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Bidirectional Dynamics of Materialism and Loneliness: Not Just a Vicious Cycle

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Abstract

This research is the first to test the hypothesis that consumers face a “material trap” in which materialism fosters social isolation which in turn reinforces materialism. It provides evidence that materialism and loneliness are engaged in bidirectional relationships over time. Importantly, it finds that loneliness contributes more to materialism than the other way around. Moreover, it finds that materialism’s contribution to loneliness is not uniformly vicious but critically differs between specific subtypes of materialism. That is, valuing possessions as a happiness medicine or as a success measure increased loneliness, and these subtypes also increased most due to loneliness. Yet seeking possessions for material mirth decreased loneliness and was unaffected by it. These findings are based on longitudinal data from over 2,500 consumers across 6 years and a new latent growth model. They reveal how materialism and loneliness form a self-perpetuating vicious and virtuous cycle depending on the materialism subtype.

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... Scholars generally have viewed materialism negatively, given its undesirable effects on well-being. Materialism fosters social isolation because overemphasizing the value of possessions undermines social values (Pieters 2013). Accordingly, materialistic people have a lower tendency toward prosocial behaviors, as seen in lower likelihoods of making organ donations (Belk and Austin 1986), sharing a cash windfall with others (Belk 1985;Richins and Dawson 1992), and making charitable contributions (Richins and Dawson 1992). ...
... loneliness through material relationships (Pieters 2013). ...
... This work also has important practical implications. Past research has recognized a vicious cycle between materialism and loneliness in which materialism enhances loneliness and loneliness promotes materialistic values (Pieters 2013). Our findings suggest a mechanism for breaking this vicious cycle: activating a sense of psychological ownership. ...
Article
This article explores the consequences of psychological ownership going beyond the specific relationship with the possession to guide behavior in unrelated situations. Across seven studies, we find that psychological ownership leads to a boost in self-esteem, which encourages individuals to be more altruistic. In addition, we show that the effect of psychological ownership on prosocial behavior is not driven by self-efficacy, perceived power, reciprocity, feeling well-off, or affect. Examining materialism and mine-me sensitivity as individual differences moderating the effect of psychological ownership on prosocial behavior, we find that the effect does not hold for individuals low on materialism or mine-me sensitivity. Finally, we attenuate the effect of psychological ownership on prosocial tendencies by making the negative attributes of one’s possessions relevant.
... One escape avenue is through consumption. At the most general level, materialism has been consistently shown to be positively correlated with loneliness and feelings of lack of belongingness (Ang et al., 2014;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Loh et al., 2021;Norris et al., 2012;Pieters, 2013;Rose & DeJesus, 2007). ...
... It may be that feelings of loneliness cause people to turn to material goods to alleviate the pain of loneliness, but it is also plausible that placing a higher value on material goods may increase feelings of loneliness. Prioritizing extrinsic goals such as materialism may crowd out intrinsic goals such as social relations, leading to loneliness (Kasser, 2016;Lane, 2000;Pieters, 2013). Pieters (2013) addressed this issue in a longitudinal study of over 2500 Dutch consumers across a 6-year period. ...
... Prioritizing extrinsic goals such as materialism may crowd out intrinsic goals such as social relations, leading to loneliness (Kasser, 2016;Lane, 2000;Pieters, 2013). Pieters (2013) addressed this issue in a longitudinal study of over 2500 Dutch consumers across a 6-year period. The results of that study showed support for both possibilities: Loneliness at Time 1 was positively correlated with materialism at Time 2 (across the 6 years), and materialism at Time 1 was also positively correlated with loneliness at Time 2, indicating that the relation between loneliness and materialism is indeed bidirectional. ...
Article
Materialism has a long history in consumer research, and the volume of research continues to expand rapidly. In this article, we review extant research on materialism, with a particular focus on research in the last 10 years. We structure the review around the antecedents and consequences of materialism. We first provide a brief review of the different conceptualizations of materialism. We then discuss antecedents in terms of interpersonal influences (socialization factors—parents, peers, and media) and intrapersonal influences (psychological factors—self‐esteem, power, belongingness, and self‐concept clarity). Next, we discuss some consequences of materialism, such as well‐being, gratitude, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future research.
... More specifically, it points to lonely consumers' development of materialism and attachment to nonhuman agents (e.g., anthropomorphic product, virtual world and consumption behaviours) that potentially replace the need of social relationships [31][32][33]. However, our review suggests that seeking alternative social assurance from material possessions or other nonhuman agents may reinforce consumers' isolation, which makes consumers feel even lonelier, signalling a reciprocal effect of loneliness [34,35]. ...
... This cluster of studies is built on the assumption that people have a basic motivation for affiliation, which is alternatively termed as relatedness, social connection, belongingness and attachment [34,36]. The affiliation motivation deeply resides in human survival instinct from an evolutionary perspective [30]. ...
... However, when interactions with the real-world human beings are not directly available due to a lack of social skills or practice of social distancing, consumers tend to develop a compensatory mechanism to achieve a psychological balance. According to attachment theory, when failing to establish primary attachments with a human caretaker, people direct their reliance to material agents as secondary attachments (i.e., a compensation) [34]. In this regard, our identified literature suggests consumers' attachment to nonhuman agents as a fundamental compensatory mechanism [37][38][39]. ...
Article
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Loneliness is a pervasive problem recognised as a serious social issue, and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated loneliness to greater prominence and concern. We expect a rise of a massive group of ‘lonely’ consumers who are deeply entrenched in the social isolation caused by COVID-19. There is an urgent need to revisit the phenomenon of lonely consumers to better prepare academic researchers, public policy makers and commercial managers in the post-COVID-19 era. Thus, this study conducts a synthesised review on past studies of lonely consumers. Based on an inductive analysis of 56 articles, 74 key themes are identified. These key themes are further categorised into five major clusters by way of a co-occurrence network analysis. Respectively, the five clusters address the psychological implications related to the dynamics between nonhuman attachment and consumers’ loneliness, the commercial implications related to the paradoxical motivations of affiliation and self-affirmation in product selection and the dual information processing mechanism in response to advertisement appeals, and the social implications related to consumers’ well-being in an ageing society and the anthropomorphic companionship in a virtual world. A list of research questions is proposed that concludes the review study.
... The Attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2008) similarly asserts that, when a person fails to find a primary attachment in another person, he starts to rely on material possessions as his secondary attachment. Further, the self-determination theory has been used by some researchers like Pieters (2013) in order to explain the relationship between CL and materialism. The current work draws heavily from TMT, self-determination theory, attachment theory and evolutionary psychology principles and trait theories (Mowen & Carlson, 2003), which state that the traits exhibited by a person are a summation of his predisposed personality and other situational factors; in order to explain the affect of CI, CL, and materialism on one another and to understand their underlying personality dimensions. ...
... Loneliness can been defined as "an individual's subjective perception of deficiencies in his or her current level of social connection" (Weiss, 1973), "that motivates them to take actions to alleviate it" (Cacioppo et al. 2006). Consumer research has found evidence of a relationship between consumption and feelings of loneliness (Pieters, 2013;Snyder and Newman, 2019). The current conceptualisation defines loneliness to be a trait that can be predicted by personal and situational factors. ...
... Based on the self-determination and attachment theory the current research presupposed that a person who fails to find satisfaction in the 'primary' attachments of his life, will turn to material possessions to find satisfaction in these 'secondary' attachments, leading a person high in loneliness levels to report high materialistic values as well. These theories have been supported by other researchers who have established a relationship between materialism, and CL (Pieters, 2013). Similarly, consumer research suggested that, in accordance with TMT, people displaying higher levels of existential insecurity were reported to have high materialism levels (Chang & Arkin, 2002) providing evidence of a relationship between CI and materialism. ...
Article
Purpose-By investigating the impact of personality antecedents on marketing influenced surface traits (i.e., Materialism, Consumer Loneliness and Consumer Insecurity), the current research tries to take a step forward in understanding the real impact marketing activities have, on these surface traits. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a descriptive research methodology, data for the current study were collected from 174 respondents using standardized scales and hypotheses were tested using CFA and SEM analysis (AMOS (v23)). Findings: Results confirm the existence of a significant relationship between surface traits and personality traits, substantiating the theory that certain personality traits are inherent to the risk of being associated with these surface traits, and therefore the real impact of marketing activities might be much lower. Originality/Value: With marketing activities being criticized because of its negative impact on the society (which has been proved in the literature immensely), the current paper tries to give the debate a new perspective by studying the other antecedents (personality) of these 'negative consequences', in order to better understand the real affect of marketing activities. Implications: Marketers can take into consideration the results of the current study and incorporate them while making advertising decisions so that marketing actions elicit a more positive reaction than negative ones.
