Article

Pretend and Physical Play: Links to Preschoolers' Affective Social Competence

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  • Pennsylvania State University Berks
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Abstract

This study investigated different forms of pretend and physical play as predictors of preschool children's affective social competence (ASC). Data were collected from 122 preschool children (57 boys, 65 girls; 86 European American, 9 African American, 17 Hispanic, and 10 other ethnicity) over a 2-year period. Children participated in emotion knowledge interviews, mothers rated children's emotion regulation skill, and observations were conducted of children's emotional expressiveness with peers in both Years 1 and 2. Naturalistic observations of children's peer play behavior were conducted to assess the proportion of time children spend in pretend and physical play in Year 1. Analyses revealed that sociodramatic play predicted children's emotional expressiveness, emotion knowledge, and emotion regulation 1 year later, after controlling for Year 1 ASC skills. Rough-and-tumble play predicted children's emotional expressiveness and emotion regulation 1 year later, whereas exercise play predicted only emotion regulation. Some associations between sociodramatic play and rough-and-tumble play and children's ASC were moderated by gender.

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... Limited evidence was observed regarding improvements of play programs on emotion recognition [34], dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies [34], and social cooperation [30,35]. These results were expected since in these play programs, role play and physical play were observed, and it is known both types of play positively relate to emotion recognition and regulation, as well as social competence [62][63][64]. There was also limited evidence for the absence of effects of play programs in Theory of Mind [41], emotion identification [34], and functional emotion regulation strategies [34]. ...
... There was also limited evidence for the absence of effects of play programs in Theory of Mind [41], emotion identification [34], and functional emotion regulation strategies [34]. These results contradict what was expected given these programs involved role play, which has been positively related to Theory of Mind [65], emotion identification and regulation [63]. The lack of positive effects on Theory of Mind was attributed to the participants' poor development of emotional regulation [65]. ...
... In the combined play and relaxation program, limited evidence exists that this type of intervention program does not improve emotion expression [45]. This result was not expected since free play allows the children to express themselves freely, contributing to improved emotional expression [63,70]. Similarly, relaxation programs also provide body and emotional awareness and regulation moments, positively contributing to emotional expression [16,71]. ...
Article
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There has been a recent increase in body-oriented interventions implemented in educational contexts. Body-oriented interventions are grounded on the body–mind relationship, involving body and movement awareness and expression. In this systematic review of the literature on body-oriented interventions implemented in preschool contexts, we review the scope and quality of the quantitative evidence of each type of body-oriented intervention regarding social-emotional competence. Seven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. Seven core body-oriented intervention programs were found (e.g., play, relaxation, and psychomotricity). Play programs were the most studied and appear to be the most effective to improve social-emotional competence. Nevertheless, the level of scientific evidence was compromised by the lack of studies with high methodological quality.
... Pretend play has been widely studied as a window to child development. One important research agenda that has received growing attention is to understand how pretend play is related to children's emotions (e.g., Fiorelli and Russ, 2012;Lindsey and Colwell, 2013;Rao and Gibson, 2019). Also receiving increasing recognition in the field is the need to examine the complexity of social pretend play. ...
... Studies on how pretend play is associated with emotional expression have been largely conducted with young children. Lindsey and Colwell (2013) observed 122 preschoolers' naturally occurring play behavior with peers in a child care setting at two time points (1 year apart). At Time 1, children's engagement in sociodramatic play (e.g., complex social role play) was positively related to their positive emotional expressiveness and negatively related to their negative emotional expressiveness. ...
... Additionally, children were more likely to display positive emotions when they or their play partner engaged in more pretend play with emotional themes. Although previous studies have documented positive relations between pretend play and positive emotions (e.g., Hoffmann and Russ, 2012;Lindsey and Colwell, 2013), none of them has examined how a partner's pretend play is related to a child's positive emotions. Significant partner effects found in the current study suggest that a child's expression of positive emotions may be promoted by their social partner's pretend behavior. ...
Article
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Background: Understanding how pretend play is related to positive emotions is important for supporting children's development and promoting their wellbeing. However, previous studies have mainly examined this association at individual levels and overlooked the potential links at interpersonal levels. This is an important knowledge gap because pretend play is commonly performed in social contexts. The current study investigates how peer pretend play is associated with children's display of positive emotions at both individual and dyadic levels. Methods: One hundred and eight Chinese children ( M age = 8.95 years, SD = 0.99, 51.9% girls) were observed playing in peer dyads with toys. An interaction of 10 min was coded for each child's pretend play behavior, social and emotional pretend play themes, and display of positive emotions. Multilevel modeling was used to examine age and gender differences in peer pretend play. Actor–Partner Interdependence Models (APIM) were estimated to test the hypothesized associations between dyadic pretend play and children' display of positive emotions. Results: Compared to children whose playmates engaged in less pretend play, children whose playmates engaged in more pretend play were more likely to display positive emotions ( p = 0.021). Additionally, children's display of positive emotions was predicted by both their own ( p = 0.027) and their playmate's ( p = 0.01) pretend play with emotional themes. Compared to younger children, older children were less likely to engage in pretend play ( p = 0.002), but more likely to engage in pretend play with social themes ( p = 0.03) when the total frequency of pretend play was controlled for. Boys were 4.9 times and 2.16 times as likely as girls to create aggressive pretend themes ( p < 0.001) and non-aggressive negative pretend themes ( p = 0.007), respectively. No significant gender differences were found in positive pretend themes. Conclusions: Pretending with peers may increase not only children's own, but also their play partner's display of positive emotions. Pretend play may not simply decline in middle childhood as previously assumed.
... Hoffmann and Russ (2012) found that emotional regulation is also associated with pretend play. There are two types of pretend play that young children exhibit: fantasy play and sociodramatic play (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). Fantasy play typically begins around the age of two and is recognized by a child's continuous verbalization of a state of pretend, meaning the child does not stay completely in character and feels the need to continue exploring what he is pretending to do (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). ...
... There are two types of pretend play that young children exhibit: fantasy play and sociodramatic play (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). Fantasy play typically begins around the age of two and is recognized by a child's continuous verbalization of a state of pretend, meaning the child does not stay completely in character and feels the need to continue exploring what he is pretending to do (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). When the boundaries for pretend play storylines are set, children will switch to sociodramatic play, which usually takes the form of an extended social narrative and imitates a storyline to which the children have been exposed, such as "princess," "superhero," or other characters and roles (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). ...
... Fantasy play typically begins around the age of two and is recognized by a child's continuous verbalization of a state of pretend, meaning the child does not stay completely in character and feels the need to continue exploring what he is pretending to do (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). When the boundaries for pretend play storylines are set, children will switch to sociodramatic play, which usually takes the form of an extended social narrative and imitates a storyline to which the children have been exposed, such as "princess," "superhero," or other characters and roles (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). ...
... αναφ. στο Holmes, 2012) και μέσο έκφρασης και διαχείρισης των έντονων συναισθημάτων (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013, όπ. αναφ. ...
... στο Veiga et al., 2016. Επίσης, κατά τους Lindsey & Colwell (2013), μέσα από το ελεύθερο παιχνίδι τα παιδιά μαθαίνουν για τις αιτίες και τις συνέπειες των πράξεών τους (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013, όπ. αναφ. ...
... στο Veiga et al., 2016. Επίσης, κατά τους Lindsey & Colwell (2013), μέσα από το ελεύθερο παιχνίδι τα παιδιά μαθαίνουν για τις αιτίες και τις συνέπειες των πράξεών τους (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013, όπ. αναφ. ...
... Fantasy and role play are both a form of pretend play, which is the most widely studied form of play, and is characterized by 'a symbolic behaviour in which one thing is playfully treated as if it were something else' (Fein, 1987, p. 282). Whereas, in fantasy play, the child uses the 'as if' component when engaging with objects, in role play, the pretend mode is focused on the child and her or his peers, who transform themselves to act out playing themes (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). Fantasy play begins by the age of two, increases during the preschool years and declines thereafter (Fein, 1981), whereas role play only emerges around the age of three (Rogers & Evans, 2008). ...
... The internal consistency of the scale was good (Cronbach's alpha = .80). Children's play behaviour Children's play behaviour was coded through observational schemes similar to those employed by Lindsey and Colwell (2013) , using software which was specifically developed for this research. Two research assistants received 40 hours of training, which included studying the coding manual, analyzing videos with the primary investigator and discussing the attributed ratings, coding independently and comparing codes with the primary investigator. ...
... where this kind of play only accounted for 10% of children's play at the most (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013; Pellegrini, 1987 ). Yet, these studies used indoor settings , whereas previous studies have also shown that playing outdoors in a crowded and open area stimulates rough-and-tumble play, especially with limited adult supervision (Pellegrini, 1984; Smith & Hagan, 1980 in Pellegrini, 1987 Stephenson, 2002). ...
Article
Social interactions at the playground have been represented as a rich learning opportunity to hone and master social skills at preschool years. Specifically, all forms of social play (fantasy, role, exercise or rough-and-tumble) have been related to children's social competence. The main goal of this study was to examine whether it is a certain kind of social play which facilitates the development of social competence, or if it is just the opportunity for interacting during recess that provides children with an optimal environment for social learning. A total of 73 preschoolers (4–6 years old) were videotaped at the school's playground. Teachers provided assessments of children's social competence. Children's interactions at the playground were assessed through an innovative measuring method, based on radio-frequency identification devices. The results showed a positive association between exercise play and children's social competence. In contrast with the literature, both forms of pretend play, fantasy and role play were unrelated to children's social competence. Smaller peer groups and longer interactions also demonstrated a positive association with these preschoolers' social competence. The study shows the importance of outdoor physical play for preschoolers' social success. Moreover, the study suggests that the environment in which children play has an important effect on the adaptive nature of their play. Copyright
... Consistent with the findings in the literature (Gleason, 2005;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013), parents with 3-to 4-year-old girls reported that their children engage in more pretend play compared to parents with same-age boys. Girls in our study also used more imaginary elements in the pretend action task, spent more time pretend playing during free play, and answered the fantasy orientation questions with more pretend content, compared to boys. ...
