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Bio-fertilizers- A Gateway to Sustainable Agriculture

Authors:

Abstract

Bio-fertilizers are one of the best modern tools and gift of our agricultural science as a replacement to our conventional fertilizers. Conventional fertilizers contain compost; household wastes and green manure and are not as effective as chemical fertilizers. So, farmers often try to use chemical fertilizers in the field for crop development. But obviously the chemical fertilizers are not environment friendly because of their chemical toxicity that can cause water, air and soil pollution and can spread cancer causing agents. Moreover, they may destroy the fertility of the soil in a long run. Scientists have developed the way of organic farming by use of “Bio-fertilizers” to prevent chemical pollution in farm lands. Bio-fertilizer contains microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth and regulation in their physiology. Living microorganisms are used in the preparation of Bio-fertilizers which have specific functions to enhance plant growth and reproduction. Bio-fertilizer being essential components of organic farming play vital role in maintaining long term soil fertility and sustainability.
Popular Kheti ISSN:2321-0001 97
Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizersfertilizers
fertilizers
-
--
-
A Gateway to
A Gateway toA Gateway to
A Gateway to
Sustainable
Sustainable Sustainable
Sustainable Agriculture
AgricultureAgriculture
Agriculture
Balaram Mohapatra
Balaram MohapatraBalaram Mohapatra
Balaram Mohapatra
1
11
1*
**
*
,
, ,
, Deepak Kumar Verma
Deepak Kumar VermaDeepak Kumar Verma
Deepak Kumar Verma
2
22
2
,
, ,
, Anindita Sen
Anindita SenAnindita Sen
Anindita Sen
3
33
3
,
, ,
, Bipin
BipinBipin
Bipin
Bihari Panda
Bihari PandaBihari Panda
Bihari Panda
4
44
4
and
andand
and
Bavita Asthir
Bavita AsthirBavita Asthir
Bavita Asthir
5
55
5
1
Environmental Molecular Microbiology Lab, Department of Biotechnology,
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur (West-Bengal) -721302, India
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur (West-Bengal) -721302, India
3
Department of Biotechnology,
Haldia Institute of Technology (HIT),
Haldia (West-Bengal) - 721651, India
4
Department of Soil Science and Agronomy, Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI),
Cuttack (Odisha) -753006, India
5
Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU),
Ludhiana (Punjab) – 141004, India
*
**
*Email of corresponding author
Email of corresponding authorEmail of corresponding author
Email of corresponding author:
::
:
balarammohapatra09@gmail.com
balarammohapatra09@gmail.combalarammohapatra09@gmail.com
balarammohapatra09@gmail.com
Introduction
IntroductionIntroduction
Introduction
In the past few decades, environmental pollution has become one of the world's major concerns,
as a number of toxic compounds, originating mostly from industrial and agricultural activities
which have effects of bioaccumulation and bio magnifications. Early detection and replacement of
Bio-fertilizers are one of the best modern tools and gift of our agricultural science as a
replacement to our conventional fertilizers. Conventional fertilizers contain compost;
household wastes and green manure and are not as effective as chemical fertilizers. So,
farmers often try to use chemical fertilizers in the field for crop development. But
obviously the chemical fertilizers are not environment friendly because of their
chemical toxicity that can cause water, air and soil pollution and can spread cancer
causing agents. Moreover, they may destroy the fertility of the soil in a long run.
Scientists have developed the way of organic farming by use of “Bio-fertilizers” to
prevent chemical pollution in farm lands. Bio-fertilizer contains microorganisms which
promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper
development of growth and regulation in their physiology. Living microorganisms are
used in the preparation of Bio-fertilizers which have specific functions to enhance
plant growth and reproduction. Bio-fertilizer being essential components of organic
farming play vital role in maintaining long term soil fertility and sustainability.
Popular Kheti
Volume -1, Issue-4 (October-December), 2013
Available online at www.popularkheti.info
© 2013 popularkheti.info
ISSN:2321
-
0001
2013
Special
on
Organic
Farming
Issue
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Mohapatra et al (2013), Pop. Kheti, 1(4):97-106
toxic chemical compounds in the environment, particularly in water and soil and their biological
effects on organisms has therefore become increasingly important. Past trends in conventional
Indian agriculture, including monoculture without crop rotation, overuse of inorganic fertilizers,
and wide-scale applications of broad-spectrum organophosphate pesticides, have hindered the role
of naturally occurring microorganisms. Onset of green revolution and the increasing use of
chemical fertilizers in agriculture could make the country self-dependent in food production but
on the contrary it deteriorated the environment and caused harmful impacts on living beings. The
excess use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture is costly and also have various adverse effects on
soils i.e. depletes water holding capacity, soil fertility and disparity in soil nutrients. Hence, the
need to develop some low cost effective and eco-friendly fertilizers which would work without
disturbing the nature arose. Now, certain species of micro-organisms are being widely used which
have the unique ability to provide natural products that could serve as a good substitute for
chemical fertilizers.
What
What What
What are
areare
are
Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers?
fertilizers?fertilizers?
fertilizers?
A live formulation of micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi and algae) are used for fertilization of farm
lands in the aspect of fixation of N2, solubilization and mobilization of phosphorus, increasing
organic carbon content, balanced C/N ratio, plant growth promotion by increasing nutrient
absorption, antagonistic activity against plant pathogens, production of hormones etc that are
beneficial for agriculture. The Gazette of India (2006) defined bio-fertilizer as a product
containing carrier based (solid or liquid) living micro-organisms that are agriculturally useful in
terms of nitrogen fixation, phosphorous solubilization or nutrient mobilization. Bio-fertilizers
were promoted through integrated plant nutrient systems (IPNS) that involved combining
fertilizers, organic/green manures and bio-fertilizers to sustain crop production, maintaining soil
productivity, health and diversity.