... Different types of consumption also have an important impact on the emotions and cognition of consumers due to the differences in intrinsic nature. However, research on the connection between loneliness and consumer behavior has not been addressed until recently as a positive intervention for loneliness (Pieters, 2013;Wang et al., 2021). In the current research, we examined the effects of the two most widespread purchase-experiential purchases and material purchases on loneliness. ...
... Previous studies have explored a range of associations between loneliness and consumption behavior (Lastovicka and Anderson, 2014). For example, Pieters (2013) claimed that lonely individuals prefer materialistic products; thus, materialism may, in turn, reinforce individual loneliness and create a negative cycle. Jing et al. (2012) found that lonely consumers prefer minorityendorsed products, while non-lonely consumers prefer majorityendorsed products. ...
... After that, the participants were then asked about their feelings of loneliness: How lonely do you feel now when you look back on the related purchase? The participants were then asked to report the level of perceived loneliness currently related to the recalled purchases with the 10 items (Pieters, 2013) from the RUCLA scale (Russell et al., 1980); some items were also modified to better reflect the current status of the participants. With a ninepoint Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree; 9 = strongly agree) on the statements such as "when you think back to this purchase, did you feel that you lack companionship currently?;" ...
Article
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Over the past few decades, researchers have explored the effects of experiential purchases and material purchases on happiness and provided a range of evidence that consumers yield greater happiness from experiential purchases compared with material purchases. However, limited research is known about the relationship between these two types of purchases within the broader context of negative emotion. Specifically, the current research focuses on the effect of experiential purchases on loneliness alleviation to replenish this research stream. Three experiments were conducted to explore the effect of experiential purchases (vs. material purchases) on alleviating loneliness. The results showed that experiential purchases have a stronger effect on loneliness alleviation than material purchases, which is mediated by relationship enhancement. In addition, purchases of social nature moderate the effect of experiential purchases on loneliness. Social experiential purchases lead to a higher degree of relief of loneliness. On the contrary, for the solitary experiential purchases, the effect of experiential purchases on loneliness is less tight. The current research supplements the research on negative emotions of experiential purchases and expands the research area of experiential purchases, which also provides new insights into coping strategies of loneliness.
... There is widespread evidence that materialism increases the perception of loneliness (Bauer et al, 2012;Kasser, 2003;Kilbourne et al., 2005;Lane, 2000;Larsen et al., 1999;Pieters, 2013;Schwartz, 1992). Furthermore, materialism has a strong bi-directional relationship with loneliness (Pieters, 2013) that strengthens with time. ...
... There is widespread evidence that materialism increases the perception of loneliness (Bauer et al, 2012;Kasser, 2003;Kilbourne et al., 2005;Lane, 2000;Larsen et al., 1999;Pieters, 2013;Schwartz, 1992). Furthermore, materialism has a strong bi-directional relationship with loneliness (Pieters, 2013) that strengthens with time. Where, loneliness is described as a comparatively consistent perceived feeling of pressure, anxiety, and trauma that impacts the individual emotionally, physically, and socially. ...
... Materialism plays with the connective ability of the individual (Kasser, 2003;Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002), disturbing the quality of the social relationships (Lane, 2000). This results in crowding out of relationships due to indulgence in such consumption patterns that blocks-in the consumer in a spiral consumption (Bauer et al., 2012;Kasser, 2003;Pieters, 2013). This eventually turns into less importance for self-acceptance, affiliation, or community fame and high importance for material possessions (Kasser & Ryan, 2001). ...
Article
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Materialism and its predominant socio-cultural impacts are widely researched as the emerging social issues of the modern era. The two very prominent fallouts of materialism are loneliness and the inability to indulge in happiness over a continuous spectrum of time. The theory of materialism-loneliness-happiness (MLH) trap (Khalid & Qadeer, 2017) had identified loneliness as the mediating variable that gives the trap its characteristic cyclical shape. If the trap is cyclical, that means it is a never-ending process. Once trapped, the consumer will not be able to break free from it. However, this study argues that the consumer can stop themself from entangling in the trap by bringing conscious changes in the purchase process. In other words, a consumer can prepare against the trap. This paper attempts to empirically test the mitigation prospect to the MLH trap with the help of an extensive experiment spanned over 14 weeks of experimental manipulation of purchase training. The experiment followed a double randomization design for making the two successive interventions (materialism intervention and loneliness intervention). We found that materialism can be curbed in the shorter run by conscious efforts and training of the consumer. There was an overall decree of about 44% in materialism, a 56% decrease in perceived loneliness, and about a 27% increase in overall happiness scores from the start of the experiment (t1) till the end (t3). This shows that both materialism and loneliness can be handled by conscious efforts of the consumer, controlling the purchase mechanism. We also discuss the implications and provide future research directions.
... Despite the massive numbers of lonely consumers, marketing research has only recently begun to shed light on how loneliness affects consumer decision making. Lonely consumers are more materialistic (Pieters, 2013), more likely to engage in impulsive consumption (Sinha & Wang, 2013), more willing to use in-store sales personnel for social interaction (Rippé, Smith, & Dubinsky, 2018), and more attached to used but not useful possessions (Hu, Wang, & Cole, 2019). Yet most of the existing literature about loneliness focuses on verbal information alone. ...
... The first stream focuses on compensating for the lack of high-quality social connection via physical products and services. For example, lonely consumers are more materialistic (Pieters, 2013), more likely to engage in impulsive consumption (Sinha & Wang, 2013), more willing to interact with salespeople in brick-and-mortar stores (Rippé et al., 2018), more likely to use Facebook for hedonic well-being (Berezan et al., 2020), and have more favorable attitudes towards products with divisible (vs. indivisible) numbers (Yan & Sengupta, 2021). ...
... Loneliness scale in Study 1a 10-item revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Pieters, 2013) ...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between loneliness and shape preference for angularity or circularity.Across five studies, we show that lonely (vs. nonlonely) consumers prefer angular over circular shapes. This effect is driven by the perceived fit between feelings of loneliness (vs. non-loneliness) and angular (vs. circular) shapes. Moreover, this effect occurs only when consumption is private. In public consumption, shape (angular vs. circular) does not affect lonely consumers’ preferences. We demonstrate these effects in various product- and logoshape elements, such as logo typefaces (Study 1a), app icons (Study 1b), store displays (Study 2), and product designs (Studies 3a and 3b). These findings add to theories of sensory marketing and loneliness and yield insights for marketing practitioners.
... Possession-defined success also tends to show negative relationships with well-being, although these are often not as strong as those for the acquisition as the pursuit of happiness subcomponent. The acquisition centrality component, in contrast, has been shown to either not relate to well-being [76] or in some cases to even have a weak positive association with life satisfaction and reductions in loneliness [78,79]. Therefore, it may be that it is people's beliefs concerning the reasons why possessions are important that drive materialism's negative association with well-being, rather than simply placing importance on acquiring material goods. ...
... In particular, the acquisition as the pursuit of happiness subcomponent appears to be most detrimental to well-being, followed by possession-defined success [72][73][74][75][76][77]. The acquisition centrality component does not appear to be as problematic for well-being [76] and has even, in some cases, been shown to have a weak positive association with certain aspects of well-being [78,79]. However, research rarely explicitly examines how the different subcomponents of materialistic values may be related to factors that can lead to higher well-being. ...
Article
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Strong materialistic values help to maintain consumer capitalism, but they can have negative consequences for individual well-being, for social equity and for environmental sustainability. In this paper, we add to the existing literature on the adverse consequences of materialistic values by highlighting their negative association with engagement in attitudes and actions that support the achievement of sustainable well-being. To do this, we explore the links between materialistic values and attitudes towards sufficiency (consuming “just enough”) as well as mindfulness (non-judgmental awareness of the present moment) and flow (total immersion in an activity), which have all been linked to increased well-being and more sustainable behaviours. We present results from three correlational studies that examine the association between materialistic values and sufficiency attitudes (Study 1, n = 310), a multi-faceted measure of mindfulness (Study 2, n = 468) and the tendency to experience flow (Study 3, n = 2000). Results show that materialistic values were negatively associated with sufficiency attitudes, mindfulness, and flow experiences. We conclude with practical considerations and suggest next steps for tackling the problematic aspects of materialism and encouraging the development of sustainable well-being.
... Shrum et al. (2014) argue that materialism may lead to a compensatory consumption mechanism wherein goods could be used as alternative means to construct self-concepts to manage self-threats LOH ET AL. | 539 such as low self-esteem, high uncertainty, and lack of personal control in life. Recent research also suggests lonely consumers are likely to engage in materialism to cope with loneliness (Gentina et al., 2018;Lastovicka & Sirianni, 2011;Pieters, 2013). ...
... As hypothesized, results reveal that emotional loneliness triggers both nostalgia and materialism. The results are consistent with prior loneliness research on nostalgia Zhou et al., 2008) and materialism (Gentina et al., 2018;Lastovicka & Anderson, 2014;Pieters, 2013). Past research shows that nostalgia fosters social connectedness and retrieves the connections with significant others through nostalgia reverie (Zhou et al., 2008). ...
