ArticlePDF Available

Marginal Mentoring: The Effects Of Type Of Mentor, Quality Of Relationship, And Program Design On Work And Career Attitudes

Authors:

Abstract

Employing a national sample of 1,162 employees, we examined the relationship be-tween joh and career attitudes and the presence of a mentor, the mentor's type (formal or informal), the quality ofthe mentoring relationship, and the perceived effectiveness and design of a formal mentoring program. Satisfaction with a mentoring relationship had a stronger impact on attitudes than the presence of a mentor, whether the rela-tionship was formal or informal, or the design of a formal mentoring program. Mentoring has been the focus of much research and discussion over the past decade. Comparisons of nonmentored and mentored individuals yield consistent results: compared to nonmentored indi-viduals, individuals with informal mentors report greater career satisfaction (Fagenson, 1989), career commitment (Colarelli & Bishop, 1990), and career mobility (Scandura, 1992). Informal proteges also report more positive job attitudes than nonmen-tored individuals (cf.. Many organizations have attempted to replicate the benefits of informal mentoring by developing formal mentoring programs (Burke & McKeen, 1989). Formal mentoring relationships develop with organizational assistance or intervention, which is usually in the form of matching mentors and proteges. A third of the nation's major compa-nies apparently have formal mentoring programs (Bragg, 1989), and formal mentoring has been iden-tified as an emerging trend in the new millennium (Tyler, 1998). Three questions come to mind when viewing these emerging trends. First, are all mentoring re-lationships created equal? Existing studies imply this assumption by comparing mentored and non-This study was supported by a 1991 grant from the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor. We would like to thank the editor and the three anonymous reviewers for their excellent feedback and help with our manuscript: this was reviewing at its best.
... Mentoring has three functions: career support, psychological support, and role modeling (Eldor, 2021;Hu et al., 2020). As binary measures in operationalizing mentoring (participation in the mentoring process versus no participation) fails to reveal the variation in the breadth and quality of mentoring relationships (Ragins et al., 2000;Eldor, 2021;Hu et al., 2020), mentoring literatures usually adopted the overall mean of these three functions to assess mentoring (Chen et al., 2014;Hu et al., 2014). The experience of China Railway Corporation in implementing mentoring shows that the support and role modeling of mentors can enable mentees to feel integration with others and decrease fear of innovation. ...
Article
Full-text available
A better understanding of how the mentoring affects mentees’ innovation behavior is crucial to improve mentees’ innovative work, so as to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises. Yet existing literature pays little attention to mentoring and mentees’ innovation behavior from the self-expansion view. This study applies self-expansion theory to examine the link between mentoring and mentee innovation behavior (as rated by mentors) based on 430 dyads of mentors and mentees data from Chinese organizations. We further classify the roles of mentees self-expansion on this link. The results show that mentoring can stimulate mentees innovative behavior and self-expansion plays a mediating effect on this positive relationship. This paper also explores the role of social face consciousness (namely, desire to gain face and fear of losing face) in self-expansion and mentoring. It finds that mentees fear of losing face can moderate the mediating effect of their self-expansion. These empirical findings have implications for understanding how mentoring improves mentees’ innovation behavior from individual heterogeneity perspective, which enriches mentoring and self-expansion theory.
... The framework and theoretical grounds for mentoring stems from 1983 where Kram identified two classes of mentor function: career (aspects of the relationship that enhance career advancement) and psychosocial (aspects of the relationship that enhance a sense of self-identity) [1]. Since then, many elements have been added and complemented the definition [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Table 1. the etymology of Mentor. ...