Why
Why Why
Why Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers?
fertilizers?fertilizers?
fertilizers?
As a safe alternative to chemical fertilizer, it minimizes the ecological disturbance and are cost
effective, eco-friendly and when they are required in bulk can be generated at the farm itself.
They increase crop yield upto 10-40% and fix nitrogen upto 40-50 Kg and parental inoculums are
sufficient for growth and multiplication of organisms in subsequent years. They improve soil
texture, pH, WHC and other properties of soil. They produce plant growth promoting substances
IAA, amino acids, vitamins etc. Bio-fertilizers contained 3.5% - 4% nitrogen, 2% - 2.5%
phosphorus and 1.5% potassium. In terms of N: P: K, it was found to be superior to farmyard
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manure and other type of manure. Microbes (Table. 1) are effective in inducing plant growth,
enhance seed germination and root and shoot growth, decomposition of organic materials and
enrichment of compost.
Table. 1.
Table. 1.Table. 1.
Table. 1.
Microbes used as Bio
Microbes used as BioMicrobes used as Bio
Microbes used as Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizersfertilizers
fertilizers
Groups
GroupsGroups
Groups
Examples
ExamplesExamples
Examples
N
NN
N2
22
2
Fixing Bio
Fixing BioFixing Bio
Fixing Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizersfertilizers
fertilizers
Free-living
Beijerinkia, Azotobacter,Anabaena,Nostoc,
Symbiotic
Rhizobium,
Frankia,Anabaena azollae
Associative Symbiotic
Azospirillum
P Solubilizing Bio
P Solubilizing BioP Solubilizing Bio
P Solubilizing Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizersfertilizers
fertilizers
Bacteria
Bacillus megaterium
,
Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus circulans,
Pseudomonas striata
Fungi
Penicilliumspp, Aspergillusawamori
P Mobilizing Bio
P Mobilizing BioP Mobilizing Bio
P Mobilizing Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizersfertilizers
fertilizers
Arbuscularmycorrhiza
Glomus spp., Gigaspora spp., Acaulospora spp.
Ectomycorrhiza
Laccaria spp., Pisolithus sp., Boletus sp., Amanita spp.
Ericoid mycorrhizae
Pezizellaericae
Orchid mycorrhiza
Rhizoctoniasolani
Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers for Micro nutrients
fertilizers for Micro nutrientsfertilizers for Micro nutrients
fertilizers for Micro nutrients
Silicate and Zinc solubilizers
Bacillus
spp.
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Plant Growth Promoting RhizobacteriaPlant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas fluorescens
Source:
Source:Source:
Source:
http://www.agritech.tnau.ac.in/org_farm/orgfarm_biofertilizertechnology
Types of
Types of Types of
Types of Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers Available
fertilizers Availablefertilizers Available
fertilizers Available
in
in in
in M
MM
Market
arketarket
arket
1.
1.1.
1. For Nitrogen:
For Nitrogen:For Nitrogen:
For Nitrogen:
1.
1.1.
1. Rhizobium for legume crops.
2.
2.2.
2. Azotobacter/Azospirillum for non-legume crops.
3.
3.3.
3. Blue Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla for low land paddy.
2.
2.2.
2. For Phosphorous:
For Phosphorous: For Phosphorous:
For Phosphorous:
1.
1.1.
1. Phosphatika for all crops to be applied with Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum
and Acetobacter
3.
3.3.
3. For Enriched Compost:
For Enriched Compost: For Enriched Compost:
For Enriched Compost:
1.
1.1.
1. Cellulolytic fungal culture
2.
2.2.
2. Phosphotika and Azotobacterculture
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Microorganisms
Microorganisms Microorganisms
Microorganisms Used
Used Used
Used as
as as
as Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizersfertilizers
fertilizers
1.
1. 1.
1. Nitrogen
Nitrogen Nitrogen
Nitrogen F
FF
Fixing Bacteria
ixing Bacteriaixing Bacteria
ixing Bacteria
Rhizobia:
Rhizobia: Rhizobia:
Rhizobia: Nitrogen, as a principal component of cell biomolecules (Amino acid, proteins,
enzymes), all plants need it as a sole source for their metabolism. Mostly leguminous plants
require high amount due to their protein demand and can’t fix atmospheric N2 due to high
energy expenditure. So, Legumes plants have root nodules, where atmospheric nitrogen fixation
is done by bacteria belonging to genera, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium,
Azorhizobium and Mesorhizobium collectively called as rhizobia, belong to α-Proteobacteria.
When rhizobial culture is inoculated in field, pulse crops yield can be increased due to rhizobial
symbiosis (Dubey, 2001). Rhizobium can fix 15-20 N/ha and increase crop yield upto 20% in
pulses.
Table.2. Rhizobium
Table.2. RhizobiumTable.2. Rhizobium
Table.2. Rhizobium
-
--
-
plant Associations
plant Associationsplant Associations
plant Associations
Rhizobium
RhizobiumRhizobium
Rhizobium
Host Plant
Host PlantHost Plant
Host Plant
R. meliloti
R. melilotiR. meliloti
R. meliloti
Medicago
,
Melilotus
,
Trigonella
spp.
