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Extended Self in a Digital World

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Abstract and Figures

The extended self was proposed in 1988. Since it was formulated, many technological changes have dramatically affected the way we consume, present ourselves, and communicate. This conceptual update seeks to revitalize the concept, incorporate the impacts of digitization, and provide an understanding of consumer sense of self in today’s technological environment. It is necessarily a work in progress, for the digital environment and our behavior within it continue to evolve. But some important changes are already clear. Five changes with digital consumption are considered that impact the nature of self and the nature of possessions. Needed modifications and additions to the extended self are outlined, and directions for future research are suggested. The digital world opens a host of new means for self-extension, using many new consumption objects to reach a vastly broader audience. Even though this calls for certain reformulations, the basic concept of the extended self remains vital.
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Aalborg Universitet
Understanding Social Networking
Larsen, Malene Charlotte
Published in:
Online Networking - Connecting People
Publication date:
2008
Document Version
Publisher final version (usually the publisher pdf)
Link to publication from Aalborg University
Citation for published version (APA):
Larsen, M. C. (2008). Understanding Social Networking: On Young People s Construction and Co construction
of Identity Online. In K. Sangeetha (Ed.), Online Networking - Connecting People. India: Icfai University Press.
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 
Understanding Social Networking: On Young People’s
Construction and Co-construction of Identity Online





ABSTRACT
!
      "   "  #   
$%
  "    #          
& '(#)  
  *      +       !  
# 
Keywords
, # -  #  - - - - - 
-# 
INTRODUCTION
+# +'(
#    #     #     ,- 
 !./012-) !
##-# 
       #      # 

3$   # - -    
#  & +    
) &
 #           
  &    #   +   
 #  #    +  
    #    $$$#  #  # 

4# 
'0115(
 0
 $  #  + 
#$)
+      #     &   
#          '6 0111(
'0117(+#
*     8 *  #        
#95-
#
%"#$
### :-
;<
=8 >
= # >
=&>
=        #         
>
CASE DESCRIPTION
  #     # !    
"?1@ 
 -      #! '( 
    ,-  # '(##
+ AA?# #
     # ) #  
?$     # #
 #) -
# #   "-    
   )            
# #)##
 9

+       #  !    
'###( %   $    #   " 
     
<
+      '     -  
--(
+      '   -  
-  -   -       
(
:'--) -(
,    '  -    
(
"   "             
     "  
   # -     #  '   
 - #   (# 
       ; %       
"##"
 /
          ;-   
#-       #    
#  
THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
+  #           '(
',011B,011(
-     # !    ;
    #         
#+#
      -      +   # 
 '3  C 0117(  #        
    ; #   +  -     -
#- ;        # 

+  #        , "   
 011/           3!  ',  ,
011/(" ! 3!
0
'#(
<-!<
 !"# # $%

0
&3!&,.

2',011("!
=&D&#
-)'=AA?(!
D&- #8
#!
 7
"  # D8&- 
 -           
#!',, 011/( 4
       +   - # 
     - #     # "  
##
.82',,011/(
)##
"#"
! 
 "   .  2- #     -    ; ;
##.2"##7$E
##"$$
 ' .=&   #>$( ',  ,011/(
6 "            #    
   # - "      #     
  ,3  #  )       
   ;##   " 
"##!
%"#
,< & 8 '  ; ;(-  'D)&(
 '      (-  & ! '
##(&#'
     (', 011B, 
,011/(
"      3!         " 
  #   
+#
# "        <   -  
-      * # " #   

"   -  !  -      #  
%" 
 E
 '($'
 # - -  -   ( - "  
  51           
&-!
;+-"
  - #  ,  ,&        
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%  "##" 
D8  &   +         # 
 +- D8 &-!# 
     8              

Entering and engaging with Arto as a nexus of practice
"011/ # "    ##  #-
#    ? ! 6#-
# #
      :;-      #   
  -      # !   
      ' 0117(
9
 F      
       -# #  #    
    6#-        #   
     -         
   # F     #        
              