... Araştırmamızda, alanyazındaki bulgularla tutarlı şekilde (Gleason, 2005;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013), 3-4 yaşında kız çocuğu olan ebeveynler, oğlan çocuğu olan ebeveynlere kıyasla çocuklarının daha çok -mış gibi oyunlar oynadığını belirtmiştir. Çalışmamızdaki kız çocukları da oğlan çocuklarına kıyasla pandomim görevinde belirtilen eylemi daha fazla hayali ögeler kullanarak göstermiş, serbest oyunda -mış gibi oyuna daha çok zaman ayırmış ve günlük hayatlarındaki sorularda daha fazla hayali içerikli tercihler yapmışlardır. ...
... Consistent with the findings in the literature (Gleason, 2005;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013), parents with 3-to 4-year-old girls reported that their children engage in more pretend play compared to parents with same-age boys. Girls in our study also used more imaginary elements in the pretend action task, spent more time pretend playing during free play, and answered the fantasy orientation questions with more pretend content, compared to boys. ...
... Araştırmamızda, alanyazındaki bulgularla tutarlı şekilde (Gleason, 2005;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013), 3-4 yaşında kız çocuğu olan ebeveynler, oğlan çocuğu olan ebeveynlere kıyasla çocuklarının daha çok -mış gibi oyunlar oynadığını belirtmiştir. Çalışmamızdaki kız çocukları da oğlan çocuklarına kıyasla pandomim görevinde belirtilen eylemi daha fazla hayali ögeler kullanarak göstermiş, serbest oyunda -mış gibi oyuna daha çok zaman ayırmış ve günlük hayatlarındaki sorularda daha fazla hayali içerikli tercihler yapmışlardır. ...
Article
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Fantasy orientation (FO) refers to the individual differences to the extent that children prefer pretend activities over real ones. In the current study, the relations between children's FO, pretend play, and parental attitudes towards child's play were examined. Seventy-eight 3-to 4-year-old children and their parents participated in the study. FO was assessed with child interviews and parent questionnaires. Several behavioral tasks were administered to measure pretend play. The parents also completed a questionnaire about their attitudes towards child's play behavior. The results showed that there are gender differences in children's FO: Boys preferred real games, thoughts, and activities more often than the pretend ones. However, girls' pretend and real preferences did not differ. Yet, overall, girls preferred more pretend games, thoughts, and activities and were more fantasy-oriented compared to the boys. Children's pretend play was not associated with parental attitudes towards play behavior. However, there were associations between pretend play and FO: The amount of time spent pretend playing was correlated with children's FO. Further, parents' positive attitudes regarding pretense predicted higher FO in children. Also, only for boys, parents' stance on the educational value of pretend play predicted higher FO. The findings and implications are discussed.
... Emotion regulation refers to modulating a given emotional response, including its inhibition, activation, or progressive modulation (Rothbart & Sheese, 2015). The research results on emotional regulation and play behaviour suggest that children's physical and cognitive play behaviours are associated with their emotion regulation skills (Galyer & Evans, 2001;Hoffmann & Russ, 2012;Lillard et al., 2013;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). These results indicate that children with better emotion regulation are better at social and cognitive play. ...
... In considering the findings from the model of the solitary play, the emotion regulation score was found to have a better prediction on the behaviour while the other results indicated an equal role. This finding is consistent with the previous studies, which suggest that better emotion regulation promotes play behaviour (Galyer & Evans, 2001;Hoffmann & Russ, 2012;Lillard et al., 2013;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). Within the current findings, the claim of the development of the emotion regulation's importance on the social behaviour of the child is supported. ...
Article
The associations of children's play behaviour to their emotional regulation, executive functioning were examined in this study. Teachers rated children's play behaviour, emotional regulation and executive functioning. The study sample comprised 127 (Mage in months = 60.685, SD = 9.563; 64 girls) Turkish children who continued formal education in the preschools. The data is gathering by information survey, CHEXI, ERC, and Play Behaviour Scale. The results suggest that children's reticence behaviour, solidarity play, and social play are moderated by executive function and emotion regulation. Furthermore, there are several meaningful associations between each play behaviour and emotion regulation and executive function. Lastly, there are significant differences in children's executive function, parellal play, and rough and tumble play in terms of their sex.
... They also start to recognize that the needs of others are often different from their own. Third, children engage in fantasy play generated from their imaginations (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). They are most engaged behaviorally and emotionally when the play embraces their interests (Jang et al., 2010). ...
... We created playful learning activities where children were encouraged to use their imaginations and engage in fantasy play with the robot, Skusie. These activities were grounded in child development theory (Gregory & Chapman, 2013;Jang et al., 2010;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013), which prompted designers to ensure that all activities would be collaborative as well as fun for the children. By considering the tenets of intercultural communication, we ensured that children were personally, warmly, and repeatedly invited into the activities and that their input was always regarded positively (Barnett & Kincaid, 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study explored the design and implementation of a humanoid social robot that mediated collaborative interactions among culturally and linguistically diverse kindergarten children in a US school. The robotic mediation was designed to help children have positive interactions with one another. The study was grounded in theories of childhood development, intercultural communication, and culturally responsive pedagogy. Design research and ethnographic qualitative research methods were used to design, test, and improve the robot’s mediation skills over a ten-week period of active use in a real-world classroom setting. Findings describe the challenges we faced in designing robot-mediated interaction activities as well as the solutions we implemented through repeated ethnographic observations, summarized as (1) anticipating children’s communication styles with flexible design, (2) inviting children to participate with personalized, friend-like communication, (3) enhancing engagement with familiar contexts, and (4) embracing language diversity with a bilingual robot.
... When children form a team and play a scenario. The interaction of the child continuously will nurture the child's closeness or intimacy with other children, so the ability of the child's cooperation will be formed [2] [3]. When playing the role of the child process their good experience, and then can affect to developing a social and emotion of children [4]. ...
... Role playing is a symbolic behavior that one thing is to play with fun and as if it is another [2]. Role-playing is an action of the mind and not just a behavior when the intention to play the role openly [3]. ...
... In both cases, the more children play, the more they learn about the causes, consequences and expressions of emotions. In fact, the frequency of social free play at school has been related to emotion understanding abilities (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). ...
... Play has been mostly studied from a school or laboratorial perspective. That is, whereas some studies have focused the relationship between different forms of play and emotional and social competencies (e.g., Lindsey & Colwell, 2013;Veiga et al., 2016a), other studies have examined the impact of interventions on play skills, which in fact emphasizes the structured and directive feature of the concept of play in these studies (e.g., Rosen, 1974;Stagnitti, O'Connor, & Sheppard, 2012). However, time for free play outside school can be equally important. ...
Article
Full-text available
Play has an important role in various aspects of children’s development. However, time for free play has declined substantially over the last decades. To date, few studies have focused on the relationship between opportunities for free play and children’s social functioning. The aims of this study are to examine whether children´s free play is related to their social functioning and whether this relationship is mediated by children´s emotional functioning. Seventy-eight children (age, 55- 77 months) were tested on their theory of mind and emotion understanding. Parents reported on their children’s time for free play, empathic abilities, social competence and externalizing behaviors. The main findings showed that free play and children’s theory of mind are negatively related to externalizing behaviors. Empathy was strongly related to children’s social competence, but free play and social competence were not associated. Less time for free play is related to more disruptive behaviors in preschool children, however certain emotional functioning skills influence these behaviors independently of the time children have for free play. These outcomes suggest that free play might help to prevent the development of disruptive behaviors, but future studies should further examine the causality of this relationship.
... LeFreniere also shows how rough-and-tumble play is especially important for boys to learn emotion regulation skills related to managing anger and aggression. Similarly, Lindsey and Colwell (2013) found that both physical exercise play and rough-and-tumble play predicted higher emotion regulation among preschool children, and sociodramatic play, in addition to predicting emotion regulation, was also associated with emotional expressiveness and emotion knowledge. As one plays out different roles in making belief worlds and symbolic games and competitions, one is awash with emotions while navigating the social group and coordinating with one's peers. ...
Article
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The focus of this theoretical paper is to explore three biopsychosocial levels of children’s risky play: (1) mental health and emotion regulation, (2) social functioning and challenging norms, and (3) physical health and development. As such, in this paper, we expand Sandseter’s and Kennair’s focus in their original article in 2011 on the evolved function of risky play as an anti-phobic mechanism, and consider other types of risk than physical risks and other types of play, including other types of emotional regulation than anxiety reduction. Motivated by the thrilling emotions involved in risky play, one matures in competency and masters new and more complex psychosocial settings. Play with emotional, social, and physical risk may have evolved to increase the child’s psychosocial competency here-and-now, but also train them for future adult contexts. We recommend that future research consider how risky play in all contexts may have a similar function.
... Play is an essential part of their first experiences of the world, and vital for their ability to form relationships and tackle new learning tasks (Youell, 2008). Preschool children's play abilities predict their emotional knowledge, expressiveness, emotional regulation (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013) as well as social skills (Harris, 2000). Medical clowns are 'experts' at free play, aiming to create playful interaction with a variety of populations whom they work with (Sridharan & Sivaramakrishnan, 2016). ...
Article
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Background: Play is an essential component of children’s development. Children with intellectual disability tend to have poor socioemotional abilities and impaired play. This study examined the effects of a medical/therapeutic clowning play intervention on the playfulness of children with intellectual disability. Method: Two medical clowns facilitated a play intervention in a preschool classroom setting with a total of 52 children with intellectual disability. We compared before and after two groups that received the intervention: group 1 met the medical clowns once a week for six months (long-intervention group) and group 2 for three months (short intervention group). Children’s functioning was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Children’s playfulness was scored using the Test of Playfulness observational assessment. A teachers’ focus- group was used to gather additional information on the clowns’ work. Results: Children’s playfulness increased significantly at the end of the intervention, whereas the improvement in the playfulness scores of group 1 was significantly larger than those of group 2 (t50 = -4.82, p < .001). The teachers’ focus group revealed additional benefits of the medical clowns’ work. Conclusion: The results shed light on the play and playfulness of children with intellectual disability and the possible contribution of a clowning play intervention to their development.
... Moreover, although conflicts erupt often in wolf packs, actual violence is rare, with impulse control allowing wolves to focus more on a reprimand and typically stop short of actual serious harm . In social mammals, play performs an important function in fostering emotional regulation, providing an arena to safely practise frustrations (Bekoff 2001;Linsey and Colwell 2003;Palagi et al. 2016). In chimpanzees and bonobos (Palagi 2006) and wolves (Cordoni 2009), as well as in humans, social play extends into adulthood. ...
