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Task cards are instructional tools that combine a picture of a skill with written instructions about how to perform the skill. This article provides practical guidelines for developing research-based task cards for use in physical education classes. Fitness-related motor skills are used as examples to clarify design principles for task cards. The article also discusses the use of task cards in Mosston and Ashworth's reciprocal style of teaching. In this style of teaching, one learner completes a motor task (the doer), while the other observes (the observer) and provides feedback based on the information presented on the task card. Directions to successfully implement task cards in a progressive manner within reciprocal learning settings are presented, as well as ideas about how motor, cognitive, and social goals in physical education can be achieved through task card use.
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Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance
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http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujrd20
Design and Use of Task Cards in the Reciprocal Style of
Teaching
Peter Iserbyt a & Mark Byra b
a Department of Human Kinesiology, Catholic University of Leuven, in Leuven, Belgium
b Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming, in Laramie, WY, 82071
Version of record first published: 21 Feb 2013.
To cite this article: Peter Iserbyt & Mark Byra (2013): Design and Use of Task Cards in the Reciprocal Style of Teaching, Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance, 84:2, 20-26
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T  combine a picture of a skill to be
learned with written instructions about how to per-
form the skill. Because of the combination of words
and pictures, they are considered multimedia in-
structional tools. Task cards are usually oriented in
landscape view and  t the size of a page in regular text-processing
programs. Although the physical education literature has often de-
scribed the use of task cards (Barrett, 2005; Block, Oberweiser, &
Bain, 1995; Byra, 2004; Dyson, 2002; Iserbyt, Madou, Vergauwen,
& Behets, 2011; Johnson & Ward, 2001), only recently has their
design received attention in peer-learning research (Iserbyt, Elen,
& Behets, 2010). Since task cards are usually implemented to com-
plement teacher instruction, their design is of utmost importance
for student learning. The cognitive theory in multimedia learning
(Mayer, 2005a) provides a scienti c framework for designing task
cards for student learning based on human cognitive architecture.
Cognitive Theory in Multimedia Learning
Delivering instruction in ways that facilitate student learning is a
core goal in the  eld of physical education. It is hypothesized that
instructional tools developed in light of how the human mind works
will lead to higher learning gains than tools that are not. The cog-
nitive theory in multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005a) explains how
people learn from multimedia instructional tools. Three assump-
tions underlie this theory. First, the human mind has two separate
channels (auditory and visual) for processing instruction. Second,
the auditory and visual channels have limited processing capac-
ity. This means that when too much information is given, a large
amount gets lost due to cognitive overload. Finally, people pro-
cess information (learn) in an active manner. This process involves
selecting relevant information such as words and pictures on task
cards, organizing those words and pictures in working memory, and
integrating this new information into long-term memory.
This theory has been used to generate research-based guidelines
for the design of task cards with the main goal of lowering the cog-
nitive load attributable to instructional messages, thereby leaving
more space in the working memory for solving the learning task.
Task cards designed according to these guidelines foster learning
and reduce instructional time (i.e., the time necessary to make sense
of the instructions presented on task cards). Although these guide-
lines primarily originated from research with cognitive tasks, it is
assumed that they can be generalized to psychomotor tasks. Ex-
amples from the motor area are provided next to help clarify the
task-card design principles.
Task-Card Design Principles
This section presents six principles for designing task cards based
on cognitive theory. The application of these principles fosters stu-
dent learning and reduces instructional time.
Multimedia. Learning is enhanced when words and pic-
tures are presented simultaneously (Fletcher & Tobias, 2005).
Presenting information through both modes of instruc-
tion—auditory and visual—is better than using only one. For
example, using a picture of the skill and written instructions
Easy to create and implement, task cards support
student learning in various content areas.
PETER ISERBYT
MARK BYRA
Peter Iserbyt (peter.iserbyt@faber.kuleuven.be) is a post-doctorate researcher
in the Department of Human Kinesiology at the Catholic University of Leu-
ven, in Leuven, Belgium. Mark Byra (byra@uwyo.edu) is a professor in the
Division of Kinesiology and Health at the University of Wyoming, in Lara-
mie, WY 82071.