      # #
 ;<D=>&D=>&
D=          >&
"    # 
;#"

9
4#'011E(
 5
&'!#(
"#! ;-" #  
1$7     '#
0  5  (         '- 0117( +
;  #  #  #    -  - .G92- 
##. 2-.2#
  F  #     .6- #   >2- #  
   # D & -       
 "      "         , 
 D &- # !       "  
!
"  ! "   "       
  "  #   ,8        
    #      
#  '= A??(           
    #     #     
',8AA?("
   #    - 
"#--'
 D#&(##
+-"!# 
 ?
  '(   * #   )  "  #  D&
#D&',,011/(
+  #     "
     . 2- .=     2 
#   # "           .6- # 
  >2- .6    # #    >.  .= 
#   ;  >2 +-     
))))#
/

ANALYSIS
"      " #       # #    
#          *  
+


%    " # ;       # 
 # 
Keeping out fakers and being real
   "     #        
          4  -  
D &  +    
 
+#5
 4  - # D &  D&   
# #"+#
    )           ,-  
          +   
.4H:I2.J- 2 & <

/
+##"#
#
B---%-
-## ##!
)
 A
$') "*
(%
F   D &-  # #
-I--
-     ,    #
 ' 4  (           # 
'"!,-%K+
#( %  -   $       
#-            #
 
  ;    # +
#   )          #   
                 

%  )   # 
  D   & #  )    #      
4
'+ (
'4  *" ##&3)
L
4 (
'3LK LM#
>(
 1
          +        
    '           #(-
-     -             
            #   
   "  ;- #   #    - 
    D &    #  ."    
 # # "  "   2- #      + #
       #
 -#!#D& "
         #   !    
  - #        % # 
   -D&
!
+               
&+
#!# 
#<
 !    
"!#"
$ %
& %
' (   )

& %#  %
% %
#
# 
N4#'0117(O
        # ' 0117(
  $      - -    
   -    #  #     )   
'0117(# ;"
#& # .6- #>2
 
 . 2 +     
7
     < .6- "
  "  2 "      
&# #  #
 
Declaring love and seeking acknowledgement
+-        # "I$   
 =   -   #    !
   :-            !
6---##'(
##,#
-#<

'K+8G9&6--"
#G99&K##")
G9&K #"-K%&#-K
##MK-3:P:I K
"11@ M(
(' !  )
 "*(%
+ -   - - 
       B      D&   
    D& "- 
 ! # 

7
"IC &#
#  #'
AAE(
 0
     "    & #     
               ! 

          !    #
E
   - 
-&+P# D%
6A101&D4&-#&#-#
       =   - #- #  
   ! #  # #   
>% "# 
   #  #     -    # 

= ##-!
 +- #-  ."
   #      "     #    
 " #  2-  7         # '
0117( "  #-           
 #    +    #      $
##+
"I$D&
             6- 
# #        +      
#'0117(=!
 #
&!
Co-constructing each other’s identity
+-          #     #  
       "       
      !         - $
 $F-# ##
 -$

E
:-!#&
#" +#
#
 9
+
#

             #   
#-#
5
"-
  !  $           &
- /$<
'
4
4
33
+

(
$+! !)!
 "*(%
  ;       # "I$   #
             # # 
 ,-        .   2  
! 6-  
    *        #     %
##
 #   $+-

5
"-0117#
#-#
#'(
 /
        #     #
#

+      #  #         J
       -        
+# -
' !(      +      
 .K 2.K2  8
     "     #    *
#  ##    D& + 
           +   $
'"-(
             # F   
' #
 D!  &(              
    #-       
 $   %   #  #   
 #
= #
      I$    # 
  "I$       !     -
##>=8
>
DISCUSSING THE CONCEPT OF IDENTITY ONLINE
" # ; #         #    
 J -  #  
  '   #(     -  
   '  J  J #( :-    
  &       "     
  #-
#-##+
     "        #
        )# 88 ' 011- + 
AA7( F #       &  
'-  (# 
 7
   #    #     .
2    #   6#-         
       ,  ' ( # 
# $
##'60111B011B
0117B011E(
+-
 ## +D& -
   !  !    +   
# *!
   #      %   - " 
        # D$$&  D$
$& '  0119( #-  " # - !  - 