R. leguminosarum
R. leguminosarumR. leguminosarum
R. leguminosarum
bv. Viciae
bv. Viciaebv. Viciae
bv. Viciae
Pisum
,
Vicia
,
Lathyrus
,
Lens
spp.
bv. Trifolii
bv. Trifoliibv. Trifolii
bv. Trifolii
Trifolium
spp.
bv. Phaseoli
bv. Phaseolibv. Phaseoli
bv. Phaseoli
Phaseolus vulgaris
R. ciceri
R. ciceriR. ciceri
R. ciceri
Cicerarietinum
R. tropici
R. tropiciR. tropici
R. tropici
Phaseolus vulgaris
,
Leucaena
spp.,
Macroptilium
spp.
R. etli
R. etliR. etli
R. etli
Phaseolus vulgaris
R. galegae
R. galegaeR. galegae
R. galegae
Galegaofficinalis
,
G. Orientalis
R. fredii
R. frediiR. fredii
R. fredii
Glycine max
,
G. soja
, and other legumes
B. japonicum
B. japonicumB. japonicum
B. japonicum
Glycine max
,
G. soja
, and other legumes
B. elkanii
B. elkaniiB. elkanii
B. elkanii
Glycine max
,
G. soja
, and other legumes
A. caulinodans
A. caulinodansA. caulinodans
A. caulinodans
Sesbania
spp. (stem
nodulating)
Source:
Source:Source:
Source:
Rhijnand Vanderleyden (1995)
Azorhizobium:
Azorhizobium:Azorhizobium:
Azorhizobium:
It is a stem nodulating and nitrogen fixing symbionts of the stem nodule, it also
produce large amount of IAA that promotes plant growth.
Bradyrhizobium:
Bradyrhizobium:Bradyrhizobium:
Bradyrhizobium:
Bradyrhizobium is a good nitrogen fixer. Bradyrhizobium strain inoculation
with Mucuna seeds enhances total organic carbon, N2, phosphorus and potassium in the soil,
increases plant growth and consequently plant biomass, reduction in the weed population and
increased soil microbial population.
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2.
2. 2.
2. Diazotrophs
DiazotrophsDiazotrophs
Diazotrophs
Azotobacteracae
AzotobacteracaeAzotobacteracae
Azotobacteracae
(
((
(e.g. Azotobacter
e.g. Azotobactere.g. Azotobacter
e.g. Azotobacter)
))
):
::
:
They are the free living, non-symbiotic, aerobic,
photoautotrophic bacteria. They secretes vitamins, gibberellins, naphthalene, acetic acid and
other substances that inhibit certain root pathogens and improves root growth and uptake of
plant nutrients. It occurs in the roots of
Paspalumnotatum
(tropical grasses) and other spp. and
adds 15-93 Kg N/ha/annum on
P. notatum
roots.
Azotobacter indicum
occurs in acidic soil in
sugarcane plant roots. It can apply in cereals, millets, vegetables and flowers through seed,
seedlings soil treatment.
Spirillaceae
SpirillaceaeSpirillaceae
Spirillaceae
(
((
(e.g. Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum
e.g. Azospirillum and Herbaspirillume.g. Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum
e.g. Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum)
))
):
::
:
These are gram negative, free living,
associative symbiotic and non-nodule forming, aerobic bacteria, occurs in the roots of dicots and
monocot plants i.e. corn, sorghum, wheat etc. It is easy to culture and identify. Azospirillum is
found to be very effective in increasing 10-15% yield of cereal crops and fixes N2 upto 20-40%
Kg/ha. Different
A. brasiliense
strains inoculation in the wheat seed causes increase in seed
germination, plant growth, plumule and radicle length. Herbaspirillum species occurs in roots,
stems and leaves of sugarcane and rice. They produce growth promoters (IAA, Gibberillins,
Cytokinins) and enhance root development and uptake of plant nutrients (N, P & K).
Acetobacterdiazotrophicus:
Acetobacterdiazotrophicus:Acetobacterdiazotrophicus:
Acetobacterdiazotrophicus:
Another diazotroph is
Acetobacterdiazotrophicus
occurs in roots,
stem and leaves of sugarcane and sugar beet crops as nitrogen fixer and applied through soil
treatment. It also produces growth promoters e.g. IAA and helps in nutrients uptake, seed
germination, and root growth. This bacterium fixes nitrogen upto 15kg /ha/year and enhance
upto 0.5 – 1% crop yield (Gahukar, 2005-06).
Cyanobacteria (Blue green algae):
Cyanobacteria (Blue green algae):Cyanobacteria (Blue green algae):
Cyanobacteria (Blue green algae):
Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Aulosira, Lyngbya etc. are the
prokaryotic organisms and phototropic in nature. They play an important role in enriching paddy
field soil by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and supply vitamin B complex and growth promoting
substance which makes the plant grow vigorously. Cyanobacteria fixes 20-30 Kg/N/ha and
increase 10-15% crop yield when applied at 10 Kg/ha. Both free-living as well as symbiotic
cyanobacteria (blue green algae) used in rice cultivation in India.
Azolla
Azolla Azolla
Azolla
Anabaena symbiosis
Anabaena symbiosisAnabaena symbiosis
Anabaena symbiosis:
: :
: It is a free floating, aquatic fern found on water surface having a
cyanobacterial symbiont Anabaena azollae in their leaves. It fixes atmospheric nitrogen in paddy
field and excrete organic nitrogen in water during its growth and also immediately upon
trampling. Azolla contributes nitrogen, phosphorus (15-20 Kg/ha/month), potassium (20-25
kg/ha/month) and organic carbon etc. and increases 10-20% yield of paddy crops and also
suppresses weed growth. Azolla also absorbs traces of potassium from irrigation water and can be
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used as green manure before rice planting.
Azolla spp.
are metal tolerant hence, can be applied
near heavy metal polluted areas.
3
33
3.
. .
. Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria
Phosphate Solubilising BacteriaPhosphate Solubilising Bacteria
Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria:
: :
: Solubilization of inorganic tricalcium and rock phosphate
occurs by most of bacteria belong to genus: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acrobacter, Nitrobacter,
Escherichia,
Serratia spp.
and specially
Pseudomonas striata
,
Bacillus polymyxa
are the bacteria
have phosphate solubilising ability. ‘Phosphobacterin’ are the bacterial fertilizers containing cells
of
Bacillus megatherium
var. phosphaticum, prepared firstly by USSR scientists. They increased
about 10 to 20 % crop yield and also produces plant growth promoting hormones which helps in
phosphate solubilising activity of soil.
4
44
4.
. .
. Phosphate
Phosphate Phosphate
Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi
Solubilizing FungiSolubilizing Fungi
Solubilizing Fungi:
: :
: Some fungi also have phosphate dissolving ability e.g.
Aspergillus niger
,
Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium digitatum
etc. All the microbes solubilize
phosphate by production of organic acids.
5
55
5.
. .
. Silicate Solubilizing Bacteria
Silicate Solubilizing BacteriaSilicate Solubilizing Bacteria
Silicate Solubilizing Bacteria:
: :
: Microorganisms are capable of degrading silicates and aluminum
silicates. During the metabolism of microbes several organic acids are produced and these have a
dual role in silicate weathering. They supply H+ ions to the medium and promote hydrolysis and
the organic acids like citric, oxalic acid, Keto acids and hydroxy carbolic acids which from
complexes with cations, promote their removal and retention in the medium in a dissolved state.
Most of soil born
Bacillus spp.
can be used as silicates solubilizers.
6
66
6:
: :
: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR):
: :
: The group of bacteria that colonize roots or
rhizosphere soil and beneficial to crops are referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
(PGPR). They are also called as microbial pesticides e.g.
Bacillus spp.
and
Pseudomonas
fluorescence
.
Serratia spp.
and
Ochrobactrum spp.
are able to promote growth of plants. The
PGPR inoculants currently commercialized that seem to promote growth through at least one
mechanism; suppression of plant disease (termed Bio-protectants), improved nutrient acquisition
(termed Bio-fertilizers), or phyto-hormone production (termed Bio-stimulants). Species
of
Pseudomonas
and
Bacillus
can produce as yet not well characterized phyto-hormones or
growth regulators that cause crops to have greater amounts of fine roots which have the effect of
increasing the absorptive surface of plant roots for uptake of water and nutrients. These PGPR
are referred to as Bio-stimulants and the phyto-hormones they produce include indole-acetic
acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and inhibitors of ethylene production.
7
77
7.
. .
. Mycorrhiza
MycorrhizaMycorrhiza
Mycorrhiza:
: :
: Mycorrhizas are symbiosis between some specific root inhabiting fungi and plant
roots and used as Bio-fertilizers. They absorb nutrients such as manganese, phosphorus, iron,
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sulphur, zinc etc. from the soil and pass it to the plant. Mycorrhizal fungus increases the yield of
crops by 30-40% and also produces plant growth promoting substances.
8
88
8.
. .
. VAM fungi or Endomycorrhiza
VAM fungi or EndomycorrhizaVAM fungi or Endomycorrhiza
VAM fungi or Endomycorrhiza:
: :
: They form arbuscles in the roots of crop plants and enhance
nutrient uptake: phosphorus and other nutrients that are responsible for plant growth
stimulation including roots and shoot length. VAM also enhances the growth of black pepper and
protects from
Phytophthora capsici
,
Radopholus similis
and
Melvidogyne incognita
(Anandraj et
al., 2001). VAM fungi enhance water uptake in plants and also provide heavy metals tolerance to
plants.
..
.
Application of
Application of Application of
Application of Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizers fertilizers
fertilizers
Seed treatment
Seed treatmentSeed treatment
Seed treatment:
: :
: One packet of the inoculants (200 g) is mixed with 200 ml of rice kanji to make
slurry. The seeds required for an acre are mixed in the slurry so as to have a uniform coating of
the inoculant over the seeds and then shade dried for 30 minutes. The shade dried seeds should
be sown within 24 hours. One packet of the inoculant (200 g) is sufficient to treat 10 kg of seeds.
Seedling root Dip
Seedling root DipSeedling root Dip
Seedling root Dip:
: :
: It has better application for transplanted crops. Two packets of the inoculant
is mixed in 40 liters of water. The root portion of the seedlings required for an acre is dipped in
the mixture for 5 to 10 minutes and then transplanted.
Main field application
Main field applicationMain field application
Main field application:
: :
: 1kg of the inoculant is mixed with 20 kg of dried and powdered farm yard
manure and then broadcasted in one acre of main field just before transplanting.
Mass
Mass Mass
Mass Production
Production Production
Production of
ofof
of
Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizers
fertilizers fertilizers
fertilizers
The mass production of
Bio-fertilizers involves three stages:
Stage
StageStage
Stage-
--
-1:
1:1:
1:
Culturing of microorganisms
Stage
StageStage
Stage-
--
-2:
2:2:
2:
Processing of carrier material
Stage
StageStage
Stage-
--
-3:
3:3:
3:
Mixing the carrier and the broth culture and packing
Bio-fertilizers are carrier based preparations containing efficient strain of nitrogen fixing or
phosphate solubilizing microorganism prepared in suitable medium and mass produced in
fermentor with proper aeration, temperature, growth conditions and without any undesired
microbial contaminations. Bio-fertilizers are formulated usually as carrier based inoculants. The
organic carrier materials are more effective for the preparation of bacterial inoculants. Peat soil,
lignite, vermiculite, charcoal, press mud, farmyard manure and soil mixture can be used as carrier
materials. The neutralized peat soil/lignite are found to be better carrier materials for bio-
fertilizer production which is cheaper, locally available, inert, having high WHC and organic
content. The bacterial culture drawn from the fermentor is added to the sterilized carrier and
mixed well by manual (by wearing sterile gloves) or by mechanical mixer then sealed at room
temperature.
