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Review of the subspecies of Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815 with the new description of the South Chinese member of the genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 named Scolopendra hainanum spec. nov.: (Myriapoda, Chilopoda, Scolopendridae)

SPIXIANA 35 119-27 München, August 2012 ISSN 0341-8391
Review of the subspecies of Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815
with the new description of the South Chinese member of the genus
Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758
named Scolopendra hainanum spec. nov.
(Myriapoda, Chilopoda, Scolopendridae)
Christian Kronmüller
Kronmüller, C. 2012. Review of the subspecies of Scolopendra subspinipes Leach,
1815 with the new description of the South Chinese member of the genus Scolo-
pendra Linnaeus, 1758 named Scolopendra hainanum spec. nov. (Myriapoda, Chilo-
poda, Scolopendridae). Spixiana 35 (1): 19-27.
To clarify their discrimination, the taxa of the Scolopendra subspinipes group,
formerly treated as subspecies of this species, are reviewed. Scolopendra dehaani stat.
revalid. and Scolopendra japonica stat. revalid. are reconfirmed at species level.
Scolopendra subspinipes cingulatoides is raised to species level. This species is re-
named to Scolopendra dawydoffi nom. nov. to avoid homonymy with Scolopendra
cingulatoides Newport, 1844 which was placed in synonymy under Scolopendra
cingulata Latreille, 1829 by Kohlrausch (1881). Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava syn.
nov. and Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans syn. nov. are proposed as new synonyms
of Scolopendra subspinipes, which is now without subspecies. Lewis already syno-
nymized Otostigmus politoides Attems, 1953 and Otostigmus puncticeps Attems, 1953
under Scolopendra subspinipes without going down to subspecies level – both species
are synonymized now (syn. nov.) under Scolopendra japonica. Furthermore, Scolo-
pendra hainanum spec. nov., a species near allied to S. subspinipes is described from
Hainan Island, China.
Scolopendra subspinipes cingulatoides = Scolopendra dawydoffi nom. nov.
Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava = Scolopendra subspinipes syn. nov.
Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani = Scolopendra dehaani stat. nov.
Scolopendra subspinipes japonica = Scolopendra japonica stat. nov.
Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans = Scolopendra subspinipes syn. nov.
Otostigmus puncticeps = Scolopendra japonica syn. nov.
Otostigmus politoides = Scolopendra japonica syn. nov.
Christian Kronmüller, Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Münchhausen-
str. 21. 81247 München, Germany; e-mail:
Scolopendra subspinipes is a common centipede in
the whole Asian subtropics and tropical area and is
also introduced in many other countries and areas
around the world. Within the species, the taxonomi-
cal characters show a wide range of variety, which
makes the determination of several subspecies im-
possible. As there are neither geographical factors
nor taxonomical details to distinguish the individual
subspecies, in my opinion, it is useful to abolish the
subspecies according to the latest taxonomical and
geographical knowledge.
To date, Scolopendra subspinipes comprises six
valid subspecies named Scolopendra subspinipes sub-
spinipes Leach, 1815, Scolopendra subspinipes cingula-
species spination of the prefemur
of the terminal legs prefemoral
(corner spine)
process antennomere
(number of
Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes ventral (1)-2-(3); medial 1-2;
dorsal-medial 1-3(1)-2-(3-5) 2 (1-3) 17-20
Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani ventral 0; dorsal-medial 0-3 (1)-2-(3) 1-2?
Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans ventral (1)-2; medial 1; dorsal 1 2 (5) (1)-2-(3) ?
Scolopendra subspinipes japonica ventral 2-3; medial 1-2; dorsal 2-4(2) 3 (2) 3 ?
Scolopendra subspinipes cingulatoides ventral 2; medial/dorsal; 4 3-43?
Scolopendra subspinipes gastroforeata ventral 2; 2-2, 1; dorsal 1, 2 22
Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava ventral 2; dorsal-medial 1-22-5217-19
Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans ventral 2; medial 2; dorsal 1 2-3218-19
Scolopendra multidens ventral 2-3; medial 2; dorsal 2 (2) 3 (-)318
Scolopendra hainanum spec. nov. ventral-lateral 1; ventral-medial 1;
dorsal-medial 1-222
toides Attems, 1938, Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani
Brandt, 1840, Scolopendra subspinipes japonica L. Koch,
1878, Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans Bücherl, 1946
and Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava Attems, 1938.
All of them occur in Asia except for Scolopendra sub-
spinipes fulgurans which was described from South
America, more exactly Brazil.
Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch, 1878 and
Scolopendra subspinipes gastroforeata Muralewicz, 1913
have already been synonymized with Scolopendra
subspinipes subspinipes (Schileyko 2001, 2004, Lewis
2010). The subspecies Scolopendra subspinipes multi-
dens Newport, 1844, has been upgraded to species
level by Chao & Chang (2003). It is distinguished
from Scolopendra subspinipes by lacking gonopods in
males and a strong punctation of the head capsule.
All examinations are made with a Bresser Advance ICD
binocular. All photos are made with a Canon EOS 60D
either connected to the binocular or used with a Canon
macro 100 mm lens, apart from the habitat photo which
is made with a standard lens. The drawings are made
with a 0.4 mm fineliner.
Comparing the taxonomic details of the remaining
subspecies of Scolopendra subspinipes, it is obvious,
that they can be divided into two groups: The first
group consists of taxa with usually a two spined
prefemoral process, a coxopleural process with two
spines, the prefemur of the terminal legs with one
or two spines ventrally and with tarsal spurs from
locomotory leg 1 to 20; while the second group com-
prises the subspecies having a prefemoral process
with usually more than two spines, a coxopleural
process with usually more than 2 spines, a divergent
number of ventral spines at the prefemur of the
terminal legs and tarsal spurs only from locomotory
legs 1 to 19 (see Table 1).
Group 1
Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes
Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans
Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava
Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans
Scolopendra subspinipes gastroforeata
Group 2
Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani*
Scolopendra subspinipes japonica
Scolopendra subspinipes cingulatoides*
* The original description of these subspecies is incom-
Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815, sensu stricto
Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava Attems, 1938, syn. nov.
Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans Bücherl, 1946, syn. nov.
Distribution. Russia, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia,
Singapore, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, China, Hong
Kong, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, São Tomé,
Príncipe, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Zanzibar, South
Table 1. Taxonomic characters of the Scolopendra subspinipes subspecies, Scolopendra multidens and Scolopendra hai-
nanum spec. nov.