+##       '0119( 6
#  D$$& ' D$$$&-     (  
    # #     =  
 ##J+
         $ 
' 0119(F# & 
#     -
# .=">2.= 
 >2     #    .3- ,#- %- 6-
2F#
8       #   "    !
##
*#.$2
F-   D$$&+
          "  
         -    
              
 '  0119("# -  -  &
       #     -  
-#.2."#2
 E
 +$  
D$$&##
### 
+#! #=##
 *)###
 ! #   6#-       #  
  *  #           
# # +-"
    'D$$&( #      
-'D$$&(#"
8$.8$$2
CONCLUDING REMARKS
%   - " #          
&
        Q         
##+
      &     #
      #   "         
$  #      $ #  
   6          
       "  #        &
                #   
+-     $*
  -

 "  -           "I$
 +            - 
 -   #       -    
 #  ;     B       
           +     
## "
           # 

 5
;-)#
       "    8   # 
        #      #  
"-
               
  #   +  #        " 
!       +
   - #       -   
     "I$ +- " #   
#  &
"#  $#
    #      #   
F##&#
  ) $  '##  
  $$( +-    
 #       #       #
# 
REFERENCES
-'011E(R"3# <=K6,R
,
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-H'011("-PS-4S I
4-4
-H'AAE(< :-
%
6-'0111(P:-,J:
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-'0117(- $ T
)'K-4"$
Q# (-