Article
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This paper explores the mechanism by which consumers use their self-brand connections and emotional attachment with brands to cope with the emotional loneliness that may be caused by the absence of intimate relationships with close others. The authors also examine the mediating roles played by nostalgia and materialism on the reinforcement of brand loyalty in this process using a multi-stage model. An online survey with 456 Malaysians working adults supports all the hypotheses. Specifically, emotional loneliness has positive associations with nostalgia and materialism, both of which mediate the positive associations between emotional loneliness and self-brand connections. Self-brand connections also mediate the positive associations of nostalgia and materialism with emotional brand attachment, which in turn mediates the positive association between self-brand connections and brand loyalty. The authors discuss the theoretical contribution and managerial implications of these findings.
... Furthermore, materialism has been associated with higher social interaction anxiety (Kashdan & Breen, 2007), and with higher peer rejection in both children (Banerjee & Dittmar, 2008) and adult populations (Jiang et al., 2015). Along the same lines, longitudinal research suggests that loneliness leads to higher materialism, which ironically also results in higher loneliness (Pieters, 2013). ...
... Indeed, the link between materialism and loneliness has been found to be present in both Western (Pieters, 2013) and Eastern populations (Loh et al., 2021). Therefore, given the association between individual and social insecurities and materialism, we would expect that a rise in social isolation due to lockdown restrictions will lead to an increase in materialistic values. ...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has led to an increase in the factors that typically facilitate the endorsement of materialistic values (e.g., higher media consumption, stress and anxiety, loneliness, death anxiety, and lower moods). In this paper, we examine how contextual changes affecting the antecedents of materialism influence its advocacy with a mixed‐method approach. First, a correlational study (Study 1) suggests that increases in media consumption and stress and anxiety during the pandemic predicted current levels of materialism, however, these effects were limited. Second, contrary to our expectations, a longitudinal study (Study 2) shows that people's focus on money decreased during the pandemic. Last, a social media content analysis (Study 3) reveals a downward trend in users’ online discourses about consumption‐related behaviors, but an upward trend in brands promoting spending as a way to attain well‐being. The observed effects could fuel deeper societal change in the labor market and in consumer behavior, and have further implications for individual and societal well‐being in a post‐pandemic world. We recommend future interventions aimed at diminishing materialistic attitudes to examine the effects of decreasing media consumption and to explore how other factors introduced by the pandemic (e.g., a health or well‐being focus) might moderate its advocacy.
... Thus, developing stronger brand and product connections and material value orientations to combat feelings of loneliness may in effect crowd out human social connections [47], leading to a vicious cycle in which loneliness leads to higher levels of materialism, which in turn lead to even greater loneliness (see Dittmar, this issue). A 6-year longitudinal study of 2789 Dutch consumers documented this vicious cycle, showing that initial levels of loneliness positively predicted scores on the Material Values Scale [48] in subsequent years, but also that initial levels of materialism positively predicted loneliness in subsequent years [45]. ...
... For example, in certain instances, threats to belongingness (e.g., through social exclusion) increases self-focused behaviors such as conspicuous consumption [19,20,52]. Similarly, the selfcenteredness effects are consistent with research showing that the effects of loneliness on materialism are particularly strong for subdimensions of the Material Values Scale that are more self-focused (e.g., possessiondefined success, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness [45]). The hypervigilance for social threats resulting from self-preservation motives can also breed distrust that can impede consumer interactions. ...
Article
This review synthesizes the most recent advances in psychology investigating the link between loneliness and consumption. We structure the review around the motives that loneliness activates, based on the Evolutionary Theory of Loneliness. More specifically, we detail how consumers use consumption experiences to repair perceived deficiencies in their belongingness needs, and how the motive to improve social connections through consumption can have both positive (bright side) and negative (dark side) effects. We also discuss how loneliness can activate a self-preservation motive that can breed interpersonal mistrust and thus potentially impede reconnection. We conclude by reviewing research on the depleting effects of loneliness on self-regulatory resources and the dark side effects of this depletion on self-control.
... In terms of monetary spending, people who lack social support, such as young adults raised in disrupted families, engage in more self-centered consumption (Pieters, 2013;Rindfleisch et al., 1997) and have more desire to acquire material goods for themselves (Flouri, 2004;Kasser et al., 1995). In contrast, socially well-accepted people spend money on others (e.g., donation) more than socially excluded people do (Rindfleisch et al., 2008;Twenge et al., 2007). ...
... Accordingly, when people expect to climb up the economic ladder in the future, what they are willing to do with future economic success can depend on the level of social support that they perceive. Considering that people with low social support tend to be materialistic (Flouri, 2004) and engage in self-centered consumption (Pieters, 2013), as PEM increases, they might focus on dreaming about self-centered money spending (e.g., buying luxury cars and clothes for themselves). Also, given that PEM increases selfregulation (Yoon & Kim, 2016) and positive financial management behaviors (Szendrey & Fiala, 2018), those with low social support might think of healthy financial behavior to protect themselves (e.g., saving for life after retirement), as PEM increases. ...
Article
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When would perceptions of economic mobility enhance individuals’ subjective well‐being? The current research examined the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between perceived economic mobility and subjective well‐being. We found that perceived economic mobility increased subjective well‐being more among people with high perceived social support than among those with low social support. This interaction effect was robust across a secondary data study with South Korean participants (Study 1) and two online studies with U.K. samples (Studies 2 and 3) even when controlled for the effects of subjective SES (in Study 1), household income (in Studies 2 and 3), age, and gender. Willingness to spend future earnings on others was revealed as an underlying mechanism. Specifically, among people with high (vs. low) perceived social support, perceived economic mobility enhanced subjective well‐being via heightened willingness to spend future earnings on others, ruling out an alternative reason for subjective well‐being such as perceived importance of money.
... Boyle et al., 2008, Dittmar et al., 2014, Roberts et al., 2015. Highconsumption societies are associated with loneliness and depression, weak social relationships, the inability to enjoy purchased goods, and ecologically destructive behavior (Bartolini 2014, Pieters, 2013, Quoidbach et al. 2010. Of course, none of this is new. ...
Article
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This paper argues that the materialist ethos pervading modern day society is inherently incompatible with the concept of sustainable development and the survival of the global ecosystem. Furthermore, it suggests that the education system is not only failing to combat this problem, but actually often serves as a fundamental tool for teaching these harmful values and raising citizens who are devoid of the urge or capacity to engage in critical thinking. To remedy this problem, the paper proposes the implementation of reflective pedagogies that place social justice and environmental sustainability in the foreground and critically examine dominant ideologies and socio-political contexts. The paper draws on Sterling’s concept of “levels of learning” and then goes on to discuss how transformative learning theory provides a framework for effecting meaningful changes in learners’ socially conditioned perspectives and beliefs. Finally, the paper discusses how the transformative learning approach can be implemented in practice.
... A partir de tomar la Generación de Mayores como base, observamos en la Tabla iii en el Modelo Lineal General que los coeficientes de las otras tres generaciones son positivos, o sea que son menos materialistas que los mayores. Únicamente en Holanda los Mayores son los más P. La idea del Materialismo se ha asociado como un sistema de valores que produce ansiedad por el consumo (Dittmar, 2005), soledad (Pieters, 2013) e incluso un menos bienestar subjetivo ( Jaspers y Pieters, 2016;Dittmar et al., 2014). Los Milennials en la mayor parte de los casos aparecen como bastante P; la Generación Xrs aparece con más frecuencia como M mientras que repunta el P en los Boomers. ...
Article
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Se realiza un análisis empírico de las teorías del Materialismo-Postmaterialismo a partir de la elaboración de un índice, con los 12 items recogidos en la literatura y se aplica a una estructura de 4 generaciones, para observar el grado de Materialismo o Post-materialismo de una sociedad. Se observa una relativa similitud generacional entre países diversos, económica y geográficamente, lo cual refuerza la tesis generacional frente a tesis clásicas como la de la socialización o la de la escasez. Las variables relevantes para explicar el Postmaterialismo son el nivel de vida, el interés por la política y la formación principalmente. Los valores generacionales oscilan entre el Postmaterialismo elevado entre los Millennials y el Materialismo de los Mayores. Los resultados tienen diversas consecuencias para la economía, la sociología y la política, especialmente en las sociedades que tienden al envejecimiento.
... Loneliness is becoming an increasing concern in modern societies (Vasileiou 2019). Expressed as the inconsistency between actual and desired social relationships (Peplau & Perlman, 1982), loneliness may also negatively affect the sense of well-being (Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010;Holt-Lunstad 2015) by reducing selfregulation (Cacioppo 2011;Cacioppo & Patrcik, 2008;Pieters, 2013). Affecting many behaviors, loneliness affects the neural pathways that control social cognition and executive functions, and regulate the individual's attention, cognition, emotion, and behavior to better understand the standards and goals of the individual that social life has brought (Cacioppo 2011). ...
