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This study was designed to determine the effect of Quran listening without its musical tone (Tartil) on the mental health of personnel in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast of Iran. The results showed significant differences between the test and control groups in their mean mental health scores after Quran listening (P = 0.037). No significant gender differences in the test group before and after intervention were found (P = 0.806). These results suggest that Quran listening could be recommended by psychologists for improving mental health and achieving greater calm.
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Journal of Religion and Health
ISSN 0022-4197
J Relig Health
DOI 10.1007/s10943-014-9821-7
The Effect of Holy Quran Voice on Mental
Health
Monireh Mahjoob, Jalil Nejati, Alireaza
Hosseini & Noor Mohammad Bakhshani
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ORIGINAL PAPER
The Effect of Holy Quran Voice on Mental Health
Monireh Mahjoob Jalil Nejati Alireaza Hosseini
Noor Mohammad Bakhshani
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Abstract This study was designed to determine the effect of Quran listening without its
musical tone (Tartil) on the mental health of personnel in Zahedan University of Medical
Sciences, southeast of Iran. The results showed significant differences between the test and
control groups in their mean mental health scores after Quran listening (P=0.037). No
significant gender differences in the test group before and after intervention were found
(P=0.806). These results suggest that Quran listening could be recommended by psy-
chologists for improving mental health and achieving greater calm.
Keywords Quran Mental health Iran
Introduction
Mental health means staying mentally healthy for a good quality of life (Alipor and
Mohamad bigi 1997). Reports show an increasing prevalence of mental illness; various
M. Mahjoob
Health Promotion Research Centre, Rehabilitation Department, Zahedan University of Medical
Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
e-mail: mahjoob_opt@yahoo.com
J. Nejati (&)
Health Promotion Research Centre, Disease Control and Prevention Department, Zahedan
University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
e-mail: jnejati@razi.tums.ac.ir
A. Hosseini
Province Health Center, Department of Environmental Health, Zahedan University of Medical
Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
N. M. Bakhshani
Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Department of Clinical Psychology, Zahedan
University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
e-mail: nmbs14@yahoo.com
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DOI 10.1007/s10943-014-9821-7
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reasons have been proposed for this increase (Kimber et al. 2008). Islam’s great emphasis
on mental health can be traced in Quran’s verses and the traditions of the prophet’s family
(Nasrollahi 2010). Various verses in the Holy Quran directly or indirectly address aspects
of mental health (Hamidi et al. 2010). For instance, the Quran contains many verses about
achieving tranquility (Mottaghi et al. 2011): Allah says in the Quran, ‘‘Be aware that the
remembrance of Allah calms the hearts’’ (Verse 28, AL-Rad 1996).
In recent years, health researchers around the world have studied the effects of Quran
reading on stress reduction and the treatment of mental illness (Kazemi et al. 2004; Verse
28, AL-Rad 1996). It has been shown to be effective, for instance, at alleviating anxiety in
women prior to cesarean sections (Mirbagher Ajorpaz and Ranjbar 2010). Researchers
have also investigated the influence of Quran memorization on mental health (Kimiaee
et al. 2012) as well as the effects of hearing of it read aloud (Khadem et al. 2008).
Although various investigations have been conducted on the relationship between
reading and memorizing the Quran and various psychological variables (including anxiety
and stress), little scientific research has been done on the mental effects of listening to the
Quran recited without its musical tone (Tartil). Thus, this study was aimed to investigate
the effects of hearing Quran Tartil recitation. This study examined the mental health
personnel at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, in southeast Iran.
Methods
Study Area
This interventional (experimental) study was conducted in Zahedan District as an urban
area. It is capital of Sistan–Baluchestan province, located in the southeast of Iran (Fig. 1).
Two offices, affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, were chosen for this
study; province health center, where participants served as the test group, and Zahedan
health center, where participants served as the control group.
Participants
In total, 81 participants were randomly selected. Before the investigation, participants were
questioned about success and unpleasant events in their lives. Participants with traumatic
backgrounds were dismissed from the study and replaced. Also participants who suffered
from mental illness were excluded.
Procedure and Data Analysis
The mental health of both the control and test groups was assessed by a standard mental
health questionnaire including 12 items. The reliability of the questionnaire was then
measured using Cronbach’s alpha, which has also been used to test validity in related
research (Kazemi et al. 2004). Cronbach’s alpha reflected a score of 0.91.