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-'011E(% $  '% $
(H '###  (
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-'0115(97F,3# ,8
'###8(
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 -C'0119("--<U+
"+<"$
I"-V
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-+I,8-C'AA?(R<,--
RC%W:
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3-,I6C-:'0117("
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... More than being an object ready-at-hand, the attachment to mobile technology reveals through being almost always in the hand (Malpas 2012: 30). This is a distinct feature of such devices, which can lead them to be understood as an extension of the self (Malpas 2012: 30), but also as an extended self (Belk 2013), which can be present in physical and virtual spaces at the same time (Belk 2013;Traxler 2010). ...
... More than being an object ready-at-hand, the attachment to mobile technology reveals through being almost always in the hand (Malpas 2012: 30). This is a distinct feature of such devices, which can lead them to be understood as an extension of the self (Malpas 2012: 30), but also as an extended self (Belk 2013), which can be present in physical and virtual spaces at the same time (Belk 2013;Traxler 2010). ...
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Situated within the context of the changing nature of teaching and learning in a postdigital context, this paper aims to theorize the mediating impacts of mobile technologies on outdoor learning experiences. Technological mediation is arguably a vital, yet often neglected, aspect of pedagogical practices. Today, the increasing employment of mobile technologies is not only changing the practices of outdoor education, but also challenging the traditional values of the field. This paper calls the predominant view that technology places a barrier between learners and the environment into question and offers a novel theoretical perspective. Inspired by postphenomenological mediation theory, the paper proposes a tri-polar technological mediation and outdoor learning framework. The framework offers a deeper understanding of the different dimensions of the mediating impacts of mobile devices on the relations between learners, their peers, and the natural environment in the outdoor classroom.
... Facebook users' online image is not only created by them but also influenced by third parties, such as friends and relatives who tend to comment or tag them in photos (Lee-Won et al., 2014;Labrecque et al., 2011). According to Trottier (2012) and Belk (2013), friends can influence one's online image and may even behave like an extension of oneself. Therefore, Facebook users concerned with maintaining a career-oriented online image should disclose positive self-provided information on social networks as well as remove unwanted photos, posts and comments provided by others (Human et al., 2012;Lee-Won et al., 2014;Rui & Stefanone, 2013). ...
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Although Facebook is regarded as a common social network to connect everyone, it has not yet attracted much attention from researchers from the perspective of job searching. Based on the theories of job searching via social media networks, self-efficacy and social exchange, this study is conducted to investigate the impacts of social media self-efficacy and peer influence on perceiving Facebook as a job searching tool and maintaining a career-oriented online image by the youth in Vietnam. The empirical data collected from 317 respondents were examined using Covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results show that social media self-efficacy and peer groups on Facebook motivate users' perception of Facebook as a job searching tool. In addition, this perception positively impacts the building and maintaining a career-oriented online image. Job seekers can use Facebook as a source of job search information, while organizations can use Facebook to review and recruit potential candidates.
... However, permanent posts document important life events that are extraordinary and highly social (Sheldon & Bryant, 2016;Xu et al., 2016). Although conversing about material products on social media has less negative stigma (Belk, 2013), consumers usually shy away from posting product-and brand-related content on social media due to social risks (Eisingerich et al., 2015). ...
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Consumers share various content about material and experiential products on social media for short‐term via temporary posts or long‐term via permanent posts. Based on memory protection and hedonic adaptation theories, this study investigates whether product type determines how long consumers display their products on social media. We suggest experiential products elicit more proactive nostalgia—the desire to have a permanent record of a current episode to remember and relive it in the future—than material products do encouraging long‐term product displays on social media. We conducted five experiments. Results demonstrate the following: (a) consumers are more likely to share experiential (vs. material) products via permanent (vs. temporary) posts on social media (Study 1 and 2); (b) consumers tend to share permanent posts when products are (externally or internally) framed as experiential versus material (Study 3 and 4); and (c) proactive nostalgia (for oneself and about others) mediates the relationship between product type and product display duration on social media (Study 4 and 5). Findings elucidate how product type and proactive nostalgia influence product engagement on social media and suggest managers can utilize product display duration as a product valuation metric and proactive nostalgia as a facilitator of long‐term word‐of‐mouth.
... Additionally, these digital social environments play a role in the mindset and opinions that consumers form online (Belk, 2016). This research corroborates my findings on the reliance of consumers on their existing social media presence and experiences. ...
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With the fast-paced digital communication in today’s world, the average attention span of consumers is declining at an unprecedented pace. This lowered attention span increases the importance of product advertisements to be as immediately appealing as possible to attract the most customers. However, the tendencies of consumers can oftentimes be volatile and difficult to predict from the marketers’ standpoints. This study aims to provide deeper insight into the rift between consumers and digital marketing professionals that limits the reach of many advertisement campaigns. Bringing to light the discrepancies between how the two cohorts think on a fundamental level will assist digital marketers in their understanding of their target audience and how they can better tailor their advertisements for different demographics. In this semi-structured interview-based study, I juxtapose the underlying thought processes of two consumers and two digital marketing professionals using the narrative analysis approach. Based on this study’s findings, consumers had more informal and personal rhetoric, while the professionals interpreted the advertisements with a more analytical and investigative viewpoint. This study’s results aim to further the understanding of the psychological aspect of digital advertising and how consumers can be better targeted to improve advertising success.