Chapter
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In Hidden Depths, Professor Penny Spikins explores how our emotional connections have shaped human ancestry. Focusing on three key transitions in human origins, Professor Spikins explains how the emotional capacities of our early ancestors evolved in response to ecological changes, much like similar changes in other social mammals. For each transition, dedicated chapters examine evolutionary pressures, responses in changes in human emotional capacities and the archaeological evidence for human social behaviours. Starting from our earliest origins, in Part One, Professor Spikins explores how after two million years ago, movement of human ancestors into a new ecological niche drove new types of collaboration, including care for vulnerable members of the group. Emotional adaptations lead to cognitive changes, as new connections based on compassion, generosity, trust and inclusion also changed our relationship to material things. Part Two explores a later key transition in human emotional capacities occurring after 300,000 years ago. At this time changes in social tolerance allowed ancestors of our own species to further reach out beyond their local group and care about distant allies, making human communities resilient to environmental changes. An increasingly close relationship to animals, and even to cherished possessions, appeared at this time, and can be explained through new human vulnerabilities and ways of seeking comfort and belonging. Lastly, Part Three focuses on the contrasts in emotional dispositions arising between ourselves and our close cousins, the Neanderthals. Neanderthals are revealed as equally caring yet emotionally different humans, who might, if things had been different, have been in our place today. This new narrative breaks away from traditional views of human evolution as exceptional or as a linear progression towards a more perfect form. Instead, our evolutionary history is situated within similar processes occurring in other mammals, and explained as one in which emotions, rather than ‘intellect’, were key to our evolutionary journey. Moreover, changes in emotional capacities and dispositions are seen as part of differing pathways each bringing strengths, weaknesses and compromises. These hidden depths provide an explanation for many of the emotional sensitivities and vulnerabilities which continue to influence our world today.
... Moreover, although conflicts erupt often in wolf packs, actual violence is rare, with impulse control allowing wolves to focus more on a reprimand and typically stop short of actual serious harm . In social mammals, play performs an important function in fostering emotional regulation, providing an arena to safely practise frustrations (Bekoff 2001;Linsey and Colwell 2003;. In chimpanzees and bonobos (Palagi 2006) and wolves (Cordoni 2009), as well as in humans, social play extends into adulthood. ...
Book
Full-text available
In Hidden Depths, Professor Penny Spikins explores how our emotional connections have shaped human ancestry. Focusing on three key transitions in human origins, Professor Spikins explains how the emotional capacities of our early ancestors evolved in response to ecological changes, much like similar changes in other social mammals. For each transition, dedicated chapters examine evolutionary pressures, responses in changes in human emotional capacities and the archaeological evidence for human social behaviours. Starting from our earliest origins, in Part One, Professor Spikins explores how after two million years ago, movement of human ancestors into a new ecological niche drove new types of collaboration, including care for vulnerable members of the group. Emotional adaptations lead to cognitive changes, as new connections based on compassion, generosity, trust and inclusion also changed our relationship to material things. Part Two explores a later key transition in human emotional capacities occurring after 300,000 years ago. At this time changes in social tolerance allowed ancestors of our own species to further reach out beyond their local group and care about distant allies, making human communities resilient to environmental changes. An increasingly close relationship to animals, and even to cherished possessions, appeared at this time, and can be explained through new human vulnerabilities and ways of seeking comfort and belonging. Lastly, Part Three focuses on the contrasts in emotional dispositions arising between ourselves and our close cousins, the Neanderthals. Neanderthals are revealed as equally caring yet emotionally different humans, who might, if things had been different, have been in our place today. This new narrative breaks away from traditional views of human evolution as exceptional or as a linear progression towards a more perfect form. Instead, our evolutionary history is situated within similar processes occurring in other mammals, and explained as one in which emotions, rather than ‘intellect’, were key to our evolutionary journey. Moreover, changes in emotional capacities and dispositions are seen as part of differing pathways each bringing strengths, weaknesses and compromises. These hidden depths provide an explanation for many of the emotional sensitivities and vulnerabilities which continue to influence our world today.
... Regarding the third way of learning through play introduced by Vygotsky, there are many studies which focus on the relationship between role-play and the emotional development (e.g., Colwell & Lindsey, 2005;Gilpin et al., 2015;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013;Russ et al., 1999). Empirically, the association between emotion regulation skills and features of pretend play (e.g., fantasy orientation) has been widely confirmed (Galyer & Evans, 2001;Gilpin et al., 2015;Goldstein & Lerner, 2018;Kelly et al., 2011;Slot et al., 2017;. ...
Chapter
The study is devoted to the analysis of the relationship between the qualitative characteristics of the educational environment and executive function of preschoolers. To assess the quality of the educational environment the ECERS-R was used, based on both constructivist and social-constructivist approaches. This study presents empirical research data on the relationship of the level of executive functions (EF) with the ECERS-R scores. The study involved 34 groups of preschool children from Moscow (706 children aged 5–6 years). The NEPSY-II battery (subtests Inhibition, Memory for Design, Sentence Repetition) (Korkman et al., NEPSY II. Administrative Manual, Psychological Corporation, 2007), Dimensional Change Card Sort (Zelazo, Nature Protocols 1:297–301, 2006) were used as measuring tools for EF. A number of significant correlations between EF and such ECERS-R items as “Space for gross motor play”, “Gross motor equipment”, «Music/movement», «Blocks», «Dramatic play», «Promoting acceptance of diversity», |General supervision of children», «Free play», «Space for privacy», «Child related display», «Art», «Blocks», and «Schedule» were found.The conclusions were drawn about the importance of creating conditions for EF development of children.
... Oyun tek başına veya kalabalık halinde, kurallar dahilinde oynanabilir. "Neşe ve olumlu etki bırakması ile karakterizedir" (Smith, 1989;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). İçgüdüsel olarak ortaya çıkan, teşvik etmeksizin oynanan, sık görülen eğlence ve fiziksel aktiviteler, oyunu oluşturur (Riddick, 2005). ...
... In addition to having an impact on cognitive abilities and academic achievement, locomotor activity seems to promote emotion regulation in young children. Indeed, physical play predicted emotion regulation one year later in 122 preschoolers, suggesting that physical play could allow children to practice expressing and controlling their emotions 20 . Locomotor activity in preschoolers would therefore be closely linked to their emotional development. ...
Article
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What are the foundational abilities that young children must develop at the beginning of school for their future academic success? Little is known about how emotion knowledge, social behaviour, and locomotor activity are associated and how these abilities may be predictors of academic-mathematic performance (less correlated with the children’s SES than pre-reading and linguistic achievement) in a large cohort of preschool children. Here we show that emotion knowledge, locomotor activity, social behaviour, and academic-mathematic performance are interrelated in 706 French preschool children aged 3 to 6. Mediation analyses reveal that the increase in academic-mathematic performance is explained by the increases in emotion knowledge and social behaviour and, in turn, children with a greater comprehension of emotions tend to have better locomotor skills and higher academic-mathematic scores. Additionally, sequential mediation analysis reveals that the increase in emotion knowledge, locomotor activity and social behaviour partially explains the increase in academic-mathematic performance. These results are discussed in relation to three possible mechanisms. Our findings are consistent with the political and scientific consensus on the importance of social-emotional abilities in the academic world at the beginning of school and suggest adding locomotor activity to these foundational abilities.
... Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). As the prerequisite for appropriate reactions to the behaviour of others (Trentacosta & Fine, 2010), emotion understanding may help children to maintain the role-play, which may lead to more mature play scenes. ...
... In a sense, in order to solve the problems encountered in social relations, it is expected that the individual's communication skills and perspectives (flexibility) on communication problems will be at a certain level or preferential. Bodrova, Germeroth and Leong (2013) and Lindsey and Colwell (2013) mentioned the effects of play on children's social skills and knowledge. However, the fact that problem solving skills were a more common category than others in the analysis can be explained as the categories of social development have strong links with each other. ...
... In this research, we assume that the pretend play-based training will foster the development of certain socio-emotional competences, specifically different components of emotion comprehension, some aspects of the regulation of negative emotions, and prosocial behaviour. This hypothesis is based on various studies that have shown links between pretend play and emotion comprehension (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013;Seja & Russ, 1999), emotion regulation (Galyer & Evans, 2001;Goldstein & Lerner, 2018;Slot, Mulder, Verhagen, & Leseman, 2017), and prosocial behaviour (Uren & Stagnitti, 2009). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pretend play‐based training designed to promote the development of socio‐emotional competences. 79 children aged 5 to 6 years were evaluated before and after a pretend play‐based training. The experimental group (39 children) received this programme on emotion comprehension, negative emotion regulation, and prosocial behaviour one hour a week for eleven weeks during class hours, while the control group (40 children) received no specific intervention. The programme was implemented by 5 teachers. The results show improvements in the ability to understand emotions in children who benefited from the training. These findings are discussed in the broader context of using this form of play as a privileged pedagogical tool to allow children to develop these competences.
... In addition, toddlers with more profound VIs showed more withdrawal, negative mood and less persistence than those with some residual vision (Dote-Kwan & Chen, 2010). With regard to sex, sighted girls were found to demonstrate more pretend play than boys, whereas both showed comparable levels of cooperative play (Benenson, Apostoleris, & Parnass, 1997;Jones & Glenn, 1991;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). It is most likely that the effect of such biological characteristics is similar in most children, suggesting that sex and temperament presumably are relevant predictors of play in children with VIs too. ...
Article
Background Although many studies report children with vision impairments (VIs) experience play difficulties compared to sighted peers, large variation is present within the population of children with VIs. Aims The present study investigated peer play variation in 70 elementary school-aged children with VIs (M age = 8;11 years, SD = 2.25) and associations with specific child characteristics in sub-groups of participants. Also, it was examined how play materials with supportive auditory cues affected social play in children with varying cooperative play skills. Methods and Procedures Play behavior was coded while participants used play materials with and without auditory cues and parents filled in questionnaires about child characteristics. Data were analyzed using binomial logistic regression analyses. Outcomes and Results Although the profoundness of the VI was not associated to cooperative or symbolic play, age, language ability and gender did predict the demonstration of these play behaviors. Furthermore, auditory cues were particularly facilitative of social play in children with VIs with low cooperative play capabilities. Conclusions and implications In sum, this emphasizes that child characteristics other than the VI can play a significant role during peer play and interaction, and that individual variation should be considered when providing peer play support.