DESIGN AND USE OF
Reciprocal Style
of Teaching
in the
Task Cards
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JOPERD 21
that include critical elements to explain how to perform biceps
curls with a dynaband (Graham, Holt/Hale, & Parker, 2010)
is better than presenting only a picture or only the written
instructions (gure 1).
Spatial Contiguity. Learning is enhanced when written in-
structions are placed close to the corresponding part of the
picture on the task card (Mayer, 2005d). This requires integrat-
ing written instructions in the picture on the task card. For
example, fixating the elbow on the side of the trunk is a criti-
cal element when performing biceps curls, so placing the words
depicting this element close to the elbow on the picture can
improve learning (figure 1).
Signaling. Learning is enhanced when written instructions are
connected with the corresponding parts of the picture by, for ex-
ample, arrows (Mayer, 2005d). This principle is an extension of the
spatial contiguity principle. In gure 1 the critical element “xate
the elbow on the side of the trunk” is connected with an arrow to
the elbow on the picture.
Coherence. Learning is enhanced when extraneous, irrelevant
words and pictures are omitted from the task cards (Mayer, 2005d).
The idea is to develop a coherent instructional message. For ex-
ample, when developing a task card to perform the leg press, it is
better to use a picture with a “clean,” nondistracting background,
as can be seen in gure 2. Avoid pictures with other people in the
background, written text, and distracting colors. Also, avoid dupli-
cating information.
Personalization. Learning is enhanced when written instructions
on task cards are personalized (Mayer, 2005c). First- and second-
person statements create a more user-friendly tone than third-per-
son statements. Third-person statements can be easily replaced with
“I,” “you,” or “your.” For example, “I ex and extend my knees in a
controlled motion” is a preferred way to instruct how to perform a
leg press exercise on a task card (gure 2).
Segmentation. Learning is enhanced when a complex skill to be
learned is segmented over several pictures (Mayer, 2005b). These
pictures might be presented on one or on multiple task cards. For
some skills, it might be important to describe the starting position,
the movement execution, and the ending position in separate pic-
tures or on separate task cards. When instructing how to perform
the leg press, a picture with corresponding instructions about the
starting position might be combined with a second picture and in-
structions about the movement itself (gure 2).
Considerations for Design. The effects of these task-card de-
sign principles on student learning will depend on prior knowledge
(Kalyuga, 2005). Students lacking prior knowledge tend to benet
more from an appropriate design than students with higher levels of
prior knowledge. For example, a student playing on the high school
tennis team will benet less from well-designed task cards explain-
ing how to perform a forehand stroke than a classmate who lacks
experience in tennis. In other words, the more knowledgeable a stu-
dent is about the learning task, the less important the design of the
task card becomes.
Research also suggests that multimedia tools are more helpful
when students have control over their learning and when time is un-
restricted (Tabbers, Martens, & Van Merriënboer, 2004). Task cards
allow students to learn at their own pace. They can be studied as long
as necessary, read and reread, until the content is fully understood.
Learner control is often absent in other instructional media, such as
dynamic animations on DVD, which are often system-paced. How-
ever, since physical education classes have limited available time, well-
designed instructional tools are essential to maximize time on task.
Task Cards in the Reciprocal Style of Teaching
This section provides a brief discussion of the use of task cards in
peer-learning settings. The focus will be on the implementation of
task cards in the reciprocal style of teaching (Mosston & Ashworth,
2002). In the reciprocal style of teaching, students are paired; while
one learner completes a motor task (the doer), the other (the ob-
server) observes and provides feedback based on information
presented on a task card. Task cards are central to the implemen-
tation of the reciprocal teaching style. Directions for successfully
implementing task cards for observation, instruction, and assess-
ment of peers within reciprocal-learning settings will be presented
later in this article.
The use of task cards in peer learning has been documented in
the physical education literature (Barrett, 2005; Block et al., 1995;
Byra, 2004; Dyson, 2002; Iserbyt et al., 2010, 2011; Johnson &
Ward, 2001). Dyson argued that task cards help to hold students
accountable for learning motor skills, a key element in coopera-
tive learning that is often missing. Barrett used task cards during
I ex and
extend my
elbow in a
controlled
motion.
I xate
my elbow
against the
side of
my trunk.
I put my heel on
the dynaband.
Figure 1.