... The embedding of smartphone-based personalized communication in multifarious sentient environments creates facets of experience in extending one's digital self [14][15][16]. The smartphone extends one's sense of self through channeling and modulating a symbiotic relationship with identity, social and romantic relationships, agency, and experienced authenticity in the physical world [17]. ...
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Background Smartphone use has become a pervasive aspect of youth daily life today. Immersive engagement with apps and features on the smartphone may lead to intimate and affectionate human-device relationships. The purpose of this research is to holistically dissect the ranked order of the various dimensions of college students’ attachment to the smartphones through the by-person factorial analytical power of Q methodology. Methods Inspired by extant research into diverse aspects of human attachment to the smartphones, a concourse of 50 statements pertinent to the functional, behavioral, emotional and psychological dimensions of human-smartphone attachment were pilot tested and developed. A P sample of 67 participants completed the Q sort based on respective subjective perceptions and self-references. Data was processed utilizing the open-source Web-based Ken-Q Analysis software in detecting the main factorial structure. Results Five distinct factor (persona) exemplars were identified illustrating different pragmatic, cognitive and attitudinal approaches to smartphone engagement. They were labeled mainstream users, disciplined conventionalists, casual fun-seekers, inquisitive nerds, and sentient pragmatists in response to their respective psycho-behavioral traits. There were clear patterns of similarity and divergence among the five personas. Conclusion The typological diversity points to the multiplicate nature of human-smartphone attachment. Clusters of cognitive, behavioral and habitual patterns in smartphone engagement driving each persona may be a productive area of exploration in future research in exploring their respective emotional and other outcomes. The concurrent agency of nomophobia and anthropomorphic attribution is an intriguing line of academic inquiry.
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Saudi organizations are increasingly using digital technologies. Despite widespread efforts to benefit from digitalization, few companies can claim to have seen significant results. Organizational employees have been linked to the success or failure of the digitization process in a growing body of studies. Three hypotheses regarding the security of the digital transition have been suggested in this study. These hypotheses include determining how security has evolved because of the increased use of digital systems, as well as determining the best risk management strategies. A range of public and private Saudi entities will get an electronic survey as part of this study. In summary, we have found that as the digital transformation grows, the security risk increases as well, necessitating the implementation of a robust security system and the most effective risk management measures. Additionally, the business must include employees in the development and implementation of the digital transformation to maintain their loyalty. Additionally, all employees must understand and agree on the digital transformation goals, objectives, and plans. Successful business leaders can build a compelling vision, unite, and engage staff to adopt new methods of doing business.
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The information society was defined by Daniel Bell (1976) as a post-industrial society where information leads processes of change and innovation. The constant flow of information in the 21st century is proving him correct. Today, people confront myriad streams of information from an overwhelming number of information channels. In the last decade, the amount of digital information has doubled every year (Jacobs, 2013; Schull, 2018). The information explosion, driven by the rapid development of new information technologies, has changed interactions between people and information and between people and the management of their own personal information (Bergman & Whittaker, 2016; Jones & Teevan, 2007). Personal information management (PIM) refers to the practices people use to acquire, organize, maintain, and retrieve information items as part of their daily routine (Jones, 2007). The personal experience of people with the vast amount of information available today manifests in changes in PIM practices (Jones et al., 2015), and in the emotions and feelings characterizing this encounter (Cushing, 2012). Most studies have focused on the use of specific PIM practices (e.g., filing and piling, navigating between folders, searching), ignoring the equally important affective aspects. Little work has examined the gaps between actual PIM behavior (how people manage information) and ideal PIM behavior (how people would like to manage information). Nor do previous studies offer a theoretical framework capturing a range of affective interactions between people and information or defining the whole affective experience of PIM. Study’s goals The study aimed to examine the affective aspects of people’s interactions with personal information and its management, with a sample of male and female participants of various ages. The research had four main goals. The first was to define the characteristics of the gaps between actual and ideal PIM behavior, drawing on Higgins’ self-discrepancy theory (1987). The second was to characterize the affective aspects of PIM and define their frequencies. The third was to examine the relations between the affective aspects of PIM and the use of practices (actual practice, ideal practices, and the gaps between them). The last goal was to define a typology of PIM behaviors and examine the affective aspects relating to them. Research questions A conceptual framework was constructed and validated to examine the affective aspects of PIM. This included the representation of the variables and their relations in two circles. The inner circle described sets of practices for the management of personal information (actual practice, ideal practices, gaps between them). The outer circle comprised the seven affective aspects of PIM: anxiety, efficacy, frustration, desperation, belonging, dependence and loss of control. It included three independent variables characterizing people who manage personal information: use of PIM platforms, age, and gender. Four research questions arose from the conceptual framework: (1) What is the