Article

A comparison of two forms of teaching instruction: Video vs. live lecture for education in clinical periodontology

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Abstract

This crossover controlled study aimed to compare the knowledge and skill attained by third-year dental students in three clinical exercises in the discipline of periodontology through video and live lecture instruction. Students (n = 35) segregated into two group either viewed a video or attended a live lecture repeated over three clinical teaching sessions. Pre-test and post-test written assessments were completed and comparisons between video and live lecture done (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). Students were assessed on clinic by a simple checklist. A questionnaire was administered after all three sessions to determine preferences and opinions on video and live lecture. For the combined three sessions, both video (n = 48) and live lecture (n = 47) groups attained similar mean pre-test scores. The mean post-test score was statistically significantly greater (P = 0.049) for the live lecture (74.9%, SD 14.9) compared to the video group (68.6%, SD 16.3). All students attained clinical proficiency via the simple checklist. In adding to their clinical skill, more students favoured video (97%) vs. live lecture (78.8%). Most students (97%) favoured a future combination of video and lecture. While students were deemed clinically competent via a simple checklist, the live lecture group performed better than the video group via the in-depth post-test assessment. Students had a preference for video and would like it integrated in the lecture rather than act as a substitute for the lecture. The use of video alone in clinical periodontology training may have limitations unless supplemented by appropriate learning activities.

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... Ramlogan, Raman and Sweet found in a study that students preferred videotape teaching more than live lectures (10). However, Alqahtani stated that the percentage of student preference shows that students prefer live demonstrations more than videotape recordings (9). ...
... Based on previous literature, the findings show no significant differences between live demonstration groups and procedural video groups (9). The previous study shows that didactic teaching was more effective in comparison to the videotape method (10). ...
... The number of students who preferred the combination of the two methods correlated with a study done by Ramlogan, Raman, and Sweet in 2014. In Ramlogan's study, 59% of the live demonstration group and 40% of the procedural video group preferred the didactic teaching method they received (10). The learning of clinical practice increases when videotapes are used for revisions. ...
Article
Introduction: Videotape and Didactic teaching are two important methods for clinical skill development among nursing students during their practical sessions. Thus, it is in high demand to evaluate the more effective method between these two methods. dis study aims to determine the effect of teaching by using video recordings during practical sessions. Methods: The designed questionnaires were provided to participants of several groups. One participant from each group was chosen randomly to teach the others the procedure using a checklist and is finally evaluated by the lecturer (project supervisor). After that, a postal questionnaire was given to each participant after which a crossover was made by exchanging the groups. The same procedures were followed in the second phase by switching the teaching methods, from the videotape method to the didactic method. The questionnaires were given for both pre and post-tests. Results: Overall findings of the study have presented no significant difference between the two teaching methods (p-value =0.325). Despite the majority of the participants in this study having preferred the didactic teaching method, no significant difference was found coz the p-value is determined as p>0.05. Conclusion: The study concludes that both videotape and didactic teaching methods match the students’ needs and should be used to achieve the objectives of learning.
... [21] Another study pertaining to a clinical procedure reported a better performance of the dental students who attended a face-to-face demonstration, compared with the group who viewed videos. [22] In addition, studies that assessed dental students' performance in the didactic components of the undergraduate courses generally reported better outcomes when the materials were taught in a blended-learning technique, in which both online and face-to-face instructions were used. [23][24][25][26] The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of the different methods of teaching, online interactive virtual classes, recorded lectures, and real-life classroom lectures, on the academic performance of the dental students. ...
... The study concluded that virtual learning was more effective than traditional learning. [22] Although no direct comparison can be made to the current study, the findings suggest that online and blended learning methods could be more effective than traditional lectures for educating dental students, growing up in a technological era. The majority (84%) of the sample agreed that viewing recorded lectures is adequate if classroom lectures were cancelled for any reason, and 78% indicated that attending online virtual interactive classes is an effective learning method. ...
Article
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Introduction: The quarantine, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, forced dental schools globally to change to distant learning methods which include viewing previously recorded lectures or attending online virtual classes. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of three methods of teaching: Online interactive virtual classes, recorded lectures, and real-life classroom lectures on the academic performance of dental students. The second aim was to evaluate the students' perceptions of the two remote teaching methods as a substitute for traditional classroom lectures. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted with the second-year dental students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, during the spring semester of 2020. The last six lectures of a Preclinical Fixed Prosthodontics course were delivered remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The students' performance in these lectures was compared to their performance in the first nine lectures of the course delivered traditionally before the quarantine period. An online survey was distributed to the students at the end of the course with questions about their perceptions regarding the different teaching methods used to deliver the didactic component of the course. Results and Discussion: The performance of 104 students (56 males and 48 females) was assessed through the number of correct responses for each teaching method. The percentage of students who responded correctly to all the questions was 44% for the classroom lecture format, 75% in the interactive virtual class format, and 78% in the recorded lecture format. The response rate to the online survey was 87.5%. The majority of the students (78%) indicated that the interactive virtual classes were an effective learning method. The perception about viewing recorded material was also positive as 83% of the students agreed that it is an adequate learning method when the classroom lectures were canceled. Nevertheless, only 43% indicated that recorded material could be used as a substitute for classroom attendance. Conclusion: The students' performance in the lectures taught remotely in interactive virtual classes or by viewing recorded lectures was both effective and comparable to traditional classroom lectures. The dental students were generally satisfied with the remote online education.
... In contrast, Slaven et al. 15 did not observe a positive effect of video examples illustrating different behavior guidance techniques in pediatric dentistry, as compared to PowerPointbased lectures without videos. Ramlogan et al. 16 even report lower test scores after video-supported lectures on periodontal examination than after lectures that did not use other visualization aids than chalk drawings and diagrams. Still the authors assert that the students preferred video-based teaching to improve their clinical skills. ...
... This selfassessment is in contrast to other studies comparing different teaching approaches in dentistry and medicine, where the result of a formalized test or exam has been used to evaluate the outcome of video-based teaching. 1,2,4,16,22,26,30 Other studies in the field of dentistry have based their evaluation of teaching methods on students' answers in questionnaires. 15,25,28 One may argue that the chosen evaluation method introduces a possible bias due to the Dunning-Kruger effect. ...
Article
Purpose/objectives Instructional videos may demonstrate the execution of complex clinical procedures and the cooperation between members of the dental team better than traditional slide-based teaching materials. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a procedural video on student ratings to a traditional still-image-based presentation in a course on rubber dam application. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, parallel arm design, participants (46 dental students) completed a seven-item, five-step Likert-scale questionnaire at baseline (t1), after a video-based or slide-based demonstration of rubber dam application (t2) and after hands-on training (t3). The students’ judgement on the benefits of rubber dam (items 1–3), their motivation to use rubber dam (item 4), their self-efficacy (items 5–6) and their expected use of the teaching material (item 7) were assessed. Changes in the students’ individual answers were analyzed for each item and comparison between intervention groups made. Moreover, the impact of the teaching format on in-class discussions was analyzed qualitatively using a thematic approach Results Both interventions arose comparable significant improvement in the students’ Likert-scale ratings from t1 to t2, and again from t2 to t3. No significant differences between intervention groups were found in the students’ ratings or in the qualitative analysis. Conclusions Procedural videos have proven to be a valuable learning aid in a variety of teaching formats, but in the context of a live lecture, they may not constitute an improvement over traditional text- and still-image-based presentations.
... 21 Alternatively, socially contingent teaching might boost learning, as seen in children, 3 but not always in adults. 9,10 A second important factor in social learning is social richness, that is, the type (and quantity) of social information available from one's partner. Information could be presented in a variety of formats, including by video, 22 multimedia characters, 23 recorded slides, 24 or podcasts. ...
... Direct comparison of interaction-based with observational learning found a significant improvement in learning during interactive teaching. 9,22,39 These studies, however, failed to control for factors beyond interactivity (e.g., attending a class versus watching a video of one teacher speaking to the camera presents a number of differences beyond interactivity per se). Our work goes beyond previous studies by using a carefully controlled video-call method, which allows interactivity during live learning (participants were free to interrupt, ask questions, etc.) but also a yoked control for recorded sessions. ...
Article
Human learning is highly social.1, 2, 3 Advances in technology have increasingly moved learning online, and the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated this trend. Online learning can vary in terms of how “socially” the material is presented (e.g., live or recorded), but there are limited data on which is most effective, with the majority of studies conducted on children4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and inconclusive results on adults.⁹,¹⁰ Here, we examine how young adults (aged 18–35) learn information about unknown objects, systematically varying the social contingency (live versus recorded lecture) and social richness (viewing the teacher’s face, hands, or slides) of the learning episodes. Recall was tested immediately and after 1 week. Experiment 1 (n = 24) showed better learning for live presentation and a full view of the teacher (hands and face). Experiment 2 (n = 27; pre-registered) replicated the live-presentation advantage. Both experiments showed an interaction between social contingency and social richness: the presence of social cues affected learning differently depending on whether teaching was interactive or not. Live social interaction with a full view of the teacher’s face provided the optimal setting for learning new factual information. However, during observational learning, social cues may be more cognitively demanding¹¹ and/or distracting,12, 13, 14 resulting in less learning from rich social information if there is no interactivity. We suggest that being part of a genuine social interaction catalyzes learning, possibly via mechanisms of joint attention,¹⁵ common ground,¹⁶ or (inter-)active discussion, and as such, interactive learning benefits from rich social settings.
... Interaction might impair learning by increasing cognitive load and/or fear of being evaluated poorly by the interlocutor 21 . Alternatively, socially contingent teaching might boost learning, as seen in children 3 but not always in adults 9,10 . ...
... recorded material could be replayed multiple times while the live session was only played once) and did not specifically manipulated how interactive the teaching session was. Direct comparison of interaction-based with observational learning found a significant improvement in learning during interactive teaching 9,22,39 . These studies however failed to control for factors beyond interactivity (e.g. ...