... Children who enjoy social interaction may spend more time in social play and therefore may have more practice or experience, which could lead to higher play competence during social pretend play (Bodrova et al., 2013;Howes & Matheson, 1992). The positive association with children's emotion understanding also has been found in previous studies (e.g., Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). As the prerequisite for appropriate reactions to the behaviour of others (Trentacosta & Fine, 2010), emotion understanding may help children to maintain the roleplay, which may lead to more mature play scenes. ...
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The quality of social pretend play may have a positive impact on children's development. This study investigated to what degree this quality is a characteristic of a child versus a function of the play partner or the specific pairing of two children. For this purpose, preschool children's general pretend play quality (actor effect), their general influence on their play partner's pretend play quality (partner effect) and the role of the specific constellation between two children (relationship effect) were examined in a dyadic setting. Potential associations of the effects with children's age, gender, social cognitive and social competencies, as well as the dyadic composition of these variables and their friendship were examined. Children completed two to four dyadic pretend play situations with different peers. They were tested for their language ability, theory of mind and emotion understanding. Educators rated children's social competence (cooperation and sociability) and evaluated their friendship with one another. A social relations model analysis was conducted. The results indicated that children's pretend play quality was determined to the same degree by the child and by the specific pairing of two children. Positive associations were found between children's pretend play quality and age, emotion understanding and sociability on the individual level. Further, the quality of children's social pretend play benefited from having older and more advanced play partners.
... The occupation of play is important because it is meaningful to the child, provides satisfaction and joy, promotes quality of life, and makes them happy (Moore & Lynch, 2018 ; United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child 2013). Although some children with ASD may struggle with the social aspects of play and may appear unmotivated to engage in play with peers (Carré et al., 2015;Chevallier, Kohls, Troiani, Brodkin, & Schultz, 2012), play may engender social inclusion (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013;Stagnitti, O'Connor, & Sheppard, 2012), foster better social outcomes and friendships at later ages (Freeman, Gulsrud, & Kasari, 2015), and may be important for reducing stress associated with social play with peers as children with ASD grow (Schupp et al., 2013). Play should be an important goal for intervention for all of those reasons and more (Warreyn, van der Paelt, & Roeyers, 2014). ...
Article
Play in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often atypical, yet consensus regarding effective occupational therapy strategies for improving play is not established. To examine the efficacy of strategies used in occupational therapy to improve play in ASD, authors completed a systematic review of papers from January 1980 through January 2019. Search terms included autism, Asperger’s, ASD, autistic in combination with play, playfulness, pretend, imagination, praxis, creativity, and generativity. Twenty papers met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed interventions included parent education, modified play materials or environments, imitation of the child, and modeling by an adult, a peer, or video. Moderate to strong support exists for the specific strategies of imitation of the child and modeling for the child, with lesser or mixed support for other strategies. Certain strategies commonly used in occupational therapy may be effective in improving the occupation of play in ASD.
... For example, Sachs (1980) coded play negotiation and enactment along a 5-point scale with behaviors indicative of negotiation and enactment on opposite ends. In other studies, observations of enactment and negotiations about pretense have been coded as one or combined for analysis (e.g., Doyle et al., 1992;Dunn & Hughes, 2001;Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). Supporting this approach, Doyle and Connolly (1989) found that play negotiation and play enactment in preschoolers were positively correlated, leading the researchers to conclude that separating the two constructs may be ecologically ...
Article
Pretend play with peers is purportedly an important driver of social development in the preschool period, however, fundamental questions regarding the features of children’s pretend play with a peer, and the effect of the dyad for pretend play, have been overlooked. The current study undertook detailed behavioral coding of social pretend play in 134 pairs of 5‐year‐old children (54% boys) in order to address three main aims: (i) describe the duration and proportion of children engaging in key social pretend play behaviors, namely, calls for attention, negotiation (comprising role assignment and joint proposals) and enactment of pretend play, (ii) examine the effect of the dyad in influencing the occurrence of different social pretend play behaviors, and (iii) assess the independent and combined effect of individual child characteristics (i.e., language ability and sex) that may influence social pretend play behaviors beyond the influence of the dyad. Results demonstrated the overwhelming effect of the dyad in shaping children’s social pretend play behaviors, with language ability and sex explaining relatively little of the total variability in play behaviors. Results are discussed considering the contribution that this type of study can make to theories of associations between children’s social development and social pretend play.
... Like some of our earlier work, our examination of play included models that we tested in two samples, in the US and in China . Our particular interest in play as affording wellbeing and sociomoral development arose from the myriad research connecting play to relevant social skills in early childhood, such as emotion regulation (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013), delay of gratification (Cemore & Herwig, 2005), and cooperation and sharing (Woolf, 2011). We reasoned that as arbiters of children's play, mothers' positive attitudes toward children's play and reports of children's play behavior might mediate the relation between mothers' memories of their own childhood play experiences and children's social thriving, moral socialization, and social maladaptation. ...
... Gestures included in previous research that were most helpful for learning were those directly related to the problem being solved or material being learned (e.g., Goldin-Meadow et al., 2009;Mavilidi et al., 2018), presenting a direct abstraction of the material. However, pretend play does not often involve such direct gestures, rather involving representational movements such as those necessary for enacting roles or substituting one object for another (e.g., Lindsey & Colwell, 2013;Slot et al., 2017). The lack of differences among the various levels of embodiment in this study of pretend play could be because the movements involved are more representational than those studied outside of pretense contexts. ...
Article
Research suggests that children can learn new information via pretense. However, a fundamental problem with existing studies is that children are passive receivers of the pretense rather than active, engaged participants. This preregistered study replicates previous learning from pretense findings (Sutherland & Friedman, 2012, Child Development), in which children are passive observers of pretense, and extends to two additional conditions that require children to partially (with puppets) or fully (with costumes) embody a character. Children (N = 144, 24–79 months) learned equally well, and better than those in the control condition, from all three play scenarios. At a 2‐week follow‐up, learning was equally retained across embodiment conditions for older, but not younger, preschoolers. Future research should consider embodiment’s role for more complex material.
... One important barrier to gender-integrated friendships may be different styles of play and different perceptions about skill with different types of play. Often, boys are more likely to engage in exercise and rough-and-tumble play than are girls, who are more likely to engage in socio-dramatic play (Lindsey 2012;Lindsey and Colwell 2013). These different patterns of socialization (Maccoby 1988;Martin and Ruble 2004) can lead to girls being socialized with greater opportunities to build social skills, whereas boys are socialized with more opportunities to build motor skills. ...
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Young children typically report primarily same-gender friendships across childhood. However, there is growing awareness of the benefits of gender-integrated friendships and gender integration in schools, especially for social-emotional domains. The current study tested whether Successful Kinesthetic Instruction for Preschoolers (SKIP), an evidence-based motor competence intervention led by physical education teachers, promotes gender-integrated friendships in preschool-aged children. Results documented that children (Mage = 47.38, SD = 6.21 months, range = 36.67–60.25 months) assigned to the SKIP condition (n = 56) as compared to a control free-play condition (n = 37) showed higher motor skill competence and were more likely to report gender-integrated friendships post intervention. Growth in girls’ reports of gender-integrated friendships, in particular, drove the intervention effect on gender-integrated friendships. These findings highlight one example of how motor competence interventions can also result in benefits in social-emotional domains.
... Further support from a longitudinal study found that children's participation in play with others (i. e., pretend and physical activity play) contributed to their development of emotional expressiveness and emotional regulation (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). Additional studies have found that play with others was positively associated with ratings of positive peer interactions, whereas play alone was negatively related to ratings of positive peer interactions (Gagnon & Nagle, 2004;Newton & Jenvey, 2011). ...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was twofold. The first purpose was to examine the relationship between children’s active play imagery and personal and social skills. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between children’s active play imagery and self-confidence. A total of 105 male and female children (Mage=9.84, SD=1.41) were recruited from various summer programs, and completed inventories that assessed their active play imagery (i. e., capability, social, and fun), personal and social skills, and self-confidence. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that all three types of active play imagery (social, capability, and fun) were positively and significantly related to personal and social skills, with social imagery accounting for the most variance. Further, regression analysis showed that both fun and capability imagery were positively and significantly associated with self-confidence, with fun imagery accounting for the most variance. This study highlights the usefulness of imagery in fostering children’s personal and social skills as well as self-confidence.
... Specifically, regarding the effect of the program on social insecure behavior, the findings suggest that both the physical activities as well as the kinetic theatrical playing affect positively students' socialization/social skills. These results are in accordance with other related studies, which indicated that physical education could improve a child's cooperative behavior, positive recognition, empathy, self-controlled, and social skills (Bailey et al., 2009;Mouratidou et al. 2007b;Peng, Wang, Huang, Shih, & Chou, 2007;Pavlidou et al., 2012;Quay & Peters, 2008;Tsangaridou et al., 2014), that sociodramatic play and rough-and-tumble play predict children's affective social competence (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013) and that in the educational framework the interaction between peers, the educator, the instructional teaching methods, and the organizational dimensions promote pupils' social competencies (Bailey et al., 2009;Roeser, Eccles, & Sameroff, 2000;Wentzel, 1991). Therefore, when in a kindergarten class students' expressiveness is supported -among others -through the body-language and when all students have the chance/opportunity to participate, enjoy, interact, and express their selves in physical activities -irrespective of their level of skills -, then their socialization is boosted. ...
Article
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Περίληψη The present study aimed to examine the effect of a physical education program on the reduction of aggressive and social insecure behavior of young children. The sample comprised of 194 children, aged 4-5 years. The experimental group consisted of 99 children, while the rest 95 children formed the control group. The experimental group participated in an 8-week physical education program, based on physical activities and kinetic theatrical playing, while the control group was engaged in free-play activities during the same period. All participants completed the Checklist of Aggressive Behavior (CAB) (Petermann & Petermann, 2001) and the Checklist of Social Insecure Behavior (CSIB) (Petermann & Petermann, 2003). The results revealed that the experimental group exhibited statistically lower aggressive and social insecure behaviors after the intervention compared to the control group. These findings indicate that an appropriate design of physical education could support social development in early childhood.
... The behavioral observation ratings of children's emotions during the film clips relied on 7-point scales in an attempt to capture variability in emotion expression; however, the observed ratings did not span the entire 7-point scales for fear, sadness, or happiness. A narrower scale might be more appropriate when coding preschoolers' emotions (e.g., a 5-point scale; Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). Moreover, it will be helpful to use multiple physiological indices, along with modified behavioral ratings, to validate similar video-mediated mood inductions with preschoolers going forward. ...