Africa, Seychelles, Reunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues,
Madagascar, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands,
Pacific Islands, Bermuda, Central America, Carib-
bean Islands, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana,
Surinam, Brazil.
(according to Attems, 1930)
General: Length up to 150 mm, colouration vari-
Head: No anterior transverse sulcus, from 4 to
9 (mostly 5-6) coxosternal teeth, antennomere with
18-19 (rarely just 17 or more than 19) articles, 4
to 6 of them are sparsely hirsute.
Tergites: Paramedian sulci start on tergite 3
(sometimes tergite 2 or more caudal), margination
starts from tergit 5 to 16.
Sternites: Sternite 2 to 19 with two paramedian
furrows (very weak at sternite 16 to 19).
Coxopleural process: 2 coxopleural spines (sel-
dom only 1 or up to 3).
Locomotory legs: All legs with two accessory
spurs, 20th pair of legs mostly with tarsal spur.
Prefemur of terminal legs: Ventral-lateral with 2
(rarely 1 or 3) spines, medial 1 or 2 and dorsal-medial
1 to 3 spines; prefemoral process with usually 2,
rarely with 1 or 3-5 tips.
Remarks on the description of
Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava Attems, 1938
Distribution. Indonesia.
Attems (1934) described the species with weak
paramedian sulci on the tergites, only seen at the
caudal end of tergit 3 to 20. In my opinion, the sulci
are not weaker than in other subspecies. Sometimes,
a short median sulcus can be seen on tergit 9 to 20.
This character can also be observed for example in
specimens of Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes from
Japan and also from the Philippines (Negros Island).
The terminal legs have two ventral spines and one or
two dorsal-median spines. The prefemoral process
shows between 2 and 5 tips.
Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava differs from
Scolopendra subspinipes s. str. only in its colour as
it is described with a reddish brown head capsule
and first tergites, while the other tergites are dark
brown with a lighter (or even yellowish) caudal
border. In centipede taxonomy, colouration is not
a reliable scientific character for distinguishing a
species. Therefore it is herewith synonymized with
Scolopendra subspinipes.
Remarks on the description of
Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans Bücherl, 1946
Distribution. Brazil.
Bücherl (1946) stated that beside Scolopendra viridi-
cornis Newport, 1844 the species Scolopendra sub-
spinipes is the most common species in Brazil,
especially in the southern parts. This might be
interpreted as an argument for the introduction of
this species to South America by ships from Asia.
Nevertheless, in 1946 he described that common
species found in Brazil as a new subspinipes sub-
species Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans, similar
to Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes but differing
in colour from Brazil, South America. Since then,
many myriapodologists assumed that Scolopendra
subspinipes was introduced to South America by
human activity. For that reason and the lack of clear
segments of
paramedian sutures
of the sternite margination of the tergites paramedian sutures
begin at tergit coxosternal
teeth on
each side
tarsal spines
62-19 begins from tergit 5 to 16 3 (4)-5-6-(9) 1-19 (20)
?? ? ???
?2-19 begins from tergit 8 to 10 4-95 in 2/3 1-20
?2-19 begins from tergit 10 to 12 3 4-61-19
? absent ? ? ? ?
4.5-62-19, 1-17 depressions begins from tergit 5 2 5 1-19
6 last sternit with median suture begins from tergit 5 to 7 3 5-61-20
62-20 begins from tergit 5 to 7 3 4-5?
? weak ? 2 6 1-19
5-62-20, getting weaker caudally 3-21 absent, in some
specimens noticeable 5-61-19,
sometimes 2-19
differences to Scolopendra subspinipes sensu stricto I
herewith synonymize S. s. fulgurans with Scolopendra
subspinipes. As it wasnt possible to examine the type
material (probably lost), I examined the Brazilian
material of the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology,
Munich (ZSM) which consists of two specimens
labelled as Scolopendra subspinipes which key out as
Scolopendra subspinipes fulgurans. One of them was
in very good condition (ZSMA20051154).
Scolopendra dawydodffi nom. nov.
(pro S. subspinipes cingulatoides Attems, 1938,
as direct substitute)
Distribution. Vietnam, Laos.
(according to Attems, 1938)
Attems executed an incomplete description of this
species, but he stated that Scolopendra subspinipes
cingulatoides unites the taxonomical characters of
Scolopendra subspinipes and Scolopendra cingulata La-
treille, 1829. Although the only character he describes
as cingulata-like is the shape and the thickness of the
prefemur of the terminal legs. The relation between
length and width, according to Attems, is 5.5 : 3.2
compared to Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani with
8 : 2.5 (both species from the same locality).
Scolopendra subspinipes cingulatoides also differs
from the nominate subspecies by a coxopleural
process which ends in 3 coxopleural spines and the
spinulation of the prefemur of the terminal legs: 2
ventral spines, 4 medial and dorsal medial spines.
The prefemoral process is 3-, seldom 4-tipped.
Lewis (2010) wrote in his new keys, that the
relationship between Scolopendra cingulata and Scolo-
pendra subspinipes cingulatoides should be observed.
The two species can be clearly distinguished by the
spinulation of the prefemur of the terminal legs:
Scolopendra subspinipes cingulatoides has medial
spines while Scolopendra cingulata lacks them, which
supports the assumption that they are separate spe-
For that reason, S. s. cingulatoides is raised to
species level. As Scolopendra cingulatoides Newport,
1844 is a junior synonym of Scolopendra cingulata La-
treille 1829, I herewith propose the name Scolopendra
dawydoffi nom. nov., in honour of Dr. C. Dawydoff
the collector of this species.
Fig. 1. Scolopendra hainanum. A. dorsal view of the head; B. ventral view of the head; C. two-tipped corner spur;
D. reproductive organs with the splitted genital sternit 1 and the knob-like genital sternit 2.
Fig. 2. A. Scolopendra hainanum spec. nov., habitus, adult specimen, 22 cm; B. The primeval forests of Hainan Island
and probably South China are the habitat of Scolopendra hainanum spec. nov.
Scolopendra dehaani Brandt, 1840 (stat. nov.)
Distribution. India, Burma, Bangladesh, Malay Pen-
insula, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, China,
Hong Kong, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan,
Okinawa, Cambodia.
Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani, which is the larg-
est subspecies (over 22 cm body length), is clearly
separable from all other taxa of the Scolopendra
subspinipes group by the absence of ventral spines
at the prefemur of the terminal legs (see Fig. 3). As
this character is stable, S. dehaani is revalidated at
species level.
Scolopendra japonica L. Koch, 1878 (stat. nov.)
