Article

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet

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Abstract

A significant number of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter human food and animal feed since 1996, including crops containing several GM genes 'stacked' into the one plant. We randomised and fed isowean pigs (N=168) either a mixed GM soy and GM corn (maize) diet (N=84) or an equivalent non-GM diet (N=84) in a long-term toxicology study of 22.7 weeks (the normal lifespan of a commercial pig from weaning to slaughter). Equal numbers of male and female pigs were present in each group. The GM corn contained double and triple-stacked varieties. Feed intake, weight gain, mortality and blood biochemistry were measured. Organ weights and pathology were determined post-mortem. There were no differences between pigs fed the GM and non-GM diets for feed intake, weight gain, mortality, and routine blood biochemistry measurements. The GM diet was associated with gastric and uterine differences in pigs. GM-fed pigs had uteri that were 25% heavier than non-GM fed pigs (p=0.025). GM-fed pigs had a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation with a rate of 32% of GM-fed pigs compared to 12% of non-GM-fed pigs (p=0.004). The severe stomach inflammation was worse in GM-fed males compared to non-GM fed males by a factor of 4.0 (p=0.041), and GM-fed females compared to non-GM fed females by a factor of 2.2 (p=0.034).

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... Health effects of a RR soybean-diet were only observed in one study in broilers performed in Poland (Czerwi nski et al., 2015a). In two out of 13 studies that evaluated the combined effect of GM maize and GM soybean significant differences were found in studied health parameters (Carman et al., 2013;Czerwi nski et al., 2015a). Evaluating the health effects of a mixed GM diet has additional value over evaluating GM maize and GM soybean separately when in real-life livestock feed contains both GM maize and GM soybean (Carman, 2016). ...
... Evaluating the health effects of a mixed GM diet has additional value over evaluating GM maize and GM soybean separately when in real-life livestock feed contains both GM maize and GM soybean (Carman, 2016). The diet used by Carman et al. (2013) was representative of commercial diets used in the USA and contained GM maize with so-called stacked genes, two of which encoded for insect resistance and one for herbicide tolerance, and RR soybean. In this study, significant effects on organ weight and histopathology were observed with higher uterus weights in GM-fed pigs (P < 0.05) and a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation in GM-fed pigs (P < 0.01). ...
... Any conclusion regarding the development of an adverse health effect should be reached following the correlation of serum biochemistry with organ weight and/or histological evidence (EFSA, 2008), since conclusions on dysfunctioning of organs can only be drawn from a combination of effects measured for these health parameters. This was indeed the most common observed combination of health parameters studied (Walsh et al., 2011Buzoianu et al., 2012a;Buzoianu et al., 2012b;Walsh et al., 2012b;Buzoianu et al., 2013a;Buzoianu et al., 2013b;Carman et al., 2013;Li et al., 2015;Hameed et al., 2016). ...
Article
A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (P<0.05) in health parameters were most often observed when animals were fed Bt maize, although most effects measured were unlikely to be of biological significance and were within normal biological ranges. Health effects of RR soybean were only observed in one experimental study with broilers. Based on this literature review, we conclude that there is no clear evidence that feed composed of first generation GM crops has adverse effects on animal health.
... Correspondingly, results of an in vitro experiment with porcine lymphocyte cultures indicated that the allergenic properties of globulins derived from GM HT soybeans are similar to those of conventional soybean proteins (Gallbas et al., 2011). In an experiment conducted by Carman et al. (2013) pigs were fed either a mixed GM HT soy (16–26% in the diet) and GM maize (a mixture of different Bt and HT varieties, 70–81%) diet or an equivalent non-GM diet in a long-term toxicology study. There were no differences between pigs fed the GM and non-GM diets regarding routine blood biochemistry measurements (glucose, AST, bilirubin, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen, creatinine, P, Ca, Na, chloride, bicarbonate, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyl transferase). ...
... No significant influence of treatment was observed in organ function and any histological lesions existed. Similarly, no differences between pigs fed the GM and non-GM diets were noticed in stomach erosions or ulcerations in the experiment carried out by Carman et al. (2013) on pigs fed mixed GM HT soy and GM maize diet or an equivalent non-GM diet. However, the GM diet was associated with gastric and uterine differences in pigs. ...
