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B. Helwing, Early metallurgy in Iran - an innovative region as seen from the inside. In: S. Burmeister/S. Hansen/M. Kunst/N. Müller-Scheessel (eds.), Metal matters. Innovative technologies and social change in Prehistory and Antiquity. Menschen - Kulturen - Traditionen: ForschungsCluster 2 12 (Rahden Westf 2013) 105–135.

Authors:
  • Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz
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The Neolithic–Chalcolithic site of Belovode covers approximately 40 ha (Figure 1). In the two fieldwork campaigns of 2012 and 2013, only 31.5 m2 was excavated due to the archaeometallurgical focus of the project. The trench was positioned on the eastern platform of the settlement, where previous excavations had uncovered significant metallurgical evidence in Trenches 3 (Šljivar and Jacanović 1997c, Radivojević et al. 2010a) and 17, which are located to the north and the south of Trench 18 respectively. A 5 x 5 m area was opened in the 2012 season and then, based on the preliminary spatial analysis of metallurgical finds, in 2013 the trench was slightly expanded with a 2 x 3 m extension on the eastern side.
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This chapter summarises the macroscopic and microscopic analyses of pottery sherds from the sites of Belovode and Pločnik, presented in Chapters 14 and 31, and provides insight into different technological traits in order to aid reconstruction of pottery making recipes in these two Vinča culture communities. Using a multi- pronged scientific approach, we reconstructed routines of raw material acquisition and processing, techniques of forming and finishing vessels, firing conditions and organisational aspects of pottery production. The possible non-local production identified in this research is also considered in order to understand the dynamics that shaped pottery circulation in these prehistoric communities (e.g. Quinn et al. 2010). These results also contribute significantly to the previous technological studies carried out on Neolithic pottery from sites in the central Balkans (Figure 1) (e.g. Dammers et al. 2012; Kaiser 1984, 1989, 1990; Kaiser et al. 1986; Kreiter et al. 2009, 2011, 2013, 2017a, 2017b, 2019; Spataro 2014, 2017, 2018; Szakmány et al. 2019).
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The 2012 and 2013 excavations and subsequent post- excavation analyses by The Rise of Metallurgy in Eurasia project team at the site of Belovode built upon two decades of earlier work led by the National Museum of Belgrade and the Museum in Požarevac (Jacanović and Šljivar 2003; Šljivar 2006; Šljivar and Jacanović 1996b, 1996c, 1997c; Šljivar et al. 2006). This earlier work across 17 trenches had identified four building horizons (Belovode A–D), the presence of the entire Vinča culture ceramic sequence from Vinča Tordoš (A–B1) to the Gradac Phase (I–III) as well as stone tools, figurines, obsidian blades, animal bone and, most importantly for the current research, evidence for the smelting of copper ores. As detailed in Chapter 5, it was the archaeometallurgical analysis of five small copper slags from Trench 3 together with the radiocarbon dating of the excavated horizon in which they were found that provided evidence for copper smelting at c. 5000 BC (Radivojević et al. 2010a) and the foundation for The Rise of Metallurgy in Eurasia project. However, in the absence of any detailed publication on these earlier excavations at Belovode, further questions relating to broader context of the earliest evidence for copper smelting could not be explored.
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Köhne Pāsgāh Tepesi is an ancient mound site in the Araxes (Aras) River valley, in the Khodääfarin delta. It was surveyed and excavated as part of the Khoda Afarin dam project. This paper presents the preliminary results of those investigations. Five cultural phases have been recognized, which has accompanying radiocarbon dates. Evidence suggests that the site was continually occupied from the Late Chalcolithic through to the end of the Early Bronze Age. The changes that did occur appear to have been gradual and not disruptive.