the requirements and characteristics of the system and its users.
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As many technologies have become available around the world and users increasingly share personal information online with people and organizations from different countries and cultures, there is an urgent need to investigate the cross-cultural differences in users’ privacy attitudes and behaviors in the use of these technologies. Such investigation is important to understand how users in different cultures manage their information privacy differently and to inform the privacy design for technologies that are used globally. This chapter covers major cross-cultural differences that have been reported in privacy research. Specifically, it briefly reviews the concept of culture, discusses the cross-cultural differences in privacy management, and recommends design implications on privacy design in the international context.
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In recent years, the prosecution of teenagers who use digital and online technology to produce and circulate erotic imagery (‘sexts’) under child pornography statutes has been the subject of sustained controversy. Debates over sexting have foregrounded the harms of criminalisation as well as the role of sexts in cyber-bullying and online child solicitation. While acknowledging the problematic dimensions of legal interventions in sexting, this article notes that patterns of relational coercion often begin in adolescence and that malicious sexting cases follow patterns similar to other forms of technologically facilitated gendered victimisation. The gendered dimensions of sexting are often overlooked in education campaigns that position girls and young women in ways that responsibilise them to reduce their own risk of victimisation. It is argued that efforts to prevent or intervene in the harms of sexting should consider the broader sociocultural role of digital and online technology in coercive control and dating abuse and also avoid a simplistic responsibilisation of potential victims.
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This report is a synthesis of ongoing research, design, and implementation of an approach to education called “connected learning.” It advocates for broadened access to learning that is socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement. This model is based on evidence that the most resilient, adaptive, and effective learning involves individual interest as well as social support to overcome adversity and provide recognition. This report investigates how we can use new media to foster the growth and sustenance of environments that support connected learning in a broad-based and equitable way. This report also offers a design and reform agenda, grounded in a rich understanding of child development and learning, to promote and test connected learning theories.
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Children, youth and the mobile phone In its short life, a surprisingly large literature on the use of mobile communication among children and teens has been written. Indeed, in recent years there has hardly been a conference or a collection of readings that did not include work in this area. The iconic status of the mobile telephone among children and teens has been one of the big surprises associated with this form of communication. While originally conceived as a way to allow business people to interact, mobile telephony has become, perhaps more than anything else, a phenomenon of teens and young people. Reports from Japan (Hashimoto, 2002; Ito, 2005), the Philippines (Ellwood-Clayton, 2005) the broader Asian context (Castells et al. , 2007; Kim, 2004), Norway (Ling, 1999, 2000, 2001a,b; Ling and Yttri, 2002; Skog and Jamtøy, 2002), the UK (Green and Smith, 2002), Finland (Rautiainen and Kasesniemi, 2000; Nurmela, 2003; ...
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‘This extraordinarily comprehensive book authored by the leading international authority in the field integrates research, theory and practice on the topic of school bullying. In an already research saturated field Peter Smith's writing captures the humanity of why this topic strikes such a chord in the community. He reminds us in a thoughtful, practical and caring manner why we must continue to advocate on all levels for those impacted by bullying.’ —Professor Phillip T. Slee, Flinders University, Australia ‘Understanding School Bullying offers a refreshingly clear account of the wealth of insights gained over a quarter of a century of research. As Smith's comprehensive review convincingly shows, much has been learned and much of this has been put to good use in improving children's wellbeing. This is surely essential reading for any researcher concerned with bullying, childhood or life at school.’ —Sonia Livingstone, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, author of Children, Risk and Safety Online ‘Peter Smith's new book will occupy a prominent place on my bookshelf. It provides a thorough and highly readable discussion of the breadth of research on school bullying. Dr. Smith includes discussions of important challenges related to research on this topic along with an excellent review of important studies and findings. This unique volume has influenced my thinking about the direction of my own research. The book will be an invaluable resource for researchers, consumers of research, and others who seek a research-based understanding of this important topic.’ —Sheri Bauman, Ph.D., Professor at University of Arizona Bullying involves the repeated abuse of power in relationships. Bullying in schools can blight the lives of victims and damage the climate of the school. Over the last 25 years a burgeoning research program on school bullying has led to new insights into effective ways of dealing with it, as well as new challenges such as the advent of cyberbullying. This new book, by a leading international expert on the topic, brings together the cumulative knowledge acquired and the latest research findings in the area, with a global perspective especially covering research in Europe, North America, Australasia, and Asia. It will appeal to those taking academic courses in psychology, social work, educational psychology, child clinical psychology and psychiatry, and teacher training, but it will also be of interest to parents and teachers.