... GM-fed pigs had uteri 25% heavier and a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation. The authors speculated that explanation for the inflammation results could be the effect of Cry proteins (Cry 3Bb1 and Cry 1Ab) in the Bt maize used in the experiment, which, being insecticides, induce perforation and disintegration of the gut tissue of certain insects that attack corn plants (Carman et al., 2013). Walsh et al. (2012a) concluded that the short-term feeding of MON810 maize to weaned pigs resulted in a tendency toward a decrease in goblet cells/mm in the duodenal villus, and an increase in kidney weight, without effects on duodenal, jejunal or ileal villus height, crypt death or villus height/crypt ratio, as well as without histopathological indicators of organ dysfunction. ...
... Many studies now indicate that exposure to GMOs affects health in lab animals, livestock, and aquatic animals (reviewed in [9][10][11][12]. Animal GMO-feeding studies have identified health concerns affecting multiple organ systems including cardiovascular [13,14], digestive [15][16][17], exocrine [18,19], hepatorenal [9,13,20-25], immune [26][27][28], and reproductive systems [15,23,27,[29][30][31]. Within these systems, traits that differed between GMO-exposed and control groups include cell proliferation [9,32], histology [15,16,18,23,30,31], hematology [14,20,25,28], metabolism [19,21,23,27,31,33,34], milk production [27], and lifespan and mortality [9,29]. ...
... Many studies now indicate that exposure to GMOs affects health in lab animals, livestock, and aquatic animals (reviewed in [9][10][11][12]. Animal GMO-feeding studies have identified health concerns affecting multiple organ systems including cardiovascular [13,14], digestive [15][16][17], exocrine [18,19], hepatorenal [9,13,20-25], immune [26][27][28], and reproductive systems [15,23,27,[29][30][31]. Within these systems, traits that differed between GMO-exposed and control groups include cell proliferation [9,32], histology [15,16,18,23,30,31], hematology [14,20,25,28], metabolism [19,21,23,27,31,33,34], milk production [27], and lifespan and mortality [9,29]. ...
... Animal GMO-feeding studies have identified health concerns affecting multiple organ systems including cardiovascular [13,14], digestive [15][16][17], exocrine [18,19], hepatorenal [9,13,20-25], immune [26][27][28], and reproductive systems [15,23,27,[29][30][31]. Within these systems, traits that differed between GMO-exposed and control groups include cell proliferation [9,32], histology [15,16,18,23,30,31], hematology [14,20,25,28], metabolism [19,21,23,27,31,33,34], milk production [27], and lifespan and mortality [9,29]. Some of these studies [15,17,23,31] used feed containing both HT and Bt ingredients, while others exposed animals to diets containing either HT [9,13,18,19,21,22,25,27,30,[33][34][35] or Bt [14,16,20,[24][25][26]28,29,32] ingredients. ...
Article
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Genetically modified foods have become pervasive in diets of people living in the US. By far the most common genetically modified foods either tolerate herbicide application (HT) or produce endogenous insecticide (Bt). To determine whether these toxicological effects result from genetic modification per se, or from the increase in herbicide or insecticide residues present on the food, we exposed fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to food containing HT corn that had been sprayed with the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup ® , HT corn that had not been sprayed with Roundup ® , or Roundup ® in a variety of known glyphosate concentrations and formulations. While neither lifespan nor reproductive behaviors were affected by HT corn, addition of Roundup ® increased mortality with an LC 50 of 7.1 g/L for males and 11.4 g/L for females after 2 days of exposure. Given the many genetic tools available, Drosophila are an excellent model system for future studies about genetic and biochemical mechanisms of glyphosate toxicity.
... In 2013, our group published a long-term toxicology feeding study on pigs fed a mixed diet of GM soy and GM corn containing three common traits via the EPSPS gene, and cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes [24]. The authors reported that the GM diet caused an increase in severe stomach inflammation, measured as surface redness and swelling that was 2.2 times higher in female pigs and 4.0 times higher in male pigs on the GM diet compared with pigs on the control diet. ...
... It was not possible to obtain an isogenic or near-isogenic variety to use in a commercially-grown non-GM corn grown in Australia. The corn was not sourced from the US due to the difficulties in finding a non-GM corn variety from that country that would be completely uncontaminated, as our previous study has shown [24]. In contrast, Australia does not grow any GM corn, either commercially or in field trials [2] [4] [32], which should guarantee that the non-GM diet contained no GM material. ...