... A su vez, para que los niños en la etapa preescolar sean capaces de establecer y mantener relaciones adecuadas con sus iguales, es necesario que presenten buen nivel de regulación emocional (Denham et al., 2003). En esta línea, en un estudio llevado a cabo mediante una escala de observación, se encontró que todos los tipos de juego en los preescolares contribuyen al desarrollo de la competencia afectiva y social (Lindsey & Colwell, 2013). No obstante, sigue siendo necesario realizar estudios que comparen la intensidad del afecto en diferentes situaciones, incluyendo el juego. ...
Article
Preschool education is a privileged setting where social development and the progressive achievement of emotional adjustment occur. During this stage, affect plays an important role in social interaction. Furthermore, children’s play has been described as an activity with a great potential for promoting development. This article reports results from the systematic observation of 38 five- to six-year-old children in four different school activities on two separate occasions. A total number of 304 registries, totalling 1,520 minutes, were made during the observations, which were conducted with the objective of comparing affective expression in different activities and inquiring into its relationship to school adjustment and performance in preschoolers. It was found that affect’s intensity and quality is higher during play. Results are discussed taking into account positive relationships between affect and school adjustment and performance, concluding that children’s play is a privileged activity for affective development and should be promoted in preschool education. For the free download of this article, please go to: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/wTi6Qg958ZzhZ52gEUmG/full
... female students (M EI4,male = 2.75). With regard to these results, Lindsey and Colwell (2003) reported positive associations between high levels of pretend play, emotional regulation, and emotional competence for female preschool children. ...
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This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We identified three conceptual components of scientific imagination, which were composed of (1) scientific sensitivity, (2) scientific creativity, and (3) scientific productivity. We administered SII to 662 students (4th–8th grades) and confirmed validity and reliability using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach α coefficient. The characteristics of Korean elementary and secondary students’ overall scientific imagination and difference across gender and grade level are discussed in the results section.
... In support of this, it has also been proposed that situations, such as play, provide for exploration and regulatory mastery over emotionally arousing experiences leading to greater ability to modify, monitor, and evaluate emotions for the appropriate situation in the future (Walden and Smith 1997). Moreover, socio-dramatic pretend play has been empirically demonstrated as assisting in children's emotional understanding which was predictive of later self-regulation (e.g., Lindsey and Colwell 2003; Youngblade and Dunn 1995). Considering such prior findings, it may be concluded that popular children with less PP have more opportunities to develop important abilities including self-regulation (Coplan and Arbeau 2009). ...
Article
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Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1164, 48.6 % female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child's performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and afterschool caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa.
Chapter
Young children’s play has been the object of hundreds of educational and psychological studies over the last half-century, an interest predominantly owed to two theories about its importance for learning: those of Jean Piaget (1896–1980) and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (1896–1934) (Siraj-Blatchford et al., in Education and Child Psychology, 26(2):77–89, 2002; Thomas et al., in Australasian Journal of Early Childhood 36(4):69–75, 2011). While countless papers have examined the differences in the theories, none have sought to examine each in relation to the profile of the recently proliferating high-quality, experimental, and longitudinal research on the topic, including adult-led play as well as child-initiated, child-led play. To do so, we examine the theories in detail and how they have been applied in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings and curricula. From this analysis, we find limited evidence for the efficacy of play to lead to academic learning outcomes, but higher quality evidence mounting that “soft skills,” such as social, emotional, and intrapersonal abilities, are associated with free play in homes and ECEC settings. In light of Vygotsky’s emphasis on the role of the more knowledgeable other in learning through play, we also examine the growing evidence that adult-led play can achieve “hard” skills such as reading and mathematical skills. We examine this profile of evidence in relation to the two theories and suggest that historical assumptions about what play is, informed strongly by Piaget’s theory, can be reconfigured to include the adults and peers in play research.
Article
Through a 48-item questionnaire shared via social media, 546 participants from 47 American States reported on their children’s (ages 0–8) play activities during early social distancing efforts as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results from the questionnaire indicate participants took social distancing guidelines seriously by keeping children at home and away from other children during the period of social distancing, thus affecting play behaviours. The study’s findings are significant in that they document some parents’ perspectives of their children’s play during a unique period in American history. The authors discuss implications for parent and child play behaviours including the need for more unstructured play time, realities of parents working from home with children present, and the effects of children having a lack of access to peers to play with for sociodramatic and symbolic play. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Chapter
El estallido de la pandemia mundial provocada por la COVID-19 al inicio de 2020 ha supuesto el acontecimiento social, económico y educativo más importante de todo el siglo XXI. Aunque con características similares, todas las áreas del planeta están afrontando esta situación a partir de los medios que tienen a su alcance. Ya en abril se asume que la actividad docente en todos los niveles educativos no será presencial y que la evaluación ordinaria de mayo tendrá también que ser en remoto. En este estudio se pretende determinar los aspectos académicos y sociales que se vieron alterados a raíz del aislamiento sufrido, así como poner en valor las ventajas e inconvenientes de dicha transformación acontecida. Para ello, se analizan relatos de profesores y estudiantes de Educación Superior.
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Background Parental anxiety and depression have been associated with changes to parent–child interactions. Although play constitutes an important part of parent–child interactions and affords critical developmental opportunities, little is known regarding how parental anxiety and depression are related to parent–child play. This is an important knowledge gap because parents play a crucial role in children’s early play experience. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether levels of maternal anxiety and depression respectively predicted frequencies of pretend play in both mothers and their children, and whether mothers’ engagement in pretend play predicted child behaviour problems two years later. Methods Pretend play in 60 mother-toddler dyads ( M age of child = 29.67 months , SD = 3.25 , 41.7% girls) was assessed during home visits. Maternal anxiety and depression were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Children’s behaviour problems were rated by mothers at baseline and two years later. Hierarchical regression analyses examined concurrent associations between mother–child pretend play and maternal anxiety and depression at baseline, and longitudinal associations between baseline mother pretend play and child behavioural problems two years later. Results Higher maternal anxiety predicted less pretend play in mothers and children (β = − .23, BCa 95% CI: [− .018, − .001]) and β = − .22, BCa 95% CI [− .014, − .001]). Higher maternal depression predicted less child pretend play (β = − .20, BCa 95% CI [− .012, − .001]). There was evidence (albeit weak) that more mother pretend play at baseline predicted fewer child behaviour problems two years later (β = − .18, BCa 95% CI [− 62.38, 11.69]), when baseline child behaviour problems and maternal anxiety were controlled for. Conclusions Maternal anxiety and depression are associated with less pretend play during mother–child interaction. Mother’s pretend play might help reduce child behavioural problems risks, suggesting that play might be one mechanism by which maternal mental health influences children’s development.
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Background Many children play computer and video games („Gaming“) but excessive gaming might result in a Gaming Disorder. Its etiology is not yet fully understood although influences of parental gaming and the presence of an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children are discussed.Objective The research questions were i) whether there are associations between parental and childhood gaming, ii) whether gaming and tendencies to ADHD in children are associated, and iii) whether these associations are moderated by the parental gaming behavior.Material and methodsA total of 249 parents (n = 244 females; age: 34.94 ± 4.88 years) rated their own as well as their children’s (n = 105 girls, n = 144 boys; age: 5.72 ± 2.18 years) gaming behavior via the Gaming Disorder Test (GDT). Children’s ADHD tendencies were assessed via the diagnosis check list ADHD (DCL-ADHD) as external reports.ResultsParental and childhood gaming were interdependent (χ2(1) = 15.52, p < 0.001). GDT scores of parents and children were positively correlated (boys: ρ = 0.34, p = 0.029; girls: ρ = 0.35, p = 0.047). Children who played computer games did not have higher ADHD tendencies than children who did not play; however, in boys who played computer games tendencies to impulsivity (ρ = 0.23, p = 0.028) and in girls, tendencies to inattention (ρ = 0.38, p = 0.008), were correlated with the GDT score. Parental GDT scores strengthened the relationship between the GDT score and impulsivity in children in general.Conclusion The results support the idea that the gaming behavior of parents might influence that of their children. Particularly in children with ADHD, problem gaming needs to be identified as quickly as possible to prevent the development of a Gaming Disorder. The observed results need to be verified in larger and more heterogeneous samples and in longitudinal study designs.
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Learning to regulate aggressive impulses is a significant developmental milestone for preschoolers. To date, there is no consensus about whether rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is positively or negatively related to the regulation of aggression. This study examined the relation of RTP with children’s levels of emotion regulation and aggression. RTP of 90 4–6 years old preschoolers was videotaped at the school playground and measured through parent questionnaires at home. Besides the amount (frequency and duration), the characteristics (i.e. dominance and emotional display) of father–child RTP were also examined. In both contexts, more RTP was not related to better emotion regulation in children. At school, RTP with peers was related to more physical aggression. At home, the frequency of RTP interactions was related to more emotion dysregulation and aggression. The display of negative emotions during father–child RTP interactions was related to poorer emotion regulation skills, and higher levels of aggression.
Article
Background: Retrospective and cross-sectional studies often report associations between childhood gender nonconformity and greater emotional and peer difficulties. This study used the ALSPAC birth cohort to investigate relationships between childhood gender-typed behavior and peer and emotional problems throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods: A total of 11,192 participants had at least one measure of parent-rated gender-typed behavior in infancy; 7,049 participants had a measure of child-rated gender-typed behavior at 8.5 years. Separate linear mixed regression models were fitted to assess whether parent-rated and child-rated gender-typed behaviors were associated with emotional and peer problems across childhood and adolescence (6-16 years old). The effect of adding covariates (self-esteem, abuse, bullying, feeling accepted by peers, and feeling different) on these relationships was assessed. Results: For boys, more gender-nonconforming behavior was associated with greater subsequent emotional and peer problems in childhood and adolescence. Adjusting for self-esteem, relational bullying victimization, feeling different, or feeling accepted by peers reduced some of these associations. In contrast, for girls, more gender-nonconforming behavior was associated with fewer emotional problems in childhood and adolescence. In girls, self-reported gender-nonconforming behavior was also associated with fewer parent-rated peer problems but parent-rated gender-nonconforming behavior was associated with more parent-rated peer problems; this latter association was partly explained by self-esteem, bullying, and abuse victimization. These associations were statistically significant but small. Conclusions: Overall, more female-typical behaviors were generally associated with greater subsequent emotional and peer problems, for both boys and girls. Future studies should investigate factors that reduced these associations, as well as potential negative effects of female-typical behaviors or advantages of male-typical ones. As this was a 14-year longitudinal study, the relationships between gender-role behaviors and emotional/peer problems warrant further research despite the small association sizes.