Article
Human learning is highly social. Advances in technology have increasingly moved learning online, and the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated this trend. Online learning can vary in terms of how “socially” the material is presented (e.g., live or recorded), but there are limited data on which is most effective, with the majority of studies conducted on children and inconclusive results on adults. Here, we examine how young adults (aged 18–35) learn information about unknown objects, systematically varying the social contingency (live versus recorded lecture) and social richness (viewing the teacher’s face, hands, or slides) of the learning episodes. Recall was tested immediately and after 1 week. Experiment 1 (n = 24) showed better learning for live presentation and a full view of the teacher (hands and face). Experiment 2 (n = 27; pre-registered) replicated the live-presentation advantage. Both experiments showed an interaction between social contingency and social richness: the presence of social cues affected learning differently depending on whether teaching was interactive or not. Live social interaction with a full view of the teacher’s face provided the optimal setting for learning new factual information. However, during observational learning, social cues may be more cognitively demanding and/or distracting,resulting in less learning from rich social information if there is no interactivity. We suggest that being part of a genuine social interaction catalyzes learning, possibly via mechanisms of joint attention, common ground, or (inter-)active discussion, and as such, interactive learning benefits from rich social settings
... Por ejemplo, tanto el trabajo de Paegle et al., [9] realizado con 61 estudiantes del Medical College of Wisconsin, como el de Kline et al., [10] realizado con 107 estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad George Washington, mostraron resultados académicos similares entre los grupos de enseñanza tradicional y los grupos en los que se utilizaron videos. Sin embargo, existe controversia al respecto, pues sin dejar de reconocer la utilidad de los videos como complemento didáctico, algunos autores defienden la superioridad de la enseñanza presencial demostrando en sus estudios mejores resultados académicos en el grupo de enseñanza presencial frente al grupo de enseñanza mediante videos [11,12], mientras que en las publicaciones de los últimos años va ganando más peso la utilización de videos y material didáctico disponible en línea con resultados académicos mejores o similares a los obtenidos con la enseñanza tradicional [13][14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
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Introducción y objetivo: Los videos, como material didáctico complementario, pueden reemplazar parte de las horas de docencia y ayudar en la adquisición de conocimientos en Otorrinolaringología. Para ello se pretende analizar el impacto de la visualización de 4 videos en el resultado de 6 preguntas específicas del examen teórico de la asignatura y evaluar la percepción de estos videos. Método: Estudio analítico cuasi experimental transversal realizado en 213 estudiantes de Otorrinolaringología de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid divididos en 2 grupos: grupo intervención y grupo control. Las diferencias en el rendimiento en las 6 preguntas entre ambos grupos se determinaron mediante la prueba χ² o el test exacto de Fisher, con un valor de significación p<0.05. Además, para evaluar la percepción de los estudiantes se revisaron las opiniones registradas en los cuadernos de rotación hospitalaria. Resultados: Los videos tuvieron 883 visualizaciones al momento del análisis de los datos y la mayoría de opiniones fueron positivas (94.87%). Se observaron diferencias significativas (p<0.01) en el resultado de los estudiantes en dos preguntas: “oído 1” (27.78% de aciertos en el grupo intervención vs. 7.50% en el grupo control) y “cuello 2” (38.89% vs. 81.80%). La mayoría de los comentarios sobre los videos (94.87%) fueron positivos. Discusión y conclusiones: no se pudo demostrar un impacto directo en los resultados académicos pero el fácil acceso a los videos y los comentarios positivos sobre estos evidenciaron su utilidad como una herramienta complementaria para la enseñanza de la asignatura.
... Nonetheless, these observations are non-consistent throughout the literature. Ramlogan et al. [9] in 2014 demonstrated that mean post-test scores were statistically significantly higher in students who attended face-to-face lectures compared with those relying on video-based lectures. ...
Article
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Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the disparity between video-based learning and lecture-based learning on Jordanian medical students' satisfaction. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study using a web-based questionnaire adapted from Student Evaluation of Educational Quality survey. Using convenience sampling, medical students studying at the University of Jordan and Jordan University Hospital were recruited. Participants in either clinical or basic-science years that have completed the entire survey were included in the final analysis. Results: We surveyed a total 487 participants among which male to female ratio was 1.19:1. Participants perceived greater benefit in terms of learning, instructor enthusiasm, content organization, breadth of teaching, and quality and number of assignments when using video-based learning (all p<0.01). In contrast, face-to-face learning was associated with significantly higher benefits in terms of group interactions (p<0.01) and capacity for rapport building (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in perceived examination performance between the two learning modalities (p=0.11). Conclusion: Video-based learning is the preferred learning modality among Jordanian medical students. Despite its dominance across multiple domains, it should be implemented as an adjunct to traditional classroom teaching for it is vital in the development of good communication skills and building rapport in medical students.
... Videos with animation are an impactful technological resource that can be effectively incorporated in healthcare education. This platform allows students to access information virtually, remotely, and as often as necessary to solidify and enhance learning [27,28]. Powtoon was used to create Dental Bite-sized Bits Table 2 Thematic analysis of student comments based on post-use survey ...
Article
The Surgeon General’s report in the year 2000 highlighted the association between chronic diseases and oral health infections. Current healthcare education programs, regrettably, report only 1 to 3 h of oral health instruction within curricula. In the years 2020–2022, as part of their respective oral health curricula, 278 first-year physician assistant and 12 pre-clinical second-year pharmacy students were invited to participate in a voluntary survey examining the effectiveness of animated succinct, online video-based oral health units. Among all student responses for the post-use survey, respondents “strongly agreed” or “agreed” that learning objectives of the unit(s) were achieved after reviewing the videos. Of the participants, 97% “strongly agreed” or “agreed” that the videos helped them understand information of which they had no prior knowledge. Similarly, 98% “strongly agreed” or “agreed” the information was appropriate for their level of knowledge. Most students, 93%, “strongly agreed” or “agreed” the exercise was a valuable learning experience. Regarding the importance of future interprofessional collaboration pertaining to a mutual patient’s oral health, 95% of participants “strongly agreed” or “agreed” that they would be likely to collaborate. This study demonstrates the importance of oral health as a critical area of focus in healthcare education. The study also confirms the hypothesis that Dental Bite-Sized Bits units deliver engaging, valuable oral health education for preclinical healthcare learners, incorporating interprofessional perspectives from the disciplines of dental, pharmacy, and physician assistant.
... Furthermore, it is stated that the ability to express oneself and what s/he knows through a video lesson will increase his/her social, digital and academic competencies (Orus et al., 2016). Although there has been a rapid increase in the number of video lessons in recent years, it is seen that the research mostly focused on the effectiveness of video lessons or their comparison with other methods (Brockfeld, Müller, & de Laffolie, 2018;Ou, Joyner, & Goel, 2019;Ramlogan, Raman, & Sweet, 2014;Riyanto & Yunani, 2020). On the other hand, since the video lesson preparation process includes a learning process itself for students who prepare it, it is important to examine this process in the context of learningby-teaching. ...
Article
Full-text available
The idea that teaching is a way of learning is not new and there is a big difference between learning for oneself and teaching for others. The factor that creates this difference is the teaching effect, in other words, the teaching expectancy. Studies have reported that the expectation of teaching others contributes to better learning of educational content and helps deeper learning. but this effect has attracted a little attention in teacher training. This study reports the findings from a case study that investigated the experiences of pre-service teachers within the learning-by-teaching activities. Learning-by-teaching entails a set of methods and mediums. In this study, a non-interactive video-producing approach was employed. A total of 23 pre-service teachers participated in the study. Research data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Three main themes and twenty codes have emerged from the analysis. The results indicated that producing instructional videos for peers positively affects students' learning, increases motivation, improves teaching skills, digital skills, self-assessment skills and promotes deep learning. In addition, the results have also revealed that learning by teaching is an effective learning method at the university level and in teacher education.
... However, these studies did not control for exposure time: recorded material could be replayed multiple times while the live session was only live once. Studies that controlled for content and exposure time across conditions found a significant improvement in learning of medical students during social interactive lectures compared to recorded tutorials [75,76]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Learning in humans is highly embedded in social interaction: since the very early stages of our lives, we form memories and acquire knowledge about the world from and with others. Yet, within cognitive science and neuroscience, human learning is mainly studied in isolation. The focus of past research in learning has been either exclusively on the learner or (less often) on the teacher, with the primary aim of determining developmental trajectories and/or effective teaching techniques. In fact, social interaction has rarely been explicitly taken as a variable of interest, despite being the medium through which learning occurs, especially in development, but also in adulthood. Here, we review behavioural and neuroimaging research on social human learning, specifically focusing on cognitive models of how we acquire semantic knowledge from and with others, and include both developmental as well as adult work. We then identify potential cognitive mechanisms that support social learning, and their neural correlates. The aim is to outline key new directions for experiments investigating how knowledge is acquired in its ecological niche, i.e. socially, within the framework of the two-person neuroscience approach. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Concepts in interaction: social engagement and inner experiences’.
... However, clinical skills did not differ between the two teaching methods. 16 These results also demonstrate the importance of active participation for knowledge transfer. An already known teaching method that is based on an active learner participation is the "Peyton method". ...
Article
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Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a Peyton teaching approach for rotary root canal instrumentation, in comparison to the traditional "see one - do one" method. Methodology: 40 undergraduate students were randomly divided into two groups (n=20). Students of the first group (G1) were taught how to use rotary instrumentation using a modified Peyton method, while the second group (G2) watched a teaching video (30 min) on the same subject. Both groups instrumented a plastic block and subsequently both mesial canals of an extracted lower molar. The quality of the root canal instrumentation was analyzed by 2 blinded observers on video recordings and x-rays. Results: Interobserver correlation was 0.917 (p< 0.0005; Pearson) for the assessment of the video recordings; students of G1 received significantly more total points (83.55 ± 6.82 points) compared to G2 (69.76 ± 13.82) (p=0.001; t-test), the gender had no significant effect on the overall results (p=0.444; two-way ANOVA). Significant differences were detected for the categories "initial scouting", "coronal enlargement", "glide path preparation", "preparation using X2 file", "preparation using X3 file" (p< 0.05; t-test) as well as for the subcategories "sequence of rinse, recapitulation, rinse" (p= 0.001; t-test) and "recapitulation" (p< 0.002; t-test). No differences between groups were observed for the radiographic evaluation with respect to working length and canal straightening. Conclusion: Teaching rotary instrumentation by using the Peyton approach resulted in improved performance of undergraduate students assessed with a checklist-based process analysis. Enhanced implementation of rotary instrumentation could result in better long-term results of students' root canal treatment.
... Researchers (Taslibeyaz et al., 2017, Lawlor and Donnelly, 2010, Ramlogan et al., 2014, Schneps et al., 2010Cooper and Higgins, 2015) found using video cost-effective, locationfree method which fits to the individual needs of the learners and if required, they can view the material repeatedly. Yousef et al. (2014) reported evidences of using video-based learning in improving the achievement of learning outcomes. ...
Conference Paper
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have gained momentum in the past decade. MOOCs are becoming popular day by day across the world. One visible difference between traditional teaching-learning and MOOC is in terms of the central position of videos. Video-based content delivery has become the primary medium of instruction in most the MOOCs (Yousef, 2015), supported by e-text, activities, quizzes, and discussion forums. In India, the MOOCs being offered on the SWAYAM platform are mostly video-based. As per SWAYAM guidelines (2016 & 2017), for a four-credit MOOC in SWAYAM, a minimum of 20 hours of video content is essential. The researcher has offered two MOOC courses of 16 weeks duration on SWAYAM platforms namely, Learning and Teaching (with enrolment of around 15000) and, Pedagogy of Science (with enrolment of around 5000) in two cycles, i.e., July 2020 and January 2021. Total 111 videos have been developed for these two courses and when the viewership data was analysed, it was found that except for the course introductory videos, the viewership of other videos was varied and some videos have nearly 2530 views only in six months, this triggered the researcher to undertake a study to find out the usability of videos in MOOC. The researcher has decided to find out the usability and perceived effectiveness of videos in MOOCs being offered on the SWAYAM platform. The outcomes of the study are based on the perception of learners in IGNOU-SWAYAM MOOC around various identified factors like duration and number; content quality and relevance, quality of graphics and animations; subject matter experts; language; and positioning of video in the module. The paper also suggests ways to improve the video component of MOOC to improve its effectiveness and usability.
... Mason, Shuman and Cook (2013) found that there was no difference in perception between the flipped classroom approach and traditional classroom approach. Instead, live lectures seem to be more effective than video instruction itself (Ramlogan, Raman & Sweet, 2014;Wilson & Sipe, 2014). These findings are relevant to Johnson and Renner's (2012) results which argue that traditional methods still needs to be adopted because not all topics can be practised in the flipped classroom environment. ...