... Yet, Roundup administered to pigs in their feed at moderate to high concentrations (10-40 mg glyphosate/kg body weight) resulted in increased permeability of the intestinal wall , increased oxidative stress, liver damage and high glyphosate concentrations (6-16 mg/kg) in the liver . Serious stomach inflammation and enlarged uteri was observed more frequently in pigs that received a diet with glyphosate-resistant ingredients than a diet without genetically modified ingredients for 23 weeks (Carman et al., 2013). Also, high concentrations of glyphosate were found in various organs (up to 80 mg/kg) of piglets that showed major malformations . ...
... Finally, sperm motility and viability were negatively affected by pure glyphosate at the highest concentration tested (360 mg/L), while Roundup was detrimental at much lower glyphosate concentrations (motility at ≥ 5 mg/L, mitochondrial activity at ≥25 mg/L, and viability at >100 mg/L (Nerozzi et al., 2020). Despite the intestinal and potential endocrine and reproduction problems (Jarrell et al., 2020), pig growth was not affected by glyphosate (Carman et al., 2013;Fu et al., 2020), and relationships of health problems to the pig microbiome are not clear. In a feeding study with dairy cows, where glyphosatecontaminated feedstuffs (122.7 μg GL/kg BW for 16 weeks) were compared with control feed, no direct effects of glyphosate were detected on various blood and liver parameters (Heymann et al., 2021;Schnabel et al., 2020), as well as the general health condition of the cows (Schnabel et al., 2017). ...
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The herbicide glyphosate interferes with the shikimate pathway in plants and in major groups of microorganisms impeding the production of aromatic amino acids. Glyphosate application on plants results in a slow death, accelerated by reduced resistance to root pathogens. Extensive glyphosate use has resulted in increasing residues in soil and waterways. Although direct glyphosate effects on animals are limited, major concerns have arisen about indirect harmful side effects. In this paper, we focus on indirect effects of sublethal concentrations of glyphosate on plant, animal and human health due to shifts in microbial community compositions in successive habitats. Research results of glyphosate effects on microbial communities in soil, rhizosphere and animal guts have been contradictory due to the different integration levels studied. Most glyphosate studies have tested short-term treatment effects on microbial biomass or general community composition at higher taxonomic levels in soil, rhizosphere or animal intestinal tracts, and found little effect. More detailed studies showed reductions in specific genera or species as well as biological processes after glyphosate application. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and beneficial intestinal bacteria often are negatively affected, while pathogenic bacteria and fungi are enhanced. Such shifts in microbial community composition have been implicated in enhanced susceptibility of plants to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, of birds and mammals to toxic Clostridium and Salmonella species, and of bees to Serratia and Deformed Wing Virus. In animals and humans, glyphosate exposure and concentrations in urine have been associated with intestinal diseases and neurological as well as endocrine problems, but cause-effect relationships need to be determined in more detail. Nevertheless, outbreaks of several animal and plant diseases have been related to glyphosate accumulation in the environment. Long-term glyphosate effects have been underreported, and new standards will be needed for residues in plant and animal products and the environment.
... Alarming studies are therefore one of the most important triggers to reignite the GM debate and that is why we analyse them to assess the effect of governance response strategies on the GM debate. A key example of an alarming study is a paper by a French scientist about the health effects of the consumption of GM maize(Text box 1).Other examples of alarming studies that we analysed for the purpose of this article areEwen & Pusztai (1999),Rosi-Marshall et al. (2007),Huber (2011) andCarman et al. (2013) ( ...
... who investigated adverse effects of GM potatoes on rats,Rosi-Marshall et al. (2007) who studied ecosystem effects of transgenic crop byproducts,Huber (2011) who wrote a letter to US Secretary of Agriculture Vilsack ed. to warn about a new pathogenic organism arising from GM crops andCarman et al. (2013) who found adverse effects of GM soy and maize on pigs.44 GM maize NK603 is a herbicide tolerant maize variety with a decreased binding affinity for herbicides containing the active ingredient Glyphosate. ...
Thesis
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This thesis analyses and discusses the contributions and shortcomings of technocratic, participatory and regulatory strategies to solve the deadlock in decision-making about market authorisations of GM crops in Europe. I argue that political decision-making is not just the sum of science, public dialogue and regulations, but that politics has its own role to take decisions in situations of uncertainty and societal disagreement.
... Growing evidence shows that the weedkiller has a proven indirect adverse effect on vertebrates and invertebrates via the gut microbiota (e.g. [10][11][12][13][14][15]). ...