... A final limitation of this study is the inability to substantiate the hypothesis that happy materialistic children become unhappy adults. This is a supposition that could only be known from conducting longitudinal research (Pieters, 2013). Further research is needed to track the life satisfaction and depressed mood of congruent value materialistic adolescents once they leave home and become self-sufficient. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this research is to offer a theoretical explanation for the perpetuation of materialistic values among adolescents. In a recent survey by the Pew Research Center (2019), adolescents in America say that having a lot of money is more important to them in their future than getting married or having children. This research answers the call for a theoretical explanation for the perpetuation of materialistic values among adolescents. Using person–environment fit (P-E fit) theory, this study argues that it is not the content of the values, but rather the fit between a person’s value priorities and the values prevailing in the environment which is crucial to well-being. Design/methodology/approach A national online panel was used to collect cross-sectional survey data from 278 families (adolescents aged 13–18 and their parents). Findings Findings indicate that adolescents in congruent value households express significantly greater life satisfaction and less depressed mood than adolescents in conflict value households. In fact, materialistic adolescents living in materialistic households expressed the greatest life satisfaction, a finding which contrasts with the current claims that materialism uniformly causes anxiety and depressed mood. Research limitations/implications To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to test person–environment fit theory in the context of the family and to offer this theory as a viable explanation of affluenza among America’s youth. The results of this study support the P-E fit theory and suggest that materialism is not universally associated with negative well-being, but rather that adolescents’ well-being is a function of the congruency of an adolescent’s values to his/her family environment. Social implications While materialistic socialization within the family does enhance the well-being of adolescents temporarily, it may also set adolescents up for a lifetime of harmful expectations from the pursuit money. A consistent pattern of overconsumption as a reward to adolescents may later produce materialistic adults who suffer from financial difficulties and mental health disorders. Disproportionate consumption further leads to environmental pollution. Originality/value No study to date has examined the impact of value congruence in the household (parent-child), as it pertains to the development of materialism in adolescents and its effects on adolescents’ well-being. This study suggests that highly materialistic adolescents can experience happiness from the pursuit of consumption. This offers insight into how a value deemed as detrimental as materialism continues to permeate in our society.
... Due to feasibility and cost, much research focuses on shortterm fluctuations in self-esteem. Research that employs longitudinal designs to investigate consumption's long-lasting impact on people's core self-views remains rare ( [54] is a notable exception). ...
Article
Research on the effect of consumption on self-esteem is relatively scarce and related evidence is fragmented. We review articles from the literatures on consumption, advertising, materialism, mass media, and social media as they relate – directly or indirectly – to consumer self-esteem. We introduce a taxonomy of eight types of processes through which consumption affects self-esteem: self-discrepancy, self-congruency, self-enhancement, self-determination, compensatory consumption, self-verification, self-object association, and market-mediated relationships. Based on this taxonomy, we highlight consumption domains and recent consumer trends that impact self-esteem. Moreover, we suggest priorities for further research.
... Materialism has generally held connotation that is associated with character deficiencies, self-centeredness, and unhappiness, and most extant research views materialism as having a negative influence on well-being (Shrum et al., 2014). Materialism is also associated with other negative indicators of well-being, such as loneliness (Pieters, 2013), depression (Mueller et al., 2011), and low self-esteem (Christopher, Drummond, Jones, Marek & Therriault, 2006; Richins & Dawson, 1992). Nelson (2009) has found that materialism leads to lowered mental well-being, and that spirituality is negatively correlated with the endorsement of materialistic attitudes. ...
... This is consistent with what (Levin, 2018) states that materialism is seen as a waste of essential resources, contrary to traditional religious values and damaging the sense of responsibility of citizens. The results of other studies found that the level of materialism will depend on religiosity (Day & Maksakovsky, 2020), family background (Domagalski, 2004), and economic resources (Pieters, 2013 The consumer's view of globalization in the three aspects of globalization shows different views in every aspect. In the aspect of economic globalization, consumers tend to disagree about the process of economic globalization, as shown in several indicators. ...
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This study aims to reveal the many variables that affect the etnocentrisme consumers and the impact on the product-product product domestic product. Materialism, self-esteem and globalization are variables that affect etnocentrisme the consumer and the brand image of domestic product. The respondents of this research is the visitors of the shopping center in the City of Bandung with 392 respondents. The sampling technique used is an example of the rough. Methods of data analysis used in this research is structural equation models to determine the relationship between variables materialism, self-esteem and globalization with etnocentrisme and also with the image of the domestic product. The results show that there is a significant positive effect of self-esteem on etnocentrisme consumers, as well as on the image of the domestic product. The effect of materialism Variable on etnocentrism the Consumer stated will be significant. However, the image of domestic products stated have the effect of a negative and significant although the effect is minimal. Variable Globalization has negative effect and significant on etnocentrisme consumers with a large coefficient of influence. However, it does not have a significant effect on the image of the domestic product. This shows that globalization has an indirect effect on the image of the domestic product Keywords Materialism, self-esteem, globalization, consumer ethnocentrism, the brand image of domestic products
... According to Richins and Dawson (1992), materialism is defined as importance attributed to Individuals high on materialistic values feel dissatisfied with present possessions (Pieters, 2013); and often wish to acquire more or nicer things which they feel could lead to happiness (Richins & Dawson, 1992). Further, linking personal success with material possessions necessitates a social comparison between self and others (Duan, 2016); and that individuals high on materialism are more concerned with extrinsic goals like monetary success and status (Kasser & Ryan, 1996). ...
Conference Paper
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It is being felt that “without sustainable consumption…sustainable development is impossible”, and focusing on consumers’ attitude and behaviour to mobilize self-interest of individual consumer could be one of the surest way to more sustainable future. Increasingly studies propose adopting psychological approaches in boosting sustainable consumption behaviors (socially responsible consumption) but in spite of different theoretical propositions the connection between mindfulness and responsible consumption still remains unexplored. The present research study aims at conceptualizing and empirically investigate the relationship between mindfulness and socially responsible consumption behaviour and also to investigate the mediating effect of self-compassion and materialism.
... According to Richins and Dawson (1992), materialism is defined as importance attributed to Individuals high on materialistic values feel dissatisfied with present possessions (Pieters, 2013); and often wish to acquire more or nicer things which they feel could lead to happiness (Richins & Dawson, 1992). ...
Conference Paper
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In spite of being a global concern, studies in sustainable consumption domain is dominated by western thinking and there is a dearth of cross-cultural research. The global overconsumption trend along with the accompanying profound sustainability problems have started reflecting in developing economies like India too. It is being felt that focusing on consumers’ attitude and behaviour to mobilize self-interest of individual consumer could be one of the surest way to more sustainable future. Extant literature proposes adopting psychological approaches in boosting sustainable consumption behaviors (socially responsible consumption) but in spite of different theoretical propositions the connection between mindfulness and responsible consumption still remains unexplored. The present research aims at conceptualizing and empirically investigate the relationship between mindfulness and socially responsible consumption behaviour and also to investigate the mediating effect of self-compassion and materialism.
... Second, the social exclusion literature suggests that feeling socially excluded can foster materialism, valuing material possessions as a sort of "happiness medicine" (Pieters, 2013). This may be because feeling isolated makes consumers anthropomorphize goods as an alternative means of social assurance (Mourey et al., 2017). ...
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A lack of a sense of belonging in the host country has become one of the most common challenges facing international migrants in today's sociopolitical environment. Our two online experiments with 881 international migrant workers in the United States jointly demonstrate that, to cope with their lack of a sense of belonging in the host country, international migrants may spend money suboptimally: more on material purchases but less on experiential and prosocial purchases. More importantly, our studies suggest that prosocial purchases are more effective than experiential purchases in increasing international migrants’ subjective well‐being. This is because prosocial purchases can lead to both relatedness need satisfaction and beneficence, with each independently contributing to international migrants’ subjective well‐being. Our research suggests that public policymakers should address the social exclusion international migrants experience when moving to a new country because it can have a negative impact on their subjective well‐being. Our research further suggests that one way to mitigate social exclusion is to encourage international migrants to spend money on others rather than themselves.
... Ashton and Lee (2007) have an evolutionary interpretation of the trait of emotionality in that it is related to kin altruism with the facets of sentimentality and dependence. Altruism has been negatively related to materialism (e.g., Leyva, 2019) and materialism has a negative impact on interpersonal relationships (e.g., Pieters, 2013). Therefore, it is likely that the components of emotionality that are involved with attachment with others (sentimentality and dependence) will be negatively related to materialism and may have an effect upon the anxiety, fearfulness component of emotionality which is likely related to the anxiety-based or "mouse" type materialism described by G ornik-Durose and Pilch (2016). ...