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Table 3. Microorganisms as Bio
Table 3. Microorganisms as BioTable 3. Microorganisms as Bio
Table 3. Microorganisms as Bio
-
--
-
fertilizers fo
fertilizers fofertilizers fo
fertilizers fo
r different crops
r different cropsr different crops
r different crops
Microorganism
MicroorganismMicroorganism
Microorganism
Nutrient fixed
Nutrient fixedNutrient fixed
Nutrient fixed
(Kg/ha/year)
(Kg/ha/year)(Kg/ha/year)
(Kg/ha/year)
1
11
1
Host Crops for
Host Crops forHost Crops for
Host Crops for
which Used
which Usedwhich Used
which Used
Actinorrhizae
(Frankia spp.)
150 kg N/ha
For certain non
-
legumes mainly
trees & Shrubs
Algae
25 kg N/ha
Rice
Azolla
900 kg N/ha
Rice
Azospirillum
50 to 300 kg N/ ha
Non
-
legumes like maize, barley,
oats, sorghum, millets sugarcane,
rice etc
Rhizobium
0.026 to 20 kg N / ha
Legumes
like pulses,
peas,
Groundnut, soybean, beans, and
clover
Azotobacter
10
-
20 kg N /ha
Cereals, millets, cotton, vegetables
Mycorrhizae (VAM)
Solubilize food phosphorus
(60%)
Many tree species, wheat,
sorghum,
ornamentals
Phosphate solubilizing
Bacteria and fungi
Solubilize about 50
-
60% of them
fixed phosphorus in the soil
Soil application for all crops
Sources:
Sources: Sources:
Sources:
Mall et al., (2013)
Table.4. Recommended
Table.4. Recommended Table.4. Recommended
Table.4. Recommended
liquid bio
liquid bioliquid bio
liquid bio
-
--
-
fertilizers
fertilizers fertilizers
fertilizers
and its application method, quantity to be used for
and its application method, quantity to be used for and its application method, quantity to be used for
and its application method, quantity to be used for
different crops are as follows
different crops are as followsdifferent crops are as follows
different crops are as follows:
Recommended
RecommendedRecommended
Recommended
Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-fertilizer
fertilizerfertilizer
fertilizer
Application
Application Application
Application
method
methodmethod
method
Quantity to be
Quantity to be Quantity to be
Quantity to be
used
usedused
used
Crops
CropsCrops
Crops
Rhizobium
Seed treatment
200ml/acre
Chickpea, pea, Groundnut,
soybean, beans, Lentil, Green
gram, Black gram, Cowpea and
pigeon pea
Azotobacter/Azospirillum
Seed treatment
200ml/acre
Wheat, oat, barley
Azospirillum
Seed treatment
200ml/acre
Rice
Azotobacter
Seed treatment
200ml/acre
Mustard, seasum, Linseeds,
Sunflower, castor
Azotobacter
Seed treatment
200ml/acre
Pearl millets, Finger millets, kodo
millet
Azospirillum
Seed treatment
200ml/acre
Maize and Sorghum
Azotobacter
Seed treatment
200ml/acre
Forage crops and Grasses
Azotobacter
Soil treatment
400ml/acre
Tea, Coffee
Azotobacter
Soil treatment
2
-
3 ml/plant
Rubber, Coconuts
Rhizobium
Soil treatment
1
-
2 ml/plant
Leguminous plants/ trees
Note:
Note:Note:
Note:
Doses recommended when count of inoculum is 1 x 10
8
cells/ml then doses will be ten times more besides
above said Nitrogen fixers, Phosphate solubilizers and potash mobilizers at the rate of 200 ml/ acre could be applied
for all crops.
Popular Kheti ISSN:2321-0001 106
Mohapatra et al (2013), Pop. Kheti, 1(4):97-106
Storage of
Storage of Storage of
Storage of Bio
BioBio
Bio-
--
-Fertilizer Packets
Fertilizer PacketsFertilizer Packets
Fertilizer Packets
The packet should be stored in a cool place away from the heat or direct sunlight.
The packets may be stored at room temperature or in cold storage conditions in lots in
polythene /gunny bags.
The population of inoculant in the carrier inoculant packet may be determined at 15 days
interval. There should be more than 109 cells / g of inoculant at the time of preparation.
Constraints in Bio
Constraints in BioConstraints in Bio
Constraints in Bio-
--
-fertilizer Technology
fertilizer Technologyfertilizer Technology
fertilizer Technology
In spite of low cost, eco-friendliness, several constraints limit the application or implementation
of the technology. The constraints may be environmental, technological, infrastructural,
financial, human resources, unawareness, quality, marketing, etc.
Technological
Technological Technological
Technological c
cc
constraints
onstraintsonstraints
onstraints:
: :
: Use of improper, less efficient strains for production, lack of qualified
technical personnel, good quality carrier material, production of poor quality inoculants without
understanding the basic microbiological techniques and short shelf life of inoculants.
Infrastructural
Infrastructural Infrastructural
Infrastructural c
cc
constraints
onstraintsonstraints
onstraints:
: :
: Lack of essential equipments, non-availability of suitable facilities for
production, space availability for laboratory, production, storage etc.