Article
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This study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using Flipped Classroom Approach to teach adjectives to Malaysian Year 4 Chinese ESL learners. It was also designed to examine Malaysian Year 4 Chinese ESL learners' perceptions towards Flipped Classroom Approach. Two classes with 10 Year 4 Chinese ESL learners in Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan X were chosen as the research samples to form the experimental and control groups of this study. This intervention focused on the experimental group using Edmodo to acquire input before the lesson, while the control group followed the traditional classroom approach. This quasi-experimental research used several instruments to collect the data namely pre-and post-tests as well as questionnaires. The results showed that there was a difference in the test scores after the experimental group participants learned adjectives using the Flipped Classroom Approach as compared to the traditional teaching approach. The learners found it more effective to grasp knowledge during face-to-face lesson as they had acquired the relevant input online before the lesson. This study has provided insights for Malaysian primary ESL teachers to implement Flipped Classroom Approach in their classroom settings.
... Video has been shown to support ubiquitous learning and has given tangible benefits to students (Schneps et al. 2010, Ramlogan et al. 2014, Taslibeyaz et al. 2017, Carmichael et al. 2018. The investment of time and money required to create videos is low compared to traditional extension programming, and once they are created, they can continue to serve as an educational resource indefinitely. ...
Article
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Field‐based learning is a key element in wildlife management curriculum as it is a valuable teaching tool for natural resource topics. There are multiple constraints that restrict use of field‐based learning techniques in wildlife programs that have been complicated by the COVID‐19 pandemic. Many academic programs were forced to rapidly transition to online instruction, but despite these difficulties, there was a need to provide interactive, in the field learning opportunities for students. This necessity resulted in the development of a live streaming system to provide an interactive learning experience (Leopold Live!). In this case study, we describe the technology used in Leopold Live! to augment an online, wildlife habitat management course at Texas A&M University, and the associated challenges and adjustments needed to improve delivery in the future. We conclude that Leopold Live! serves as a potential method to meet the challenge of providing interactive, field‐based learning in a distance education setting. Due to the COVID‐19 pandemic many programs were forced to rapidly transition to online instruction, but despite these difficulties, there was a need to provide interactive, in the field learning opportunities for students. We conclude that Leopold Live! serves an effective way to meet these challenges in a distance education setting.
... The participants, however, felt that they learned more from traditional classroom lectures and preferred them to video lectures. In addition, a study by Ramlogan et al. (10) found that participants in the video group scored less in an examination than the live group but also found improvement in their clinical ability. ...
Article
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Purpose: The coronavirus pandemic has posed challenges for medical education, including the loss of lecture hours. Resident physicians were offered video podcasts to compensate for the loss of lecture hours but without proven efficacy. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of video podcasts related to osteoporotic and metabolic bone diseases during residency training. Methods: Orthopedic residents were voluntarily allocated to the video podcast or traditional group. Twenty-two video podcasts covering major topics in osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases were developed by experts and offered to the podcast group. Each podcast was approximately 20-30 minutes long. Pre- and post-exposure examinations, comprising 60 multiple-choice questions, were conducted and compared. Confidence, perceived ability, and preferences were assessed using questionnaires. Results: A total of 37 residents were recruited, 18 in the video group and 19 in the traditional group. With numerically lower pre-test scores (47.59%±9.77% in the video group, 53.95%±9.77% in the traditional group, p = 0.056), students in the video group significantly outperformed the traditional group in the post-test (89.81%±3.83% and 76.93%±10.92%, p < 0.001). Junior residents watching videos scored higher than senior residents. Videos led to a greater gain in confidence and perceived ability. However, students still preferred live lectures to videos. Conclusions: This study showed greater performance scores and confidence when using video podcasts, with junior residents improving more with podcasts. We suggest providing supplemental video podcasts in non-surgical-based subspecialties during the early training years as a supplement during the pandemic and a new normal residency training method.
... In this study, 24 participants believed that implementing FCM does not affect teaching EFL because traditional methods are unique to the learning process. (Johnson & Renner, 2012;Ramlogan et al., 2014;& Snowden et al., 2012). On the other hand, Shimamoto (2012) stated that implementing FCM in class effectively affects the self-learning that they learn from the FCM. ...
Article
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Flipped Classroom Method is one method that replaces the learning from school to home and activity in the class. It is entirely different from the traditional method. The study aimed to investigate the lectures' awareness of Flipped classrooms in higher education. This study also aimed to what extent lecturers in the Kurdistan region are aware of flipped classroom method and its effectiveness in the EFL classes. The quantitative approach was implemented in this study because it gives a precise number. 101 English Foreign Language lecturers have participated from different cities and universities in the Kurdistan region. The data was collected through a questionnaire to measure the number of teachers aware of Flipped Classroom Method. The data have been analysed through the GOOGLE FORM approach to see the result. The study's result was that most of them are aware of Flipped Classroom and some teachers are unaware of Flipped Classroom. It also supported that FCM is an effective method. According to the result, there were some essential points for implementation in all EFL classes in Higher Education of Kurdistan, such as facilities and training for teachers and students are recommended for further study.
... Technology supported online learning should be used by both lecturers and students. According to Pahinis et al., (2007), Ruiz et al., (2006) and Ramlogan et al., (2014) that online learning saves time and money. Besides, it offers a variety of learning methods and allows students to study anywhere and anytime. ...
Article
This study identifies the readiness, perceptions and preferences of students in facing online learning. This study will also propose an effective online learning model design. Data obtained from 362 students through a questionnaire using a likert scale. The results shows that in general the students are ready to carry out the process of online learning. Besides using a live conference media, students prefer the use of teaching videos made by lecturers himself as an alternative method when quota and internet signals are the main problems. The distribution of learning materials should be carried out at least one day before the learning schedule. Meanwhile, the allocation of lecture time is not too much in the attendance process. Furthermore, the evaluation process is also carried out for each material topic. Thus, the focus of the on learning model should consider teaching media, material distribution, time allocation and learning evaluation process. Keywords: readiness, preferences, on line learning; effective
... Online learning allows students to self-learn anywhere, at any time. 1 Providing an easy to access online course will help make online education more enjoyable and effective. 2 As educators are regarded as learning facilitators, it is their role to create an environment that makes students' access to learning materials as uncomplicated and acceptable as possible. ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is focused on expanding medical students' knowledge and understanding of a non‐core curricular subject not normally offered in the medical curriculum. The critical juncture explored how to introduce a health‐related subject into medical education that complements without competing for space/time in medical students' core studies. Using dental trauma as an example, this paper supports the opportunity for medical students to learn online about managing dental injuries and to raise their awareness of the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of traumatic dental injuries before they graduate as medical doctors.
... Online learning could change passive learning into active learning. Teachercentered learning was transformed into studentcentered learning, where students had to be independent in their learning (Ramlogan et al., 2014). The thing that lecturers needed to pay attention to in facilitating attractive learning designs and opportunities for college students to express ideas (Puspandari et al., 2020). ...
... SD=0.45). This means that video podcasts are simple and conversational, facilitate learning by providing visually and auditorily appealing content and the information is relevant to the objectives, which is agreed by Obeyemi and Beyram (2015), audio is loud and clear (Harrison, 2019), visually appealing (Ramlogan, 2014), and the length of the material preferably shorter one (Zainuddin, 2015) must be taken in consideration. In addition, an important point in the video must be highlighted and must minimize noise problems (Thompson, 2012). ...
... For example, the format of face-to-face instruction has been successfully replaced by the use of video instruction [11]. Although other studies have demonstrated that the sole use of videos instead of lectures has its limitations, the method is preferred by students and thus should play a permanent role in dental teaching [12,13]. ...
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Abstract Background E-learning has found its way into dental teaching in general and endodontic teaching in particular. The present study aimed to implement a newly developed multimedia learning application and assess its effect on students’ first root canal treatment on real patients. With the COVID-19 outbreak, the application’s performance was investigated during the pandemic. Methods A total of 138 students in the initial clinical endodontic course participated in this study. The control group (n = 49) followed the traditional curriculum, including practice on artificial teeth and face-to-face teaching events. In addition to the traditional curriculum, test group 1 (n = 54) had access to an endodontic e-learning application containing videos demonstrating artificial teeth and patient cases. With the COVID-19 outbreak, test group 2 (n = 35) had no face-to-face teaching; however, endodontic patient treatments were included. The quality of students’ first root canal treatment on real patients was compared using performance and radiographic assessment items. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal–Wallis and chi-squared tests. Test groups received a questionnaire to assess the learning application. Test group 2 also completed a COVID-19-specific survey to measure students’ perceptions of how the pandemic affected their endodontic education. Results The results of endodontic treatments were significantly better for test group 1 (P
... Numerous studies have compared live and prerecorded teaching sessions, concluding that both formats are equally effective objectively. [87][88][89] However, literature conflicts on whether live sessions, [87][88][89][90][91] or prerecorded sessions [92][93][94] are better received subjectively. 94 95 Thus, we used blended semilive approach of prerecorded skills videos, to emulate OSCE-style time-pressured environment, within live structured teaching sessions, to offer two-way interaction, opportunities for students to ask questions and thereby maximise student engagement. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly undermined undergraduate anaesthetic teaching in spite of the vital role of the specialty against the pandemic. Anaesthetic National Teaching Programme for Students (ANTPS) was designed to meet the evolving needs of undergraduates and tomorrow’s doctor by standardising anaesthetic training, preparing for final exams and equipping competencies vital for doctors of all grades and specialties. Our Royal College of Surgeons England-accredited University-College-Hospital-affiliated programme consisted of six-biweekly sessions were delivered online by anaesthetic trainees. Prerandomised and postrandomised session-specific multiple-choice questions (MCQs) assessed students’ improvement in knowledge. Anonymous feedback forms were provided to students after each session and 2 months following the programme. 3743 student feedback forms (92.2% of attendees) across 35 medical-schools were recorded. There was a mean improvement in test score (0.94±1.27, p<0.001). 313 students completed all six sessions. Based on 5-point Likert scale, students who completed the programme showed an improvement in their confidence in knowledge and skills to face common foundation challenges (1.59±1.12, p<0.001) and thus felt better prepared for life as junior doctors (1.60±1.14, p<0.001). With an increase in confidence in students to pass their MCQs, Observed Structured Clinical Examinations and case-based discussion assessments, 3525 students stated they would recommend ANTPS to other students. Unprecedented COVID-19 factors impacting training, positive student feedback and extensive recruitment, demonstrate that our programme is an indispensable learning resource which standardises anaesthetic undergraduate education nationally, prepares undergraduates for their anaesthetic and perioperative exams and lays strong foundations for implementation of clinical skills required by all doctors, to optimise training and patient care.
... Limited studies were carried out to assess the distance learning experiences in the field of dentistry; Ramlogan et al. [8], compared knowledge and skills attained in some clinical periodontology exercises when delivered through videos versus live lectures, students had preferred integration of videos in the process rather than considering it as a substitution for conventional lectures. Asiry [9] found positive attitudes from students regarding distance learning for a preclinical orthodontic course, where students mostly preferred a combination of distance learning and traditional learning. ...