Otostigmus puncticeps Attems, 1953, syn. nov.
Otostigmus politoides Attems, 1953, syn. nov.
Distribution. Japan, Taiwan, Cambodia.
Scolopendra japonica differs from S. subspinipes in the
spinulation of the prefemur of the terminal legs, a
prefemoral process with sometimes 2, but usually
3 spines, a coxopleural process with 2-3 spines and
no tarsal spur on locomotory leg 20. In contrast
to Scolopendra dehaani, it shows between 2 and 3
ventral spines at the prefemur of the terminal legs
and differs from Scolopendra dawydoffi by remark-
able long and slender terminal legs instead of the
cingulata-like short and thick legs of S. dawydoffi (see
Fig. 4). Therefore Scolopendra japonica L. Koch, 1878
is revalidated at species level.
Fig. 4. Prefemur of the right terminal leg, ventral view. A. Scolopendra hainanum; B. Scolopendra japonica; C. Scolo-
pendra subspinipes; D. Scolopendra dehaani; E. Scolopendra dawydoffi (drawing after Attems).
Fig. 3. Coxosternal teeth, ventral view. A. Scolopendra hainanum; B. Scolopendra subspinipes; C. Scolopendra dehaani;
D. Scolopendra japonica.
Lewis (2004) noticed, that the type material of
Otostigmus puncticeps Attems, 1953 and Otostigmus
politoides Attems, 1953 in the Naturhistorisches
Museum in Wien (NHMW), was misidentified
to generic level but shows clear characters of the
genus Scolopendra. According to the latest keys, the
species keys out as Scolopendra japonica. Because of
the confusing situation of the S. subspinipes complex,
Lewis (2004) proposed the synonymy of Otostigmus
puncticeps and Otostigmus politoides with Scolopendra
subspinipes without going down to subspecies level.
Although the type material of both species consists
of juvenile or adolescent stages (size from 24-33 mm,
head capsule wider than the tergites, antennomeres
with 17 segments and margination only seen in the
end tergit), it shows some characters which clearly
lead to Scolopendra japonica. The single holotype of
Otostigmus puncticeps, the smaller specimen, has a
Fig. 5. Terminal two segments including coxosternal process, sternites and complete terminal legs, ventral view. A. Sco-
lopendra japonica; B. Scolopendra dehaani; C. Scolopendra subspinipes; D. Scolopendra hainanum.
short coxopleural process with 2-3 tips, 20th pair of
locomotory legs without tarsal spur and spinulation
of the prefemur of the terminal legs is as follows: two
ventrolateral, one medial and one or two dorsome-
dial spines. Otostigmus politoides (single holotype,
33 mm) shows a coxosternal process with 3 spines,
the 20th pair of locomotory legs without tarsal spur
and the prefemur of the terminal legs with 3 ventro-
lateral, one medial and two dorsomedial spines. The
prefemoral process shows 3 spines. I herewith pro-
pose to synonymize them with Scolopendra japonica,
as the descriptions match most closely to this species.
For that reason the occurrence of Scolopendra japonica
in Cambodia has to be added. Further faunistic
investigation should be made, to show whether the
species occurs in other Asian countries as well.
Scolopendra hainanum spec. nov.
During my analysis of the Scolopendra subspinipes
complex I got some living specimens from Hainan
Island, China, which were labelled as Scolopendra
subspinipes dehaani tigerleg but attracted attention
by a constantly difference to all other known mem-
bers of the genus Scolopendra: The new species has
a heart-shaped (or even splitted) genital sternit 1
and to date, it looks like both sexes have a structure
that resembles to a genital sternit 2. During mating
attempts sexed males did not show visible gonopods
like Scolopendra subspinipes and also no spinning
organ could be seen.
Material. Holotype: 156 mm long, of unknown sex,
(preserved in 70 % ethanol, deposited at the Bavarian
State Collection of Zoology in Munich, ZSMA20110500
– the 12th locomotory leg of the left side has been cut-
ted off and preserved in 96 % ethanol for further DNA
analysis), South China, Hainan Island near the city of
Puqian, leg. Liu Meijun, 17 August 2010. – Additionally,
10 still living paratypes presently in the collection of the
author, same collecting data as holotype.
Distribution. Hainan Island (possibly also occurring
in South China (continent)).
General: Scolopendra hainanum has dark brown (or
even black) coloured tergites and orange-brown
striped legs. The head capsule and first tergites are
sometimes coloured reddish brown. It can grow up
to a length of 230 mm.
Head capsule: The head capsule has no sulci but
very fine punctated areas (see Fig. 1). The prefemoral
teeth have 2(-3) apical tubercles and one medial tu-
bercle which is clearly separated. On each side there
are between 6-7 coxosternal teeth on a broad-based
and wide toothplate. The coxosternum has no visible
sulci. The antennomeres have between 17-19 seg-
ments of which 6 are glabrous (the antennomeres of
the holotype seem to be damaged and have around
14-15 segments).
Tergites: Complete and good visible margina-
tion starts at tergite 5. Some specimens show light
paramedian sulci starting on tergite 3 or 4 (the
holotype without paramedian sulci). Tergite 21 is
rounded smoothly without median keel, sulcus or
Sternites: Starting on sternite 2 and ending on
sternite 19 or 20, all sternites show nearly complete
paramedian sulci. Sternite 21 long, gradually nar-
rowed and caudally rounded. Some specimens show
a longitudinal depression on sternite 21.
Coxopleural process: The coxopleural process is
conically shaped, and usually 2-tipped (sometimes
only 1 tip). A dense, small stripe-like pore area leads
to the tip of the coxopleural process.
Locomotory legs: All locomotory legs have 2
accessory claws, legs 1-19 show 1 tarsal spine.
Terminal legs: The terminal legs are long and
slender. The prefemur shows 1 ventrolateral spine,
1 ventromedial spine and 2 dorsomedial spines. The
prefemoral process is 2-tipped.
Sexual organs: The specimens supposed to be
males show neither visible gonopods nor a spinning
organ, but all examined specimens show an anatomi-
cal structure that resembles a genital sternit 2. In all
specimens, the genital sternit 1 is splitted into two
valve-like parts (see Fig. 1d).
Remarks on Scolopendra multidens Newport,
Scolopendra multidens once was supposed to be
another subspecies of Scolopendra subspinipes. Chao
(2008) treated it as a separate species. The spinulation
of the prefemur of the terminal legs, the prefemoral
process and also the coxopleural process exhibit
clear differences to Scolopendra subspinipes. Another
important fact is, that similar to Scolopendra haina-
num, the males of Scolopendra multidens dont have
visible gonopods.