... We calculated Alpha (Shannon, Evenness, observed sOTUs number, and Phylogenetic Distance) and Beta (Jaccard, Bray-Curtis, unweighted UniFrac, and weighted UniFrac) diversity between treatments and genotypes after correcting for uneven depths of sequencing using QIIME2 [92]. All samples were randomly resampled to achieve normalization to the samples with the smallest number of reads (13,439) prior to calculating diversity indices. Significant differences among genotypes and treatments in both indices were calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis and the PERMANOVA test. ...
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Background Research around the weedkiller Roundup is among the most contentious of the twenty-first century. Scientists have provided inconclusive evidence that the weedkiller causes cancer and other life-threatening diseases, while industry-paid research reports that the weedkiller has no adverse effect on humans or animals. Much of the controversial evidence on Roundup is rooted in the approach used to determine safe use of chemicals, defined by outdated toxicity tests. We apply a system biology approach to the biomedical and ecological model species Daphnia to quantify the impact of glyphosate and of its commercial formula, Roundup, on fitness, genome-wide transcription and gut microbiota, taking full advantage of clonal reproduction in Daphnia. We then apply machine learning-based statistical analysis to identify and prioritize correlations between genome-wide transcriptional and microbiota changes. Results We demonstrate that chronic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of glyphosate and Roundup at the approved regulatory threshold for drinking water in the US induce embryonic developmental failure, induce significant DNA damage (genotoxicity), and interfere with signaling. Furthermore, chronic exposure to the weedkiller alters the gut microbiota functionality and composition interfering with carbon and fat metabolism, as well as homeostasis. Using the “Reactome,” we identify conserved pathways across the Tree of Life, which are potential targets for Roundup in other species, including liver metabolism, inflammation pathways, and collagen degradation, responsible for the repair of wounds and tissue remodeling. Conclusions Our results show that chronic exposure to concentrations of Roundup and glyphosate at the approved regulatory threshold for drinking water causes embryonic development failure and alteration of key metabolic functions via direct effect on the host molecular processes and indirect effect on the gut microbiota. The ecological model species Daphnia occupies a central position in the food web of aquatic ecosystems, being the preferred food of small vertebrates and invertebrates as well as a grazer of algae and bacteria. The impact of the weedkiller on this keystone species has cascading effects on aquatic food webs, affecting their ability to deliver critical ecosystem services. DJLGvZ7sRDZZrJVKuLAEkAVideo Abstract
... GM crops contain proteins that make them herbicide tolerant (Ht) and insect resistant (USDA, 2011). Herbicide tolerant crops are engineered to produce one or more proteins which allow them to survive even if sprayed with herbicides (Carman et al., 2013). A number of studies conducted have shown a significant number of GM crops which are approved for human and animal use. ...
... A number of studies conducted have shown a significant number of GM crops which are approved for human and animal use. Crops containing several GM genes 'stacked' into one plant are among the recommended for consumption (Carman et al., 2013). GM maize varieties are common in some countries like United States of America (USA) (USDA, 2011). ...
Article
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Genetic modified maize crop increases annually as a result of food insecurity and limited land caused by rapid population increase of over seven billion in the world. Scientists have been playing their role to address this food insecurity problem. The use of genetically modified (GM) maize crop to feed people is one of the proposed ways, because it yields more compared to the conventional varieties. However, there are several contradictions which hinder the adoption of this new technology. Some studies have shown that GM maize is risky to human health, animals and not friendly to environmental conservation, which may lead to the death of other bio-diversities. Generally, other studies have supported the consumption of GM maize. However, after being approved by the scientist in the countries concerned, the GM maize varieties which seem to be hazardous to human health must be prohibited in research centres so as to avoid transportation to other countries. Regarding the new technology of GM maize, the conventional method of breeding is still important to keep maize seeds available in the gene bank. Therefore, researchers should consider this for further research issues on maize improvement.
... It has been described that Bt toxin has immunogenic properties, whose effects have been identified in mice and pigs (Andreassen et al., 2014;Walsh et al., 2011). Pigs fed a GMO diet had a larger uterus and presented severe stomach inflammation compared with pigs fed a comparable non-GMO diet (Carman et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Over the past several decades, technological developments and modernization have grown concomitantly.For example, advances in biotechnology have been used as a tool to increase food production. Specifically, advances in genetic engineering have made possible the manipulation of crops to increase yield, guaranteeing food supplies for the increasing world population. However, transgenic crops have not been well received by all members of society, and there is still uncertainty about their social benefits and the possible implications to human health. Additionally, the benefits of agricultural modernization have favored only developed countries, whereas people living in developing and underdeveloped countries suffer rampant hunger, malnutrition and poverty. Hence, there is a necessity to create policies guaranteeing that the advances in biotechnology are translated into better agricultural practices that can meet the ever-growing food demand. The agricultural modernization process, however, must consider that sustainable development is imperative in modern societies and that there is an increasing desire for consuming so-called organic foods based on the idea that these foods have a higher quality and stimulate regional agricultural production. This review discusses the role of biotechnology throughout history in relation to agricultural production and the development of the food sector.