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Background During the novel COVID-19 pandemic, many universities adopted distance and hybrid learning as a modification to their teaching methods to ensure continuity of education, abiding by the worldwide recommendations of social distancing. Aim To compare learning environments created through hybrid learning versus distance learning, to deliver paediatric dentistry course, and to assess the correlation between the created learning environment and students’ satisfaction. Method In this cross-sectional study, students enrolled in a hybrid paediatric dentistry course were asked to participate in an electronic survey. The learning environment was assessed using Distance Educational Learning Environment Survey (DELES), students’ satisfaction was assessed using Satisfaction Scale (SS). Retrospective data for distance learning course was used for comparison. Ordinal data were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient was used to correlate students’ satisfaction with DELES. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict satisfaction. Results A total of 376 students’ data were considered in the study. Hybrid learning had significantly higher scores than distance learning in 3 DELES scales. There was a statistically significant weak positive correlation between satisfaction and DELES. Multiple regression analysis model was statistically significant and accounted for (22.8%) of the variance in students’ satisfaction. Only “Instructor support” ( p = 0.001) and “Student autonomy” ( p < 0.001) had a significant effect on satisfaction. Conclusion This study supports the superiority of a hybrid learning environment over a complete distance learning environment, it also shows that satisfaction is correlated and can be predicted by the created learning environment. Trial registration This study has been registered on clinicaltrials.gov on 21 May 2020 with an identifier: NCT04401371 .
... These procedure-specific educational videos permit students to visualize the procedural steps within the lab on the projector and E-learning tools on Blackboard, on-campus and off-campus [14]. This will allow the students to revise the procedural steps before, during, and after the skill lab session as per the students' convenience [15]. It also reduces information differences and bias and provides uniformity in learning experiences for all students [2]. ...
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E-learning has completely transformed how people teach and learn, particularly in the last three pandemic years. This study evaluated the effectiveness of additional procedure-specific video demonstrations through E-learning in improving the knowledge and practical preclinical skills acquisition of undergraduate dental students in comparison with live demonstration only. A randomized controlled trial was conducted for the second-year dental students in the College of Dentistry, Jouf University, to evaluate the impact of E-learning-assisted videos on preclinical skill competency levels in operative dentistry. After a brief introduction to this study, the second-year male and female students voluntarily participated in the survey through an official college email. Fifty participants were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, twenty-five each. The control group (Group A) was taught using traditional methods, and the intervention group (Group B) used E-learning-assisted educational videos and traditional techniques. An objective structured practical examination (OSPE) was used to assess both groups. The faculty members prepared a structured, standardized form to evaluate students. After OSPE, statistical analysis was done to compare the grades of OSPE between Group A and Group B. Logistic regression analysis was done to express the effect of components of the OSPE on gender, cumulative gross point average (CGPA), Group A and Group B. The results showed a significant difference in the experimental groups after the intervention (p < 0.000). The simulator position parameter demonstrated that the participants had a significant competence level after the intervention by procedure-specific videos (p < 0.000) and an exponential value of 6.494. The participants taught by E-learning-assisted procedure-specific videos and traditional teaching strategies demonstrated an enhanced learning and skill competency level than participants who used only traditional teaching strategies.
... The lesson comprised of viewing of a clinical instructional video, lecture and class discussion. The 12-14 min long videos were initially created for the class of 2015 22:33 and the video methodology details have been previously reported [27]. Learning objectives covered by the video included knowledge, comprehension and application of instruments, clinical charts and methodology via phantom-head jaw or live patient demonstration. ...
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Background Self-assessment is a mandated educational requirement for use in dental undergraduate programmes. It is weakly supported for use in early clinical training and studies are criticized for the conceptual and methodology shortfalls. The aim of the study was to compare the alignment of student self-assessment to both staff assessment and written exams in early clinical training using an educational approach. Methods In 2014-2015, 55 third-year dental students completed three educational sessions comprising of (a) classroom teaching (lecture, video) with post-lesson written exam and (b) clinical activity with student self-assessment, staff assessment and student reflection. An intra-individual analysis approach, staff validation, and student scoring standardization were implemented. Cognitive (clinical competency) and non-cognitive (professionalism) items were separated in the analyses. Results There were medium correlations (Spearman’s rho, r) between student self-assessment and staff assessment scores for cognitive items (r, 0.32) and for non-cognitive items (r, 0.44) for all three combined sessions. There were large correlations for individual sessions. Compared to the post-lesson written exam, students showed small correlation (r, 0.22, 0.29) and staff showed medium correlation (r, 0.31, 0.34) for cognitive and non-cognitive items. Students showed improvements in their mean scores for both cognitive (t-test; p > 0.05) and non-cognitive items (t-test; p = 0.000). Mean scores of students were not different statistically from that of staff (p > 0.05). Conclusions Students may adequately act as self-assessors at the beginning of their clinical work in periodontology. Self-assessment may potentially improve the clinical performance. Self-assessment may be nurtured through clear guidelines, educational training strategies, feedback and reflection leading to better evaluative judgement and lifelong learning.
... BL has been used successfully and effectively in the various dental deciplines such as endodontics [13], orthodontics [14], periodontics [15] and application of local anesthesia [16]. However, variable students' perceptions and academic performance have been reported across studies [9,[17][18][19][20][21][22]. This variation in student's responses could be attributed to the variable levels of school preparedness and degree of implementation of online learning technologies in dental education. ...
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Blended learning is growing in popularity particularly following the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic. One of the fields that the pandemic has substantially affected is dental education. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the online dental education. Students’ perceptions and experiences of blended learning were also investigated. Methods: A 28-question online survey was designed to gauge students’ perceptions of the effect of blended learning on their academic performance. Results: 314 participants in preclinical and clinical years completed the questionnaire (223 females and 91 males). The majority of students (89%) believed that clinical and practical courses cannot be given by the internet. In terms of students’ opinion in the assessment process, more females (65.8%) preferred traditional exams than males (50.5%) (p < 0.05). Most clinical students (83%) preferred a combination of online and traditional teaching compared to 72% of preclinical students (p < 0.05). Clinical year students were more willing to communicate electronically with their classmates and instructors. The majority of dental students (65%) reported that future dental courses should be blended. Conclusions: In the pandemic era, blended learning, should become the preferred method of education whereby theoretical knowledge is delivered through online tutorials and clinical training is resumed on-site, to ensure competency of dental graduates while maintaining safety of the dental team. Current facilities and course designs should be improved in order to improve students’ experiences with blended learning.
... But while 88% of the students rated the live performance as very good, the video presentation was rated equally well by only 62%. Ramlogan et al. [8] came to a different conclusion. They offered three almost 15-min sequences each live and on video. ...
... E-learning platform offers various teaching styles as synchronous, asynchronous and reduces cost, saves time, student can learn anywhere outside the class room, overcomes the problem of faculty shortcomings and ultimately transforms student into 1 active learner. It is well accepted, effective and provide positive 5 outcome in dental education. There are various studies conducted in developed countries to [6][7][8] compare the traditional verses e-learning. ...
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Objective: To compare the academic performance of e-learning and didactic teaching strategy among third-year dental students. Methodology: This Quasi-experimental study was conducted at Bahria Dental College Karachi from 10-Jan to 10-March, 2020. The students of third-year BDS were divided into two groups; an experimental group of e-learning and didactic teaching as a controlled group without randomization. Each group comprised 25 students. The topic of "White Oral Lesions" was taught in both groups having similar learning objectives and course content. In the e-learning group (asynchronous); the course content was emailed to participants containing videos, literature review, and clinical scenarios, and in the didactic learning group; the content was delivered in two lectures. The academic performance was evaluated at baseline, after course completion, and after 5 weeks through 15 MCQs. The data were analyzed on SPSS version 23. Results: The response rate was 100%; from which 47(94%) were female and 3(6%) males. The mean age was 20.96±75 years. There was a significant difference found in the mean academic scores of all three performances of e-learning and didactic learning groups after 5 weeks as 32.42 and 18.58, respectively (p=0.001). Conclusion: In the e-learning process, academic performance was enhanced as compared to traditional learning methods. Hence, e-learning has a positive influence on knowledge acquisition and retention. (Rawal Med J 202;46:967-969).
... The results of this study indicated that the respondents were almost in complete agreement that formal lectures and preclinical and clinical demonstrations formed a fundamental and integral part of teaching about posterior restorations. This has been reinforced in multiple studies and through surveys derived from dental students that revealed the teaching strategies used allowed comprehensive two-way interaction between the learners and the lecturers, with positive results achieved compared to other methods [27,28]. The majority (n = 19 (82.6%)) of the lecturers supplied a comprehensive instruction manual to their students. ...
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There is a current trend to restore posterior teeth with composite resin due to increasing demands on natural tooth colour restoration and increased concern about the safety of amalgam restorations. The objective was to evaluate the current teaching of posterior direct restoration among restorative dental lecturers in Malaysia compared to available international literature. An online questionnaire, which sought information on the teaching of posterior restoration was developed and distributed to 13 dental schools in Malaysia. The response rate for the questionnaire was 53.8%. The most popular posterior restoration teaching methods among the respondents were lecture (95.7%), demonstration (87.0%) and problem-based learning (PBL) (73.9%), while continuous assessment and a practical competency test (82.6%) were the most popular assessment methods. Placing a hard setting calcium hydroxide and GIC base for deep cavity restored by composite restoration was taught in 79.2% of cases. The standard protocols for posterior composite restoration were incremental filling in deep cavity (87.5%), using circumferential metal bands with wooden wedge (91.7%), with a total etch system (95.8%), using a light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit (91.7%), finishing using water cooling (80%) and finishing with a disc (87.5%). Graduates from dental schools in Malaysia received similar theoretical, preclinical and clinical teaching on posterior restoration techniques, although there were variations in the delivery methods, techniques and assessments, pointing to a need for uniformity and consensus.
... Ruiz etal (2) adds that it saves time and overcomes faculty shortage. Ramolgan etal (3) opines that it has the potential to shift the learning process from passive teacher-centered learning to active learner-centered learning. A study by Oliver (4) defined teachers expertise, student readiness and quality of the online content determine the success factors. ...
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Online learning has become the mainstay during this COVID-19 lockdown. Students in the professional courses had to adjust themselves to the new teaching method. The present study has been conducted to evaluate and compare the metaphor of thought by the medical and dental students regarding online teaching. A self directed questionnaire was given to 200 participants (120 medical, 80 dental) by Google form. Students were between 17-23 years age, pursuing their first year. Questions were given under five subheadings with three options-'yes', 'somewhat' and 'no'. The responses were analyzed. 47.9% medical and 31.6% dental students replied 'yes' for blended learning. 40% medical and 30.9% dental students opined there was no contentment with the subject. Mentors advice was useful for 44.4% medical and 59.9% dental students. Only 6.8% medical and 19.1% dental students could be able to manage time.26.8% medical and 13.4% dental students were satisfied with the clarity on the subject. Mixed responses were given by medical and dental students. Medical students preferred blended learning than dental students. Mentors advice was more helpful for dental students. Most of the medical students could manage time when compared to dental students. This study represents the opinion of medical and dental students for online learning.
... Jordan et al. (13) likewise reported that interactive, standard didactic education is more effective than asynchronous online education. However, other studies in the literature report that dental students have generally positive attitudes toward online learning (26)(27)(28)(29)(30). Interpreting these responses as positive feedback would be a natural reaction due to the use of distance education as an emergency solution during the pandemic period. ...
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Purpose: This study evaluated the usage habits, attitudes, and perceptions of undergraduate dental students toward distance (online) learning and identified variables related to those attitudes. Materials and methods: The study included 1,605 undergraduate dental students who participated voluntarily. The data collection tool consisted of a distance learning attitude scale, a questionnaire on personal information, and open-ended questions. The perceptions of dental students to distance education according to the year and type of dental school they attended were evaluated. Results: Most students expressed that distance learning in dental courses was not as effective as traditional face-to-face education (59.1%, n=949). While students studying at state universities had a more negative view of distance education, the satisfaction scores of the first-year students were found to be significantly lower than the other students (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dental students were generally unhappy with the interruption of traditional education caused by COVID-19 and having to continue their education online. However, under the circumstances, they saw it as an advantage allowing them to continue their education and avoid a complete suspension.