Task Card for Performing the Biceps Curl
Bicep Curls First- and second-person
statements create a more
user-friendly tone than
third-person statements.
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practice time to facilitate peer assessment in a cooperative-learning
strategy with sixth-grade students learning handball. Johnson and
Ward implemented task cards during a 20-lesson striking unit to
help students learn basic racquet strokes. Iserbyt and colleagues
(2011) found that students demonstrated similar learning gains
when taught tennis through a peer-learning setting with task cards
as through direct instruction.
Task Progression
In 2004, Byra presented a “task progression” for implementing the
reciprocal style of teaching. A task progression is an instructional
practice used by physical educators “to lead the learner from begin-
ning levels to more advanced levels with the content” (Rink, 2010, p.
83). Organizing content for learners by means of task progressions
is a widely accepted strategy used in physical education instruction
(Graham et al., 2010; Griffey & Housner, 2007; Rink, 2010; Sie-
dentop & Tannehill, 2000) and is supported by research (French et
al., 1991; Hebert, Landin, & Solmon, 2000; Rink, French, Werner,
Lynn, & Mays, 1991). Applying the concept of task progressions to
organize learning content and presenting it by means of task cards
is an appropriate instructional practice.
An integral component of the reciprocal style of teaching is the
task sheet (Mosston & Ashworth, 2002). The observer in the recip-
rocal style of teaching uses the task card, or task sheet, to deliver
positive and/or corrective feedback to the doer. Byra (2004) sug-
gested that task cards be used in the nal task of the task progres-
sion he presented for implementing the reciprocal teaching style.
These task cards include doer and observer names, directions for
the doer and observer, and space to record student performance.
Byra further indicated that task sheets need only be used “when
the teacher wants to have a record of student performance” (p.45).
However, task cards can be effectively used across the entire
sequenced task progression that Byra proposed for delivering the
reciprocal style of teaching. Also, the task cards used as examples in
this article do not necessarily need to contain the names of the doer
and observer, or space to record performance. For more information
about the reciprocal style of teaching and how teachers can best
implement it in their physical education classes, readers are encour-
aged to read Byra’s (2004) article.
The progressive use of task cards and the teacher behaviors re-
quired for successful task-card implementation will be discussed in
terms of achieving motor, cognitive, and social goals. The levels de-
scribed below refer to the progressions suggested for task-card use.
Level 1—Task Cards as Observational Tools
When introducing task cards for the rst time in the recipro-
cal style of teaching, it is recommended that they be used as
observational tools with content that has been previously re-
hearsed or practiced. Hence, task cards can be implemented
after the students have had some experience with the content.
Take, for example, students who are learning the badminton
serve stroke. In the rst lesson of the instructional unit, the
students need to learn how to perform the underhand serve
in badminton under the conditions of a more direct, teacher-
centered instructional style like the practice style of teaching
(Mosston & Ashworth, 2002). In the practice style of teach-
ing, the teacher would demonstrate the underhand serve for the
students and then have the students practice it. While the stu-
dents are performing the underhand serve, the teacher observes
each student’s performance and offers individual and private
feedback. The focus of the practice style of teaching is on motor
skill improvement.
When students have gained a base level of skill prociency
through practice in one or more episodes, they are ready to use
Figure 2.
Task Card for Performing the Leg Press
Leg Press
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JOPERD 23
task cards in the second lesson of the unit under the conditions of
the reciprocal style of teaching. In continuing with the underhand
serve example, in pairs one student (doer) performs the underhand
serve while the other student (observer) checks for the critical skill
elements listed on the task card and offers skill-related feedback
to the doer. When using task cards within the framework of the
reciprocal style of teaching, it is not only important for the teacher
to model the skill to be learned, but for there to be a cooperative,
interactive behavior between the doer and observer. From the cog-
nitive and social perspectives, this requires the observer to know
the task criteria, watch the doer perform, compare and contrast
the doer’s performance against the criteria listed on the task card,
conclude what is correct and what is not, and nally communi-
cate the results of the analysis to the doer (Mosston & Ashworth,
2002). Motor, cognitive, and social learning goals can be achieved
when using task cards in this way in the reciprocal style of teach-
ing (table 1).