... The retracted (and re-published) report by Séralini et al. [19,20] concerning a group of glyphosate-tolerant cultivars (MON 603) has been particularly divisive. In the nearly twenty-year feeding history of GM crops, no proof of harmlessness or harmfulness beyond reasonable doubt has been reached, although economic damages have certainly not been evidenced based on studies on mammalian species [21,22]. ...
Article
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Feeding experiments with juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with genetically modified maize MON 810 or DAS-59122 dried leaf biomass were carried out with 1-, 3- and 6-month exposures. Dosages of 3–7 μg/fish/day Cry1Ab or 18-55 μg/fish/day Cry34Ab1 toxin did not cause mortality. No difference occurred in body or abdominal sac weights. No differences appeared in levels of inorganic phosphate, calcium, fructosamine, bile acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, and alanine and aspartame aminotransferases. DAS-59122 did not alter blood parameters tested after 3 months of feeding. MON 810 slightly decreased serum albumin levels compared to the control, only in one group. Tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) infection changed the levels of inorganic phosphate and calcium. Cry34Ab1 toxin appeared in blood (12.6 ± 1.9 ng/mL), but not in the muscle. It was detected in B. acheilognathi. Cry1Ab was hardly detectable in certain samples near the limit of detection. Degradation of Cry toxins was extremely quick in the fish gastrointestinal tract. After 6 months of feeding, only mild indications in certain serum parameters were observed: MON 810 slightly increased the level of apoptotic cells in the blood and reduced the number of thrombocytes in one group; DAS-59122 mildly increased the number of granulocytes compared to the near-isogenic line.
... Causa inibizione degli enzimi del citocromo P45; effetti negativi per il sistema digestivo sia in invertebrati (comprese le api) che vertebrati (pesci e mammiferi) . Evidenze di deleteria interferenza sulla composizione della flora batterica intestinale da parte del glifosate sono disponibili per bovini (Krüger et al., 2013a) e suini (Carman et al., 2013). Interferisce con l'attività dell'aromatasi prevenendo la produzione di estrogeni . ...
Book
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Once time it was common opinion that intensive industrial agriculture, heavily dependent on chemistry, was essential to feed the growing world population, as well as - today - in consequence of the negative impacts of climate change and global scarcity of land agricultural. It was believed that the pesticide industry could solve the food problem by increasing a agricultural productions disproportion: today we know that not only the increase in food production has failed to eliminate hunger in the world, but even this has happened at the expense of health human and the environment. Relying on the dangerous pesticides represented, in fact, a short solution a period that today affects the rights to food and health for present and future generations.
... Водночас існує безліч протиріч, коли мова йде про оцінку ризиків застосування ГМО. Є дослідження, які вказують на потенційну небезпеку ГМО, тоді як в інших негативного впливу не було виявлено [1,2,3,5,7]. Саме з цієї при-1, 2, 3, 5, 7]. ...
... Moreover, Al caged by glyphosate dimers and trimmers [125] bears a certain resemblance to chelation complexes of Al citrate. Given its biocidal effects on gut biota [126,127], leading to inflammatory intestinal disorders commonly treated by Al-containing antacids [128], Al interacting with glyphosate is likely to increase its crossing of the endogenous intestinal biofilm barrier into the blood stream [129,130]. Such Al-induced leaking of the endogenous biofilms of the gut and blood brain barrier could increase Al accumulation in the CNS. ...