Financial
Financial Financial
Financial c
cc
constraints
onstraintsonstraints
onstraints:
: :
: Non-availability of sufficient funds and problems in getting bank loans and
less return by sale of products in smaller production units.
Environment
EnvironmentEnvironment
Environmental
al al
al c
cc
constraints
onstraintsonstraints
onstraints:
: :
: Seasonal demand for Bio-fertilizers, simultaneous cropping
operations and short span of sowing/planting in a particular locality, soil characteristics like
salinity, acidity, drought, water logging, etc.
Conclusion
ConclusionConclusion
Conclusion
As a boon for farmers, Bio-fertilizers being essential components of organic farming play vital
role in maintaining long term soil fertility and sustainability. Bio-fertilizers would be the viable
option for farmers to increase productivity per unit area in organic farming for an era of
prosperity and clean environment.
References
ReferencesReferences
References
Anandraj M, Venugopal MN, Veena SS, Kumar A and Sarma YR. 2001.Ecofriendly management of
disease of species.
Indian species.
38 (3): 28-31.
Dubey RC. 2001. A text book of biotechnology. S. Chand & Company Ltd. New Delhi.
Gahukar RT 2005-06. Potential and use of bio-fertilizers in India.
Evermans science.
XL (5): 354-361.
Mall RK, Verma DK, Tripathi HC, Pathak RK and Asthir B. 2013. Bio-fertilizers in Context of
Farmers and Agriculture in India
.Indian Farmer’s Digest.
46
46 46
46 (1): 16-18.
vanRhijn P and Vanderleyden J. 1995. The
Rhizobium
-Plant Symbiosis.
Microbiology Review.
59 (1):
124–142.
... Phosphorous also causes early ripening in plants, decreasing grain moisture, improving crop quality and is the most sensitive nutrient to soil pH. The advantage of feeding the plants with phosphorus creates deeper and more abundant roots [23]. PSB have been used to improve rock P value because they convert insoluble rock P into soluble forms available for plant growth [18]. ...
... Phosphorus is an essential nutrient needed for plant because it plays an important role in many metabolic processes of the plant, as well as its role in improving the quality of the fruit (Ramadan and Adam, 2007). Phosphorus may be a critical constraint of legumes (Tsvetkova and Georgiev, 2007) as well as its advantage in creating deeper and more abundant roots (Sharma, 2002). Therefore, the use of organic fertilizer as a substitute for the chemical fertilizers in the role of this fertilizer in improving the soil structure and increase the efficiency of the roots on the absorption of water and soluble food from the soil and increase the ability of soil to retain water and nutrients and stimulate the activity of microorganisms in the soil and thus improve plant growth and their quality (Nuaimi, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was carried out in the field of vegetables Department of Horticulture and Land scap Design / Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry / University of Mosul / Iraq during the growth season 2017-2018 to study effect of two factors: the first three varieties of the broad been (Local, Turkish and French), the second three factors of the fertilizer is chemical fertilizer, and organic fertilizer with Atalopolina (400 kg. ha-1) and a mixture of organic and chemical fertilizers (1/2 chemical fertilizer + 200 kg. ha-1 of Atalopolina fertilizer) and control treatment (without fertilization). Implemented in the field using Split Plot Design within RCBD with three replication. The treatment of varieties was laid in the main plots and the fertilizers in the sub plots. The most important results can be summarized as follows: There was a significant difference between varieties, where the local variety significantly increased the plant height, Local and French varieties increased leaf area per plant and total yield of pods, the Turkish variety were significantly increased the seed weight per pod. As well as the chemical and organic fertilizers significantly increased number of branches per plant, biological yield, seeds weight per pod and total yield of pods, but chemical fertilizer significantly increased leaf area per plant, pod length and total yield of pods, chemical and control treatments increased average of pod weight. The results of interaction between factors showed that the local variety with chemical treatment significantly increased plant height, leaf area per plant, biological yield, yield of green seeds 5.91 t. ha-1 and total yield of pods 10.79 t. ha-1 , but interaction between Turkish variety and control treatment significantly increased number of branches per plant and average of pod weight, the French variety with mixed the fertilizers increased dry matter of vegetative growth, and Turkish variety with mixed fertilizers increased number of pods per plant and seeds weight per pod, the French variety with chemical fertilizer increased pod length.
... Hence, in the recent times research is going on to develop counter measures involving eco-friendly methods to minimize the pollution. One such method is the usage of live formulation of microorganisms which perform beneficial activities like promoting soil fertility [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The incessant need to increase crop yields has led to the development of many chemical fertilizers containing NPK (nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium) which can degrade soil health in the long term. In addition, these fertilizers are often leached into nearby water bodies causing algal bloom and eutrophication. Bacterial secondary metabolites exuded into the extracellular space, termed extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have gained commercial significance because of their biodegradability, non-toxicity, and renewability. In many habitats, bacterial communities faced with adversity will adhere together by production of EPS which also serves to bond them to surfaces. Typically, hygroscopic, EPS retain moisture in desiccating conditions and modulate nutrient exchange. Many plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) combat harsh environmental conditions like salinity, drought, and attack of pathogens by producing EPS. The adhesive nature of EPS promotes soil aggregation and restores moisture thus combating soil erosion and promoting soil fertility. In addition, these molecules play vital roles in maintaining symbiosis and nitrogen fixation thus enhancing sustainability. Thus, along with other commercial applications, EPS show promising avenues for improving agricultural productivity thus helping to address land scarcity as well as minimizing environmental pollution.