... Previous experiences concerning the use of digital resources in teaching (e-learning) have already been carried out in different dentistry disciplines (12)(13)(14). However, they had been applied as a complement to face-to-face education, in an organized and previously planned way, but not in an emergency, as imposed by the Covid-19 public health crisis. ...
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The objective of this study was to assess the use and experience with digital communication tools among dentistry professors and students to adapt to distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. Nine hundread and ninety five participants (479 dentistry professors and 516 students) from countries in North America, Latin America, Brazil, Europe, Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East answered a questionnaire about motivation/stress/anxiety; practice with digital technologies; synchronous/asynchronous communication technologies (difficulties/benefits), and which ones would they prefer using when returning to college. Data were analyzed by the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact (α=0.05). Motivation was more affected among the female professors, male students, and Brazilians (p<0.05). Concern about the academic future, was higher among female students, up to 30 years old, from Latin America and Brazil, and lower for European professors (p<0.05). Anxiety and stress were higher for undergraduate students up to 20 years old from Latin America and Brazil (p<0.05). European professors used more synchronous videoconferencing services for lectures/questions, while Brazilians used more text messaging applications for answering questions (p<0.05). Latin American professors used more surveys for evaluation (p<0.05). Brazilian professors indicated that they would use "online meetings" and "survey administration services" when returning to face-to-face activities and European professors/students would use "email" (p<0.05). Professors from Asia/Oceania/Middle East and professors/students from Brazil indicated "remote activities were important for students not to be inactive" (p<0.05). Efforts were made to adapt Dentistry's teaching to distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the technologies used for this, feelings, and experiences differed between professors and students.
... Through video learning, students able to listen to the audio while at the same time viewing the diagrams and figures. Procedural videos can be a valuable teaching tool because they allow for better visualization of procedural steps and provide media-rich audiovisual stimulation that caters to a broader range of learning styles or preferences (Ramlogan et al., 2014). Furthermore, it improves laboratory step visualization and allows students to review technical procedures before, throughout, or even after laboratory sessions, thereby overcoming the shortage of time for onsite learning. ...
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The temporarily close of educational institutions due to the Covid-19 lockout situation affected educators at every level of education to conduct classes online. This study explored whether the use of video demonstration significantly improves students' performance of learning culinary compared with control group counterparts who were exposed to the live streaming demonstration. In addition, students' perceptions of the instructions are assessed. A quasi-experimental study design was used for this study. The study sample consisted of 36 undergraduate Hospitality students enrolled in a culinary course. Sixteen students in the experimental group and 20 students in the control group were exposed to video and live streaming demonstrations, respectively. Both groups were tested about the same target content, ‘Understanding Vegetables and Basic Cuttings’. Students’ performance grades were computed and analyzed to compare students’ learning outcomes between the two groups. Students’ perceptions were assessed based on their opinions of instruction, their self-reported level of understanding of vegetables and basic cuttings, and their level of satisfaction. Results of independent samples t-tests showed; students in the experimental group had a significantly higher performance score and express positive perceptions of the instruction than the students in the control group. The findings from this study would shed light on the instructional strategy suitable for culinary students.
... According to Walker and Fraser (2005), the learning process can be expanded by sharing ideas and thoughts and interactions between the student and lecturer. Ramlogan, Raman, and Sweet (2014) also agreed that using video in learning allows students to interact with the teaching contents at their own pace. In keeping with Vygotsky (1978) the FC approach to learning supports the need for two-way communication between lecturer and student in the construction of knowledge as opposed to the notion that learning is the transmission of information. ...
... This methods also allows a shift towards more active learner centered rather than passive teacher centered learning. [14,15] But to ensure the success of online learning, student satisfaction is one of the key factors. [16] This can be fulfilled by ensuring the contents of the online lecture is interactive, with the intended learning outcomes being coverage and ease of access. ...
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Dental education in Malaysia has been struck badly by the novel SARS-CoV2 coronavirus (COVID-19). This has brought to a halt all teaching and learning activities, aimed at stopping the spread of COVID-19, forcing students and lecturers to shift to online teaching and learning activities. However, dental education teaching and learning is unique in nature as it involves close contact with patients and aerosol-related procedures. This article discusses the challenges faced by the lecturers and students during this pandemic and offers some alternative strategies to bridge the gap in dental education during an unprecedented time. Although COVID-19 has ceased all clinical teaching and learning activities in most universities, it is imperative for the delivery of dental education to continue to ensure students are always engaged in learning activities. Although for many dental lecturers this change to online learning is a steep learning curve, they need to be fast learners, embrace the incorporation of technology into learning programs, and adapt to the new norms. They need to familiarize themselves with online learning to ensure that the course syllabus is covered comprehensively. For students, they must have the right mindset that this change is bound to exist until COVID-19 has been brought under control and lockdown is no more relevant.
... Contrary to the findings of the present study, however, there are also some studies, which have revealed that the flipped-class instruction does not have a significant effect on students' performances (Davies, Dean, & Ball, 2013;Findlay-Thompson & Mombourquette, 2014;Johnson & Renner, 2012;Love et al., 2014). Results from other research groups also suggest that traditional methods still need to be used as all topics cannot be covered with a flip-class approach (Johnson & Renner, 2012;Ramlogan, Raman, & Sweet, 2014;Snowden, 2012). ...
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The flipped classroom (FC) model has recently gained an increasing interest in higher education. Similarly, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have attracted international attention in the literature. However, a review of previous studies suggests that although a MOOC-based FC model has often been advocated in theory, it has consistently been disregarded in practice. Therefore, the main significance of this study lies in its implementation of a MOOC-based FC model in an English Language Teaching (ELT) program for pre-service English language teachers for the first time in a Turkish context, and also in the literature. Moreover, the study explores pre-service teachers' perceptions of a MOOC-based FC model and its effects on their academic achievement. In this regard, the study provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of the MOOC-based FC model in teacher education, especially in the field of ELT. The study took place at a state university in Turkey with 27 pre-service English language teachers in the 2019-2020 academic year. The methodological approach adopted in this study was a mixed-methods research design, benefiting from both quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. It followed a pre-experimental research design, involving the One-Group Pre-test-Post-test Design. A four-week intervention of MOOC-based FC implementation took place between the pre-test and the post-test. Taking the findings of this study into account, some stakeholders, e.g., educators, teacher trainers, policymakers, administrators, and other professionals might consider integrating a MOOC-based FC model into the traditional classroom settings or creating a blended course that incorporates a MOOC into their existing face-to-face programs. A MOOC-based Flipped Classroom Model: Reflecting on pre-service English language teachers… M.Ö. Yaşar, M. Polat Participatory Educational Research (PER)
... Video lectures (VL) allow students to learn and interact at their own pace using the course materials. (Dale & Pymm, 2009;Ramlogan et al., 2013;Scagnoli et al., 2017). ...
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Essays of fifty-one aeronautical engineering students enrolled in theory of flight were analysed to determine the impact of online classes to their learning due to the pandemic. Collection of data is performed a month after the implementation of nationwide lockdown in the Philippines, where reported COVID-19 cases were at its heights. Majority of the students were using mobile phones and data for their online classes. Students reported that quality of connection greatly affects their learning online. The sudden move to online mode of education affected students’ perception of their learning process, both positive and negative notes. Connectivity, accessibility and financial issues were mentioned as disadvantages of online classes. The current emotional and mental conditions of students due to the pandemic were found to greatly affect their learning. The rapid shift of classes to an online set-up has left many students struggling to catch on with their studies. Advantages of online education include self-regulation, flexibility and continuity of learning. Online classes induced improvements in the comprehension skills of students. In general, students perceived online classes to be effective in ensuing continuity of learning during the pandemic. Adequate planning of activities and deadlines, more synchronous sessions and provision of assistance to improve access and connectivity were suggested. Results of this report could be utilised to inform strategies that will help improve delivery of learning courses online.
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Networked virtual reality is gaining recognition as a way to conduct remote classes or meetings when in-person meetings are difficult or risky. This chapter summarizes our ongoing work to develop and assess VR techniques for remote education. We first present two case studies of remote teaching in VR: a classroom-embedded virtual field trip of an energy center guided by a remote teacher, and a remote university class conducted for several weeks in a social VR tool. We then summarize our ongoing research to enhance remote educational VR interfaces using enhanced sensing, for example, to visualize or detect student attention based on eye-tracked gaze. Finally, we identify several practical considerations that will need to be addressed for the long-term success of educational deployments of virtual reality. This can help educators, researchers, and VR developers make informed decisions about how to best use VR technology for designing and deploying educational VR in everyday contexts such as schools and homes.
Article
Unlabelled: The implementation of classroom capture and casting technologies has changed how content can be accessed. Students can access live, streaming, and/or recorded formats of material. Broadening this accessibility has, in turn, introduced flexibility for both the learner and the instructor. This flexibility has impacted the necessity of attendance to access classroom-delivered content. There are many reports that investigate the changing attendance climate as well as the potential impact of attendance on student outcomes. Here we investigated the impact of attending classroom activities on student performance with two common content delivery methods in an undergraduate, pre-clinical cardiology course. Electrocardiography (ECG) interpretation was taught using a flipped classroom format which allowed for the practice of interpretive skills with faculty guidance. Other components of the course related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of cardiovascular disease were delivered using a lecture-based format. The results demonstrate that attendees outperform their classmates in the ability to interpret ECGs and related content. However, the attending student does not appear to have a performance advantage when content is delivered by lecture. The results provide evidence for students to prioritize their time when making decisions about attendance, based on teaching modality, when given a choice. Further, the information can guide curricular change and help colleges and programs identify curricular activities that have a clear attendance benefit for students. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40670-022-01689-5.
Article
Objectives: Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) provides a pliable and current way to presenting orthodontic curriculum material to students. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of TEL compared to traditional learning methods in the field of orthodontics. Materials and methods: The search comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to orthodontics' interactive learning from the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, Psyclnfo, ERIC, Web of Science, Dissertations &Theses Global. Two authors performed the screening, data extraction and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane tool (Rob 2) blindly and in duplicate. Kirkpatrick's 4-level evaluation model was used to evaluate educational outcomes. Results: A total of 3,131 records were identified of which 11 RCT were included. On level 1 (Reaction), students had a positive attitude towards TEL. On level 2 (Learning), included studies did not report any significant knowledge improvement when TEL was compared to traditional learning strategies. One study assessed level 3 (Behavior), where students felt that flipped classroom learning created feelings of greater confidence. On level 4 (Results), most studies suggested that TEL tools are as equally effective in imparting information as traditional tools and recommended that both methods should be considered in teaching students. Conclusion: TEL techniques might have the potential to enhance educational outcomes in orthodontic education and students seem to enjoy the implementation of technology in the learning process. These educational tools should be used as an adjunct to the traditional didactic classroom, and not as a replacement, due to the challenges encountered with their application.