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Over the last 200 years, mining, smelting, and refining of aluminum (Al) in various forms have increasingly exposed living species to this naturally abundant metal. Because of its prevalence in the earth’s crust, prior to its recent uses it was regarded as inert and therefore harmless. However, Al is invariably toxic to living systems and has no known beneficial role in any biological systems. Humans are increasingly exposed to Al from food, water, medicinals, vaccines, and cosmetics, as well as from industrial occupational exposure. Al disrupts biological self-ordering, energy transduction, and signaling systems, thus increasing biosemiotic entropy. Beginning with the biophysics of water, disruption progresses through the macromolecules that are crucial to living processes (DNAs, RNAs, proteoglycans, and proteins). It injures cells, circuits, and subsystems and can cause catastrophic failures ending in death. Al forms toxic complexes with other elements, such as fluorine, and interacts negatively with mercury, lead, and glyphosate. Al negatively impacts the central nervous system in all species that have been studied, including humans. Because of the global impacts of Al on water dynamics and biosemiotic systems, CNS disorders in humans are sensitive indicators of the Al toxicants to which we are being exposed.
... Other studies have similarly shown no detrimental effect of using GM feeds over non-GM feeds for pigs (Sońta et al. 2021) and dairy cows (Castillo et al. 2004;Calsamglia et al. 2007). In a study where pigs were fed a mix of maize and GM soybean there were no differences between pigs fed the GM and non-GM diets for feed intake, weight gain, mortality and routine blood biochemistry measurements, but there was a slight increase in severe stomach inflammation amongst male and female pigs had a statistical significance for the differences of P = 0.041 and 0.034, respectively (Carman et al. 2013). When combining the nil and mild cases (Group A) and combining moderate and severe cases (Group B) the percentages affected for non-GM fed and GM-fed groups were for Group A 48%, 43%, and Group B 52% and 57%, respectively. ...
Article
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In New Zealand, a genetically modified (GM) organism means any organism where genes or other genetic material have been modified by in vitro techniques. This includes New Breeding Technologies (NBT) such as gene editing. The aim here is to (a) examine the importance of consumer attitudes towards food produced from GM plants or from animals fed GM feed and (b) consider whether consumer attitudes would reduce the demand and acceptance of food produced by New Zealand pastoral farmers if GM forages were included in animal feed. Published surveys indicate that consumers were willing to purchase GM foods if they cost less than non-GM foods, although the magnitude of this discount varies across countries, the type of genetic modification and how it affects the food product. While there will always be a proportion of consumers against the use of GM in food production, the published evidence would suggest that the use of GM plants in New Zealand for food production will have no long-term deleterious effects in overseas markets. From a regulatory view point, the focus should be on regulating the benefit-risk issues associated with the end-product of genetic modification rather than the processes used in their development. ARTICLE HISTORY
... The number of properly designed and executed long-term studies looking at health implications of GM foods are very few. A commercial lifespan feeding study in pigs under real farm conditions found that animals fed a mixture of commercialized GM crops (soy and maize) resulted in elevated levels of severe stomach inflammation and heavier uteri in females, compared with controls fed a non-GM diet (9). ...
Article
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Cornell Alliance for Science has launched an initiative in which “citizen scientists” are called upon to evaluate studies on health risks of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. The purpose is to establish whether the consensus on GM food safety claimed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is supported by a review of the scientific literature. The Alliance’s citizen scientists are examining more than 12,000 publication abstracts to quantify how far the scientific literature supports the AAAS’s statement. We identify a number of fundamental weaknesses in the Alliance’s study design, including evaluation is based only on information provided in the publication abstract; there is a lack of clarity as to what material is included in the 12,000 study abstracts to be reviewed, since the number of appropriately designed investigations addressing GM food safety are few; there is uncertainty as to whether studies of toxic effects arising from GM crop-associated pesticides will be included; there is a lack of clarity regarding whether divergent yet equally valid interpretations of the same study will be taken into account; and there is no definition of the cutoff point for consensus or non-consensus on GM food safety. In addition, vital industry proprietary biosafety data on GM crops and associated pesticides are not publicly available and is thus cannot inform this project. Based on these weaknesses in the study design, we believe it is questionable as to whether any objective or meaningful conclusion can be drawn from the Alliance’s initiative.
... GMOs (genetically modified organisms) are also potentially problematic in animal feed. A recent study linked cancer in hogs to their consumption of GMO soy and maize (Carman et al. 2013). With so many other non-GMO crops to choose from, we have chosen to avoid GMOs at the Aloha House. ...
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Farm-Generated Feed: Chicken Feed Production ECHO options for the small farm
... Studies have shown that the consumption of GM foods can be harmful to health, especially when considering the pesticides associated with them (15) . The following conditions have been observed: hepatic and renal toxicity in animals that were fed GM corn; the appearance of tumours in rats that were fed GM corn (16)(17)(18) ; inflammation in the stomachs of pigs that were fed GM corn and soyabeans (19) ; and damage to the mucous membranes of the jejune surface in rats that were fed GM corn (20) . In man, such harm has been associated with neurological problems, hormonal changes, infertility, cancer, diabetes, obesity, gastrointestinal disorders, depression, heart disease, autism, Alzheimer's disease and coeliac disease (21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26) . ...