The confusing situation of the Scolopendra subspinipes
group was a well-known problem. The present
investigation is based on morphology solely. As
I know, Jui-Lung Chao is presently working on
Scolopendra subspinipes by studying the molecular
data (COI sequences). His first results suggest, that
the DNA results support the taxonomy presented
here. As far as there won’t be any new scientific
results connected with drastic changes within the
genus Scolopendra, I prefer not to distinguish any
subspecies within Scolopendra subspinipes but to
treat Scolopendra dehaani, S. japonica, S. dawydoffi,
S. multidens and S. hainanum as full species. Probably,
S. multidens is closer related to S. hainanum than to
S. subspinipes, as the shape of the genital organs is
similar and should be regarded as an important
taxonomical character. As this character is more
stable than the spinulation of the terminal legs, the
coxopleural process or the number of the coxosternal
teeth or segments of antennomere, the genital organs
of scolopendrid centipedes should be checked and
described in taxonomic papers now.
Thanks to Dr. John Lewis for the many advices and the
inspiring email contact. Thanks also to Dr. Greg Edge-
combe and the staff of the Natural History Museum in
London, to Dipl.-Biol. Stefan Friedrich and Prof. Dr.
Roland Melzer of the Zoological State Collection in
Munich for their help. Many thanks to my friend Dipl.-
Biol. Martin Thierer-Lutz for the daily phone calls,
meetings and all other support. Also many thanks go to
Turgut Kocer who provided me the photos of the type
material of Scolopendra subspinipes piceoflava.
v. Attems, C. 1930. Myriapoda. 2. Scolopendromor-
pha. In: Schulze, F. E., Kükenthal W., Heider, K.
& Hesse, R. (eds). Das Tierreich, vol. 54. 308 pp.,
Berlin (Walter de Gruyter).
– – 1934. Neue Myriopoden des Museums Basel. Ver-
handlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in
Basel 45: 43-62.
1938. Die von Dr. C. Dawydoff in Französisch
Indochina gesammelten Myriopoden. Mémoires
du Muséum National dHistoire Naturelle 6 (2):
Bücherl, W. 1946. Novidades sistemáticas na ordem Sco-
lopendromorpha. Memorias do Instituto Butantan
19: 135-158.
Chao, J.-L. 2008. Scolopendromorpha (Chilopoda) of
Taiwan. 94 pp., Saarbrücken (VDM Verlag Dr.
– & Chang, H.-W. 2003. The scolopendromorph
centipedes (Chilopoda) of Taiwan. African Inver-
tebrates 44: 1-11.
Kohlrausch, E. 1881. Gattungen und Arten der Scolo-
pendriden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 47: 50-
Lewis, J. G. E. 2001. The scolopendrid centipedes in
the collection of the National Museum of Natural
History in Sofia (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha:
Scolopendridae). Historia Naturalis Bulgarica 13:
2004. Notes on the type specimens of three spe-
cies of Otostigmus described from Indo-China
by Carl Attems (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha:
Scolopendridae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen
Museums in Wien 105 B: 27-33.
2010. A key and annotated list of the Scolopendra
species of the Old World with a reappraisal of
Arthrorhabdus (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha:
Scolopendridae). International Journal of Myria-
podology 3 (2010): 83-122.
Schileyko, A. 2001. New data on chilopod centipedes
of Vietnam. Pp. 417-445 in: Biological diversity of
Vietnam. Data on zoological and botanical studies
in Vu Quang National Park (Ha Tinh Province,
Fortsetzung von Seite 18
Trotz des konsequent homogenen Aufbaus der einzelnen
Beiträge, ist der vorliegende Band abwechslungsreich
und lädt zum Blättern und Lesen ein. So konnte der
Herausgeber eine schöne Auswahl verschiedener Arthro-
podengruppen zusammenstellen. Kurze Beiträge wech-
seln mit langen ab, bedingt durch die sehr unterschied-
liche Artenzahl der einzelnen Taxa. Nachträge zu Grup-
pen, die in früheren Bänden bearbeitet wurden, führen
dem Leser zudem die Dynamik des Projektes vor Augen.
Auf den ersten Blick erstaunlich ist die recht gute Reprä-
sentanz von in oder auf Gewässern lebenden Taxa wie
Wasserwanzen, Wasserläufer, Taumel- und Schwimm-
käfer, aber auch von humicolen Arthropoden wie Asseln
oder Palpenkäfern. Häufig handelt es sich um die Be-
wohner flächenmäßig kleiner Habitate, die durch den
Menschen stark gefährdet sind. Gute Arteninventare
bilden eine wichtige Grundlage zu deren Schutz.
Zu den aus der 2005 von A. van Harten publizierten
Bestandsaufnahme Insects of the UAE: a checklist of
published records bekannten 830 Arten und den in den
ersten drei Bänden dieser Serie hinzugekommenen 570,
390 und 400 Arten , werden diesmal 469 weitere Neu-
funde hinzugefügt, was wiederum einem Zuwachs von
über 20 % entspricht. Eine statistische Auswertung dieses
beständigen Fortschrittes zeigt noch kein Anzeichen einer
nahenden Sättigung. Wir hoffen deshalb, dass die Reihe
mit weiteren inhaltlich und aufmachungsmäßig ähnlich
hochstehenden Bänden weiter wachsen wird, und möch-
ten uns dem Dank anschließen, den Tony van Harten
seiner Hoheit Sheikh Tahnoon Bin Zayed Al Nahyan
ausspricht für dessen großzügige und dauerhafte finan-
zielle Unterstützung des Projektes.
Marion Kotrba, Daniel Burckhardt
2. Ptak, Roderich 2011. Birds and beasts in Chinese texts
and trade. Lectures related to South China and the
overseas world. Maritime Asia Vol. 22, Harrassowitz
Verlag, Wiesbaden, 140 Seiten, 10 Tafeln, in englischer
Sprache. ISBN 978-3-447-06449-1.
Auch in der neuen Folge der Serie Martitime Asia
werden eine Reihe von zoologischen Themen im kultur-
historischen Kontext behandelt. Das Werk enthält fünf
Essays, die ursprünglich zu unterschiedlichen Anlässen
erarbeitet wurden und hier zusammengestellt sind.