... According to Malusá and Vassilev (2014), a biofertilizer is "the formulated product containing one or more microorganisms that enhance the nutrient status (the growth and yield) of the plants by either replacing soil nutrients and/or by making nutrients more available to plants and/or by increasing plant access to nutrients". Biofertilizers include microorganisms that fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and potassium, secret hormone and suppress soil borne plant pathogens (Mohapatra et al., 2013). Phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB) play an important role in supplying phosphate to plants, in environment friendly and sustainable manner (Khan et al., 2007). ...
Research
Two field experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Experimental and Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, in the two winter seasons of 2013 and 2014, to investigate the effects of different fertilizer integrations, on the vegetative growth characters, green pods yield and its components and chemical contents of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) "cv. Master B", as compared with soil mineral fertilization (60 kg/fed N, 40 kg/fed P and 40 kg/fed K) and chicken manure alone at 5 ton/fed. The integrated fertilization treatments included organic fertilizer (chicken manure at 5 ton/fed) with spray mineral fertilization (potassien, having 30% K and 8% N), or biofertilizations (phosphorin as phosphate dissolving bacteria, both applied to seeds and botassifag as a source of potassium dissolving bacteria) or with potassien plus phosphorien or potassifag. The experiments included eight treatments and were laid out in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD). The obtained results indicated that the integrated fertilization management consisting of chicken manure at 5 ton/fed plus mineral foliar fertilization (using potassien) and biofertization (using potassifag or phosphorien) gave similar great effect for vegetative growth and yield to soil application of mineral N.P., K., without significant differences among them. So, the treatments of T1(soil mineral fertilization), T5 (chicken manure + potassifag + potassien) and T8 (chicken manure + phosphorien + potassien) gave greater plant fresh weight, raised N content in the plants and led to obtaining higher values of weight and number of pods yield per plant in both seasons, as compared with chicken manure alone (T2). Furthermore, all treatments of potassien, i.e., T5, T8 and T3 (organic fertilizer + potassien) significantly exceeded mineral fertilization in the leaf contents of chlorophyll. Also T 5 and T 8 gave significantly higher total pod yield over chicken manure alone. T 5 and T 8 gave relatively higher values of yield per plant and per feddan than using chemical fertilizers, but without significant differences between them. T5 treatment exhibited the highest values of pod length number of seeds/pod and weight of 100 green seeds which were also significantly higher than organic manure alone. T5 and T7 (organic fertilizer + phosphorien + potassifag) in both seasons and T8 in the first season significantly increased percentage of total sugars in green seeds as compared to chemical fertilization. Meanwhile, the integrated treatments (T5, T7 and T8) significantly increased green seeds contents of total sugars in both seasons as compared with organic fertilizer alone. T1, T3, T5 and T8 caused statistically significant increase in protein percentage over organic manure alone. The integrated fertilization management consisting of chicken manure at 5 ton/fed plus mineral foliar fertilization (using potassien) and biofertization (using potassifag or phosphorien) can be recommended for pea production in clay soil instead of using soil application of mineral fertilization with the purpose of reducing soil pollution with chemical fertilizers.
... Phosphorus is an essential nutrient needed for plant because it plays an important role in many metabolic processes of the plant, as well as its role in improving the quality of the fruit (Ramadan and Adam, 2007). Phosphorus may be a critical constraint of legumes (Tsvetkova and Georgiev, 2007) as well as its advantage in creating deeper and more abundant roots (Sharma, 2002). Therefore, the use of organic fertilizer as a substitute for the chemical fertilizers in the role of this fertilizer in improving the soil structure and increase the efficiency of the roots on the absorption of water and soluble food from the soil and increase the ability of soil to retain water and nutrients and stimulate the activity of microorganisms in the soil and thus improve plant growth and their quality (Nuaimi, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was carried out in the field of vegetables Department of Horticulture and Land scap Design / Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry / University of Mosul / Iraq during the growth season 2017-2018 to study effect of two factors: the first three varieties of the broad been (Local, Turkish and French), the second three factors of the fertilizer is chemical fertilizer, and organic fertilizer with Atalopolina (400 kg. ha-1) and a mixture of organic and chemical fertilizers (1/2 chemical fertilizer + 200 kg. ha-1 of Atalopolina fertilizer) and control treatment (without fertilization). Implemented in the field using Split Plot Design within RCBD with three replication. The treatment of varieties was laid in the main plots and the fertilizers in the sub plots. The most important results can be summarized as follows: There was a significant difference between varieties, where the local variety significantly increased the plant height, Local and French varieties increased leaf area per plant and total yield of pods, the Turkish variety were significantly increased the seed weight per pod. As well as the chemical and organic fertilizers significantly increased number of branches per plant, biological yield, seeds weight per pod and total yield of pods, but chemical fertilizer significantly increased leaf area per plant, pod length and total yield of pods, chemical and control treatments increased average of pod weight. The results of interaction between factors showed that the local variety with chemical treatment significantly increased plant height, leaf area per plant, biological yield, yield of green seeds 5.91 t. ha-1 and total yield of pods 10.79 t. ha-1 , but interaction between Turkish variety and control treatment significantly increased number of branches per plant and average of pod weight, the French variety with mixed the fertilizers increased dry matter of vegetative growth, and Turkish variety with mixed fertilizers increased number of pods per plant and seeds weight per pod, the French variety with chemical fertilizer increased pod length.
Chapter
Continuous rising population and increasing urban and rural incomes are driving the popularity of agriculture market. Data consensus report also validates that about 50% exclusive share is directly contributed by the fertilizer in the agriculture industry. Considering the whooping industry requirements, various governments and other organizations are actively involved in promoting research and development in this area. Motivation behind writing this chapter is to make the people aware of the status quo of biofertilizer and also to motivate contribution toward achieving targets of food demand in an eco‐friendly and sustainable manner.