Getting students to understand the role of the observer requires
careful modeling and supervision from the teacher. Giving clear
instructions before the teaching episode and conducting reective
talks after the episode will help in this matter. In reciprocal teach-
ing with task cards, the key to successful performance is having
the observer do his or her job professionally and accurately.
Level 2—Task Cards as Instructional Tools
When students are familiar with using task cards as observational
tools, they can use them to gain new skills. This requires careful
preparation, modeling, and different instructional strategies from
the teacher. Successful student performance will largely depend on
the quality of the task cards, the quality of teacher instruction, and
the level of appropriate interactions within student pairs. Using task
cards to learn new skills is much more demanding for students,
and it addresses more complex motor, cognitive, and social goals
(table 2). For example, in a tness unit, students may learn how
to perform tness exercises in pairs using task cards. After initially
demonstrating the exercises and behaviors required of the observ-
ers and doers, the teacher turns the episode over to the learners.
While the observer reviews the new exercise(s) with the doer, the
doer attempts to perform the exercise(s) as presented on the task
card through the explanation provided by the observer. Incorrect
performance by the doer may require another demonstration by
the observer. These instructional actions—explaining and demon-
strating—represent a new level of cognitive engagement required
of the observer. While the doer is performing, the observer must
constantly check his or her partner’s performance against the crite-
ria on the task card. This checking is very important since it serves
as the basis for providing feedback. A new level of social engage-
ment is also required—one that necessitates the observer to be com-
fortable and condent enough to demonstrate a new task to a part-
ner, and the doer to be accepting enough to listen to and respect the
observer’s instructions.
To foster student success, the teacher must clearly model the in-
teractive behaviors required of the observer and doer at the start
of the episode. Once the students are engaged in their roles, the
teacher must provide role-related feedback at every possible oppor-
tunity to reinforce appropriate communication between the paired
students. In addition, the teacher needs to observe both the doer
and the observer’s response to the doer’s actions in order to pro-
vide adequate task-related feedback. This requires the teacher to
encourage the observer to rephrase or repeat the instructions on the
task card when the doer is not succeeding instead of stopping the
pair and demonstrating the task for them. Student and teacher suc-
cess with using task cards in the reciprocal style of teaching will de-
pend on the amount of experience both gain with the instructional
behaviors involved.
Table 1.
Learning Goals Associated with Using
Task Cards as Observational Tools
Learning Domain Goal
Motor Students rene skill performance
in pairs through teacher and peer
instruction.
Cognitive Students observe, compare, and
contrast performance against the
critical elements on the task card and
decide what is correct or incorrect in
their partner’s performance.
Social Students give feedback to their
partner.
Students offer feedback in a positive
way to their partner.
Students accept feedback from their
partner.
Table 2.
Learning Goals Associated with Using
Task Cards as Instructional Tools
Learning Domain Goal
Motor Students learn and rehearse a new
skill in pairs based on the task-card
instruction provided by a peer.
Cognitive Students interpret the instructions
on the task card and rephrase them
to a peer.
Students recall and demonstrate
key aspects of a skill presented on
a task card to a peer.
Social Students give instructions to and
receive instructions from a peer.
Students offer instructions to a peer
in a positive way.
Students repeat or rephrase
instructions when their partner is
struggling or asks for it.
Students listen to each
other and are silent when their
partner speaks.
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Level 3—Task Cards as Assessment Tools
Using task cards for peer assessment is the nal and most dif-
cult form of task-card use in the reciprocal style of teaching.
Although we acknowledge that all task-card uses include some
form of assessment, since there is always feedback provided, the
specic use of task cards for assessment goes further by asking
students to mark each other’s performance relative to predeter-
mined standards or criteria. This puts a high demand on students
from a cognitive and social perspective. Students are asked to
observe their partner’s performance, compare it to the criteria on
the task cards, and then judge the performance according to the
scoring system provided. Socially, it is difcult to score a partner,
especially when the partner is a friend and when pairs include
different skill levels.
Toward the end of a tness unit, perhaps during the last or
second-to-last lesson, the students may be asked to assess their
partner’s physical performance. An assessment form, designed
to be used in conjunction with the biceps-curl and leg-press task
cards (gures 1 and 2), is presented in gure 3. The assessment
form includes directions to the assessor, information about helping
the partner improve performance, criteria statements reecting the
critical elements presented on the task cards, and an assessment
protocol (scoring system). A relatively simple three-point scoring
system is presented.