Im ersten Artikel geht der Autor, ein Sinologe mit
weitreichenden zoologischen Interessen der Frage nach,
inwieweit es sich bei den chinesischen Tiernamen um
echte oder literarische Arten handelt. Dazu analysiert
er vor allem zwei Werke der konfuzianischen Klassiker,
dem Buch der Oden (Shijing) und der enzyklopädischen
Schrift Erya, in denen viele Tiere erwähnt sind. Aus
dem Buch der Oden konnten kürzlich die Besucher der
taiwanischen Ausstellung Singende Insekten in der
Zoologischen Staatssammlung München Zitate über
Laubheuschrecken, Grillen und Zikaden kennen lernen.
Manchmal, wie in diesem Fall ist der Bezug der Texte zu
realen Arten oder Taxa offensichtlich. Dies gilt zum
Beispiel auch bei Texten über den Panda oder die Karett-
schildkröte. In anderen Fällen kann selbst genaues Stu-
dium nicht erhellen, ob sich ein bestimmter chinesischer
Ausdruck auf eine reale Art bezieht. Zum Beispiel wird
ein Tier beschrieben (lushu), das wohl am ehesten ein
Zebra sein könnte, aber es ist nicht klar, ob die Chinesen
der damaligen Zeit schon Kunde von einem Zebra gehabt
haben können. Auch, ob ein Vogel namens jujiu wirk-
lich ein Vogel oder eher ein Symbol war, bleibt unklar,
obwohl dieses Tier vielfach genannt und beschrieben
wurde und sich schon manche Sinologen um eine Deu-
tung bemüht haben. Vieles kann man nicht mehr klären,
weil ja die Überlieferung auf schriftliche Quellen be-
schränkt ist und die zweifellos vielfältigen mündlichen
Traditionen nicht zugänglich sind. Interessant ist auch,
dass verschiedentlich ähnliche Tiere durch eine gemein-
same Wurzel des Schriftzeichens als zu einem Cluster
gehörig gekennzeichnet sind.
Dass mit Seide und Perlen zwei Handelsgüter tieri-
scher Herkunft von überragender Bedeutung waren ist
allgemein bekannt. Ptak zeigt aber, dass noch viel mehr
Tiere und tierische Produkte im späten Mittelalter und
der frühen Neuzeit in China wesentliche Handelsgüter
waren. Zum Beispiel ist von bemalten japanischen Para-
vents bekannt, dass Schweine, Hunde, Vögel und sogar
Elefanten von China nach Japan exportiert wurden. Auch
verschiedene Vögel, deren Gefieder bewundert wurde,
wie z. B. Eisvögel (kingfisher, feicui) waren ein vielfach
bezeugtes Handelsgut. Straußeneier waren als Drachen-
eier besonders interessant. Natürlich waren zum Beispiel
auch Ambra (die wachsartige Substanz aus dem Verdau-
ungstrakt der Pottwale) und rote Koralle wichtige,
wertvolle Güter.
In je einem Artikel wird über die Literatur über
Kamele der Tang- und Ming-Zeit sowie über Pferde
(speziell den Pferdehandel auf der Insel Hainan) referiert;
diese beiden Säuger waren von besonderer Bedeutung
für den Transport und selbst wichtiges Handelsgut. In
einem Essay analysiert Ptak die älteste Liste von Vögeln
auf Macao in dem Buch Aomen jilüe von 1751 von den
beiden Autoren Yin Guangren und Zhang Rulin. Der
Autor kommt allerdings zu dem Schluss, dass die Auto-
ren der Liste wohl manche der Arten selbst nicht gesehen
haben; nur wenige der Vögel können klar einer Art zu-
geordnet werden. Im letzten Essay wird die Auseinan-
dersetzung der Quellen mit Tierbeschreibungen, die für
chinesische Verhältnisse exotisch waren, dargestellt. Das
Wissen über viele Tiere wurde von den Jesuiten in das
Reich der Mitte gebracht.
Auch dieser Band der Serie Maritime Asia setzt
sich mit Tieren auseinander, oft mit philologischem
Schwerpunkt, aber stets mit zoologischem Hintergrund.
Es ist wieder ein Werk von hohem interdisziplinärem
Wert das Aspekte der chinesischen Kultur erschließt.
Klaus Schönitzer
... morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, S. multidens Newport, 1844 and S. subspinipes Leach, 1815-have wider distributions. The presence of S. laeta Haase, 1887 in the Philippines (Wang 1951) is doubtful (Kronmüller 2012) and according to Lewis (2010) all citations of this species outside of Australia must be disregarded. Also, Lewis (2010) did not consider the two isolated citations of S. japonica L. Koch 1878 by Takakuwa (1942) and Wang (1962) from the Philippines and the citation of S. dehaani Brandt, 1840 (Siriwut et. ...
... However, individual and geographic variation, sexual dimorphism, appendicular regeneration and ontogenetic changes complicate the identification of some specimens. For that reasons, in the last decades several studies have introduced a molecular approach as a complement to morphology-based taxonomic works (Edgecombe & Giribet 2008;Joshi & Karanth 2011, 2012Murienne et al. 2010Murienne et al. , 2011. The selected sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) has been used as a reference for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in diverse organisms (Mengual 2008, Krishnamurthy & Francis 2012, Tyagi et al. 2017, being equally proved useful as a complement for the centipede's species delimitation (Edgecombe & Giribet 2008;Vahtera et al. 2012Vahtera et al. , 2013Oeyen et al. 2014;Siriwut et al. 2015Siriwut et al. , 2016. ...
... The samples were relaxed with 70% ethanol concentration for ten minutes and then transferred to a higher ethanol concentration on order to set their posture for photography. Species identification was based on Kraepelin (1903), Attems (1930), Kronmüller (2009Kronmüller ( , 2012, Lewis (2010) and Siriwut et al. (2015Siriwut et al. ( , 2016. Standardized nomenclature for centipede morphology was applied following Bonato et al. (2010). ...
The genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 is represented in the Philippines’ fauna by five species, two of which are endemic. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) were obtained from six Scolopendra specimens belonging to two endemic species and a new one, described here as Scolopendra paradoxa Doménech sp. nov. These sequences were analyzed together with another forty-one sequences from GenBank, including additional species of Scolopendra and a few representatives of other Scolopendridae genera. Phylogenetic trees inferred from the COI analysis using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining showed the three Philippines Scolopendra endemic species as a polyphyletic group coherent with their respective morphologies, although the position of S. spinosissima Kraepelin, 1903 varied within the obtained trees. Species delimitation based on standard external morphological characters was also concordant with the observed genetic distances, monophyly and node support, confirming S. subcrustalis Kronmüller, 2009 and S. paradoxa sp. nov. as separate species also at the molecular level, while only the position of S. spinosissima could not be properly established with any of the statistical methods used. In addition, the male genitalia of the three studied species were found to lack gonopods and a penis. Remarks on the ultimate legs prefemoral spinous formula of S. spinosissima plus a key to the species of the genus Scolopendra in the Philippines are provided.