Article
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Objective To identify ingredients from products and by-products derived from GM crops in packaged food products and to analyse the presence of these ingredients in the foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A search of the scientific literature to identify the use of products and by-products derived from GM crops in foods in Brazil and a study of food labels in a supermarket belonging to one of the ten largest supermarket chains in Brazil. Subjects To identify the ingredients present in packaged food products and their nomenclatures, the labels of all packaged food products available for sale in a supermarket were analysed. Subsequently, the presence of potential GM ingredients in the foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population was analysed. Results A total of twenty-eight GM crops’ by-products with applications in the food industry (from soyabeans, corn, cotton and a yeast) were identified. Such by-products are presented as food ingredients or additives on food labels with 101 distinct nomenclatures. Most of the variety (63·8 %) and the quantity (64·5 %) of the foods most commonly consumed by Brazilians may contain a least one GM ingredient. Conclusions The presence of at least one potential GM ingredient was observed in more than half of the variety of foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population. Such ingredients were identified with distinct nomenclatures and incomplete descriptions, which may make it difficult to identify potential GM foods and confuse consumers when making food choices.
... Effects of Bt toxins on the immune system have been identified in different species and via different routes, including whole food dietary administration. The observations include studies on mice [45,46], and pigs [47,48]. Immune system responses have also been shown for fish [49,50]. ...
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Background MON89788 was the first genetically engineered soybean worldwide to express a Bt toxin. Under the brand name Intacta, Monsanto subsequently engineered a stacked trait soybean using MON89788 and MON87701—this stacked soybean expresses an insecticidal toxin and is, in addition, tolerant to glyphosate. After undergoing risk assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the stacked event was authorised for import into the EU in June 2012, including for use in food and feed. This review discusses the health risks associated with Bt toxins present in these genetically engineered plants and the residues left from spraying with the complementary herbicide. Results We have compared the opinion published by EFSA [1] with findings from other publications in the scientific literature. It is evident that there are several issues that EFSA did not consider in detail and which will need further assessment: (1) There are potential combinatorial effects between plant components and other impact factors that might enhance toxicity. (2) It is known that Bt toxins have immunogenic properties; since soybeans naturally contain many allergens, these immunogenic properties raise specific questions. (3) Fully evaluated and reliable protocols for measuring the Bt concentration in the plants are needed, in addition to a comprehensive set of data on gene expression under varying environmental conditions. (4) Specific attention should be paid to the herbicide residues and their interaction with Bt toxins. Conclusions The case of the Intacta soybeans highlights several regulatory problems with Bt soybean plants in the EU. Moreover, many of the issues raised also concern other genetically engineered plants that express insecticidal proteins, or are engineered to be resistant to herbicides, or have those two types of traits combined in stacked events. It remains a matter of debate whether the standards currently applied by the risk assessor, EFSA, and the risk manager, the EU Commission, meet the standards for risk analysis defined in EU regulations such as 1829/2003 and Directive 2001/18. While this publication cannot provide a final conclusion, it allows the development of some robust hypotheses that should be investigated further before such plants can be considered to be safe for health and the environment. In general, the concept of comparative risk assessment needs some major revision. Priority should be given to developing more targeted approaches. As shown in the case of Intacta, these approaches should include: (i) systematic investigation of interactions between the plant genome and environmental stressors as well as their impact on gene expression and plant composition; (ii) detailed investigations of the toxicity of Bt toxins; (iii) assessment of combinatorial effects taking into account long-term effects and the residues from spraying with complementary herbicides; (iv) investigation into the impact on the immune and hormonal systems and (v) investigation of the impact on the intestinal microbiome after consumption. Further and in general, stacked events displaying a high degree of complexity due to possible interactions should not undergo a lower level of risk assessment than the parental plants.
... Studies assessing possible risks to vertebrates and humans include evidence of rising residue levels in soybeans [62,63], cancer risk [64], and risk of a variety of other potential adverse impacts on development, the liver or kidney, or metabolic processes [54,55,[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80]. ...