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between, neuroticism, emotionality well-being and materialism. A series of mediation analyses were conducted with data obtained from a set of questionnaires completed by University students. The results indicated that neuroticism and emotionality were mediators in the well-being-materialism relationship. However, this relationship is dependent upon whether neuroticism or emotionality is measured as the three neuroticism measures utilized were significant mediators whereas the HEXACO emotionality scale was not. A facet-level analysis was conducted with the IPIP-NEO facets of volatility and withdrawal and with the HEXACO facets of sentimentality/dependence and withdrawal. In either case, withdrawal was a significant mediator in the materialism well-being relationship, whereas volatility or sentimentality/dependence was not. The results highlight the differences between neuroticism and HEXACO emotionality and add additional insight into the relationship between materialism and lower well-being. These findings suggest possible methods of decreasing materialistic tendencies and increasing subjective well-being.
... Still, materialism is not necessarily a desire for exclusive material possession, nor can it be said to necessarily prevent collaborative consumption. There has been research conducted, such as that of Pieters (2013), that shows that different subscales of materialism have different effects on outcome variables. As such, when examining the relationship between materialism and collaborative consumption, it is necessary to have a more specific focus on what materialism consists of, or for what motives it arises. ...
The aim is to clarify the impact of values on the general attitude towards collaborative consumption in a Chinese context, and the impact of the general attitude towards collaborative consumption on the intention to use and actual use of various specific collaborative consumption services. A total of 600 responses were collected in 2019. The results showed that non-ownership orientation, guanxi networking orientation, materialism, novelty orientation, and frugality orientation significantly influenced positively collaborative consumption attitude. It was also found that the impact of guanxi networking orientation on collaborative consumption attitude was mediated by non-ownership orientation. The results also showed that general collaborative consumption attitudes positively influence the intention to use all specific collaborative consumption, such as shared bicycles, shared cars, shared goods, carpooling services, and peer-to-peer accommodation. Moreover, the predictive power of the intention to use collaborative consumption on actual use is only strong in shared bicycle and carpooling services.
... We contribute to the close relationships literature by highlighting how regular, often mundane choices (e.g., deciding which brand of laundry detergent to buy or which movie to see) can have important relational consequences, including increased relationship satisfaction. Close relationships, and satisfaction with them, are positively associated with many important life outcomes, including life satisfaction, financial well-being, health and happiness (Berkman, 1995;Cohen, 2004;Keltner et al., 2003;Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2005;Lang & Carstensen, 1994;Liu2012;Pieters, 2013;Waite2001). For example, married people live longer than unmarried people on average (Sbarra, Hasselmo, & Nojopranoto, 2012;Sbarra, Law, & Portley, 2011). ...
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Shared consumer decisions, particularly those made with a relationship partner, can be very different from decisions that are made alone. Across multiple studies, we investigate how shared consumer decision making affects perceptions of power and relationship satisfaction. We integrate two streams of research to create a novel theory about consumer decision making and perceived power. Specifically, we suggest that shared consumer decision making combines two necessary components of power—an individual’s influence over and a partner’s engagement in the decision—and that these combined components drive power perceptions. In other words, individuals who relinquish some control and make a decision with their partner, ironically, perceive having greater power than if they had made the decision alone. We further find that shared decision making and greater perceived power lead to greater satisfaction with the relationship in which the decisions are made. By focusing on consumer decision making within relationships, the current research contributes to the literatures on decision making, social influences in consumer behavior, close relationships, consumer well‐being, and power.
... Lonely consumers gift cash, goods, or services to non-profit organisations to help them accomplish their goals (Merchant et al., 2011), and consume goods which make their lives comfortable (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Research has explored how lonely consumers consume and engage in decision making (Merchant et al., 2011;Pieters, 2013). ...
Article
Factors influencing mobile shopping intention have been discussed very frequently in the literature. However, the effect of psychological reasons like loneliness on mobile shopping intention has received little attention in the consumer behaviour literature. Especially, there is a dearth of studies regarding how lonely consumers respond to mobile shopping intention when exposed to nostalgic advertising. Grounded on the Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT), this article conceptualizes that lonely consumer when exposed to nostalgic advertising may enter the flow state and eventually engage in mobile shopping. Consistent with prior literature, the authors consider four distinct dimensions of advertising-evoked personal nostalgia: past imagery, positive emotions, negative emotions, and physiological reactions. Marketers face considerable challenges when appealing to lonely consumers to engage in mobile shopping. This article provides a framework to aid marketers to successfully develop marketing strategies to engage lonely consumers in mobile shopping. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... Many studies underline the negative impact of materialism on di erent aspects of living that consequently diminish life satisfaction. Materialism can lead to loneliness (Pieters, 2013), work-family con ict (Promislo et al., 2010), negative job satisfaction (Sardz ska & Li-Ping Tang, 2012;Richins & Dawnson, 1992, or psychological traits like low self-esteem, low level of self-actualization, and narcissism (Nickerson et al., 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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The ways in which individuals develop temporal orientations that divide the flow of personal experience into the time zones of past, present or future influence decision making and action taking, in terms of dominant temporal orientation. Research so far has already highlighted the link between specific time orientations (mainly future) and a series of behaviors associated with health, risk taking or academic achievement. Although time perspective was investigated as a cognitive motivational concept with important implications on learning outcomes and behavior, there is little or no evidence concerning the e$ects of time perspective on work related achievement motivation. Similarly, albeit time perspective was studied in relation with other individual variables that might provide insights for a better understanding of its volitional nature (such as, locus of control, optimism/pessimism or self-determination), self-regulation was not yet considered. Based on these assumptions, the present study investigates the possible associations between di$erent time perspectives, selfregulation and achievement motivation. It was conducted using a survey method on a convenience sample of 67 MA students. Results show positive associations between future time perspective and self-regulation, and negative associations between present fatalist and self-regulation, respectively past negative and self-regulation. Likewise, achievement motivation seems to be positively related to future time perspective and negatively related to past negative and present fatalistic. Moreover, these correlations are supported at subscale level. The present findings advice for taking into account the way in which individuals assign the personal and social experiences to time frames, that help them give order, coherence and meaning in work settings. Since career, as well as schooling is by de#nition future-oriented, identifying the dominant time perspective and its relation to behaviors associated with planning and achieving one’s goals might help better understand career choices. Concurrently, since time perspective is associated with problematic behaviors, it could be included in the study of work related behaviors (counterproductive or organizational citizenship behaviors) along with self-regulation.
... It becomes easy to moralize claiming the importance of focusing on the here and now and its implications for positive emotions and a clearer understanding of what function garments have in everyday-life, forgetting all the other emotional values manifested through clothes (cf. Pieters 2013). After all, from the perspective of sustainability, detachment from the old is a far less critical issue than the purchase of the new (Lane, Horne, and Bicknell 2009;Stanes and Gibson 2017). ...
... On the bright side, materialism motivates individuals to work hard for material achievements (Joseph Sirgy et al. 2013). However, materialism is more commonly known for its association with negative psychological factors including lower self-esteem (Kasser 2002), depression (Mueller et al. 2011), loneliness (Pieters 2013), and dissatisfaction with life (Tsang et al. 2014). Evidence suggests that materialists seek to account for such psychological deficiencies through material acquisition (Reeves, Baker, and Truluck 2012). ...
Article
Despite the ubiquity of social media influencers (SMIs) and the clear value they hold for marketers, little is understood about the sociopsychological motives that drive consumers to follow them. The current research identified unique consumer motivations for following SMIs on Instagram and examined its association with important consumer behaviour outcomes (i.e. trust towards SMIs’ brand-related posts and frequency of purchasing SMI-recommended brands) as well as materialism. Based on survey data, findings revealed four motivations for following influencers on Instagram – authenticity, consumerism, creative inspiration, and envy – which had varying effects on trust and purchase frequency. Additionally, materialism was a significant individual difference variable that was strongly associated with the four motives, some of which served as key mediators underlying materialism’s impact on purchase behaviour. Managerial and theoretical implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed as well as suggestions for future research in this burgeoning area.