actual and ideal use of PIM practices and what are the gaps between them? (2) What are the affective aspects of PIM? (3) What are the relations between the affective aspects and PIM practice use (actual, ideal, gaps)? (4) What are the types of PIM behaviors and their characteristics? Methodology A mixed methods approach was used to examine the affective aspects of PIM. This approach enables researchers to draw on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative methods to deepen the observation of the research questions (Creswell, 2015). Most data were quantitative; the qualitative data were used to support the findings and suggest their meaning (Creswell, 2009). Quantitative data were used for the following proposes: measure actual and ideal practices and the gaps between them; examine the affective aspects of PIM; to define the relations between affective aspects and practices; define a typology of PIM behaviors. Qualitative data supported the findings by describing the affective experience of participants and giving examples of PIM behavior types. Participants included 465 respondents, 351 female and 114 male, aged 19-73. They filled in two questionnaires developed and validated for the study: a PIM practice questionnaire examining actual and ideal use of 25 practices, and a PIM affective experience questionnaire addressing the seven identified affective aspects. In addition, 16 in-depth one-hour interviews with eight females and eight males were recorded and transcribed. Quantitative data were analyzed via IBM-SPSS statistical software. Descriptive and explanatory procedures included Pearson correlation, t-tests for related and independent samples, two-step cluster analysis, and ANOVA. Qualitative data were analyzed using the Moustakas (1994) content analysis method, including horizontal and cluster of meanings analysis. Findings Findings revealed that the PIM experience becomes complex for people who manage personal information spaces in a digital, overloaded, and connected world. Participants were unsatisfied with their PIM behavior and wished to conduct more PIM practices that would enable them to reduce clutter and overload in the personal information space. Gaps between actual and ideal behavior were expressed in a complex and intense affective experience characterized by anxiety and frustration on the one hand but by a sense of high efficacy and little desperation on the other. The first research question examined the gaps between actual and ideal PIM behavior. Findings showed significant gaps between actual and ideal use for most practices. These gaps were mostly positive, revealing that participants wished to use more practices than they actually did and were not satisfied with their PIM behavior. Gaps were extremely large for organizing practices. Women had larger gaps between actual and ideal behavior; these were related to negative feelings and decreased with age. The second research question explored the affective experience of PIM. Findings revealed participants had high levels of anxiety when thinking about a possible loss of personal information or a failure of their digital platforms. They felt dependent on their personal information, were concerned about the amount of personal information they accumulated, and questioned their ability to organize it. On a more positive note, they expressed a sense of high efficacy in managing their personal information, seldom felt desperation, and felt more in control of their personal information than expected. Similar to the gender and age differences in the PIM practices, the affective experience was more intense for female participants and decreased with age. The third research question examined the relations between the affective aspects of PIM and the PIM practice use. Findings showed the affective experience of PIM was correlated mainly with PIM ideal behavior. For example, the more the participants felt anxiety, frustration, belonging, and dependency, the less they deleted information items and the more they filed emails in folders. With increased anxiety and frustration, participants wanted to use PIM practices less. The fourth research question examined types of PIM behaviors. The cluster analysis indicated four types of PIM behaviors differing by activity level (actual PIM) and satisfaction level (ideal PIM and gaps): passive and satisfied, active and satisfied, fairly active and unsatisfied, and active and fairly satisfied. Types differed in their range of affective aspects and in their use of digital PIM platforms. Conclusions and implications The study showed that people do not give up on managing their personal information spaces, despite the growing challenges posed by the information explosion and the divergent, multiple information technologies. However, it is impossible to ignore the intense negative affective experience accompanying PIM, including feelings of anxiety and frustration, or the substantial gaps between actual and ideal PIM behavior. Gaps can motivate people to actively reduce the discrepancies between actual and ideal behavior, but large gaps could harm motivation to manage the personal information space and trigger a more intense experience, especially in the unsatisfied type of information management behavior. The study has implications for research, consumer training, and platform design. Theoretically, it suggests self-discrepancy theory and the theoretical framework of the affective aspects of PIM could be useful in future PIM study and HCI research. In a more practical sense, it suggests principles for a training program to improve people’s PIM literacy skills. Finally, it indicates the need for platform designers to develop affective-sensitive and type-sensitive digital platforms for PIM.
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This study explores how adolescent girls use mobile photo uploading on Facebook as a form of identity performance—testing the waters of their coming of age. This study merged my interest in technology-mediated consumption with consumer socialization. The study employs a unique qualitative auto-driving method, in which I interviewed 13 adolescent girls using their Facebook mobile uploads as prompts for the interviews. Findings suggest digital platforms provide a space where teens can publicly negotiate their identities, using the marketplace to derive symbolic meaning. For example, young girls in the study tried on fancy clothing in dressing rooms at the mall and posted images of the experience online for their friends to review; yet, they never purchased the clothing. Findings identify identity-oriented characteristics (i.e., edited self-presentation, symbolic consumption, culturally situated social spaces) and identity-oriented motivations (i.e., audience feedback, memory manufacturing, relational reassurance, bounded rebellion) for mobile photo sharing in consumer socialization. This study demonstrates how digital technology supports consumer socialization, as young people learn through trial and error.
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