Assessment of a peer need not be limited to physical or motor
goals; it can extend to cognitive and social goals as well (table 3).
The assessment form presented in gure 4 can be used to assess a
partner’s feedback and instruction as it applies to the cognitive,
social, and motor goals of the unit. This assessment instrument
includes directions to the assessor, criteria statements categorized
according to learning domain, and the same three-point scoring sys-
tem used with the motor-performance assessment form.
It should be stressed that assessing motor, cognitive, and social
goals gives a more complete picture of student ability. When cogni-
tive and social goals are valued as highly as motor goals, it may
provide students with an added level of enthusiasm, interest, and
motivation to participate in physical education classes.
Some teachers may worry that students will perform the assess-
ment unfairly in favor of their partner. This can be countered by get-
ting students to understand that assessment is a part of learning and
is not an end in itself. In addition, performing an incorrect assess-
ment can have negative consequences in the case of teacher evalu-
ation, since this would mean that the student is not able to observe
adequately or interpret the critical elements stated on the task cards.
However, ensuring a safe environment for assessment and stressing
that assessing honestly is crucial for ongoing improvement might be
sufcient for students to do this job as it should be done.
Figure 3. Partner’s Assessment Form
Assessing My Partner’s Motor Performance
Name of Assessor:
Name of Doer:
DIRECTIONS TO THE ASSESSOR: Observe your partner
while she/he executes the biceps curl 5 times and the leg
press 5 times. For each statement under Biceps Curl and Leg
Press, circle A for Always, S for Sometimes, or N for Never.
Be as honest as possible—remember, your evaluation is
helping your partner know how she/he is doing in terms of
the listed statements. This, in turn, will help your partner
attain the goals in our physical education lessons.
Use the Biceps Curl and Leg Press Task Cards when
assessing your partner.
BICEPS CURL
Statement Assessment
1. My partner’s elbows are
xed (touching) to
her/his trunk.
A S N
2. My partner’s heel is on
the dynaband.
A S N
LEG PRESS
Statement Assessment
3. My partner has a
90° bend (knees) at the
starting position.
A S N
4. My partner does not
fully extend her/his knees
during the exercise.
A S N
Table 3.
Learning Goals Associated with Using
Task Cards as Assessment Tools
Learning Domain Goal
Motor Students rene skill
performance in pairs through
peer feedback.
Cognitive Students observe, compare, and
contrast performance against the
critical elements on the task card;
decide what is correct or
incorrect; and record
(assess) their partner’s level
of performance.
Students understand that their
partner’s assessment is provided
to help them attain the goals of
the lesson.
Students reect on the
assessment in pairs.
Social Students assess their partner
and accept to be evaluated.
Students perform the
assessment in a
respectful way.
Students communicate about the
assessment
during reection.
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JOPERD 25
Guidelines for Teachers
The implementation of task cards in the reciprocal style of teaching
requires both the teacher and students to become accustomed to
the process. The teacher needs to adapt to new management and
instructional strategies, and the students must become less depen-
dent on the teacher and more dependent on the task cards and their
partner. This is a process that needs to be carefully planned by the
teacher. Teachers should keep in mind the following guidelines when
implementing task cards in peer-learning settings.
Start Easy. As a rule of thumb, start with familiar tasks on task
cards and use small segments of lesson time for working with task
cards in the initial phases of their implementation. This is espe-
cially important when students are used to working in learning
settings dominated by direct styles of instruction. Often the transi-
tion from a direct style of instruction to reciprocal peer teaching
with task cards happens too abruptly, leaving students confused
and making teachers believe that task cards will not work with
their students. Initially, teachers might use task cards to support
content the students are already familiar with. For example, as
part of a class warm-up the students might be asked to perform
some stretching exercises that they are familiar with and that are
demonstrated on task cards hanging on the wall of the gymnasium.
Clearly Dene the Roles of the Students. When asking students
to cooperate in peer learning, the teacher must be clear in dening
and describing what it means to be a doer and an observer. Expected
behaviors of doers and observers need to be clearly explained and,
more importantly, modeled. The observer’s instructions could be
given as follows:
With task cards in hand, tell the doer what to do, if needed, and then
observe her or his performance. Compare and contrast the doer’s per-
formance against the critical elements listed on the task cards. Conclude
what is correct and/or incorrect about the performance, and offer perfor-
mance-related feedback.