... For instance, consumers experiencing a stressful situation would strategically allocate their resources to gain control of their environment, by increasing savings (thus reducing spending), or increasing spending towards necessity products (such as car rental and home office in our context) [59]. Social exclusion, isolation, or loneliness resulting from, for instance, the lockdowns, may also contribute to increased materialism and spending on material goods [60]. Social exclusion may also lead ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the economy and human lives worldwide, particularly the vulnerable low-income population. We employ a large panel data of 5.6 million daily transactions from 2.6 million debit cards owned by the low-income population in the U.S. to quantify the joint impacts of the state lockdowns and stimulus payments on this population’s spending along the inter-temporal, geo-spatial, and cross-categorical dimensions. Leveraging the difference-in-differences analyses at the per card and zip code levels, we uncover three key findings. (1) Inter-temporally, the state lockdowns diminished the daily average spending relative to the same period in 2019 by $3.9 per card and $2,214 per zip code, whereas the stimulus payments elevated the daily average spending by $15.7 per card and $3,307 per zip code. (2) Spatial heterogeneity prevailed: Democratic zip codes displayed much more volatile dynamics, with an initial decline three times that of Republican zip codes, followed by a higher rebound and a net gain after the stimulus payments; also, Southwest exhibited the highest initial decline whereas Southeast had the largest net gain after the stimulus payments. (3) Across 26 categories, the stimulus payments promoted spending in those categories that enhanced public health and charitable donations, reduced food insecurity and digital divide, while having also stimulated non-essential and even undesirable categories, such as liquor and cigar. In addition, spatial association analysis was employed to identify spatial dependency and local hot spots of spending changes at the county level. Overall, these analyses reveal the imperative need for more geo- and category-targeted stimulus programs, as well as more effective and strategic policy communications, to protect and promote the well-being of the low-income population during public health and economic crises.
... Whereas the positive effect of experiential consumption is well-established, there is more uncertainty about whether material consumption positively or negatively contributes to happiness when it is not conceptualized as necessarily subtracting from experientialness. Past research has provided insights in both directions: material purchases such as clothes or shoes may yield disutility (e.g., being perceived as materialistic; Van Boven et al., 2010;promoting loneliness;Pieters, 2013); alternatively, they can have important positive benefits. For example, material qualities are less ephemeral (see Carter & Gilovich, 2010, p. 157), remind people of accomplishments (Goodman et al., 2016), and are more visible for status signaling (Mandel et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Extant literature suggests that consumers derive more happiness from experiences (e.g., vacations) than from material possessions (e.g., furniture). However, this literature typically pits material against experiential consumption, treating them as a single bipolar construct of their relative dominance: more material or more experiential. This focus on relative dominance leaves unanswered questions regarding how different levels of material and experiential qualities each contribute to happiness. Four preregistered studies (N = 3,288), using hundreds of product categories, measured levels of material and experiential qualities using two unipolar items. These studies investigate recalled, evoked, and anticipated happiness. Results show a more nuanced view of the experiential advantage that is critical for future research and consumer theory: material and experiential qualities both have positive relationships with happiness. Further, there is no inherent tradeoff between experiential and material qualities: consumers can enjoy consumption that is high on both (e.g., swimming pools and home improvements).
... During the restriction, people looked for the antidote to travel longings and became accustomed to virtual services. This pattern reflects the increasing digital consumption as a sign of resetting values in their lives (Pieters, 2013). In order to meet the demands of a new value reorientation in society, tourism managers are competing to ensure the safety of employees and customers, brand image, and the sustainability of their capital. ...
Article
Covid-19 has had many socio-cultural, economic, and psychological impacts on various tourism stakeholders. The study used in this article is a qualitative exploratory study using the phenomenological method. This study's aim is on tourism activities that took place during the covid 19 periods to the new normal was carried out through interviews and observations in 24 Malang tourism managers and 30 residents. The method used to answer the objectives is a case study that focuses on the manager and the tourism community in Malang Raya. Determination of research informants using the snowball design. At the end of the study, several adaptation patterns carried out by tourism managers were refocusing on their market segments. Following the health protocol, the manager captures local tourists to maintain the capital's liquidity; they must ensure post-crisis periods.
... Just like Arjun, everyone else is fighting their own battle of modern life. Rik Pieters in Bidirectional Dynamics of Materialism and Loneliness: Not Just a Vicious Cycle said, "There is a shared belief among academics and the general public that materialism contributes to loneliness and similar social ills" [8]. In this globalized world the job market is treating people like machines and for that reason many people are losing their humanly emotions. ...
Article
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From the beginning of civilization people have shifted from one place to another for better living and for seeking different opportunities. It is true that globalization is changing this world to a small village but people are becoming more and more forlorn and alienated. In most of the third world countries, western world is considered to be a better place to live in; this leads to disillusionment in several of the cases. Hari Kunzru’s Transmission deals with a character named Arjun Mehta, a programmer, who goes to America to pursue his dreams in the corporate world. Soon he learns he is just a contract employee despite all his capabilities. His largest blow comes when he realizes his job life is about to end. He is isolated though he is surrounded by people and co-workers. To prove his worth, he creates a virus which generated a global havoc. The writer very skilfully introduces another character named Guy Swift whose life goes parallel to Arjun. Unlike Arjun, Guy enjoys all the luxuries of the world; the contrast is perplexing. The virus which Arjun created affected Guy’s life too, showing the smallness of this world and how everything more or less affects everyone. Hary Kunzru tactfully put Guy in a situation where he was deported to another country due to a confusion regarding his identity; the writer has turned the table and showed how it can be when one person is not from a powerful country. Our world does not treat everyone equally: in this globalized world, people are alienated and are given false hope. Arjun lost his identity and his sense of home: he did not have any place to belong. This paper has worked with the disenchantment of Arjun and how his life changed by going to America. This paper has discussed about the brutal world of materialism where people are considered just as a working body: with no feelings whatsoever. The borders are said to be vanishing but people are becoming more and more depressed and lonely. Everyone wants to leave a mark, everyone wants to be noticed like Arjun but most of the times they go unnoticed. This paper has tried to discuss the reason behind these crises and hoped to come up with some answers.
... In addition to being the source of many social problems, the materialistic tendency encourages consumers to buy and acquire assets by convincing them that they will be happy. The studies on the subject reveal that materialism causes many problems in subjects such as individuals' consumption behaviors and financial status (Dittmar, Long & Bond, 2007), work and education motivations (Ku, Dittmar, & Banerjee, 2014), interpersonal relationships (Pieters, 2013), and also personal well-being (Jiang, Song, Ke, Wang & Liu, 2016). On the other hand, while the materialistic tendency forms the basis of modern consumer culture, it affects the type, quality, and price of the products purchased over time (Richins & Dawson, 1992, p. 304;Quedir, 2012). ...
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Consumers with a high level of materialistic tendency believe that acquisition and consumption are necessary for their satisfaction in life, and that higher consumption levels will make them happier. This study aims to examine materialistic tendency levels in terms of their possible effect on life satisfaction levels during the COVID-19 pandemic process. In addition, it is aimed to determine whether the materialistic tendencies and life satisfaction levels of the consumers differ for X, Y and Z generations. In this study, a questionnaire was conducted with 440 participants by simple random sampling method. Quantitative research method has been used and primary research data have been collected by questionnaire technique. Exploratory factor analysis for the validity of the research model and confirmatory factor analysis for the validity of the measurement model were performed and the hypotheses were tested with the structural equation modelling techniques. In the analysis of the structural model proposed by using the construct validity variables, it was concluded that the success dimension, one of the sub-dimensions of materialistic tendency, had a significant positive effect on life satisfaction, while other happiness dimension had a significant negative effect. In addition, it was detected that there is a statistically significant difference between the materialistic tendencies and life satisfaction levels of the consumers of each generations.
... Moreover, materialistic individuals are less likely to trust others [18], engage less in cooperative and prosocial behaviors [19,20] compared to their non-materialistic counterparts. A longitudinal study found a direct relationship between materialism and loneliness [21]. Furthermore, those who endorse materialism show a higher level of Machiavellianism, a dark personality trait of manipulating and exploiting others to maximize one's self-interests [22]. ...
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The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on people’s wellbeing. Here, we proposed that an individual characteristic might be associated with wellbeing; that is, materialism. Specifically, we conducted three studies (total N = 3219) to examine whether people with high levels of materialism would experience poorer wellbeing (i.e., anxiety and depression, in the current case). The results showed that materialism was positively associated with depression (Studies 1A, 1B and 2) and anxiety (Study 2). Moreover, such a relationship was mediated by people’s perceived threat of COVID-19 (Study 2). These findings were observed in both Chinese and American people. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical contributions.
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Books, baseball cards, ceramic figurines, art, iPhones, clothing, cars, music, dolls, comic books, furniture and even nature iteself. If you're like most people, at some point in your life you've found yourself indulging in a love affair with some thing that brings you immense joy, comfort, or fulfillment. Why is it that we so often feel intense passion for objects? What does this tendency tell us about our lives, nature, habits, and experience? In The Things We Love, Dr. Aaron Ahuvia reveals some astonishing discoveries from psychology, neuroscience, and marketing that prove we are far less “rational” than we think when it comes to our possessions and hobbies. Instead, we have intense relationships with the things we love, and these relationships are driven by influences deep within our culture and our biology. Some of our passions are sudden, obsessive, and fleeting. Some are devoted and lifelong affairs. Others turn dark: we become hoarders, or find ourselves wanting to destroy certain objects rather than let anyone else own them. As technology improves, and becomes increasingly addictive, might our lives become so dominated by our emotional ties to things that we lose interest in other people? Packed with fascinating case studies, science, and takeaways for living in a modern world saturated with advertisements and material desires, The Things We Love offers a truly original and insightful look into how and why we come to love inanimate objects — and how understanding these relationships can enrich and improve our lives. Along the way, it provides fresh perspective on one of the oldest topics of all, the nature of love itself.