Article
This paper explores the potential effects of digital games on the early latency phase, a period marked by foundational cognitive, social, and self-regulatory developments as well as by a unique set of vulnerabilities. Although research in this area is relatively scarce, recent studies suggest that rising numbers of five- to eight-year-olds engage in the use of digital devices and that Internet games are increasingly targeted to younger audiences. Some theorists caution about the impact of violent imagery and unrealistic media-based depictions of people and relationships, whereas others propose that digital technologies offer new opportunities for autonomy, personal expression, and community with online peers. The following questions arise: as the boundary between real and virtual play grows porous, do digital games fall within the realm of make-believe play and serve the developmental functions of solitary and shared pretense? Might the highly stimulating, fast-paced, and immediately gratifying nature of digital devices interfere with emerging self-regulatory capacities? How does the young child experience virtual friendships? Psychoanalytic theory offers a unique vantage point for examining these contemporary issues by illuminating the developmental capacities, challenges, and vulnerabilities of early latency that interface with cultural experiences; these include the child’s increasing sense of separateness and autonomy, the presence of enhanced cognitive abilities but shaky superego capacities, and a deepening investment in the world beyond the family. References to the treatment of a six-year-old girl are used to illustrate the potential meanings of digital play. © 2017 Claudia Lament, Wendy Olesker, Paul Brinich and Rona Knight.
Chapter
The analysis of the impact of education both as obstructive and releasing factor is discussed in this chapter and Chap. 7. This chapter starts by challenging traditional ideas about teaching. This is done using a poem written by Maturana called ‘The Student’s Prayer’. Subsequently, the role of education reformers is amply scrutinized. Based on the subtle system, I propose an alternative framework for creativity, which I name as the Spectrum of Creativity in Education (SCE). This multi-layered model is based on the concept of re-learning as opposed to learning. The premise is that, although buried below the heavy weight of a patriarchal culture, the qualities of the seven main chakras of the subtle system can be re-learnt at school. In this chapter, the SCE is applied to the analysis of qualities of the Mooladhara, the Swadhisthan and the Nabhi chakras.
Article
As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children’s development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend play are conducted in outdoor environments; a setting which affords many opportunities for engagement in pretend play and unstructured social interactions. By observing children’s outdoor pretend play, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between different types of pretend play and children’s social skills. Twenty-eight children from high quality childcare centers in a southeast suburban area were observed during outdoor free play time. Using a reliable time sampling protocol, each child’s play was observed and recorded for a total of 45 min to an hour over a 2-week time period. Lead teachers rated children’s social skills in the areas of cooperation, self-control, and assertiveness. Results showed high amounts of pretend play behavior overall, and differential relationships between the type of pretend play children engaged in and children’s social skills. Surprisingly, these relationships were not associated with gender. Findings are discussed in light of the value of pretend play to promote social skill development and the potential for outdoor contexts specifically to encourage these play behaviors.
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Pretend play has been claimed to be crucial to children's healthy development. Here we examine evidence for this position versus 2 alternatives: Pretend play is 1 of many routes to positive developments (equifinality), and pretend play is an epiphenomenon of other factors that drive development. Evidence from several domains is considered. For language, narrative, and emotion regulation, the research conducted to date is consistent with all 3 positions but insufficient to draw conclusions. For executive function and social skills, existing research leans against the crucial causal position but is insufficient to differentiate the other 2. For reasoning, equifinality is definitely supported, ruling out a crucially causal position but still leaving open the possibility that pretend play is epiphenomenal. For problem solving, there is no compelling evidence that pretend play helps or is even a correlate. For creativity, intelligence, conservation, and theory of mind, inconsistent correlational results from sound studies and nonreplication with masked experimenters are problematic for a causal position, and some good studies favor an epiphenomenon position in which child, adult, and environment characteristics that go along with play are the true causal agents. We end by considering epiphenomenalism more deeply and discussing implications for preschool settings and further research in this domain. Our takeaway message is that existing evidence does not support strong causal claims about the unique importance of pretend play for development and that much more and better research is essential for clarifying its possible role.
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Children's pretend play has been proposed as a mode of social interaction that enhances the development of emotion regulation ability. It was hypothesized that children who demonstrated adaptive emotion regulation in pretend play and/or engaged in pretend play with parents would be more proficient at emotion regulation in a wider context. Forty‐seven pre‐school boys and girls, aged 4 to 5 years, and their parents participated. Emotion regulation was assessed in a pretend play context using a negatively valenced event designed to elicit a high level of arousal. Children's responses were categorized according to successfully continuing pretend play and effectively resolving conflict. Children's success in continuing pretend play was related to emotion regulation skills in other contexts, whereas their effectiveness at resolving conflict was not. Children who engaged in pretend play frequently, and who did so with caregivers, had higher ratings of emotion regulation. This study provides some support for the relationship between pretend play and emotion regulation, and emphasizes the need for further research to examine the effects of parent‐child pretend play interaction on the development of emotion regulation skills.
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The relations of kindergartners' to 2nd graders' dispositional sympathy to individual differences in emotionality, regulation, and social functioning were examined. Sympathy was assessed with teacher- and self-reports; contemporaneously and 2 years earlier, parents and teachers reported on children's emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Social functioning also was assessed with peer evaluations and children's enacted puppet behavior, and negative arousability-personal distress was assessed with physiological responses. In general, sympathy was associated with relatively high levels of regulation, teacher-reported positive emotionality and general emotional intensity, and especially for boys, high social functioning and low levels of negative emotionality, including physiological reactivity to a distress stimulus. Vagal tone was positively related to boys' self-reported sympathy, whereas the pattern was reversed for girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Related qualitative differences in children's play participation to indices of the child's (a) ability to take the role of another, (b) classification skills, and (c) popularity. The free play of 16 4-yr-old preschoolers was observed for 1 min on 20 consecutive days. Role-taking skill, requiring low egocentricity, was measured by 2 means: the ability to portray the emotions of others and the ability to describe the visual appearance of an object from a different viewing point. A 16-item task measuring classification skill and popularity was determined by friendship choices. Participation in repetitive movement play was negatively related to role-taking, classification, and popularity, while participation in dramatic play was positively related to these variables. It is suggested that the requirements of dramatic play facilitate the decline of egocentricity. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In Study 1, 48 children participated in a longitudinal study of peer play development, from infancy through preschool. Children developed play forms in the expected sequence and at the expected ages. Children showed stability in both proportion and emergence of complex play. Children's pattern of play form emergence and proportion of time in more complex play forms related to subsequent indexes of social competence. In Study 2, the peer play of children aged 10–59 mo was assessed. One sample ( n = 259) attended minimally adequate child-care centers. The other sample ( n = 48) attended a model child-care center. Children in the model center showed complex play form emergence at earlier ages and engaged in greater proportions of complex play than children in the minimally adequate centers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated rough and tumble play (RTP), a prosocial behavior whose expression and purpose varies as a function of gender, in 43 preschoolers, part of a longitudinal sample (targets), and 86 playmates (partners). A "playroom on wheels" was designed to maximize the amount of RTP displayed in same-sex triads. Observational coding techniques were devised to record various active and verbal behaviors, including a measure of activity level. Results indicate both quantitative and qualitative differences in the behaviors of the male and female triadic groups. Further, a robust sex difference in the amount and intensity of RTP was observed for both targets and partners. Analyses of the behavioral components indicated that RTP was distinct from other dominance-oriented or aggressive behaviors in this age group. A hypothesis concerning differential salience of interpersonal cues is presented to account for these findings, and speculations are made concerning the influence of RTP on subsequent development. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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This study was designed to examine associations between preschool childrens pretend and physical play with same-sex, other-sex, and mixed sex peers and childrens social competence with peers. Sixty predominately middle-class preschoolers (33 boys, 51 European-American) were observed on the playground at their school over a period of 4 months. Childrens same-sex, other-sex, and mixed-sex peer play was observed, and teachers and peers provided assessments of childrens social competence. Analyses revealed that children who engaged in more same-sex pretend play were better liked by peers and were viewed by teachers as being socially competent. In addition, girls who engaged in same-sex exercise play and boys who engaged in same-sex rough-and-tumble play were better liked by peers, whereas boys who engaged in rough-and-tumble play with other-sex peers were less liked by peers. The results suggest that child gender and gender of playmate are important factors in the association between pretend play and rough-and-tumble play and childrens social competence with peers.
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This paper proposes that make-believe play expresses the young child's emerging capacity to engage in counterfactual or would-be thinking. Three important developments enable preschoolers to create joint make-believe worlds with others: the ability to (1) manage multiple roles as playwrights and actors, (2) invent novel plots, and (3) deliberately blur the boundary between reality and pretense. Given that joint make-believe play turns out to be such a complex representational activity, the question about its function raises itself more insistently than ever. Of the many social and cognitive functions that have been proposed, emotional mastery is the only one that could not equally be exercised in nonpretend contexts. There is evidence, however, that in nonclinical settings the well-adjusted, secure children are most able to benefit from the opportunity for emotional mastery offered by sociodramatic play, whereas less-well-adjusted, insecure children are not. This has important implications for the design of play interventions.
Article
The authors investigated relationships among internal representations, empathy, and affective and cognitive processes in fantasy play to test the validity of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale Q-Sort (SCORS-Q; D. Westen, 1995) with children. Eighty-six 8-10-year-olds were administered 8 Thematic Apperception Test cards, a standardized play task, and a self-report empathy measure. Teachers rated children's empathy and helpfulness. As predicted, internal representations were related to empathy, helpfulness, and quality of fantasy play. Developmental differences on the SCORS-Q were consistent with object relations theory and with results from the original SCORS. The findings support the value of internal representations as a means of understanding children's interpersonal functioning and contribute to the validity of the SCORS-Q for use with children.