Article
Technology application in the 21st Century teaching and learning setting substantially promotes quality education. The study determined the acceptability and efficiency of the developed lecture demo video as a learning material in teaching Grade-12 EIM in selecting electrical materials and supplies and their specifications. The analysis sought to investigate the outcomes of the assessment rating of the prepared lecture-demo video and the impact of implementation. Teacher experts, student experts, and regular students from secondary schools in Surigao Del Sur Division were the study subjects. The study's tool was the DepEd standard evaluation rating tool for non-print materials obtained from the Surigao del Sur Division Learners Resource Management and Development Office, the developed lecture demo video, and the pretest and posttest questionnaires adopted from Project PPE (Portfolio Predicate on Exemplar) on EIM. The study employed a developmental-quasi experimental design. The developed lecture-demo video was rated Very Satisfactory in content, instructional and technical quality. Analyses found that students who utilized the created lecture-demo video with learning activity sheets outperformed those who used the learning activity sheets on the posttest. The study concluded that the developed lecture-demo video has a positive learning outcome in learners' competency mastery. Likewise, it is widely accepted and recommended for learning purposes as experts evaluate content, instructional, and technical quality.
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The increasing use of learning videos in Higher Education (HE) have revolutionizing the traditional teaching environment. b-Mat@plicada is a b-Learning Mathematics course mainly composed of educational videos that the HE students of a Portuguese Institution can used for their study as a complement of the face-to-face lectures. In a previous research, an experiment was performed in the classroom context, where 49 HE students watched the b-Mat@plicada video on Matrix Multiplication as replacement of the traditional face-to-face explanation. Then, they were asked to solve individually an exercise, and respond to a survey assessing attitudes, perception, and satisfaction. In the present study, 63 HE students participated to a similar experiment with the b-Mat@plicada video on the Laplace Expansion Theorem, where a specific didactical approach is used. Beyond the comparison between the results of the two experiments, the findings of this study revealed that most students achieved the leaning objectives and appreciated the quality of the video in terms of image, sound, clarity and useless. The necessity of video contents in teaching was also expressed, mainly to clarify doubts and remember contents. However, all students considered that videos cannot replace traditional face-to-face classrooms, mainly due to the importance of the Teacher-Student dialogue.
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Despite the shift towards consultant-led care, many patients with trauma are still seen by junior doctors. Previous research has demonstrated that junior doctors feel unprepared to work in acute care but there is a paucity of recent research in trauma specifically. Thus, a national study is required to investigate the current state of undergraduate trauma teaching and identify specific areas for improvement. Between August and September 2020, a 35-item structured questionnaire was distributed among doctors who graduated from UK medical schools within the last 4 years. The questionnaire retrospectively assessed their experience of trauma teaching at medical school and their confidence to diagnose and manage patients with trauma. 398 responses were recorded from graduates of 39 UK medical schools. With 79.6% reporting only 0–5 hours of bedside trauma teaching and 51.8% reporting less than 20 hours in Accident and Emergency, graduates reported that trauma teaching was deficient compared with other specialties (78.1%). The majority of graduates were not confident in the initial assessment (72.9%) of a patient with trauma and almost all felt that a short course in trauma would be useful (93.7%). 77.4% of students felt that online learning would be beneficial and 92.9% felt that simulation would be useful. There is lack of standardised undergraduate trauma teaching nationally; a formal undergraduate teaching to ensure that new graduates are competent in the management of trauma would be supported by students. It is likely that a blended learning approach, incorporating e-learning with traditional teaching and clinical experience would be well received.
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Background Dental schools used e-learning systems to continue teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective This study aimed to determine attitudes, experiences, and barriers to e-learning during the pandemic among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study (descriptive) was performed at the Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University. There were 245 responses to the study questionnaire, having a response rate of 90.74%. The questionnaire was validated through a pilot study. A t-test analysis showed a significance level of 0.05. Results Participants had moderate levels of attitudes, with the mean and standard deviation (SD) being 2.99 (SD = 1.21) to 3.41 (SD = 1.19). Clinical year students had significantly ( p < 0.05) better attitudes than non-clinical year students. The most prevalent personal barrier was “lack of interaction with colleagues” (55.92%), the technical barrier was “the slowness of network” (67.35%), infrastructure/technological barrier was “low bandwidth” (67.76%), the content barrier was “impracticality of some courses” (50.61%), and the barrier related to the instructor was “difficulty contacting academic staff from home” (43.67%). About 83.27% stated that recorded lectures allowed participants to revisit the course, improving learning during the pandemic. However, only 44.08% believed e-learning provided a better opportunity to learn dental clinical procedures because of the zoom function on cameras. Conclusion The overall attitude toward e-learning was moderate, with several barriers highlighted. Nevertheless, the e-learning system seems to have helped during the pandemic, and it might be essential for dental schools to build a hybrid teaching strategy into their curricula for consistent use.
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Pandemi Coronavirus yang terjadi sejak akhir tahun 2019 menyebabkan perubahan menyeluruh dalam kegiatan di bidang pendidikan. Salah satu perubahan yang terjadi ialah metode perkuliahan di tingkat Universitas yang dilaksanakan tidak lagi secara tatap muka, namun secara daring. Seluruh dosen diwajibkan untuk beradaptasi dengan perubahan ini tanpa mengurangi kualitas materi yang diberikan. Metode pembelajaran secara daring yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menyusun materi perkuliahan dalam bentuk file video. Oleh karena itu, sebuah kegiatan pelatihan video editing bagi para dosen diperlukan untuk memaksimalkan penyusunan video materi perkuliahan. Kegiatan ini diharapkan dapat memberi arahan dan prosedur yang memudahkan dosen agar materi perkuliahan dapat mudah dipahami, menarik, dan bermanfaat bagi mahasiswa. Pelatihan diselenggarakan di Laboratorium Komputer Teknik Informatika Universitas Muhammadiyah Pontianak dengan peserta para dosen di Fakultas Teknik. Materi yang dibahas adalah perekaman video menggunakan webcam, prosedur persiapan video editing, mengedit video menggunakan aplikasi Camtasia, serta publikasi video. Dosen juga akan memperoleh panduan pelatihan berupa modul pelatihan yang ringkas dan mudah untuk dipelajari.
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In March 2020, universities in Norway and many other countries shut down due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The students lost access to classrooms, libraries, study halls, and laboratories. Studying turned digital. Because it is unclear when this pandemic will cease to affect students and because we cannot know whether or when a new pandemic occurs, we need to find ways to improve digital study-life for students. An important step in this direction is to understand the students' experiences and perspectives regarding how the digitalization affected their study-life both in structured learning arenas and their self-study. Therefore, we interviewed 12 students in an introductory mechanics course at a Norwegian university in June of 2020. Through a thematic analysis, we identified four broad categories in the students' different experiences and reflections, namely that digitalization: (a) provides benefits, e.g. the flexibility inherent in online video lectures; (b) incurs learning costs, e.g. students reducing their study effort; (c) incurs social costs, e.g. missing being around other students; and (d) increases the need for structure, e.g. wanting to be arranged in digital groups to solve mandatory tasks. We also found that the 2019 students on average scored significantly better on the final exam than the 2020 students, d = 0.31, but we discuss why this result should be interpreted with caution. We provide suggestions for how to adapt courses to make students' digital studying more socially stimulating and effective. Furthermore, this study is a contribution to the historical documentation of the Covid-19 pandemic.
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Since its inception in 1990s, blended learning gain its footing in higher education system. The awareness amongst law lecturers on the blended learning however are not encouraging as they are firmly hold to Socratic methodology and conventional classroom face-to-face instruction. This study examines the awareness of law lecturers in using blended learning and the performance of the students who enrolled in blended learning classes. This study involves descriptive and inferential statistical analyses to investigate the law lecturers’ awareness and to analyse impact of blended learning toward students’ performance. Five modules have been experimented, three substantive law modules and two procedural law modules. The results suggest that the awareness of law lecturers on the usage of blended learning is increasing. While students’ performance, the result shows that it is better if the module is blended, but only in regards to substantive law module. On the contrary, the performance of the students is unsatisfactory in the procedural law module. This study concludes that while the awareness and the interest among law lecturers to use blended learning is increasing, it is also concluded that the suitability of blended learning only in regards to substantive law modules compared to procedural law modules.
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Distance learning and internet-based delivery of educational content are becoming very popular as an alternative to real face-to-face delivery. Clinical-based discussions still remain greatly face-to-face despite the advancement of remote communication and internet sharing technology. In this study we have compared three communication modalities between a learner and educator: audio and video using voice over internet protocol (VoIP) alone [AV]; audio and video VoIP with the addition of a three dimensional virtual artefact [AV3D] and physical face-to-face [FTF]. Clinical case discussions based on fictitious patients were held between a 'learner' and an 'expert' using the three communication modalities. The learner presented a clinical scenario to the experts, with the aid of a prop (partially dentate cast, digitised for AV3D), to obtain advice on the management of the clinical case. Each communication modality was tested in timed exercises in a random order among one of three experts (senior clinical restorative staff) and a learner (from a cohort of 15 senior clinical undergraduate students) all from the School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield. All learners and experts used each communication modality in turn with no prior training. Video recording and structured analysis were used to ascertain learner behaviour and levels of interactivity. Evaluation questionnaires were completed by experts and learners immediately after the experiment to ascertain effectiveness of information exchange and barriers/facilitators to communication. The video recordings showed that students were more relaxed with AV and AV3D than FTF (p = 0.01). The evaluation questionnaires showed that students felt they could provide (p = 0.03) and obtain (p = 0.003) more information using the FTF modality, followed by AV and then AV3D. Experts also ranked FTF better than AV and AV3D for providing (p = 0.012) and obtaining (p = 0) information to/from the expert. Physical face-to-face learning is a more effective communication modality for clinical case-based discussions between a learner and an expert. Remote, internet-based discussions enable a more relaxed discussion environment. The effectiveness of 3D supported internet-based communication is dependent upon a robust and simple to use interface, along with some prior training.
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Information technology is finding an increasing role in the training of medical students. We compared information recall and student experience and preference after live lectures and video podcasts in undergraduate medical education. We performed a crossover randomised controlled trial. 100 students were randomised to live lecture or video podcast for one clinical topic. Live lectures were given by the same instructor as the narrator of the video podcasts. The video podcasts comprised Powerpoint™ slides narrated using the same script as the lecture. They were then switched to the other group for a second clinical topic. Knowledge was assessed using multiple choice questions and qualitative information was collected using a questionnaire. No significant difference was found on multiple choice questioning immediately after the session. The subjects enjoyed the convenience of the video podcast and the ability to stop, review and repeat it, but found it less engaging as a teaching method. They expressed a clear preference for the live lecture format. We suggest that video podcasts are not ready to replace traditional teaching methods, but may have an important role in reinforcing learning and aiding revision.