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High status is conducive to many pleasant outcomes in life, and people often desire status goods for the attention and respect that are given to those who have them. This research shows that positive affect decreases the extent to which people pursue the extrinsic consumption benefits that hinge on others’ approval, and attenuates the magnitude of value people normally place on the social signaling attributes. When target products feature socially visible status attributes (e.g., brand logo), positive affect dampens people’s normative valuation of the goods. When the status attributes are invisible to others, the dampening effect becomes insignificant. When the products are noted for intrinsic quality attributes, positive affect enhances the evaluation. Thus, positive affect has more nuanced and distinct, rather than general, effects on product evaluation. These results suggest that positive affect can naturally attenuate people’s desire for status goods that are normally pursued for their social signaling efficacy.
Article
Living in a consumerist society can afford material abundance, but these gains can bring psychological costs. A developed literature suggests experiential purchases (such as trips or outdoor recreation) represent a more promising route to enduring consumer happiness than the consumption of material goods. The satisfaction from experiences extends across a rather broad time course, including the anticipation of experiential consumption, in-the-moment consumption, and retrospection. This review discusses the underlying reasons for why these effects occur, additional downstream consequences of consuming experiences, and potential directions for future work. This extensive program of research provides a simple lesson people can apply to improve wellbeing in daily life: shifting spending in the direction of doing rather than having would likely be psychologically wise.
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Fashion overconsumerism and overproduction have placed the fashion industry one of the world’s most polluting industries. In addition to its environmental impact, research has shown that materialism leads to lower life satisfaction and decision fatigue. Recently, studies have highlighted an increased interest in sustainable fashion consumption and ethical lifestyle. The capsule wardrobe phenomenon, that is, defined by limited clothing pieces that focus on quality, longevity, and minimal or classic design, has gained exposure as a road map for consumers to remain fashionable while consuming less. Until today, no research has evaluated the impact of minimalist wardrobe on consumers. Using a phenomenological approach, the present study method to understand 10 female participants’ lived experiences with a capsule wardrobe. Our results showed a positive impact of a 3-week capsule wardrobe on our participants who felt less stressed, detached from fashion trends, have found joy in their fashion style, and enhanced their awareness of conscious consumption. Our findings highlight the richness of minimalism, sustainable consumption, and self-expression through an innovative and relevant phenomenon.
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The current study examines the influence of value congruence on the relationship between materialism and well-being in the context of adolescent materialism in the family environment. The study proposes a theoretical foundation of person-environment fit, which maintains that when an individual’s personal values and the values in one’s environment are complementary, the individual experiences enhanced well-being. Evidence shows that when the degree to which an adolescent prioritizes materialism as a personal value aligns with the degree to which a parent prioritizes materialism as a personal value, the adolescent reports higher subjective well-being. The findings imply that the value of materialism itself does not necessarily lead to negative outcomes during adolescence. Children in value-congruent, highly materialistic family environments are likely to experience the greatest life satisfaction and the least depression. Conclusions suggest that researchers should further examine the influence of moderating factors in the relationship between materialism and well-being.
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The increasing humanization and emotional intelligence of AI applications have the potential to induce consumers' attachment to AI and to transform human-to-AI interactions into human-to-human-like interactions. In turn, consumer behavior as well as consumers' individual and social lives can be affected in various ways. Following this reasoning, I illustrate the implications and research opportunities related to consumers' (potential) attachment to humanized AI applications along the stages of the consumption process.
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Gratitude plays a prominent role in marketing and consumer behavior. Yet, limited causal evidence has demonstrated how gratitude works or how gratitude-based marketing influences purchase decisions. We address this gap using four studies. Studies 1 and 2, both longitudinal experiments, illustrate that gratitude reduces materialistic values by decreasing entitlement and perceived resource scarcity. Studies 3A and 3B examine the effect of gratitude on materialism in a marketing context and illustrate that gratitude-based campaigns can shift consumer preference away from material goods and toward experiential purchases. Our findings suggest that gratitude-based marketing efforts reduce materialistic values and purchases and promote experiential consumption. According to our findings, nonmaterialistic offerings or campaigns may be more effective during gratitude-related holidays (e.g., Thanksgiving, Mother's Day) and with more grateful consumers. Based on the psychological process activated by gratitude, gratitude campaigns would be especially effective when paired with messages of humility, abundance, and nonmaterialistic values.
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Both loneliness and materialism have been associated with decrement in one’s life satisfaction. However, the relationship between loneliness, materialism, and life satisfaction has not been explored in the Western context. Therefore, the present study addresses two issues: (1) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction taking into account the mediating role of materialism and (2) the moderating role of gender in the aforementioned mediation model. A research model was proposed. To test the proposed model, data were collected via an online survey administered to U.S. nationals convenience sample (N = 312). Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. Loneliness was negatively related to life satisfaction and positively related to materialism. Contrary to the expectation, materialism was positively related to life satisfaction. Materialism mediated the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction. Gender did not moderate the relationship between loneliness and materialism, whereas gender did moderate the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction.
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The modern marketplace has made consumers’ lives better in many ways, offering a multitude of affordable conveniences and luxuries. Why, then, is the prevalence of physical and mental health deficits higher than any other time in history? Here, we articulate an evolutionary mismatch perspective—the idea that the environment we live in has changed dramatically in a short period of time, but the human body and mind have not changed. Consumers’ evolved body and mind are interacting with the modern world as if it were an ancestral environment that existed thousands of years ago, leading to many negative outcomes. We discuss three evolutionary mismatches that contribute to or compound consumer vulnerability to disease and dissatisfaction with life. We review emerging research and propose future directions that inform effective strategies to mitigate illness and enhance wellbeing.
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While the environmental benefits of car sharing have been highlighted, the motivations for people deciding whether or not to use a car-sharing service remain unclear. This study aims to fill the research gap by proposing and testing a comprehensive model that includes utilitarian (economic benefits and individual reputation) and altruistic (environmental concerns and community belonging) motivations. In addition, this research considers the direct and moderating effects of perceived power, which refers to a perceived psychological ownership leading to a “can-do” state, which has not been examined by previous research. A survey was conducted among 372 individuals who had or had not used car sharing, and data were analyzed using logistic regression. The suggested model had high predictive power for respondents’ reported use or non-use of car-sharing services. Economic benefits, environmental concerns and the interaction between perceived power and economic benefits emerged as significant predictors of the use of car-sharing services. The implications for managers of car-sharing platforms, managers of traditional automobile businesses and public policymakers are discussed.
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The Meaning of Things explores the meanings of household possessions for three generation families in the Chicago area, and the place of materialism in American culture. Now regarded as a keystone in material culture studies, Halton's first book is based on his dissertation and coauthored with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. First published by Cambridge University Press in 1981, it has been translated into German, Italian, Japanese, and Hungarian. The Meaning of Things is a study of the significance of material possessions in contemporary urban life, and of the ways people carve meaning out of their domestic environment. Drawing on a survey of eighty families in Chicago who were interviewed on the subject of their feelings about common household objects, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Eugene Rochberg-Halton provide a unique perspective on materialism, American culture, and the self. They begin by reviewing what social scientists and philosophers have said about the transactions between people and things. In the model of 'personhood' that the authors develop, goal-directed action and the cultivation of meaning through signs assume central importance. They then relate theoretical issues to the results of their survey. An important finding is the distinction between objects valued for action and those valued for contemplation. The authors compare families who have warm emotional attachments to their homes with those in which a common set of positive meanings is lacking, and interpret the different patterns of involvement. They then trace the cultivation of meaning in case studies of four families. Finally, the authors address what they describe as the current crisis of environmental and material exploitation, and suggest that human capacities for the creation and redirection of meaning offer the only hope for survival. A wide range of scholars - urban and family sociologists, clinical, developmental and environmental psychologists, cultural anthropologists and philosophers, and many general readers - will find this book stimulating and compelling. Translations: Il significato degli oggetti. Italian translation. Rome: Edizione Kappa, 1986. Der Sinn der Dinge. German translation. Munich: Psychologie Verlags Union, 1989. Japanese translation 2007. Targyaink tukreben. Hungarian translation, 2011.
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Ahuvia, A.C. and Wong, N.Y. (1995), “Materialism: origins and implications for personal well-being”, in Hansen, F. (Ed.), European Advances in Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, Copenhagen.