Chapter
Increase in global human population and depletion of natural resources of energy, the viable supply of food, and energy without posing any threat to the environment is the current demand of our society. With limiting land and growing population, the option of better eco-friendly management tools for increasing soil fertility and agricultural population promises a successful long-term food security. The use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural practices deteriorates environmental qualities. Since microbes have been known to contribute in determining the soil fertility, the structure of soil and sustainable green energy production, microalgae including cyanobacteria emerged as potential candidates for their application in the development of environment-friendly and sustainable agricultural practices. As natural biofertilizer algalization, cyanobacteria play an important role in the maintenance of soil structure by soil aggregation through polysaccharides, enhanced soil fertility, fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N) by reclamation, increase in soil pores by producing adhesive substances, increasing growth by excreting growth promoting hormones (auxin, GA, vitamins, amino acids), increasing water-holding capacity, decreasing soil salinity, increase in soil phosphate by excretion of organic acids, and recycling of solid wastes. Much attention has been paid to study cyanobacteria with beneficial effects in fields like rice, paddy, wheat, soybean, tomato, radish, cotton, maize, sugarcane, and many more. There are research on inoculants of heterocystous cyanobacteria genera, which are used as biofertilizers in crops by enhancing the plant shoot/root length, dry weight, and yield.
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Full-text available
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers application on reducing the effects of water deficit on Pearl Millet under field conditions. The experiment was carried out as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in selected farms under Agronomy Department of Tarbiat Modares University with cooperation of Lahijan Agricultural Jihad (Kolashtajan Agricultural Extension Office) in 2019 year. Planting date was 9 April 2019. Treatments included three levels of stress include irrigation times (15 (control), 30 (moderate stress) and 45 (severe stress) percent depletion of available soil moisture and four levels of bio-fertilizer (control, nitroxin, BARVAR phosphate-2, nitroxin + BARVAR phosphate-2). The results showed that plant height, chlorophyll a and b, grain yield and catalase activity were significant for different irrigation regimes and bio-fertilizers, harvest index, photosynthesis and peroxidase activity were significant for interaction of different irrigation regimes and bio-fertilizers. Combined application of nitroxin and BARVAR phosphate-2 increased 13.12% plant height, 40.54% and 45.83% chlorophyll a and b, 19.29% seed yield, 30.62% photosynthesis rate, 41.12% and 36.18%, catalase and peroxidase enzymes activity of pearl millet under different irrigation regimes, this indicates the improvement of morphological, physiological characteristics and increasing the resistance of pearl millet to drought stress conditions due to the use of bio-fertilizers. In general, by increasing vegetative growth and leaf chlorophyll content, increasing plant photosynthesis rate and increasing the activity of stress-resistant enzymes, the application of nitroxin and BARVAR phosphate-2 bio-fertilizers can be considered suitable for improving the quantitative performance of pearl millet under moisture stress conditions in Guilan plain areas.
Article
Full-text available
Dependence on chemical fertilizers for future agricultural growth would mean further loss in soil quality, possibilities of water contamination and unsustainable burden on the fiscal system. Increased demand for fertilizers could be met from bio-fertilizers; it is likely to result in savings for farmers. This is especially important for developing countries such as India. This article is an effort to enlighten on the bio-fertilizers sector, types and availability in market, potential demand and production in India, benefits and advantages of using bio-fertilizers.
Book
This book covers the modern commercial trends in genetic engineering, tissue culture, trangenesis, stem cell technology, fermentation, enzyme technology, production of protein from single cell, biofuel generation, mineral mining and environmental biotechnology. Improved methods of production of biofertilizers, biopesticides, antibiotics, vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, tissue and protein engineering, drug designing, and different issues related to genetically modified organisms are discussed in comprehensive manner that will update the students and teachers.
Article
Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium species are able to elicit the formation of unique structures, called nodules, on the roots or stems of the leguminous host. In these nodules, the rhizobia convert atmospheric N2 into ammonia for the plant. To establish this symbiosis, signals are produced early in the interaction between plant and rhizobia and they elicit discrete responses by the two symbiotic partners. First, transcription of the bacterial nodulation (nod) genes is under control of the NodD regulatory protein, which is activated by specific plant signals, flavonoids, present in the root exudates. In return, the nod-encoded enzymes are involved in the synthesis and excretion of specific lipooligosaccharides, which are able to trigger on the host plant the organogenic program leading to the formation of nodules. An overview of the organization, regulation, and function of the nod genes and their participation in the determination of the host specificity is presented.
Azospirillum for non-legume crops
  • Azotobacter
Azotobacter/Azospirillum for non-legume crops. 3. 3. 3.
Ecofriendly management of disease of species.Indian species
  • Mn Venugopal
  • Ss Veena
  • A Kumar
  • Yr Sarma
Cellulolytic fungal culture 2. 2. 2. 2. Phosphotika and Azotobacterculture References References References References Anandraj M, Venugopal MN, Veena SS, Kumar A and Sarma YR. 2001.Ecofriendly management of disease of species.Indian species. 38 (3): 28-31.
A text book of biotechnology. S. Chand & Company Ltd
  • R C Dubey
Dubey RC. 2001. A text book of biotechnology. S. Chand & Company Ltd. New Delhi.
Ecofriendly management of disease of species.Indian species
  • M Anandraj
  • M N Venugopal
  • S S Veena
  • A Kumar
  • Y R Sarma
Anandraj M, Venugopal MN, Veena SS, Kumar A and Sarma YR. 2001.Ecofriendly management of disease of species.Indian species. 38 (3): 28-31.