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What factors enable individuals to overcome adverse childhoods and move on to rewarding lives in adulthood? Drawing on data collected from two of Britain's richest research resources for the study of human development, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study, Schoon investigates the phenomenon of ‘resilience’ - the ability to adjust positively to adverse conditions. Comparing the experiences of over 30,000 individuals born twelve years apart, Schoon examines the transition from childhood into adulthood and the assumption of work and family related roles among individuals born in 1958 and 1970 respectively. The study focuses on academic attainment among high and low risk individuals, but also considers behavioural adjustment, health and psychological well-being, as well as the stability of adjustment patterns in times of social change. This is a major work of reference and synthesis, that makes an important contribution to the study of lifelong development.
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For many Western adolescents, the use of the Internet for social purposes has become an integral part of their lives. Adolescents are the defining users of the “Social Web,” that is, the part of the World Wide Web that is used for socializing and interacting with others. Teenagers far outnumber adults in the use of Social Web technologies, such as instant messaging and social network sites (see e.g., Lenhart et al. 2007). For example, 53% of US and 91% of Dutch adolescent Internet users communicate online through instant messaging (Rideout et al. 2010; Valkenburg and Peter 2009a), and adolescents increasingly use social network sites (e.g., Facebook), blogs, and photo and video sharing sites (e.g., YouTube). Across 13 European countries, 66% of all Internet users aged 15 or older visited social network sites in 2008 (comScore 2009). Finally, data from 2010 show that 74% of all US adolescents aged 13–18 have created a profile on a social network site (Rideout et al. 2010).
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In an open-ended survey question to European 9- to 16-year-olds, some 10,000 children reported a range of risks that concern them on the internet. Pornography (named by 22% of children who mentioned risks), conduct risk such as cyber-bullying (19%) and violent content (18%) were at the top of children's concerns. The priority given to violent content is noteworthy insofar as this receives less attention than sexual content or bullying in awareness-raising initiatives. Many children express shock and disgust on witnessing violent, aggressive or gory online content, especially that which graphically depicts realistic violence against vulnerable victims, including from the news. Video-sharing websites such as YouTube were primary sources of violent and pornographic content. The findings discussed in relation to children's fear responses to screen media and the implications for the public policy agenda on internet safety are identified.
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This article analyses the risk of receiving online sexual messages and experiencing harm among Estonian children. In particular, the paper examines the association between receiving sexual messages and behavioural, psychological and demographic characteristics, and the social mediation of children’s Internet use. Estonian data from EU Kids Online survey are used, involving 780 children aged 11-16. Results demonstrate that 19% of children who use the Internet have received online sexual messages, and 6% have felt disturbed. The probability of receiving sexual messages online is higher for children with risky online and offline behaviour and psychological difficulties. Perceiving online messages as sexually harassing is higher among children with excessive Internet use, lower levels of parental monitoring and higher levels of peer mediation of Internet use. The risk of exposure to harassing sexual messages also differs by age and, more notably, by the minority status. Mediation by parents and teachers plays an insignificant role in reducing teenagers’ risks of receiving sexual messages.