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Producing "traditional" e-learning can be time consuming, and in a topic such as eHealth, it may have a short shelf-life. Students sometimes report feeling isolated and lacking in motivation. Synchronous methods can play an important part in any blended approach to learning. The aim was to develop, deliver, and evaluate an international postgraduate module in eHealth using live interactive webcasting. We developed a hybrid solution for live interactive webcasting using a scan converter, mixer, and digitizer, and video server to embed a presenter-controlled talking head or copy of the presenter's computer screen (normally a PowerPoint slide) in a student chat room. We recruited 16 students from six countries and ran weekly 2.5-hour live sessions for 10 weeks. The content included the use of computers by patients, patient access to records, different forms of e-learning for patients and professionals, research methods in eHealth, geographic information systems, and telehealth. All sessions were recorded-presentations as video files and the student interaction as text files. Students were sent an email questionnaire of mostly open questions seeking their views of this form of learning. Responses were collated and anonymized by a colleague who was not part of the teaching team. Sessions were generally very interactive, with most students participating actively in breakout or full-class discussions. In a typical 2.5-hour session, students posted about 50 messages each. Two students did not complete all sessions; one withdrew from the pressure of work after session 6, and one from illness after session 7. Fourteen of the 16 responded to the feedback questionnaire. Most students (12/14) found the module useful or very useful, and all would recommend the module to others. All liked the method of delivery, in particular the interactivity, the variety of students, and the "closeness" of the group. Most (11/14) felt "connected" with the other students on the course. Many students (11/14) had previous experience with asynchronous e-learning, two as teachers; 12/14 students suggested advantages of synchronous methods, mostly associated with the interaction and feedback from teachers and peers. This model of synchronous e-learning based on interactive live webcasting was a successful method of delivering an international postgraduate module. Students found it engaging over a 10-week course. Although this is a small study, given that synchronous methods such as interactive webcasting are a much easier transition for lecturers used to face-to-face teaching than are asynchronous methods, they should be considered as part of the blend of e-learning methods. Further research and development is needed on interfaces and methods that are robust and accessible, on the most appropriate blend of synchronous and asynchronous work for different student groups, and on learning outcomes and effectiveness.
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The teaching of manual skills and competencies is among the most time-consuming aspects of oral health-care education, especially when large groups of students are involved. Video has been repeatedly used as an educational tool with varying results. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a computer-based video support system during practical training of manual skills and competencies related to periodontal treatment. Eighty-four students were randomized into 9 groups: 5 experimental and 4 control groups. The control groups received instruction in the use of scaling and root planing instruments during a 7-hour seminar, and 2 hours of manual practice. The experimental groups received the same instruction, but in addition had access to a computer-based video support system, the Visual Training System (VTS), during practical training. During the 2-hour long practice session, all students practiced 21 different procedures, which were video recorded. The videos were later evaluated by an independent observer. On the whole, the students in the experimental group performed significantly better than their colleagues in the control group. Specifically, the groups that utilized the VTS video support performed significantly better in 9 of the 21 procedures tested. These results suggest that this computer-based video support can be an effective aid in the teaching of manual skills related to oral health care.
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Video-clips of tooth preparations recorded with a digital head-mounted camera replaced live demonstrations midway in a preclinical operative dentistry course. DVDs of the video-clips were made available to the students for home use. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of these video-clips had any impact on students' practical examination results and to analyse students' opinions of this new technology and the perceived impact on their learning. A questionnaire was administered to all students (n = 26) who completed the course, asking their opinions on the video-clips. The results of student practical examinations before the introduction of the camera were compared with those after the video-clips were available and also to the examination outcomes of the previous year's students (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Twenty-one students completed the questionnaire. Sixteen students (76%) preferred the video-clips to the live demonstrations, and 12 students (57%) made and reviewed the DVDs at home. They expressed a preference for the videos to be made available online or as podcasts. Twelve students (57%) felt that one-to-one supervision was more effective developing their competence in tooth preparations when compared to their viewing of the video-clips. There were no statistically significant differences between the practical examination results. In this group of students, video-clips were the preferred method of demonstration of tooth preparations in the preclinical environment. However, students perceived their learning to be facilitated more by one-to-one supervision. The students preferred to have the video-clips made available to them online instead of in the form of a DVD. The introduction of this educational aide did not make a difference in practical examination results.
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Dental students in programs around the world typically pass preclinical courses before entering the clinic and working on actual patients. Since fixed prosthodontics is a preclinical course that requires a great deal of effort, students may experience a substantial amount of stress that may affect their self-confidence and/or clinical performance. In this study, an instructional video CD (VCD) and study guide depicting the step-by-step procedures involved in a metal-ceramic tooth preparation and provisional crown fabrication was prepared. Students at the Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, were divided randomly into two groups. Group A students trained as usual with live patients, and Group B students were given a copy of the VCD and study guide following a lecture. The students in Group B were encouraged to read the study guide and watch the VCD after live demonstrations. Then, both groups practiced individually on mannequins. At the end of the course, the students completed a sixteen-item questionnaire about their stress level, self-confidence, and knowledge base. The results showed that the students exposed to the extra media performed significantly better on some practical phases, e.g., laboratory procedures. A moderate, insignificant correlation was detected between exposure to media and decreasing the students' stress and self-esteem. We concluded that supplementary teaching aids such as a VCD and study guide may improve the clinical performance of dental students to some extent, but the live demonstration is still preferred by students.
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We conducted a randomized controlled study to compare conventional lectures with tele-education for delivering wound care education. Education was delivered by the two methods simultaneously to two classes. Forty-eight paramedics received a live didactic presentation and 41 paramedics received the same lecture via videoconferencing. The participants were evaluated by a multiple-choice examination and a practical test of their wound closure skills. There were no significant differences in any category of the practical skills test, and no difference in the results of the written examination: the mean total score was was 109.0 (95% CI 105.7-112.4) in the conventional lecture group and 110.3 (95% CI 106.2-114.3) in the video group (P = 0.63). In a survey at the end of the study the live lecture group rated the overall effectiveness of teaching significantly higher than the video-based group: the median scores for effectiveness of teaching were 6.0 (IQR 5.5-6.0) in the live lecture group and 4.0 (IQR 3.0-5.0) in the video group (P < 0.001). Videoconferencing was at least as effective as live didactic presentation.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether dental students' perceptions regarding six communication patterns for use in pediatric dentistry differed depending on whether they were taught by lecturing or by video-based teaching. Prior to the introduction of interpersonal skills in a clinical course in pediatric dentistry, four consecutive cohorts of students (n=107) in a German dental school were divided equally into two groups. Group one (n=57) was taught by video sequences and group two (n=50) by conventional lecture. Six communication patterns were presented: involvement of the child's toy(s), speaking in positive phrases, mentioning a personal aspect, recalling positive behavior of the patient, addressing fear verbally, and complimenting the patient. Immediately after the presentation, students were asked by means of a questionnaire about their assessment of and intentions regarding the clinical application of the communication patterns presented. After completion of the course, they were asked about the communication patterns that had been used. There were significant differences for three communication patterns in favor of video-based teaching (p<0.05); there were no significant differences regarding the intention for clinical application and the actual clinical application. In this study, students perceived differences between video-based teaching and lecturing regarding ease of use, but they did not seem to benefit from one method over the other regarding clinical application.
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Spaced education (SE) is a novel, evidence-based form of online learning. We investigated whether an SE program following a face-to-face continuing medical education (CME) course could enhance the course's impact on providers' clinical behaviors. This randomized controlled trial was conducted from March 2009 to April 2010, immediately following the Current Clinical Issues in Primary Care (Pri-Med) CME conference in Houston, Texas. Enrolled providers were randomized to receive the SE program immediately after the live CME event or 18 weeks later (wait-list controls). The SE program consisted of 40 validated questions and explanations covering 4 clinical topics. The repetition intervals were adapted to each provider based on his or her performance (8- and 16-day intervals for incorrect and correct answers, respectively). Questions were retired when answered correctly twice in a row. At week 18, a behavior change survey instrument was administered simultaneously to providers in both cohorts. Seventy-four percent of participants (181/246) completed the SE program. Of these, 97% (176/181) submitted the behavior change survey. Across all 4 clinical topics, providers who received SE reported significantly greater change in their global clinical behaviors as a result of the CME program (p-values .013 to < .001; effect size 0.7). Ninety-seven percent (175/179) requested to participate in future SE supplements to live CME courses. Eighty-six percent (156/179) agreed or strongly agreed that the SE program enhanced the impact of the live CME conference. Online spaced education following a live CME course can significantly increase the impact of a face-to-face course on providers' self-reported global clinical behaviors.
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The use of blended learning to develop the clinical knowledge and skills of healthcare professionals is increasing. This paper reports the qualitative findings from an evaluation of a blended learning course designed to equip registered nurses with the knowledge and skills required to practice competently in cardiac nursing. The aims of the study were to explore whether a cardiac care course could be successfully delivered mainly online and it had any impact on the students' clinical practice. The sample consisted of course members and their mentors. Data were obtained through focus groups and interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. All students felt they had benefited from undertaking the course. Mentors identified higher levels of confidence and greater depth of knowledge and skills amongst their students. Areas identified for further development by both groups were firstly, the preparation of mentors for their role in supporting the students undertaking an online course and secondly, the expected level of competence that students needed to display in practice. This study indicates online learning is useful in enhancing student competence but may be wrongly seen as requiring less time commitment for both course members and mentors when compared to taught courses.
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In light of educators' concerns that lecture attendance in medical school has declined, the authors sought to assess students' perceptions, evaluations, and motivations concerning live lectures compared with accelerated, video-recorded lectures viewed online. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey study of all first- and second-year students at Harvard Medical School. Respondents answered questions regarding their lecture attendance; use of class and personal time; use of accelerated, video-recorded lectures; and reasons for viewing video-recorded and live lectures. Other questions asked students to compare how well live and video-recorded lectures satisfied learning goals. Of the 353 students who received questionnaires, 204 (58%) returned responses. Collectively, students indicated watching 57.2% of lectures live, 29.4% recorded, and 3.8% using both methods. All students have watched recorded lectures, and most (88.5%) have used video-accelerating technologies. When using accelerated, video-recorded lecture as opposed to attending lecture, students felt they were more likely to increase their speed of knowledge acquisition (79.3% of students), look up additional information (67.7%), stay focused (64.8%), and learn more (63.7%). Live attendance remains the predominant method for viewing lectures. However, students find accelerated, video-recorded lectures equally or more valuable. Although educators may be uncomfortable with the fundamental change in the learning process represented by video-recorded lecture use, students' responses indicate that their decisions to attend lectures or view recorded lectures are motivated primarily by a desire to satisfy their professional goals. A challenge remains for educators to incorporate technologies students find useful while creating an interactive learning culture.
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Although dozens of studies regarding computer-based instruction (CBI) in nursing education have been conducted over the last 25 years, little has been done to summarize these studies quantitatively. In the current study, the authors used Glass's techniques of meta-analysis (Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981) to integrate statistically findings from 29 comparative studies concerning CBI. A clear majority of these studies favored CBI over conventional methods of instruction. The overall achievement effect size for 26 studies that quantified outcomes was 0.45, a medium-sized effect. Two study feature variables--type of CBI and required versus elective course--related to effect size. Interactive video applications of CBI produced larger effects than tutorial, computer-managed, and simulation applications, and CBI implementations in elective courses showed larger effects than implementations in required courses. Few studies reported on outcomes of retention, attitudes, and time to learn. The results demonstrate a need for more and better reported research to identify instructional qualities that lead to positive student outcomes.