... The other two species, S. subspinipes and S. hainanum, are clustered into one branch together. They could not be differentiated from one another, and these were inconsistent with the morphological taxonomy 9 . In the ML tree, the structure shows separated groups (see Fig. 4), except S. subspinipes and S. hainanum overlaps with two sequences of S. mutilans and one sequence of S. multidens which may be suspicious sequences. ...
... In recent years, many new species had been found in China, such as S. negrocapitis and S. mojiangica 34,35 . Many former subspecies, i.e, S. multidens, S. dehaani and S. japonica, were also elevated as valid species 8,9,32 . Although there are obviously differences in morphological characteristics between S. mutilans and S. subspinipes, Siriwut 1 failed to distinguish these two species in the phylogenetic tree. ...
... The representative specimens were chosen randomly from the samples of nominal species to avoid personal bias. In light of previous literatures, some characteristics have important value in identification and taxonomy 2,9 . The typical morphological features of four parts, including the body, cephalic plate, tergite 21 and ultimate leg prefemur, were chosed for this analysis. ...
Full-text available
The centipede Scolopendra has important medicinal value and high toxicity, making it to be an interesting subject for evolutionary studies. However, species identification in China is difficult because of limited resource exploration and lack of recent taxonomic revision. To improve the identification and taxonomy of the genus Scolopendra in China, an in-depth investigation was conducted, and an integrated method that combined morphological characteristics with molecular data was applied. The identification key was revised to show the main difference among species. Our results indicated that morphologically-delimited species were consistent with the molecular analysis inferred from the COI sequences with genetic distances and phylogenetic trees. Additional morphometrics of four characteristics provided criteria for shape variation. These results suggested that the members of the genus Scolopendra in China could be delineated as 14 separate species. A new species from Lufeng county, Yunnan province, was proposed according to its characteristics, which was named as S. lufengia sp. nov. Our results comprehensively ascertained the taxonomic status of Scolopendra species in China, explored their phylogenetic relationships, showed a high success in the identification of medicinal centipedes.
... Scolopendra damnosa Koch, 1878 was described from an unknown locality in Japan and later recorded from Mt. Fuji, central Honshu, and Iheya-jima Island (Kishida 1928, Omine 1963); however, this species was synonymized with S. subspinipes by Kraepelin (1903). The records of two species were not considered in recent reviews of Japanese and Taiwanese Scolopendra fauna (Chao 2002(Chao , 2008Chao & Chang 2003;Shinohara et al. 2015): S. dehaani Brandt, 1840(Wang 1955, 1956Lewis 2010;Kronmüller 2012) and S. oraniensis Lucas, 1846(Kraepelin 1903Attems 1930). Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866described from an unknown locality in Japan-was treated as a nomen dubium by Golovatch (2014). ...
... Newly obtained specimens were identified by referring to Kraepelin (1903), Attems (1930), Takakuwa (1940), Chao (2002Chao ( , 2008, Chao & Chang (2003), Lewis (2010), Kronmüller (2012), Shinohara et al. (2015) and Siriwut et al. (2016). ...
In Japan and Taiwan, five valid species of the genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 have been described: S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, S. subspinipes Leach, 1816, S. mutilans Koch, 1878, S. japonica Koch, 1878, and S. multidens Newport, 1844. Recently, an undetermined species was found in the Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan. Using molecular phylogenetic analyses with mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA and nuclear 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes as well as conventional morphological examination, we successfully discriminated this sixth species as an independent lineage from S. subspinipes, S. mutilans, and other named congeners from East and Southeast Asia. Therefore, the species was described as S. alcyona Tsukamoto & Shimano, sp. nov. Several situational evidences suggest that this species prefers streamside environments and exhibits amphibious behavior.
... Scolopendra dehaani occurs in five phenotypic color variations across a broad distribution, which can make it difficult to distinguish from other Scolopendra spp. However, one key diagnostic feature of S. dehaani is the lack of ventral spines on the prefemur of the ultimate legs, which are present in other Scolopendra species in this region, including S. subspinipes, S. dawydoffi, S. pinguis, and S. morsitans (Siriwut et al. 2015(Siriwut et al. , 2016Kronmüller 2012). ...
... Scolopendra dehaani (Brandt 1840) is one of the most commonly encountered Scolopendrids across mainland Southeast Asia (Siriwut et al. 2015), though the species also occurs in East Asia, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (Siriwut et al. 2016). As the largest of Asian centipedes, S. dehaani can reach over 22 cm in body length (Kronmüller 2012), and have been documented to occasionally feed on vertebrate prey such as small snakes (Siriwut et al. 2016). We report three observations of wild Scolopendra dehaani preying on vertebrates in Northeast Thailand. ...
Large Scolopendrid centipedes are capable of preying on small vertebrates. However, details on their foraging behavior and diet under natural conditions are lacking. We describe novel behaviors of a widely distributed Southeast Asian centipede, Scolopendra dehaani, in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. We report the first documented observation of a Scolopendra species actively foraging and capturing prey diurnally, as well as the first arboreal predation by S. dehaani, and provide brief insight into prey handling strategies large Scolopendrids may use to subdue vertebrate prey. Each of the three predation events were of S. dehaani feeding on small vertebrates, indicating that vertebrate prey may make up an important component of S. dehaani diet in the wild. We suggest S. dehaani, and likely other large “terrestrial” Scolopendrid centipedes which live in tropical forests, forage arboreally and may rely on large trees as arboreal refuges when terrestrial refuges are limited. Additionally, these observations demonstrate that some S. dehaani individuals may occasionally actively search for prey diurnally. Further studies are needed to better understand the ecological habits of S. dehaani and other tropical Scolopendra species.
... Venomous creatures are considered to be a very distinctive class of species among animals [22]. Venomous animals are equipped with venom glands and venoms, which provide them outstanding advantages for their existence [24][25][26]. Toxins from centipedes have been well studied. Some of them have been established as important tools for predation, and some of them are useful candidates for drug design [22,27]. ...
... Some of them have been established as important tools for predation, and some of them are useful candidates for drug design [22,27]. To the best of our knowledge, as a novel member of centipedes distributed only in Hainan and Guangxi province, China, the bioactive peptides from venom of S. hainanum have not been reported [26,28]. For the first time, we identified a new serine protease inhibitor (SPI) from S. hainanum, named as ShSPI and characterized as an atypical kazal motif. ...