Article
Full-text available
Residents experience high pressure to be successful in both their career and in keeping up an optimal work-life balance. With a mentoring program, faculties can alleviate stress and provide help for their residents. It is now well established that mentor-mentee relationships during medical school, have influence in career decisions and professional identity formation. The same can be said for mentor-mentee relationships during radiology residency. In general, universal rules of mentoring are also useful and applicable in the field of radiology. These universal rules for establishing a successful mentoring relationship include creating a relationship of trust and confidentiality, clearly defining roles and responsibilities, establishing short- and long-term goals, using open and supportive communication, and collaboratively solving problems. The institutions and the radiology departments should be well prepared and aware of the responsibility to have trainees, providing time for mentors to dedicate to their academic duties. They have to implement strategies to effective mentor matching and orientation as well as the ability to provide evaluation with qualitative feedback. Periodic assessment should be warranted together with the incorporation of new technology as it plays a critical role in the training of millennial radiologists as they take the profession into a technology-laden future of medical imaging
... Johnson and Smith (2019) suggest that organizations pre-select candidates [or faculty] who will engage in pro-social activities by asking them how they provided support/affirmation to someone else. An intentional approach at pre-selection may prevent "marginal mentoring" (Ragins, Cotton, & Miller, 2000), or mentorship that people do half-heartedly because they know they will not be held accountable (Johnson, Smith, & Haythornthwaite, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
This manuscript introduces an experiential model of cooperative learning, and a public/private partnership between industry and higher education—one that included mentors as an integral part of the classroom experience. Each of thirty-seven students in a Principles of Management Experiential Learning class was assigned an experienced executive/professional who served as their mentor. These individuals had experience congruent with students’ career goals and aspirations, and they were able to help them craft a reflective end-of-term paper. Interview data from mentors illustrates the type of career guidance and advice they offered to their mentees, and why they thought that mentoring was important for college students. Because academic research has demonstrated the benefits of mentoring for both mentors and mentees alike, this paper argues for modifying the performance appraisal system within higher education so that mentoring can become a standard part of the student and faculty experience.
Article
For careers in public service, meritocracy is espoused and idealized with formal structures for advancement. However, career development is also relational. Scholars have long discussed the benefits of mentoring both for psychosocial support and career advancement in organizations. While mentoring is recognized as important for career advancement, less is known about the nature of mentoring in male-dominated public sector organizations. In this paper we explore how mentoring functions in the U.S. Army—a male-dominated public service organization. Using data from a mixed method study, including survey data from approximately 1,200 Army personnel and analysis of 27 focus groups with 198 participants, we find that mentoring quality matters for all employees, but it matters more for women. We also find that mentoring is gendered, shaping the career trajectories of women and men in different ways.
Article
The main purpose of this study was to examine a case in the context of a Faculty Technology Mentoring (FTM) program that provided customised technology integration support to faculty members in different disciplines. The FTM was implemented as a university-wide professional development model to enhance faculty members’ adoption of technology into their teaching practices. Following the embedded-case design method, this study investigated a one-to-one mentoring process within the program using TPACK as a framework for the analysis. The analysis of faculty experience revealed that the mentoring project had a positive influence not only on the teaching strategies of the instructor whilst delivering the content, but on the attitudes towards technology utilisation in general within the higher education context.
Article
Full-text available
We describe how idiosyncratic deals (I-deals), in this case I-deals focused on workers’ employability enhancement, can serve as a powerful strategic HR tool for simultaneously meeting both the strategic goals of employers and the career goals of employees. Building on a sustainable career perspective, I-deals are interpreted as highly valuable, as they can help individual employees to more easily adapt to the fast-changing environments that nowadays characterize society and the labor market. After theoretical outlines on the concepts of I-deals and employability, we argue that I-deals can form the basis for integrative employment relationships aimed at employability enhancement. This article concludes with concrete recommendations for practice, indicating that in order to enable the sound use of I-deals as a strategic HR tool, organizations should discuss I-deals and employability openly through constructive dialogue. Moreover, examples for achieving this through specific practices, such as working with employability coaches and world cafés on employability, are described.