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Rapid improvements in computer technology allow us to consider the use of computer-assisted learning (CAL) for teaching technical skills in surgical training. The objective of this study was to compare in a prospective, randomized fashion, CAL with a lecture and feedback seminar (LFS) for the purpose of teaching a basic surgical skill. Freshman medical students were randomly assigned to spend 1 hour in either a CAL or LFS session. Both sessions were designed to teach them to tie a two-handed square knot. Students in both groups were given knot tying boards and those in the CAL group were asked to interact with the CAL program. Students in the LFS group were given a slide presentation and were given individualized feedback as they practiced this skill. At the end of the session the students were videotaped tying two complete knots. The tapes were independently analyzed, in a blinded fashion, by three surgeons. The total time for the task was recorded, the knots were evaluated for squareness, and each subject was scored for the quality of performance. Data from 82 subjects were available for the final analysis. Comparison of the two groups demonstrated no significant difference between the proportion of subjects who were able to tie a square knot. There was no difference between the average time required to perform the task. The CAL group had significantly lower quality of performance (t = 5.37, P <0.0001). CAL and LFS were equally effective in conveying the cognitive information associated with this skill. However, the significantly lower performance score demonstrates that the students in the CAL group did not attain a proficiency in this skill equal to the students in the LFS group. Comments by the students suggest that the lack of feedback in this model of CAL was the significant difference between these two educational methods.
Article
Many studies have compared the relative effectiveness of visually-aided lectures and videotapes, but methodological flaws have prevented definitive comparison of the techniques. This study assessed the relative effectiveness of the two approaches for orthodontic auxiliary training. This study was a prospective, randomised trial, conducted at the Eastman Dental Hospital and Institute. Two groups of 16 dental auxiliaries, selected at random, studied identification and positioning of orthodontic brackets: one group attended a lecture accompanied by slides and the other viewed a video. Subjects bonded brackets onto acrylic teeth and the results were assessed by computerised image analysis. The subjects completed a questionnaire on their attitudes to the respective teaching methods. Results were assessed for accuracy of bracket placement and variations in type of auxiliary. There was no significant difference between the teaching methods except for bracket positioning where video was slightly better (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the types of auxiliary. Generally, video teaching and lecturing were equally effective, with video achieving slightly better results. Both methods were effective at teaching bracket placement, and dental nurses and student hygienists proved equally adept at bracket positioning.
Article
Thirty-three studies of the use of television as a patient-education process are reviewed. While there are many different conditions addressed by the studies and many studies have methodological problems there are consistencies in the results that suggest how this medium has a role to play. Eleven studies randomized subjects and had a control group. All but one reported achieving their objective of knowledge gain, skill training, or behavior change. Video presentation alone was as effective as any other presentation method and was more effective than only written information. Recommendations for the use of television for patient education are included.
Article
The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of written, videotape, and one-to-one instruction upon the knowledge, oral hygiene standard, and gingival health of subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with a lower fixed appliance. Subjects for whom fixed appliances had been fitted recently were divided randomly into three groups of 21, 22, and 22, respectively. Group 1 received written oral hygiene instruction, group 2 a specially made videotape, and group 3 saw a hygienist for one-to-one instruction. Results were assessed in terms of improvement in knowledge concerning oral hygiene procedures, and of plaque and gingival index scores. Analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects or interactions at P = 0.05, although the difference in the plaque index scores before and after instruction was close to significance.
Article
This study was devised to test the effectiveness of videotaped demonstrations as opposed to live demonstrations, to small groups of undergraduate dental students. The outcome was assessed by comparing the students' understanding of the clinical and laboratory technical stages of the altered cast impression technique, which is used in the construction of removable partial dentures. 31 students watched a series of videotaped demonstrations and 30 received a similar series of live demonstrations. The altered cast procedure was divided into 5 distinct stages, each of which was assessed with the aid of agreed criteria, initially by the students and then by 2 staff assessors and these results were compared. The students were subsequently asked to rate how helpful the videotaped or live demonstration had been on a 5-point scale. The live demonstration group showed better agreement between the students' assessment and the assessors' assessment of the quality of the work for the first part of the clinical stage. There was no difference in the groups' assessment of the final outcome of this clinical stage and the subsequent laboratory technical stages. Students who observed the live demonstrations indicated higher scores for its helpfulness in performance of all the stages of the technique, when compared to those who had observed a videotaped demonstration. Both teaching methods developed a similar level of understanding of the principles behind the exercise, although the students preferred the live demonstrations. A carefully produced videotaped demonstration can be a useful alternative to a live demonstration in teaching the short and clear cut technique selected for this study.
Article
Certified Nursing Assistants (CNA) provide most of the direct patient care in skilled nursing facilities (SNF). CNAs undergo mandatory inservice education regarding a variety of clinical conditions, but high CNA turnover and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds are persistent obstacles to overall staff education. A standardized, easily administered, highly reproducible training intervention would be valuable. We compared the efficacy of videotape versus standard lecture for inservice education relating to topics of dementia care, restraint use, and falls. A prospective randomized study. Certified Nursing Assistants were recruited from three SNFs in San Diego County California between November 1997 and August 1998. The 82 CNAs who participated in the study were all CNA certified in California, employees of the study SNFs, and provided direct clinical care to SNF residents. All participants received regular inservice training. (1) Standard inservice lecture, (2) Videotape of inservice lecture material supplemented with brief clinical video vignettes. Scores on a 72-item multiple choice/true-false examination. Both lecture and video inservice education were effective in this CNA population. Test scores were significantly higher for both inservice groups compared with the control group (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between test scores for the two intervention groups (control = 63.1 +/- 8.2%, lecture = 78.2 +/- 8.9%, video = 77.9 +/- 11.2%). Knowledge retention was similar between the two intervention groups at 4 months. Lecture subjects who scored highest were more likely to have family members with dementia (P = 0.037), and video subjects who scored highest were younger (P = 0.007). CNA video subjects who scored highest on the examination were more likely to have English as their primary language compared with the highest scoring CNA lecture subjects (P = 0.012). Compared with control group scores, videotape and lecture inservice interventions were equally effective at increasing and maintaining test scores. The ease of frequent video intervention and the identification of learner characteristics most suited to the video format make audiovisual education a potentially powerful medium for CNA training. These data have important implications for future educational interventions in the SNF.
Article
Interactive videoconferencing may be an effective way for medical students on remote rotations to attend teaching sessions at the main campus. To compare medical student evaluations of lectures for those attending in person and those attending through interactive videoconferencing. Lecture evaluations were completed by medical students on University of Vermont College of Medicine clinical clerkship rotations. Students on clerkships at rural sites attended lectures using our telemedicine network. Responses from in-person and remote attendees were compared. Evaluation forms for 110 lectures were received from 648 in-person and 255 remote attendees. All evaluation items were rated "good" or "excellent" by at least 95% of in-person attendees. Over 90% of remote attendees rated nontelemedicine evaluation items, such as appropriateness of lecture topic for students, as good or excellent. Ratings of telemedicine-specific questions, such as ability to hear the lecturer, were lower. Level of satisfaction was high for most aspects of remote lecture attendance, although not quite as high as for in-person attendance. Improved technical reliability would likely increase remote attendee satisfaction. Overall, lecture attendance using videoconferencing was found to be an acceptable alternative to travel for medical students in rural clerkships.
Article
Four cohorts of undergraduate students (n = 113) were filmed on video tapes whilst performing paediatric treatments. Selected parts of these tapes were shown the day after. Thus, within one term each student was able to view his performance on a videotape as well as those of fellow students. After completion of the clinical course in paediatric dentistry students were asked by means of a questionnaire about behavioural changes in their clinical work regarding different topics. Considerable changes in behaviour were reported for various topics. Most of the students emphasised the viable role of the video for changing their behaviour. This was especially true for aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication where mainly female students benefited. Moreover, video was thought to have been useful for improving capacities to deal with patients in fear or pain and for ergonomics. About two-thirds of the students (64.6%) thought that watching the video had made it easier for them to put theoretical knowledge into action. Video does not seem to play an important role for confirmation and maintenance of behaviour patterns. In conclusion however, it can be stated that video has a high impact on the modification of behaviour patterns of undergraduate students for many aspects of clinical work. The use of video can thus attribute to dental education in an effective way.
Article
The current practice in medical education is to place students at off-site locations. The effectiveness of these students attending remote lectures using interactive videoconferencing needs to be evaluated. To determine whether lecture content covering clinical objectives is learned by medical students located at remote sites. During the University of Vermont medicine clerkship, 52 medical students attended lectures both in person and via 2-way videoconferencing over a telemedicine network. The study used a crossover design, such that all students attended half of the lectures in person and half using videoconferencing. At the end of the clerkship, students were assessed via a Clinical Practice Examination (CPX), with each student completing 1 exam for material learned in person and 1 for material learned over telemedicine. Exam scores did not differ for the 2 lecture modes, with a mean score of 76% for lectures attended in person and a mean score of 78% for lectures attended via telemedicine (p = 0.66). Conclusions: Students learn content focused on clinical learning objectives as well using videoconferencing as they do in the traditional classroom setting.
Article
Equipment for distance learning can be used to improve the quality of instruction in orthodontic programs. All departments now should have at least a point-to-point system to allow clinical faculty to provide instruction without being physically present on all occasions. For more instruction to be shared with other residency programs, a dual-streaming multipoint video conferencing system is needed. A basic system allows reception of this type of instruction, and an optimal system would allow originating and receiving such conferences. Recording interactive seminars so that they can be viewed later requires additional equipment so that postproduction editing and refinement can be accomplished. Lists of appropriate equipment for each level are provided.
Article
The use of Video-Assisted Clinical Instruction in Dentistry (VACID) in the training of dental students represents an innovative teaching medium. Despite the many advantages that this teaching medium promises to offer, little objective research has been published to substantiate its purported benefits. This article examines the students' response to the application of VACID to enhance real-time visualisation of clinical procedures while observing live clinical procedures in periodontics. Forty third-year dental students, observing surgical procedures during their rotation in the Department of Periodontics, were invited to participate in a survey designed to examine perceptions relating to their learning experience to using conventional and video-assisted real-time visualisation of clinical procedures. Students' responses were obtained using a questionnaire administered immediately after the completion of the observational period. The survey employed attitude questions addressing both enabling and outcome criteria. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the student's responses. An open-ended question was also included in the survey to give students the opportunity to provide additional feedback regarding their experience and suggestions to improve on it. Results suggest that the implementation of VACID in the clinical setting improves the student's learning experience, interest and satisfaction. Ninety per cent of students strongly agreed to have VACID implemented for their next clinical observation. Responses to the open-ended question indicated that improved visualisation was extremely helpful in understanding the progress of clinical procedures. The implementation of VACID in the clinical setting enhances real-time visualisation of surgical procedures beyond what is offered by the conventional observational format.
VARK: a guide to learning styles
  • N D Fleming
Fleming ND. VARK: a guide to learning styles. Available at: www. vark-learn.com/english. Accessed: November 22, 2012.
The New York Times: the case of the vanishing full-time professor Available at: http://www.nytimes.com
  • S Stainburn
Looking through Three.I's: the Pedagogic Use of Streaming Video Available at: www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past
  • C Young
  • M Asensio
  • S Banks
  • P Goodyear
  • V Hodgson
New York Times: the case of the vanishing full
  • Stainburn S The
The New York Times: the case of the vanishing fulltime professor
  • S Stainburn
Stainburn S. The New York Times: the case of the vanishing fulltime professor. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/ education/edlife/03strategy-t.html. Accessed: November 22, 2012.
Looking through Three.I's: the Pedagogic Use of Streaming Video
  • C Young
  • M Asensio
Young C, Asensio M. Looking through Three.I's: the Pedagogic Use of Streaming Video. In: Banks S, Goodyear P, Hodgson V, McConnell D eds. Third International Conference of Networked Learning, Conference Proceedings, Sheffield: March, 2002: 628-635. Available at: www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/ nlc2002/proceedings/papers/47.htm. (Accessed 22 November, 2012).