The doer’s instructions could be given like this:
After listening to the observer’s instructions, perform the task and take
into account the observer’s feedback as subsequent trials are performed.
When the students understand their roles, they will be more ef-
fective in working together and achieving motor, cognitive, and
social learning outcomes (Iserbyt et al., 2010).
Ensure Task-Card Use. Task cards can be seen as static teacher
demonstrations and instruction. They serve as an important
source of information for learning the task and should therefore
be continuously consulted. Often, task cards are placed on the
oor at activity stations in the gymnasium. When students rotate
from one station to the next, the teacher must emphasize the use
of the task cards by instructing the observer to read the instruc-
tions aloud for the doer. If this is not asked of the students nor
supervised by the teacher, task cards might be minimally consulted,
decreasing potential learning.
Hold the Observer Accountable. When supervising peer learning
with task cards, the teacher’s feedback is primarily directed to the
observer. Indeed, it is the observer who is directly responsible for the
doer’s performance, and the observer should be held accountable
for it. The teacher must praise the observer when he or she pro-
vides accurate feedback to the doer. When instructions or feedback
are inaccurate, the teacher must guide the observer to reread the
task card(s). For example, “Is your partner’s performance correct
Figure 4. Partner’s Feedback Evaluation Form
Evaluating My Partner’s Feedback and Instruction
Your Name:
Name of Observer:
DIRECTIONS: For the past three lessons, you used task
cards while working with the same partner in the reciprocal
style of teaching. For each statement under Cognitive, So-
cial, and Motor, circle A for I agree, PA for I partially agree,
or DA for I disagree. Be as honest as possible. Your partner
will not see the scores that you circle.
COGNITIVE
1. My partner’s feedback was
specic to the critical
elements listed on the
task cards.
APA DA
2. My partner could rephrase
the instructions to help me
better understand the task
when necessary.
APA DA
SOCIAL
3. My partner listened care-
fully when I offered instruc-
tion and/or feedback.
APA DA
4. My partner offered instruc-
tion and feedback in a posi-
tive manner.
APA DA
MOTOR
5. My partner’s feedback
helped me improve my per-
formance in the biceps curl
and leg press.
APA DA
© Ron Chapple Studios/Thinkstock
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according to the instruction on the task cards?” or “What does the
task card say about the performance of that skill element?” Redi-
recting attention to the task cards is of major importance. Teachers
make a mistake when they take over the role of observer, or provide
instructions directly to the doer without making the observer con-
sult the task cards. Doing so would hinder the observer from taking
responsibility for the learning process of the doer.
Managing and Facilitating Learning
Implementing the reciprocal style of teaching with task cards puts
high demands on the teacher’s managerial skills. To avoid manage-
rial issues, it is important to take into account the previously stated
guidelines. Starting off with an easy task that the teacher masters
very well increases the chance of success. Making sure that students
are prepared to cooperate by clearly instructing and modeling the
tasks of doer and observer before practice will also help. It is rec-
ommended to ensure a very strict management of what needs to
be done, and where and when. For example, the teacher might use
poly spots to mark where pairs can practice safely. Before practice,
the teacher might instruct all observers to take the task cards in
their hands and get ready to read them aloud for the doer. Next, the
teacher can use a signal (e.g., a whistle blow) to get students started.
The teacher then walks around observing doers and observers,
while providing feedback. The teacher observes performance and
social behavior (i.e., cooperational features), and his or her feed-
back is directed to the observer. After a given time, the teacher uses
another whistle blow to stop students and asks them to switch roles.
Again, the teacher instructs the observers to take the task cards and
get ready. A whistle blow gets them started again.
Concluding Thoughts
Task cards are valuable instructional tools that can support stu-
dent learning in various content areas of physical education. Their
strength lies in the fact that they are easy to implement in daily
practice and easy to create since most physical education teachers
have access to a computer and a printer in their school. Task cards
can be used multiple times, and across different target groups.
They can help the teacher in addressing several motor, cognitive,
and social goals in a progressive way.