The test group listened to the Quran as Tartil recitation for 15 min every morning for a
period of 2 months. The voice Quran reader was broadcast through the building’s speakers
from 8:15 until 8:30 AM. The reader voice and Quran verses were chosen randomly.
One week after finishing the test, the participants completed the mental health ques-
tionnaire again. Their mental health scores were then evaluated, and their pre- and post-test
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results were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using the Wilcoxon and
Mann–Whitney tests. Pvalues of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results
The mean age of samples was 38.19 ±9.5. Table 1shows the mean mental health scores
in the test and control groups before and after the test. The Wilcoxon test indicated
significant changes in scores in the test group (P=0.001) but not in the control group
(P=0.700).
The Mann–Whitney test did not show significant differences between the test and
control groups in the mean mental health scores before intervention (P=0.154), but
showed significant differences between them after intervention (P=0.037).
The Mann–Whitney test indicated no significant differences between genders in case
group before and after the test (Table 2).
Discussion
Nowadays, some researchers emphasize that the problems of contemporary humankind are
due to the lack of religion and ethical values (Sadeghi 2011). However, a religious and
Quranic orientation is the basis of the Muslim lifestyle (Atarodi et al. 2013). Because the
Quran is a divine and scripture book aimed at human spiritual guidance (Sadeghi 2011), it
has important advice and recommendations for human well-being in both worldly life and
the afterlife (Asgari et al. 2012). Furthermore, many verses contain guidelines for
Fig. 1 Map of Sistan–Baluchestan province, southeastern Iran
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achieving mental health and reducing human suffering and stress. As mentioned by a
prophet of the Quran, ‘‘Be aware that the remembrance of Allah calms the hearts’’ (Atarodi
et al. 2013; Verse 17, Asra 1996; Verse 28, AL-Rad 1996).
Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that Islamic countries
provide booklet containing Quran verses connected to mental health. This decision was
made during the Regional Mental Health Summit held in 1998 in the Eastern Mediterra-
nean region (Mottaghi et al. 2011).
During the past two decades, various studies have been conducted on the Quran and
medical sciences, especially psychology, in Iran (Sadeghi; Ebrahimi 2011; Jamilian 2012;
Siahpoosh 2012). Our study showed that listening to the Quran recited without its musical
tone (Tartil) has positive effect on the mental health and can increase its score. These
results are consistent with those of other studies that have indicated the benefits of Quran
listening on mental health. A study conducted on nursing students, for instance, showed
that the mean mental health score significantly increased in the test group after Quran
listening (Kazemi et al. 2004). Another investigation confirmed that Quran recitation can
reduce the level of anxiety in athletes (Mottaghi et al. 2011). In addition, the benefits of
Quran memorization on mental health have been indicated by research showing that Quran
memorizers had better mental health, particularly in the areas of anxiety, sleep disorders,
depression, and social function (Kimiaee et al. 2012). Another study compared the effects
of listening to Quran recitation and music on intrauterine insemination (IUI). This study
showed a significant difference between the effects of hearing Quran recitation and music
before, during, and after IUI, with Quran recitation having a more positive effect than
music on infertility treatment by intrauterine insemination (Khadem et al. 2008).
Conclusion
According to the results, broadcasting of voice Quran reader through the offices building’s
speakers at the beginning of work time can be suggested for betterment of personnel’s
mental health.
Table 1 The mean score of mental health in the test and control groups before and after intervention
Studied groups Intervention status Mean SD Pvalue
Case group Before intervention 34.15 7.68 0.001
After intervention 41.10 4.96
Control group Before intervention 36.95 6.83 0.700
After intervention 37.56 6.48
Table 2 The mean score of mental health base on gender in case group before and after intervention
Before intervention After intervention
Male Female Male Female
Mean 35.41 32.00 41.30 4.71
SD 6.45 9.59 5.13 4.99
Pvalue 0.365 0.806
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This is basic research for promotion of mental health, and more studies are necessary for
integration of Quran reading or listening with other medical and psychiatric treatment.
Taken together, Quran listening can be recommended by psychologists for improving
mental health and achieving greater calm.