Full-text available
Elastase is a globular glycoprotein and belongs to the chymotrypsin family. It is involved in several inflammatory cascades on the basis of cleaving the important connective tissue protein elastin, and is strictly regulated to a balance by several endogenous inhibitors. When elastase and its inhibitors are out of balance, severe diseases will develop, especially those involved in the cardiopulmonary system. Much attention has been attracted in seeking innovative elastase inhibitors and various advancements have been taken on clinical trials of these inhibitors. Natural functional peptides from venomous animals have been shown to have anti-protease properties. Here, we identified a kazal-type serine protease inhibitor named ShSPI from the cDNA library of the venom glands of Scolopendra hainanum. ShSPI showed significant inhibitory effects on porcine pancreatic elastase and human neutrophils elastase with Ki values of 225.83 ± 20 nM and 12.61 ± 2 nM, respectively. Together, our results suggest that ShSPI may be an excellent candidate to develop a drug for cardiopulmonary diseases.
... Taxonomically, the centipede was originally described as a valid species, S. mutilans, by Koch (1878) from Japan, and then many taxonomists treated S. mutilans is as a subspecies of S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 since Kraepelin's treatment (1903: 263) (see the recent synonyms in Siriwut et al. 2016: 30). On the other hand, S. subspinipes mutilans was regarded as a synonym of S. subspinipes subspinipes in subsequent studies (Chao & Chang 2003;Kronmüller 2012;Lewis 2010;Schileyko 1995Schileyko , 2007Siriwut et al. 2016). However, other recent integrative taxonomic studies have suggested S. s. mutilans as a valid species (Kang et al. 2017;Vahtera et al. 2013). ...
... Recently, taxonomy on the genus Scolopendra is at a new turning point to attempt its exact species identification and recognition using both morphology and molecular data. Focused on S. mutilans, this species has been alternatively placed at subspecific status of S. subspinipes since Kraepelin (1903) or synonymized with S. subspinipes subspinipes mainly in the traditional taxonomy (Chao & Chang 2003;Kronmüller 2012;Lewis 2010;Schileyko 1995Schileyko , 2007 sequenced two specimens of S. s. mutilans, which were collected from Japan (KF676526) and Taiwan (KF676527), and recognized S. s. mutilans is separated from the typical S. subspinipes inferred from the result of phylogenetic analyses using morphological data and four genetic markers. Kang et al. (2017) examined specimens of S. mutilans collected from South China and they also advocated S. s. mutilans is the status of independent species based on morphologically distinguishable characteristics and an independent clade from other compared species. ...
Full-text available
In Korea, the centipede called “Wang‐ji‐ne” or “O‐gong” is used as an important medicinal resource. This centipede has been known as Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Koch 1878. Recent studies have assessed its taxonomic treatment in several geographical populations from China, Japan and Taiwan, but not Korea. We therefore attempted to assess exact species status for the Korean population of this subspecies using both morphological and DNA barcode methods. The result inferred from DNA barcoding showed that the Korean population is S. mutilans explicitly separated from S. subspinipes. Within S. mutilans, the Korean population is morphologically identical and genetically closer to the Chinese population rather than island populations of Japan and Taiwan. Particularly, the mainland populations from Korea and China share six haplotypes from 17 despite being far apart geographically.
... Lewis (2010) provided a diagnosis, an identification key, and an annotated list of Old World Scolopendra species. Kronmüller (2009Kronmüller ( , 2010Kronmüller ( , 2012 described and proposed as new three Scolopendra species from the Philippines, Madagascar, and South China. He also reviewed the subspecies Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815 and proposed a nomen novum (Kronmüller 2012). ...
... Kronmüller (2009Kronmüller ( , 2010Kronmüller ( , 2012 described and proposed as new three Scolopendra species from the Philippines, Madagascar, and South China. He also reviewed the subspecies Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815 and proposed a nomen novum (Kronmüller 2012). Simaiakis et al. (2012) and Oeyen et al. (2014) studied the evolutionary history of Scolopendra cingulata Latreille, 1829 in Europe based on its morphology and molecular data, respectively. ...
Full-text available
Zootaxa 4425 (1): 153-164 Abstract Scolopendra arthrorhabdoides Ribaut, 1913 is redescribed based on fresh material. Its taxonomic status is evaluated and compared with Scolopendra armata Kraepelin, 1903 and Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1816. The geographical distribution of S. arthrorhabdoides is also revised. Scolopendra armata is reported from Colombia for the first time.
... Scolopendra subspinipes (Scolopendridae): Von in Blauholz und Mahagoniholz aus Westindien, Südamerika, Madagaskar im Hafen Hamburg festgestellt. Das genaue Ursprungsgebiet ist nicht bekannt, liegt aber vermutlich in den tropischen Regionen Asiens (Kronmüller 2012). Es sind keine Nachweise in der freien Natur bekannt. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Es wird für Deutschland die erste konsequent kriterienbasierte Bewertung der naturschutzfachlichen Invasivität von gebietsfremden terrestrischen Wirbellosen Arten (alle Gruppen außer Insekten) vorgelegt. Zusätzlich werden kommentierte Gesamtartenlisten aller in Deutschland wild lebend nachgewiesenen gebietsfremden terrestrischen Arten (Archäozoa und Neozoa) der bearbeiteten Gruppen präsentiert. --------------- This volume presents an assessment of the invasiveness of selected as well as a checklist of all wild living nonnative terrestrial invertebrate species (Non-Insecta) in Germany [in German].
... This kind of morphological change can be quite useful for species identification, examples being a digitiform process on the ultimate leg prefemur in males of some species of Otostigmus (Parotostigmus), a femoral process in males of Digitipes and a swollen shape of tarsus 1 in Alluropus. Previous taxonomic work on Scolopendromorpha has used these secondary sexual characters (Lewis 2000;Chao 2008;Kronmüller 2012;Siriwut et al. 2014), and they support groups recovered by both morphological and molecular analyses in this study. ...