This article discussed the design and implementation of task cards
in the reciprocal style of teaching as observational, instructional,
and assessment tools. Six design principles for task cards have been
proposed and exemplied. Taking into account these principles can
enhance learning and reduce instructional time.
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Task cards are valuable
instructional tools that can
support student learning in
various content areas of
physical education.
Downloaded by [KU Leuven University Library], [Peter Iserbyt] at 06:35 22 February 2013
... Initially the students were introduced to peer feedback according to Johnson (2004), Holt, Kinchin and Clarke (2012) and inspired by peer teaching (Siedentop, 1998) and by the reciprocal style and the learner-designed individual program (Mosston & Ashworth, 2008: 116 and 274) but in a far more autonomous and student-driven form. The students were not given task cards or any rubric hand-outs (Iserbyt & Byra 2013;Johnson, 2004;Mosston & Ashworth, 2008), but the teacher gave the students a verbal task (regarding elementary or specific volleyball skills), during which the students themselves decided where to focus. In relation to passing in volleyball, it could be, e.g., the bending of the knees or the folding of the hands. ...
... A way to assist the students to feel more comfortable when giving peer feedback is by using rubric handouts or task cards as a supplement (Iserbyt & Byra, 2013;Johnson, 2004;Mosston & Ashworth, 2008). The cards are valuable tools clearly instructing and modelling the task of the giver and receiver before practice and in this way helping the student at the beginning of the unit. ...
... The cards are valuable tools clearly instructing and modelling the task of the giver and receiver before practice and in this way helping the student at the beginning of the unit. Further, the cards have shown to have an impact on the students' learning in physical education (Iserbyt & Byra, 2013;Iserbyt, Elen, & Behets, 2010). In this study we deselected the cards, but maybe they can be used in combination with free choice and control of the exercises. ...
... The interpersonal skills inherently practiced in the reciprocal teaching style are vital to the continued growth of students, and to support this focus, the instructor of this course designed task sheets (Figure 2), also identified as criteria sheets by Barney and Christenson 40 or task cards by other researchers, 58,59 to support the teachers in the dyads during practice opportunities. These task sheets resemble closely the competency/proficiency checklists with which many athletic training educators and preceptors may be familiar. ...
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Context Peer learning often happens naturally in athletic training education. Deliberate use of evidence-based learning models and strategies related to peer learning could make the peer work more effective. Objective To describe the approach to learning in the athletic training classroom, using the peer-assisted learning model, reciprocal teaching style, and structured peer feedback, that may improve student progress toward learning outcomes. Background The 3 complementary strategies have been described independently in the athletic training literature as well as in other health care curricula. The positive findings related to student learning continues to support the use of these pedagogic practices; however, they have not been explored as a collective way to design a course that includes a multitude of cognitive and psychomotor competencies. The reciprocal teaching style and structured peer feedback complement the peer-assisted learning model, offering a familiar didactic environment to address learning outcomes. Description Two therapeutic modalities courses were taught using the peer-assisted learning model with the use of reciprocal teaching style to encourage the expected student roles and behaviors. Structured peer feedback offered opportunities for increased student socialization and focus on improving clinical skills through low-stakes interactions. Advantage(s) The integration of reciprocal teaching style and structured peer feedback within the peer-assisted learning model may allow students to deliberately interact with each other and progress through course content and application. Conclusion(s) Through purposeful course design, athletic training educators may foster a classroom environment (lecture and lab) that focuses students on practicing skills and reinforcing correct technique through productive and constant communication.
... Acknowledging that merely putting students together is not sufficient to provoke learning (Lafont et al., 2016), Dyson (2002) argued that clearly defining roles of doer and helper is an element that improves learning through enhanced interaction between peers. Together with instructions on role switching, defining roles as doer and helper and having access to instructional tools such as task cards or tablet computers have been shown to improve performance in peer teaching regardless of purposeful pairing by skill level or prior tutor training (Iserbyt & Byra, 2013a;Iserbyt et al., 2010). Without some form of structure in the learning environment and instructional support, it is generally accepted that mixed-ability dyads, where students of different skill levels work together, demonthose dyads. ...
... A task card contained drawings and written instructions of the most important stages of the skills to be learned. All task cards were designed according to the cognitive theory in multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) as presented by Iserbyt & Byra (Iserbyt & Byra, 2013). ...
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