Acknowledgments Great appreciation goes to Dr. SM. Tabatabaei, Dr. J. Oveisi, and Mr. Jahantigh from
the Centre of Disease Control & Prevention in Province Health Centre, Zahedan University of Medical
Sciences. Moreover, the authors would like to extend their thanks to Ms. Esfahani in Zahedan Health Centre
for her sincere collaboration. This study was financially supported by Zahedan University of Medical
Sciences, with the Grant Number 90-2273.
Conflict of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests.
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... Older adults (n = 65) Experimental group listened to the Holy Quran for 20 min before sleeping for 4 weeks Control group received no intervention [5] Experimental study Healthy males (n = 10) Subjects were asked to recite the Quran and read the book [27] Experimental study Healthy subjects (n = 6) Subjects were instructed to rest and listen to music and Quran recitation for 3 min using headphones with their eyes closed [16] RCT ICU patients (n = 55) Experimental group received 30 min of Holy Quran recitation (HQR) Control group had 30 min of rest in bed before the start of the weaning of mechanical ventilation [13] RCT Haemodialysis patients (n = 54) Experimental group listened to the recitation of the Holy Quran Control group received no intervention [12] RCT Hemodialysis Patients (n = 60) Experimental group listened to the Quran recitation in a traditional cantillation voice Control group received no intervention [20] Quasiexperimental initially included but resulted in a very limited number of hits. The reviewer team then unanimously decided to exclude the keywords during subsequent search. ...
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Background and Objectives: Anxiety is a kind of agitation and concern stemming from the feeling of threat or hazard in human. It can decrease or increase the understanding ability of individuals. Most clinical patients have anxiety in confronting a new and unknown environment such as hospitals. A non-pharmacological method such as pleasant sound of Holy Quran recitation can be used as a useful and effective procedure to decrease the anxiety. The aim of this research was to study the recitation effects of Holy Quran on anxiety of woman before cesarean.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women expecting cesarean section were randomly selected regarding their characteristics and divided into two groups: control group (30 members) and experimental group (50 members). Data collection instrument was a two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, and Spilburge’s state-trait anxiety inventory. The degree of anxiety for the two groups was evaluated before cesarean, then before innate cesarean, the Holy Quran recitation was played for experimental group for 20 minutes by the sound of famous recite, Abdol Basset. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square, single sample & paired T-test, and a Pvalue of 0<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: The results showed that the degree of anxiety decreased in experimental group after intervention (P=0.0001), but not in the control group.(P=0.98) Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference after intervention (P=0.002).Conclusion: According to the results of this research and because of the agreeable rhythmic intonation of the Quran as gnostic music and its miracle aspect, we can use its tone as a non medicinal method for reducing anxiety before cesarean women.
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William James (1958) once remarked that “the worst thing that can happen to a good teacher is to get a bad conscience about her profession because she feels herself hopeless as a psychologist.” James was of the opinion that the teacher and the psychologist approached the child from different directions; the teacher's attitude is concrete and ethical, while the psychologist's is abstract and analytic. As long as the psychologist remains content with the painstaking development of his science, and as long as he recognizes the limitations of his science, the teacher need not be intimidated by the scientist. After all, teaching and the conduct of inquiry are different things. Unfortunately, however, the role of science in American culture has expanded greatly in recent years and education has not been unaffected by this change. Educational psychology, which carries the banner of science in the field of education, is working hard to bring to fruition what James feared most. Educational psychologists are quick to diminish those aspects of teaching that depend upon talents that do not lend themselves to the conceptual structure of their science. Teachers are often made to feel inadequate because they can do what neither psychologists or they can explain, or because they are less precise in discussing their objectives and techniques than the psychologist would like them to be.
Article
Background: The Iranian physicians have proposed six principles in traditional medicine for being healthy and preventing from diseases and they called them “The six essential principles”. As the Quran is a comprehensive book for human beings, the essential efforts are certainly specified in it. That’s why the above mentioned principles in Quran approve their validity and persuade human beings to consider them to be healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out the viewpoint of Quran about the six essential principles of Iranian Traditional medicine for being healthy. Materials and Methods: First, the required issues were adapted from the samples subjected to the aim and selected from the Iranian Traditional medicine book and were studied deeply by qualitative study of phenology. Then the data were analyzed by content analysis. Also, the verses related to the issues were adapted from Quran software and were translated and interpreted. Results: Six major classifications such as “life environment”, “food”, spiritual status”, “physical activity”, “sleeping and awaking”, “excretion and retention”, and four minor classifications such as” climates”, “seasons”, “sexual intercourse” and “menstruation” were adopted from data analysis. These classifications in Quran were stated by three manners like “direct”, “indirect” and “integrative”. Conclusions: The essential principles of health in Iranian medicine were not only stated in Quran, but also were emphasized.