Phylogenetic relationships of two morphologically similar scolopendrid genera, Rhysida Wood, 1862, and Alluropus Silvestri, 1912, were investigated based on broad-scale taxonomic sampling from SE Asia, India and Australia. Morphological revision and molecular phylogenetics using three loci validate seven Rhysida species in SE Asia and Australia: R. lithobioides (Newport, 1845), R. longipes (Newport, 1845), R. immarginata (Porat, 1876), R. nuda (Newport, 1845), R. carinulata (Haase, 1887), R. singaporiensis Verhoeff, 1937 and R. polyacantha Koch, 1985. The nominal SE Asian species R. leviventer Attems, 1953 and R. marginata Attems, 1953 are placed in junior subjective synonymy with R. lithobioides and Alluropus calcaratus (Pocock, 1891), respectively. The monotypic genus Alluropus is redescribed, molecular phylogeny recovering it nesting together with Indo-Australian Rhysida. Taxonomic revision reassigned R. calcarata Pocock, 1891 to Alluropus based on its morphological and molecular similarity to the type, A. demangei Silvestri, 1912, the differences between putative species being sexual variation. Two morphologically distinct allopatric populations of A. calcaratus, comb. nov. (= A. demangei, syn. nov.) were found in the Indochina subregion. Phylogenetic relationships in Otostigminae remain unsettled because clades within several genera lack significant support, although Rhysida consistently falls into two clades that are not each other's closest relative.
The extant genera and subgenera of the order Scolopendromorpha are critically reviewed and provided with updated diagnoses and a new identification key; the most recent revisions of scolopendromorph genera are concisely summarised. Rhoda Meinert, 1886 and Cryptops (Chromatanops) Verhoeff, 1906 are suggested to be a junior synonyms of Scolopendropsis Brandt, 1841 and Cryptops (Cryptops) Leach, 1814, respectively. The subgeneric status is formally fixed for Cryptops (Paracryptops) Pocock, 1891 and Cormocephalus (Campylostigmus) Ribaut, 1923; the taxonomic status of the former genus Kanparka Waldock & Edgecombe, 2012 is discussed. As a result of synonymies, the number of scolopendromorph genera and subgenera is currently 37. The formal status of the former tribes Scolopendrini Leach, 1814, Asanadini Verhoeff, 1907 and Arrhabdotini Attems, 1930 is briefly discussed; the presence of the sexual dimorphism among the taxa of generic level is overviewed.
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Between 1991 and 2002 more than 300 specimens of scolopendromorphs were collected from 100 sites in Taiwan. In total, 16 species and subspecies in the genera, Cryptops, Otostigmus, Rhysida, Scolopendra, and Scolopocryptops were identified. A key to the scolopendromorph genera and species of Taiwan is presented. Three species not previously recorded from Taiwan, nor present amongst the specimens examined from several museums, namely Cryptops japonicus Takakuwa, 1934, Scolopocryptops capillipedatus (Takakuwa, 1938), and Scolopocryptops melanostomus melanostomus (Newport, 1845), were collected in this study. Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, formerly regarded as a subspecies of Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815, is considered a valid species. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch, 1878 may be a young S. subspinipes subspinipes. Scolopendra subspinipes japonica may be a subspecies or a geographic variation of S. multidens, but this requires further investigation. Five previously recorded species and two subspecies have not been found on the island in this study. It is proposed that Rhysida longipes brevicornis Takakuwa, 1934 = Rhysida longipes longipes (Newport, 1845), Rhysida nuda brevicornis Wang, 1951 = Rhysida immarginata immarginata (Porat, 1876), and Otostigmus insularis Hasse, 1887 = Otostigmus scaber Porat, 1876. Otostigmus striatus Takakuwa, 1940 may be a synonym of O. scaber. Otostigmus multispinosus Takakuwa, 1937 may be an inaccurately described O. aculeatus Haase, 1887.
In order to avoid any confusion with species of Scolopendra, the genus Arthrorhabdus is reviewed. For the Old World species at least, the length of the coxosternal tooth plates is the most useful distinguishing feature. Arthrorhabdus somalus Manfredi, 1933 is transferred to Scolopendra becoming S. somala (Manfredi, 1933). A. jonesii Verhoeff, 1938 is removed from that genus as a species of uncertain status. A key to the species of Arthrorhabdus is provided. A diagnosis of Scolopendra and key to the 42 species and 7 subspecies of the Old World are provided together with an annotated list of species. Scolopendra gastroforeata Muralewič, 1913 is a junior subjective synonym of S. s. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and Scolopendra nuda (Jangi & Dass, 1980) is a junior subjective synonym of S. mirabilis (Porat, 1876). Scolopendra teretipes (Porat, 1893) is removed from synonymy under S. mirabilis (Porat, 1876) and returned to full specific status. It is suggested that S. attemsi Lewis, Minelli & Shelley, 2006, and S. jangii Khanna & Yadav 1997, may be specimens of S. morsitans L., 1758, and S. andhrensis Jangi & Dass, 1984 may be S. s. subspinipes. Scolopendra subspinipes punensis Jangi & Dass, 1984 may be an immature S. s. dehaani Brandt, 1840. The presence of S. gigantea L., 1758 in India is considered improbable. Several Scolopendra species are very similar and require further investigation; thus male S. canidens Newport, 1844 and S. cretica Attems, 1902 are indistinguishable. Scolopendra arenicola (Lawrence, 1975) and S. monticola (Lawrence, 1975) may be conspecific, S. pinguis Pocock, 1891 and S. gracillima Attems, 1898 are also very similar. The relationship between S. cingulata Latreille, 1829 and S. subspinipes cingulatoides Attems, 1938 should be examined as should S. valida balfouri Pocock, 1896 currently synonymised under S. valida. Scolopendra langi (Attems, 1928) exhibits some unusual characters and should be reassessed. Scolopendra madagascariensis Attems, 1910 is known only from a single inadequately described specimen. Also discussed is S. amazonica Bücherl, 1946 currently regarded as a junior synonym of S. morsitans, as are the characters separating S. morsitans and S. laeta Haase, 1887. Non Australian records of S. laeta may be disregarded.
Novidades sistemáticas na ordem Scolopendromorpha
  • W Bücherl
Bücherl, W. 1946. Novidades sistemáticas na ordem Scolopendromorpha. Memorias do Instituto Butantan 19: 135-158.
New data on chilopod centipedes of Vietnam
  • A Schileyko
Schileyko, A. 2001. New data on chilopod centipedes of Vietnam. Pp. 417-445 in: Biological diversity of Vietnam. Data on zoological and botanical studies in Vu Quang National Park (Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam).
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Notes on the type specimens of three species of Otostigmus described from Indo-China by Carl Attems (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)
– – 2004. Notes on the type specimens of three species of Otostigmus described from Indo-China by Carl Attems (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 105 B: 27-33.
Gattungen und Arten der Scolopendriden
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Kohlrausch, E. 1881. Gattungen und Arten der Scolopendriden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 47: 50-132.