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Random samples of at least 1,000 youth, ages 9 to 16 years, from 25 European countries (N = 25,142) were used to test the salience of low self-control on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization (direct and indirect effects), framed by a cross-cultural developmental approach. Path models, which provided evidence of invariance by sex, tested the hypothesized links among low self-control as well as known correlates, including offline perpetration and victimization, and externalizing behaviours. Results showed positive associations between online and offline bullying behaviours (perpetration and victimization), and, more interestingly, both direct but mostly indirect effects by low self-control on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization; externalizing behaviours had little additional explanatory power. Importantly, multi-group tests by country samples provided evidence of quite modest differences in the tested links across the 25 developmental contexts, despite some observed differences in the amount of variance explained in the dependent measures.
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Bullying has long been a concern of youth advocates (e.g., educators, counselors, researchers, policy makers). Recently, cyberbullying (bullying perpetrated through online technology) has dominated the headlines as a major current-day adolescent challenge. This article reviews available empirical research to examine the accuracy of commonly-perpetuated claims about cyberbullying. The analysis revealed several myths about the nature and extent of cyberbullying that are being fueled by media headlines and unsubstantiated public declarations. These myths include that (a) everyone knows what cyberbullying is; (b) cyberbullying is occurring at epidemic levels; (c) cyberbullying causes suicide; (d) cyberbullying occurs more often now than traditional bullying; (e) like traditional bullying, cyberbullying is a rite of passage; (f) cyberbullies are outcasts or just mean kids; and (g) to stop cyberbullying, just turn off your computer or cell phone. These assertions are clarified using data that are currently available so that adults who work with youth will have an accurate understanding of cyberbullying to better assist them in effective prevention and response. Implications for prevention efforts in education in light of these revelations are also discussed and include effective school policies, educating students and stakeholders, the role of peer helper programs, and responsive services (e.g., counseling).
Technical Report
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This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25 country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children. It shows that while a number of children (29%) have experienced one or more of the five components associated with excessive internet use, very few (1%) can be said to show pathological levels of use.
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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of harassment in high school and into university, and the impact of one particular form of harassment: cyber-harassment. Participants were 1,368 students at one US and two Canadian universities (mean age = 21.1 years, 676 female students). They responded on five-point scales to questions about the frequency and impact of harassment. A total of 33.6% of students stated they had been cyber-harassed and 28.4% had been harassed off-line when in high school. Also, 8.6% were cyber-harassed and 6.4% were harassed off-line while in university. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses show that the type of harassment experienced in high school is associated with the type of harassment experienced in university. Various negative outcomes of cyber-harassment were also identified.
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Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males’ and females’ bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The participants of the study were 795 Turkish adolescents (455 females, 340 males) ranging in age from 13- to 18-years-old. The Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory, Traditional Bullying Questionnaire and Basic Empathy Scale were utilized to gather data from participants. Findings revealed that the total effect of cognitive and affective empathy mediated the gender differences in traditional bullying in addition to the unique effect of affective empathy. However, only the combined effect of affective and cognitive empathy mediated the gender differences in cyberbullying. The findings are discussed in the light of the related literature and implications for practice.