Article
The holy Quran is the curative that after its cure,there is no fear of disease anymore. One of the miracles of Quran is its effect on sevice and medical care duties.Objectives Regarding the key role of nurses in offering health service to patients and the importance of the nurses' mental health, thisc study was conducted.AimsTo assess the effect of Quran on the mental health of nurses.Methods This educational trial was done on 55 nurses at educational hospitals of Arak University of Medical Sciences through randomized simple sampling. Intervention was attendance in the workshop of familiarity with Quran. Before and after intervention, the GHQ-28 questionnaire was completed by the participants.Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and Chi square.ResultsThe mean age of the nurses was 34.45 ± 6.3 years. 30 participants (68.2%)were married. The mean mental health scores before and after intervention were 27.75 ± 9.76 and 22.34 ± 7.83 respectively which indicated the significant difference (P < 0.014).Conclusions The intervention has been effective in reducing mental health scores and somehow, in improving the nurses' mental health status. On the other hand, participation in the familiarity with Quran workshop can improve the nurses' mental health.
Article
Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: This research can be useful for those who believe deeply or not believe in Quran recommendations and advices and to get the best use of it. Background: One of human's psychological needs is to have a transcendent relationship with an omnipotent and superior force. Prayer and praise is one of the manifestations of human relationship with the Lord of the Universe. Objectives: The study aims to comparatively examine the effect of prayer and praise on peace of mind and physical health from male and female students' points of view in Gon-abad's guidance schools in 1390. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study based on cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in the fall of 1390 (2011). The population of the study consisted of 70 students from two guidance schools in Gonabad including Sama non-profit-making school for girls and Hasheminejad school for boys which is a kind of "Elite Schools. After gathering the data, they were analyzed using SPSS-16 software and then inserted into the descriptive and analytical tables. Results: The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between the stu-dents' familiarity with prayer and praise and their faith in its effects. There is a signifi-cant relationship between girls and boys in their familiarity with prayer and praise so that girls' familiarity with prayer and praise is more than that of boys (P = 0/025). Conclusions: Living with prayer and praise is itself an Islamic life-style. The students un-der the study had high level of understanding of prayer and praise and strong belief in its effects on calmness, soothing, healing and treating diseases. Published by Kowsar Corp, 2012. cc 3.0..8749 © 2012 Ministry of Health's Quran and Etrat Center; Published by Kowsar Corp. Translated Version of http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ilch.8749 This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Article
Research on massage therapy for maternal pain and anxiety in labour is currently limited to four small trials. Each used different massage techniques, at different frequencies and durations, and relaxation techniques were included in three trials. Given the need to investigate massage interventions that complement maternal neurophysiological adaptations to labour and birth pain(s), we designed a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of a massage programme practised during physiological changes in pain threshold, from late pregnancy to birth, on women's reported pain, measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) at 90 min following birth. To control for the potential bias of the possible effects of support offered within preparation for the intervention group, the study included 3 arms--intervention (massage programme with relaxation techniques), placebo (music with relaxation techniques) and control (usual care). The placebo offered a non-pharmacological coping strategy, to ensure that use of massage was the only difference between intervention and placebo groups. There was a trend towards slightly lower mean pain scores in the intervention group but these differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found in use of pharmacological analgesia, need for augmentation or mode of delivery. There was a trend towards more positive views of labour preparedness and sense of control in the intervention and placebo groups, compared with the control group. These findings suggest that regular massage with relaxation techniques from late pregnancy to birth is an acceptable coping strategy that merits a large trial with sufficient power to detect differences in reported pain as a primary outcome measure.
Quran-e-Karim translated by Mekarem Shirazi. Qom: Darol Quran Publications Quran-e-Karim translated by Mekarem Shirazi
  • Verse
  • Asra
Verse 17, Asra. (1996). Quran-e-Karim translated by Mekarem Shirazi. Qom: Darol Quran Publications. Verse 28, AL-Rad. (1996). Quran-e-Karim translated by Mekarem Shirazi. Qom: Darol Quran Publications. J Relig Health