Article
The role of play in child development is a source of ongoing interest and debate. In this book, renowned expert Peter Smith offers an expansive definition of the term "play", taking an in-depth look at its impact on children, as well as its adaptive value for birds and mammals, including primates. Using both contemporary and classic research, Smith examines how different age groups and sexes participate in a wide variety of play, including exercise and rough-and- tumble play, fantasy play and imaginary friends, and play with objects. The book gauges the function of play in early childhood education and makes the case for and against recess breaks in school. How play occurs in different societies and among various populations - including children with special needs - is also explored. With its comprehensive coverage of theoretical, historical, cross-cultural, and evolutionary perspectives, Children and Play holds significant insights for parents, educators, and clinicians.
In this review we consider the nature and possible developmental functions of three forms of play: pretend, social, and locomotor. Play is defined in terms of dispositional and contextual criteria. First, the frequency ofoccurrence of each form of play across the period of childhood is documented. Developmental function of play is conceptualised in terms ofimmediate or deferred beneficial consequences. Four strategies for examining developmental function are reviewed: arguments from design, correlational analyses, experimental enrichment and deprivation, and cost-benefit analyses. Whereas most theories of play implicitly assume thatduring childhood it occurs frequently and has benefits deferred until adulthood, we suggest that some benefits of play are immediate.
Article
Examined the prediction of adults' situational and dispositional empathy-related responses from measures of emotionality (emotional intensity and positive and negative affect) and regulation. A multimethod approach including self-reported, facial, and heart rate (HR) responses was used to assess situational vicarious emotional responding; Ss' (and sometimes friends') reports were used to assess the dispositional characteristics. In general, dispositional sympathy, personal distress, and perspective taking exhibited different, conceptually logical patterns of association with indexes of emotionality and regulation. The relations of situational measures of vicarious emotional responding to dispositional emotionality and regulation varied somewhat by type of measure and gender. Findings for facial and HR (for men) measures were primarily for the more evocative empathy-inducing stimulus. In general, the findings provided support for the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in empathy-related responding.
Article
The relation of social fantasy play to several indices of social competence was examined in a sample of 91 preschoolers, aged 35 months to 69 months. Naturalistic observations of the frequency and complexity of social fantasy play during freeplay periods were collected. Competence measures included teacher ratings of social competence, popularity, social role-taking skills, and observations of social behavior. Multiple regression procedures were used to analyze the prediction of social competence from the fantasy measures, independent of age, sex, IQ, and frequency of social activity. The results indicated that the amount and complexity of fantasy play significantly predicted four of the competence measures: teacher rating of peer social skill, popularity, affective role taking, and a behavioral summary score reflecting positive social activity. Fantasy play was also found to be more positive, sustained, and group oriented than was nonfantasy play. Implications of these findings on the role of fantasy play and peer-peer activity in social-skill acquisition are discussed. Fantasy play during the preschool years has been hypothesized to exercise a leading role in the young child's growth and development (Bruner, 1972; Singer, 1973; Vygotsky, 1966). It has also been suggested that fantasy play in the context of a social interaction may lead to the development of socially relevant cognitive skills and a repertoire of competent social behaviors (Garvey, 1977; Smilansky, 1968). According to this view, participation in fantasy play with another child requires a high level of complex cognitive and social abilities. Sharing and cooperation, self-regulation of affect, and an appreciation of cognitive and behavioral role reciprocity are all important underlying skills. Social fantasy play is a unique
Article
Research Findings: We examined whether affective social competence, or the ability to effectively send and receive emotional signals and to manage one's own emotional experience, contributes to preschool children's peer relations. Forty-two previously unacquainted preschoolers were observed while participating in a week-long playschool. Greater nonstereotypical emotion knowledge was related to girls' popularity and boys' likelihood of having a reciprocal friendship. Girls with greater skill at sending emotional communications and managing emotions were more likely to have a reciprocal friendship. Boys who were better at managing emotions compared to others in their group were less popular. The role of social context in the influence of affective social competence on children's peer relations is discussed. Practice or Policy: Results have implications for early childhood educators' promotion of children's socioemotional skills.
Article
Social play—that is, play directed toward others—is a readily recognizable feature of childhood. In nonhuman animals, social play, especially seemingly competitive rough-and-tumble play or play fighting, has been the most studied of all forms of play. After several decades of study, researchers of play fighting in laboratory rats have pieced together the rudiments of the neural mechanisms that regulate the expression of this behavior in the mammalian brain. Furthermore, the understanding of the organization, development, and neural control of play in rats has provided a model with which to examine how the experiences accrued during play fighting can lead to organizational changes in the brain, especially those areas involved in social behavior.
Article
Black, low-income children's verbalized fantasy transformations during a 20-min free-play session were examined. 18 same-sex dyads, 6 3½-year-old, 6 5-year-old, and 6 mixed-age dyads composed of a 3½- and 5-year-old partner, equally divided by sex, were observed. Approximately one-half of the girls' and one-third of the boys' utterances represented fantasy transformations, the most frequent of which were animation, reification, and situational attribution, respectively. Children made significantly more object than ideational transformations. Significant sex but no dyad age effects were found. Girls made significantly more transformations overall and significantly more substitution, object realism, and role-attribution transformations than boys. Proportional analyses indicated that girls made relatively more object realism and role-attribution transformations than boys. Boys made relatively more attribution of object property transformations than girls. Results suggest need for further examination of cultural and sex differences in play as a transformational and representational activity.
Article
Study 1 compared the extent to which 8- and 11-year-old girls and boys (N = 86) participated in specific types of rough-and-tumble play. It used an observational methodology. The data were used to test two prominent hypotheses about the evolutionary function of this general category of play behaviour that have been applied to children, especially boys, of this age. One is that rough-and-tumble play provides practice for the development of real fighting skills and the other that it serves as a safe way to establish/display social dominance. Both hypotheses predict that boys will engage in more rough-and-tumble play than girls, especially those types that are used in fighting/dominance contests. Boys were found to engage in significantly more chase initiation activities, more bouts of brief rough-and-tumble play, more bouts of restraining and more bouts of boxing/hitting than girls. These data provide some support for the two hypotheses, although significant sex differences were not found for all types of rough-and-tumble play observed. No significant age differences were obtained, suggesting that the two hypotheses may be applicable throughout the 8- to 11-year-old period and not just at the end of it as previous research had suggested. Study 2 presented observational data concerning the motor patterns used in aggressive fighting. In all but one case, there were no significant differences in the extent to which 8/9- and 10/11-year-old girls and boys employed wrestling, hitting and restraining, supporting the view that the practice fighting hypothesis is relevant throughout the 8-11-year-old period. It was argued that age and sex differences provide a useful means of scrutinising functional hypotheses, and that splitting behavioural categories that contain disparate action patterns facilitates more refined tests of those hypotheses. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the conditional relations is often a tedious and error-prone task. This article provides an overview of methods used to probe interaction effects and describes a unified collection of freely available online resources that researchers can use to obtain significance tests for simple slopes, compute regions of significance, and obtain confidence bands for simple slopes across the range of the moderator in the MLR, HLM, and LCA contexts. Plotting capabilities are also provided.
Article
This book explores sociodramatic play as a potential compensatory tool for educationally disadvantaged children. The author examines the antecedents of educational disadvantagement and develops a rationale for the use of sociodramatic play. She places sociodramatic play in perspective as a particular stage of play behavior and further investigates the phenomenon in this light. Using observations of advantaged and disadvantaged children, she studies particular differences and similarities between the two groups, with special attention on factors related to sociodramatic play. After placing the observations on a conceptual framework, the author discusses identification and the role of parents in developing the requirements for sociodramatic play. Group differences are then isolated as causes for differences in sociodramatic play, and an experiment is designed and performed to test the effectiveness of these factors in eliciting sociodramatic play among disadvantaged children. The results are presented and interpreted, and, finally, various findings and impressions collected during the experiment and considered of significance are reported and discussed. (MH)
Article
The purposes of this study were (a) to compare a verbal and an enactive procedure for assessing preschool children's social strategies in hypothetical situations in terms of their ability to predict social behavior with peers and peer acceptance and (b) to examine some of the psychometric properties of the two assessment methods. Children's responses to a set of hypothetical social situations were elicited both with puppets and props (enactive assessment) and with a set of pictures (verbal assessment). The responses were rated in terms of their friendliness and assertiveness. Enactive friendliness ratings contributed significantly to regression equations predicting teacher and observer ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior but not to peer group acceptance, whereas the verbal method contributed little predictive power beyond that provided by the enactive ratings. Implications for social skill assessment and intervention with children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the relation of social fantasy play to several indices of social competence in 91 preschoolers, aged 35–69 mo, enrolled in daycare centers. Naturalistic observations of the frequency and complexity of social fantasy play during free-play periods were collected. Competence measures included teacher ratings of social competence, popularity, social role-taking skills, and observations of social behavior. Multiple regression procedures were used to analyze the prediction of social competence from the fantasy measures, independent of age, sex, IQ, and frequency of social activity. Results indicate that the amount and complexity of fantasy play significantly predicted 4 of the competence measures: teacher rating of peer social skill, popularity, affective role taking, and a behavioral summary score reflecting positive social activity. Fantasy play was also more positive, sustained, and group oriented than was nonfantasy play. Implications of these findings on the role of fantasy play and peer–peer activity in social-skill acquisition are discussed. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The intent of this study was to describe relations between elementary-school children's rough-and-tumble play and their social competence. Elementary-school children (Grades K, 2, and 4) were observed on the school playground during their recess periods. Results suggested that rough-and-tumble play for popular children led to games-with-rules, whereas it led to aggression for rejected children. Furthermore, popular children's rough-and-tumble was positively correlated with measures of social competence. These results are discussed in terms of the possible effects of the sociometric composition of rough-and-tumble play groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The role of pretend play interactions in stimulating social and emotional competence was examined by comparing the quality of pretend and nonpretend social play. The relation between social involvement in pretense and the expression of psychosocial issues was also assessed. Ss were 12 4-yr-old girls and 12 6-yr-old girls, paired with a familiar peer. Ss participated in 2 videotaped 30-min free-play sessions. Results show that pretend play sequences involved more complex, mutually responsive, and emotionally invested social interaction than nonpretend sequences. Expression of psychosocial issues within pretense was fostered by engagement in highly coordinated as opposed to less socially involved pretend play. The socioaffective and emotional mastery skills enhanced by coordinated pretense in the transition from preschool to school age are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present paper develops a theoretical framework for the study of pretense as a symbolic system designed to serve affective functions. The first part of the paper presents a review of three theories which acknowledge the affective function of pretense and constitute the background for the theory proposed in this paper. The second part of the paper presents an affective theory to analyze children's spontaneously generated pretend protocols. A study is then summarized as an illustration of the affective theory and directions for future research are noted.