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The purpose of this study is to examine how demographics, addiction symptoms, information literacy, parenting styles and internet activities can predict ‘internet risks’. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 718 adolescents and teenagers, aged 9–19 in Hong Kong, using face-to-face interviews. Results show that adolescents who are often targets of harassment tend to be older boys with a high family income. They are targets probably because they spend a lot of time on social networking sites (SNSs) and prefer the online setting. Adolescents who encounter a lot of unwelcome solicitation of personal or private information online tend to be older girls. In information literacy, they are generally very competent with publishing tools but are not structurally literate, especially in understanding how information is socially situated and produced. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
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Good indications as to the incidence rates concerning bullying, aggressive behaviour and violence in schools have been developed both in Ireland (Minton & O’ Moore, 2008; O’ Moore, Kirkham & Smith, 1997; O’ Moore & Minton, 2003) and internationally (see Smith, 2003; Smith et al., 1999, for reviews). However, very few empirically-based surveys of cyber-bullying (Li, 2006; Smith et al., 2006; Vandebosch et al., 2006) have been conducted (Minton, 2008). The present chapter will report on a study of 2, 794 students from eight post-primary schools in the Republic of Ireland (the entire student body of the first, second, third and fourth years - ca. 12 - 16 years of age) who completed a specially-designed 38-item questionnaire, administered according to standardised instructions by class teachers in normal school time. Across the sample, around one in seven students reported having been cyber-bullied over the past couple of months, and around one in eleven reported having taken part in the cyber-bullying of others at school within the past couple of months. Incidence rates of having been subjected to and having perpetrated sub-categories of cyber-bullying were also obtained (text message bullying, the sending of pictures and video clips via mobile telephones, threatening calls, e-mails, Instant Messages, and abuse via the Internet (social networking sites and chat rooms) were also obtained. In many sub-categories of cyber-abuse (see below) the incidence rates were slightly higher amongst girls than they were amongst boys. A further finding was that the use of social networking Internet sites was very frequent, with over three-quarters of the sample having used Bebo and You Tube within the past couple of months. Few people who had been cyber-bullied (about 6 per cent) reported it to adults at school; they were over twice as likely to do nothing at all, five times more likely to send an angry message back, and five times more likely to talk to a friend. The findings confirm that the incidence of cyber-bullying amongst post-primary students in schools in Ireland is significant, and that its seriousness as an issue should not be underestimated.
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Online Child Sexual Abuse: Grooming, Policing and Child Protection in a Multi-Media World addresses the complex, multi-faceted and, at times, counter-intuitive relationships between online grooming behaviours, risk assessment, police practices, and the actual danger of subsequent abuse in the physical world. Online child sexual abuse has become a high profile and important issue in public life. When children are victims, there is clearly intense public and political interest and concern. Sex offenders are society's most reviled deviants and the object of seemingly undifferentiated public fear and loathing. This may be evidenced in ongoing efforts to advance legislation, develop police tactics and to educate children and their carers to engage with multi-media and the internet safely. Understanding how sex offenders use the internet and how the police and the government are responding to their behaviour is central to the development of preventative measures. Based on extensive ethnographic research conducted with the police and a specialist paedophile unit, here Elena Marellozzo presents an informed analysis of online child sexual abuse: of the patterns and characteristics of online grooming, and of the challenges and techniques that characterize its policing. Connecting theory, research and practice in the field of policing, social policy, victimology and criminology, this book adds significantly to our understanding and knowledge of the problem of online child sexual abuse, the way in which victims are targeted and how this phenomenon is, and might be, policed.
Article
Risk surrounds and envelopes us. Without understanding it, we risk everything and without capitalising on it, we gain nothing. This accessible book from Glynis M. Breakwell, first published in 2007, comprehensively explores the psychology of risk, examining how individuals think, feel and act, as well as considering the institutional and societal assessments, rhetorics and reactions about risk. Featuring chapters on all the major issues in the psychology of risk including risk assessment, hazard perception, decision-making, risk and crisis management, risk and emotion, risk communication, safety cultures, the social amplification and social representation of risk and mechanisms for changing risk responses, Breakwell uses illustrations and examples to bring to life the significance of her research findings. She provides an innovative overview of current knowledge on the subject but also suggests that there are many fascinating questions still to be answered. Reviews: "…recommend the book highly, especially for those seeking a broader understanding of risk. It will be a useful reference for people interested in risk, a text for students in decision making, and a supplementary resource for students and practitioners in occupations that manage risk, including management, psychology, political science, medicine, and public health. The book differs from other available texts and fills an important need. In particular, it addresses unmet needs for realistic, multidisciplinary risk perception and management methods. A broad variety of readers need to be exposed to such ideas, which are instructively inclusive and engagingly subversive for disciplinary minds." --Peter Politser, Brown University.