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What if being lonely were a bigger problem than we ever suspected? Based on John T. Cacioppo's pioneering research, Loneliness explores the effects of this all-too-human experience, providing a fundamentally new view of the importance of social connection and how it can rescue us from painful isolation. His sophisticated studies relying on brain imaging, analysis of blood pressure, immune response, stress hormones, behavior, and even gene expression show that human beings are simply far more intertwined and interdependent—physiologically as well as psychologically—than our cultural assumptions have ever allowed us to acknowledge. Bringing urgency to the message, Cacioppo's findings also show that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to your health as smoking or obesity. On the flip side, they demonstrate the therapeutic power of social connection and point the way toward making that healing balm available to everyone. Cacioppo has worked with science writer William Patrick to trace the evolution of these tandem forces, showing how, for our primitive ancestors, survival depended not on greater brawn but on greater commitments to and from one another. Serving as a prompt to repair frayed social bonds, the pain of loneliness engendered a fear response so powerfully disruptive that even now, millions of years later, a persistent sense of rejection or isolation can impair DNA transcription in our immune cells. This disruption also impairs thinking, will power, and perseverance, as well as our ability to read social signals and exercise social skills. It also limits our ability to internally regulate our emotions—all of which can combine to trap us in self-defeating behaviors that reinforce the very isolation and rejection that we dread. Loneliness shows each of us how to overcome this feedback loop of defensive behaviors to achieve better health and greater happiness. For society, the potential payoff is the greater prosperity and social cohesion that follows from increased social trust. Ultimately, Loneliness demonstrates the irrationality of our culture's intense focus on competition and individualism at the expense of family and community. It makes the case that the unit of one is actually an inadequate measure, even when it comes to the health and well-being of the individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Attachment theory posits that close interpersonal relationships provide people with psychological security across the lifespan. Research shows that when people perceive that close others are unreliable, they may seek alternative, non-social sources of security (e.g., deities). Building on this work, the authors hypothesized that attachment to objects compensates for threatened attachment security when close others are unreliable. Partic-ipants primed with close others', but not strangers', unreliability reported increased attachment to belongings (Study 1), and this effect was mediated by feelings of attachment anxiety (concern over close others' availabili-ty), but not attachment avoidance (avoiding emotional dependence; Study 2), suggesting that object attachment compensates for the perception that close others are unreliable rather than consistently rejecting. In Study 3, when a valued belonging was removed, participants primed with uncertainty about their relationships showed increased separation anxiety and motivation to reunite with the belonging, regardless of the belonging's perceived importance for facilitating relationships.
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Three studies tested the hypothesis that people may turn to materialism when they face uncertainties in modern life. Study 1 showed that anomie and self-doubt are significant predictors of materialistic orientations; other plausible antecedents have less predictive value. In Study 2, participants experiencing chronic self-doubt showed a higher level of materialism if they were primed to experience doubt and insecurity. In Study 3, participants with chronic perceptions of anomie showed a higher level of materialism if they were primed with the concept of normlessness. Together, these three studies show that some people turn to materialism when they experience uncertainty within the self (self-doubt) or perceive uncertainty relating to society (anomie). © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Our treatment of material possession love expands an understanding of the role that discrete emotional attachment forms play in identifying commercial value for marketers and in enhancing consumer well-being. Employing a mixed-methods research design—relying on both qualitative and quantitative data—we develop and empirically test a three-factor, but seven-faceted, conceptualization of material possession love in four separate consumption contexts (automobiles, computers, bicycles, and firearms). We find love-smitten consumers nurturing their beloved possessions, in part, by buying complementary products and services. We also find that material possession love is empirically tied to loneliness and social affiliation deficits, which suggests a compensatory basis of consumer well-being. We distinguish possession love from the construct of attitude and empirically demonstrate the distinct functionality of each. Our concluding discussion considers our mixed-methods findings and their implications for consumer research.
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Previous research has shown that materialism relates negatively to satisfaction with many life domains. The present study broadens this body of research by examining the relationship between three dimensions of materialism and eight quality of life (QOL) domains in a large, diverse sample of U.S. respondents. Two hypotheses were tested: First, overall measures of materialism and satisfaction with QOL were thought to be inversely related. Second, the three dimensions of materialism and QOL domains were hypothesized to be negatively correlated. Results show that overall materialism and its happiness dimension were consistently negatively related to all eight measures of QOL. Materialism’s centrality and success dimensions were negatively correlated with seven and six of the eight QOL domains, respectively. Findings are discussed in light of Humanistic and Organismic theories, and other implications are considered.
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Although people generally endorse intrinsic goals for growth, intimacy, and community more than extrinsic goals for money, appearance, and popularity, people sometimes over-emphasize extrinsic goals, to the potential detriment of their well-being. When and why does this occur? Results from three experimental studies show that psychological threat increases the priority that people give to extrinsic compared to intrinsic goals. This was found in the case of existential threat (Study 1), economic threat (Studies 2), and interpersonal threat (Study 3). Discussion focuses on the possible reasons why threat breeds extrinsic orientations.
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Studies into the consequences of pursuing a materialisticlifestyle have found that materialism is negatively related tolife satisfaction. While most of these studies have beenconducted using American samples, the few reported studies usingAustralian samples have limitations that the current study soughtto address. Using a sample of 162 Australian adults and animproved methodology, a negative relationship was found, in thatthose individuals who were high in materialism were lesssatisfied with their `life as a whole' and with specific `lifedomains' than those who were low in materialism. The implicationsof these findings for future research are discussed.
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The share of the population aged 60 and over is projected to increase in nearly every country in the world during the period 2005--50. Population ageing will tend to lower both labour-force participation and savings rates, thereby raising concerns about a future slowing of economic growth. Our calculations suggest that OECD countries are likely to see modest--but not catastrophic--declines in the rate of economic growth. However, behavioural responses (including greater female labour-force participation) and policy reforms (including an increase in the legal age of retirement) can mitigate the economic consequences of an older population. In most non-OECD countries, declining fertility rates will cause labour-force-to-population ratios to rise as the shrinking share of young people will more than offset the skewing of adults towards the older ages. These factors suggest that population ageing will not significantly impede the pace of economic growth in developing countries. Copyright 2010, Oxford University Press.
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Loneliness is a complex set of feelings encompassing reactions to the absence of intimate and social needs. Although transient for some individuals, loneliness can be a chronic state for others. We review the developmental, social, personality, clinical, and counseling psychology literatures on loneliness with an emphasis on recent empirical findings. Chronic feelings of loneliness appear to have roots in childhood and early attachment processes. Chronically lonely individuals are more likely to be high in negative affectivity, act in a socially withdrawn fashion, lack trust in self and others, feel little control over success or failure, and generally be dissatisfied with their relationships compared to nonlonely individuals. Loneliness has also been associated with a variety of individual differences including depression, hostility, pessimism, social withdrawal, alienation, shyness, and low positive affect; loneliness is also a concomitant of more severe disorders, such as clinical depression, borderline personality, and schizophrenia. Although loneliness affects a large number of individuals and is associated with numerous negative outcomes, relatively few investigations have examined the efficacy of treatments aimed at alleviating or preventing loneliness. Several investigations raise the possibility of treating loneliness, but the absence of appropriate comparison groups casts doubt on the efficacy of many of these treatments. Correlational studies also suggest that one close friend or romantic partner may be sufficient to buffer those at risk for loneliness. Research on causal processes is sparse, however, and more research is needed to delineate which factors are antecedents and which are consequences of loneliness.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
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Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation ("wanting" particular experiences) predicted corresponding feelings of competence and relatedness ("having" those experiences). Competence and relatedness in turn predicted well-being, again indicating that these 2 experiences may really be "needed." Illuminating how wanting gets to having, in Studies 2 and 3, participants reported greater self-concordance for motive-congruent goals, which, in longitudinal Study 3, predicted greater attainment of those goals and thus enhanced well-being. Study 4 replicated selected earlier results using an implicit as well as an explicit motive disposition measure. Supporting the presumed universality of competence and relatedness needs, in no studies did motive dispositions moderate the effects of corresponding need-satisfaction on well-being. Discussion focuses on a "sequential process" model of psychological needs that views needs as both motives that instigate and outcomes that reward behavior.
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Longitudinal data analysis has long played a significant role in empirical research within the developmental sciences. The past decade has given rise to a host of new and exciting analytic methods for studying between-person differences in within-person change. These methods are broadly organized under the term growth curve models. The historical lines of development leading to current growth models span multiple disciplines within both the social and statistical sciences, and this in turn makes it challenging for developmental researchers to gain a broader understanding of the current state of this literature. To help address this challenge, the authors pose 12 questions that frequently arise in growth curve modeling, particularly in applications within developmental psychology. They provide concise and nontechnical responses to each question and make specific recommendations for further readings.
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