Article
24 middle-class and 16 lower-class preschoolers were observed during free play period on 30 consecutive school days. The behaviors of the children were coded by combining the social play categories of Parten and the cognitive play schemes of Smilansky. The results indicated that middle-class preschoolers engaged in significantly less parallel and functional play, and significantly more associative, cooperative, and constructive play than did their lower-class age mates. Moreover, examination of the combined Parten-Smilansky play scale revealed that middle-class children emitted significantly more associative-constructive and cooperative-dramatic play and significantly less solitary-functional and parallel-functional play than lower-class preschoolers. Results also showed that males exhibited significantly more dramatic, solitary functional, and associative-dramatic, and less constructive, solitary-constructive, and parallel-constructive play than their female counterparts. It was suggested that future studies incorporate both the Parten and the Smilansky categories of play in investigating the behaviors of preschoolers in a wide variety of settings.
Article
Study 1 compared the extent to which 8- and 11-year-old girls and boys (N = 86) participated in specific types of rough-and-tumble play. It used an observational methodology. The data were used to test two prominent hypotheses about the evolutionary function of this general category of play behaviour that have been applied to children, especially boys, of this age. One is that rough-and-tumble play provides practice for the development of real fighting skills and the other that it serves as a safe way to establish/display social dominance. Both hypotheses predict that boys will engage in more rough-and-tumble play than girls, especially those types that are used in fighting/dominance contests. Boys were found to engage in significantly more chase initiation activities, more bouts of brief rough-and-tumble play, more bouts of restraining and more bouts of boxing/hitting than girls. These data provide some support for the two hypotheses, although significant sex differences were not found for all types of rough-and-tumble play observed. No significant age differences were obtained, suggesting that the two hypotheses may be applicable throughout the 8- to 11-year-old period and not just at the end of it as previous research had suggested. Study 2 presented observational data concerning the motor patterns used in aggressive fighting. In all but one case, there were no significant differences in the extent to which 8/9- and 10/11-year-old girls and boys employed wrestling, hitting and restraining, supporting the view that the practice fighting hypothesis is relevant throughout the 8-11-year-old period. It was argued that age and sex differences provide a useful means of scrutinising functional hypotheses, and that splitting behavioural categories that contain disparate action patterns facilitates more refined tests of those hypotheses. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
To develop a measure of temperament for preschool-age children, the Child Characteristics Questionnaire (CCQ) for 24-month-old toddlers (Lee & Bates, 1985) was modified for use at age 4. The modified version was called the Preschool Characteristics Questionnaire (PCQ) and was completed by 121 mothers. Maximum likelihood factor analysis of the PCQ revealed four factors—Persistent/Unstoppable, Negative Adaptation and Affect, Difficult, and Irregular—accounting for 36.1% of the total variance. Correlations between difficult temperament at age 7 months and age 4 years revealed moderate stability of the difficult temperament trait. Of the infants classified as difficult at age 7 months, 46% continued to be perceived as difficult at age 4.
Book
Reviews the book, Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood by Jean Piaget (1951). The current work by Piaget is another stimulating and provocative contribution to the literature on the development of children's thinking. In this well-translated volume, Piaget has as his basic goal an explanation of the evolution of "representative activity," which is "characterized by the fact that it goes beyond the present, extending the field of adaptation both in space and in time." Such an activity is essential in reflective thought as well as in operational thought. Two theses are presented by Piaget in the book: (a) the transition from rudimentary, primitive, and situational assimilation of experience to the operational and reflective adaptation of experience can be studied by the analysis of imitative behavior and play activity of the child from very early months of the life; and (b) various forms of mental activity--imitation, symbolic activity, and cognitive representation--are interacting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This short paper provides some guidelines to help researchers in child and adolescent development procure the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic information that will best determine how to assign youngsters to ethnic or SES groups. These guidelines are necessarily general. They will need to be adapted thoughtfully by each investigator because, as is generally true, how to define a measure depends intimately on the nature of the research problem. In preparing these guidelines, we have taken into account current practice at the Bureau of the Census, research traditions developed by sociologists who have mainly been concerned with adults, and challenges posed by the changing character of the U.S. population and its family forms. We are extremely grateful to the many social scientists listed below who have contributed so generously to our thinking, but especially to Robert Hauser. Naturally, any errors or opacities that remain are our responsibility.
Article
In this review, we consider the nature and possible developmental functions of physical activity play, defined as a playful context combined with a dimension of physical vigor. We distinguish 3 kinds of physical activity play, with consecutive age peaks: rhythmic stereotypies peaking in infancy, exercise play peaking during the preschool years, and rough-and-tumble play peaking in middle childhood. Gender differences (greater prevalence in males) characterize the latter 2 forms. Function is considered in terms of beneficial immediate and deferred consequences in physical, cognitive, and social domains. Whereas most theories assume that children's play has deferred benefits, we suggest that forms of physical activity play serve primarily immediate developmental functions. Rhythmic stereotypies in infancy are hypothesized to improve control of specific motor patterns. Exercise play is hypothesized to function primarily for strength and endurance training; less clear evidence exists for possible benefits for fat reduction and thermoregulation. In addition, there may be cognitive benefits of exercise play that we hypothesize to be largely incidental to its playful or physical nature. Rough-and-tumble play has a distinctive social component; we hypothesize that it serves primarily dominance functions; evidence for benefits to fighting skills or to emotional coding are more equivocal. Further research is indicated, given the potentially important implications for children's education, health, and development.
Article
Evidence from two studies conducted with kindergarten samples (N = 200, M age = 5.58 years; N = 199, M age = 5.47 years) supported a series of interrelated hypotheses derived from a child × environment model of early school adjustment. The findings obtained were consistent with the following inferences: (1) Entry factors, such as children's cognitive maturity and family backgrounds, directly as well as indirectly influence children's behavior, participation, and achievement in kindergarten; (2) as children enter school, their initial behavioral orientations influence the types of relationships they form with peers and teachers; (3) stressful aspects of children's peer and teacher relationships in the school environment adversely impact classroom participation and achievement; and (4) classroom participation is an important prerequisite for achievement during kindergarten. Collectively, these findings illustrate the need to revise prevailing theories of school adjustment, and the research agendas that evolve from these perspectives, so as to incorporate interpersonal risk factors that operate within the school environment.
Article
It was predicted that social cognitive, behavioral, and affective aspects of young children's social development would predict stable peer ratings of their likability. Measures of likability, emotion knowledge, prosocial and aggressive behavior, peer competence, and expressed emotions (happy and angry) were obtained for 65 subjects (mean age = 44 months). Sociometric ratings, particularly negative, were stable over 1- and 9-month time periods. Correlational analyses showed that emotion knowledge and prosocial behavior were direct predictors of likability. Prosocial behavior mediated the relations of gender and expressed emotions with likability (i.e., gender and expressed emotions were each related to prosocial behavior, and prosocial behavior was related to likability, but neither gender nor expressed emotions were related to likability with prosocial behavior partialled out). Knowledge of emotional situations similarly mediated the age-likability relation. Results uphold the early development of stable peer reputations and the hypothesized centrality of emotion-related predictors of likability.
Article
A theoretical model for affective social competence is described. Affective social competence (ASC) is comprised of three integrated and dynamic components: sending affective messages, receiving affective messages, and experiencing affect. Central and interconnected abilities within each component include awareness and identification of affect, working within a complex and constantly changing social context, and management and regulation. The dynamic integration of the components is emphasized and potential mediating factors are outlined. The model is placed within the context of previous research and theory related to affective social competence; how the model advances future research is also explicated for each component. Research with special populations of children is described to highlight the importance of affective social competence in social relationships and the promise of the ASC model for future research and practice.
Article
Relations between an early interest in violent fantasy and children's social understanding, antisocial and emotional behavior, and interactions with friends were investigated in 40 “hard-to-manage” preschoolers and 40 control children matched for gender, age, and school and ethnic background. Children were filmed alone in a room with a friend, and tested on a battery of cognitive tests, including false-belief, executive function, and emotion understanding tasks. Teachers reported on their friendship quality. At age 6 years, the children's understanding of the emotional consequences of antisocial and prosocial actions was studied. The hard-to-manage group showed higher rates of violent fantasy; across both groups combined, violent fantasy was related to poor executive control and language ability, frequent antisocial behavior, displays of anger and refusal to help a friend, poor communication and coordination of play, more conflict with a friend, and less empathic moral sensibility 2 years later. The usefulness of a focus on the content of children's pretend play — in particular, violent fantasy — as a window on children's preoccupations is considered.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of parent and child emotional expressiveness within the family context, to examine links between these patterns and children's peer relations, and to examine whether these links might be mediated by children's understanding of emotions. Subjects were 61 kindergarten and first-grade white, middle-class children and their parents. Parent and child expressiveness were assessed in a laboratory ring-toss game designed to elicit a range of emotional responses. Parent expressiveness in the home was also assessed with Halberstadt's Family Expressiveness Questionnaire. The questionnaire, completed by both mother and father, assesses a range of emotions in a variety of settings typical of many families, and consists of items tapping both positive and negative expressiveness. Children were interviewed about their understanding of emotions across a broad range of areas. Results indicated that maternal expressiveness (home) and paternal expressiveness (home and laboratory) but not children's expressiveness with parents were associated with children's peer relations. Although children's understanding of emotions was generally not asssociated with family expressiveness, understanding predicted children's peer relations. In addition, children's understanding influenced the links between maternal expressiveness in the home and peer relations and between paternal expressiveness in the laboratory and peer relations. This pattern of results underscores the importance of the emotional climate of the family for the development of children's social relations with peers.
Article
Relations among young preschoolers' social cognitive abilities, expression of emotions, and prosocial responses to others' emotions were investigated. 3 types of measures were employed with 27 2- and 3-year-oIds: structured social cognitive, structured assessment of response to emotion, and observational coding of response to emotion displays. Results suggested that subjects' social cognitive acuity and differential responding to emotion have heretofore been underrated. Moreover, affective knowledge was significantly related to prosocial behavior in semi-structured situations. Prevalent affect was related to expression of prosocial behavior (e.g., frequent expressions of anger were assoecated with low levels of affective knowledge and prosocial behavior). Thus this investigation benefited from broader conceptual definitions and contextualized measures.