Article
Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome sexual material and the reasons for their negative reactions. Results showed that participants felt bothered while using the Internet at home and in public, while engaging in online exploration, information seeking, or chatting with new acquaintances. Participants were also bothered when the sexual content portrayed sex of an extreme nature, seemed inappropriate for their age, broke norms for establishing romantic relationships, or threatened their home life. The impact of these experiences is discussed, especially in light of the participants’ statements that they did not tell their parents or guardians about their experiences with bothersome online content.
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The current study examined the self-reported prevalence and nature of cyberbullying and victimization among second, third, and fourth grade students (N=372) and explored associated features of home and school life. Of the children in the current sample, 27 percent had been victims of cyberbullying, 18 percent had been aggressors, and 15 percent had been both cyberbullies and victims. Boys were significantly more likely to carry out cyberbullying than girls. Cyberbullying exposure (as both a bully and a victim) was significantly associated with low levels of self-reported school satisfaction (bullies odds ratio [OR]: 2.45; victims OR: 2.10; p < 0.05) and achievement (bullies OR: 3.85; victims OR: 3.47, p < 0.05). Paternal unemployment was also associated with a three-fold increase in the likelihood of being a cyberbully. Increased awareness and regulation is now required within schools and within the home to tackle this escalating problem.
Article
Young people's sexual self-disclosures in social media profiles can be problematic for those who produce them and for those who consume them. This study merged a content analysis with survey data to identify the characteristics of youth who engaged in online sexual self-disclosure. MySpace profiles belonging to 560 National Study of Youth and Religion respondents in the United States (18 to 23 years old) were analyzed (56,462 content units). A third of the profiles contained at least one sexual self-disclosure; their average incidence was less than one per profile. Online sexual self-disclosure was associated with offline sexual risk behaviors (e.g., sex with casual partners), and with increased frequency of alcohol consumption. Among sexually active females, it was associated with early sexual debut. In light of problem behavior theory, these findings suggest that online sexual self-disclosure may be considered a sexual risk behavior.
Article
This paper outlines the ways in which media and cultural studies methodologies have been engaged with in order to conduct an investigation into the interplay between media and sexual learning in an Australian context. It brings ‘media practice’, ‘listening’ theory and ‘reparative reading’ together with interviews with Australian sexuality educators in order to consider how theoretical understandings of media's role in sexual learning might be productively reframed.
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The term “excessive Internet use” is often associated with determining pathological extensive Internet usage, which could be also called “online addiction”. Such excessive presence online is usually defined by the following components used for determining other addictive behaviours: salience, mood change, conflicts, tolerance, relapse, reinstatement and withdrawal symptoms. The described behaviour may lead to a social, mental and also physical impairment of children and youth. In this chapter, we introduce and show the prevalence of five dimensions of excessive Internet use among European children. We also analyse its relation to other psychosocial variables, such as self-efficacy, peer problems, and other kinds of risky behaviour offline and online, i.e. cyberbullying and meeting strangers online.
Article
Although traditional bullying and cyberbullying share features in common, they differ in important ways. For example, cyberbullying is often characterized by perceived anonymity and can occur any time of the day or night. Conversely, perpetrators of traditional bullying are known to the victim, and most traditional bullying occurs at school. Yet, some researchers have suggested that involvement in the two types of bullying may be related. However, little research has modeled the system of relationships among the perpetration and victimization of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The present study uses path analysis to arrive at a suitable model of these relationships, and describes the gender differences in these relationships. Students (N = 4,531) in grades 6 through 12 completed a survey examining their involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analysis proceeded by making fit comparisons among hypothesized path models. More frequent traditional bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with higher frequency of their electronic counterparts. However, the relationship between traditional perpetration and victimization was stronger for females than males as was the effect of traditional victimization on cyber-victimization. Implications for school practitioners are presented.