Article
Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we examined when mentors’ competitive psychological climate (CPC) may have a negative impact on the extent of mentoring support received by protégés. We identified mentors’ job insecurity and trait competitiveness as two key moderators. Our hypotheses were tested using time-lagged data collected from 174 ongoing mentoring dyads. The results showed that mentors’ CPC was negatively related to the extent of mentoring support protégés reported receiving when mentors’ job insecurity was high, but the relationship was not significant when their job insecurity was low. A similar pattern was found for mentors’ trait competitiveness as a moderator. As expected, mentors’ CPC did not have a main effect on mentoring support received by protégés. We also found that mentorship formality did not affect these moderation effects. Furthermore, supplementary analyses showed that the hypothesized moderation effects on the three different types of mentoring support (i.e., career-related support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) were generally similar to those on overall mentoring received, but they also revealed several interesting differences. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. Keywords: Mentoring, competitive psychological climate, job insecurity, trait competitiveness, conservation of resources theory.
Article
Full-text available
Receiving mentoring is associated with lasting career benefits ; however, less is known about long-term career gains for mentors. A national sample of retired academics were surveyed to examine associations between past mentoring behaviors and current evaluations of their careers. Participants (N = 277) were on average 73.6 (SD = 6.2) years old with 34.9 (SD = 8.0) years of occupational tenure and 7.7 (SD = 5.8) years post-retirement. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that having more protégés (β = .19, p = .024) and engaging in more mentoring behaviors (β = .18, p = .027) were associated with objective career achievements. However, mentoring behaviors, and not the number of protégés, were linked to subjective career achievements (β = .33, p < .001). While prior research demonstrates that mentors experience short-term benefits from mentoring, the present study’s findings suggest that mentors may also experience long-term objective and subjective career benefits.
Article
In this article, we identify challenges and best practices associated with a formal mentoring program at a US military service academy. Although research has shown that mentored individuals benefit in numerous ways, little information exists regarding the effectiveness of formal mentoring in the military context. Because substantial time is dedicated to mentoring cadets in military academies, a research study on cadet mentoring experiences could yield preliminary evidence useful for validating current practices and/or pinpointing areas in need of improvement in such a highly structured environment.
Article
Full-text available
Mentoring is being increasingly used by companies as a means of fostering employee learning and development. Limited research exists from the perspective of the mentor on these relationships. Using interview data from 27 mentors (aged 26–62 yrs) from 5 different organizations, this article presents the results of a qualitative study that investigated the characteristics that the ideal mentor should possess and ways that both mentors and protégés can make mentoring relationships most effective. Findings from the study are used to frame suggestions for future research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using a sample of 119 registered nurses from a large urban hospital, this longitudinal study investigated the nomological network of career commitment by: (a) determining if a distinct measure of career commitment could be operationalized, and (b) examining whether such a measure showed a different relationship to withdrawal cognition scales than measures of other work commitment concepts. The study also tested the importance of situational and individual difference variables in predicting career commitment.
Article
Reports a survey of 30 UK mentoring scheme organizers by questionnaire, concerning how long schemes had been established, mentor roles, reasons for schemes being introduced, how mentors are selected, how mentors and prot\?\g\?\s are matched, and about various aspects of other formal features of the schemes, including confidentiality, mentor development, rewards for mentors, mentor training, fixed periods for mentoring, the use of learning contracts, seniority of managers, mentor/prot\?\g\?\ ratios, the evaluation of mentors and schemes, organizational benefits, strengths and weaknesses of schemes and mentoring policies. Proposes a new agenda for those involved in such schemes and for further research.
Article
The process used by Douglas Aircraft in implementing their mentoring program identified the following success factors: (1) identify high-performance employees; (2) introduce them to the mentoring process; (3) match high performers with executives; and (4) have the mentor and mentoree determine goals for the relationship. (JOW)
Article
Mentoring programs have been advocated for a variety of higher educational settings, including medical education. Reviewing the literature suggests that consensus is lacking on definitions of mentoring, resulting in difficulties with evaluation of mentoring programs. This article describes a systematic approach to designing a mentoring program for medical students that addresses questions of goals, mentor functions, mentor selection, preparation and matching to protgs, and evaluation of mentoring programs. Student participation in all phases of program design and implementation is emphasized.
Is a mentor program in your future? Sales and Marketing Management
  • A Bragg
Bragg, A. 1989. Is a mentor program in your future? Sales and Marketing Management, 141(September):