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Background: Accurate pesticide use data are essential when studying the environmental and public health impacts of pesticide use. Since the mid-1990s, significant changes have occurred in when and how glyphosate herbicides are applied, and there has been a dramatic increase in the total volume applied. Methods: Data on glyphosate applications were collected from multiple sources and integrated into a dataset spanning agricultural, non-agricultural, and total glyphosate use from 1974-2014 in the United States, and from 1994-2014 globally. Results: Since 1974 in the U.S., over 1.6 billion kilograms of glyphosate active ingredient have been applied, or 19 % of estimated global use of glyphosate (8.6 billion kilograms). Globally, glyphosate use has risen almost 15-fold since so-called "Roundup Ready," genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crops were introduced in 1996. Two-thirds of the total volume of glyphosate applied in the U.S. from 1974 to 2014 has been sprayed in just the last 10 years. The corresponding share globally is 72 %. In 2014, farmers sprayed enough glyphosate to apply ~1.0 kg/ha (0.8 pound/acre) on every hectare of U.S.-cultivated cropland and nearly 0.53 kg/ha (0.47 pounds/acre) on all cropland worldwide. Conclusions: Genetically engineered herbicide-tolerant crops now account for about 56 % of global glyphosate use. In the U.S., no pesticide has come remotely close to such intensive and widespread use. This is likely the case globally, but published global pesticide use data are sparse. Glyphosate will likely remain the most widely applied pesticide worldwide for years to come, and interest will grow in quantifying ecological and human health impacts. Accurate, accessible time-series data on glyphosate use will accelerate research progress.
... Genetic engineering technology allows the application of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein genes to crops (e.g., rice, maize, cotton, soy) to protect agricultural plants from insect infection. These crops are usually called transgenic Bt crops [5]. ...
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BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.
... The authors postulate that glyphosate is associated with the increase in C. botulinum-mediated diseases in these domestic farm animals. Carman et al. (2013) reported that a diet of GE corn and soy was associated with stomach inflammation in pigs. ...
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A huge increase in the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases has been reported in the United States (US) over the last 20 years. Similar increases have been seen globally. The herbicide glyphosate was introduced in 1974 and its use is accelerating with the advent of herbicide-tolerant genetically engineered (GE) crops. Evidence is mounting that glyphosate interferes with many metabolic processes in plants and animals and glyphosate residues have been detected in both. Glyphosate disrupts the endocrine system and the balance of gut bacteria, it damages DNA and is a driver of mutations that lead to cancer. In the present study, US government databases were searched for GE crop data, glyphosate application data and disease epidemiological data. Correlation analyses were then performed on a total of 22 diseases in these time-series data sets. The Pearson correlation coefficients are highly -5 significant (< 10 ) between glyphosate applications and hypertension (R = 0.923), stroke (R = 0.925), diabetes prevalence (R = 0.971), diabetes incidence (R = 0.935), obesity (R = 0.962), lipoprotein metabolism disorder (R = 0.973), Alzheimer’s (R = 0.917), senile dementia (R = 0.994), Parkinson's (R = 0.875), multiple sclerosis (R = 0.828), autism (R = 0.989), inflammatory bowel disease (R = 0.938), intestinal infections (R = 0.974), end stage renal disease (R = 0.975), acute kidney failure (R = 0.978), cancers of the thyroid (R = 0.988), liver (R = 0.960), bladder (R = 0.981), pancreas (R = 0.918), kidney (R = 0.973) and myeloid leukaemia (R = 0.878). -4 The Pearson correlation coefficients are highly significant (< 10 ) between the percentage of GE corn and soy planted in the US and hypertension (R = 0.961), stroke (R = 0.983), diabetes prevalence (R = 0.983), diabetes incidence (R = 0.955), obesity (R = 0.962), lipoprotein metabolism disorder (R = 0.955), Alzheimer’s (R = 0.937), Parkinson's (R = 0.952), multiple sclerosis (R = 0.876), hepatitis C (R = 0.946), end stage renal disease (R = 0.958), acute kidney failure (R = 0.967), cancers of the thyroid (R = 0.938), liver (R = 0.911), bladder (R = 0.945), pancreas (R = 0.841), kidney (R = 0.940) and myeloid leukaemia (R = 0.889). The significance and strength of the correlations show that the effects of glyphosate and GE crops on human health should be further investigated.
... Sin embargo, ya existen algunas investigaciones sobre los probables efectos de los productos transgénicos en la salud. En un estudio hecho por Carman, Vlieger, Ver Steeg, Sneller, Robinson, Clinch-Jones, … & Edwards (2013) sobre la influencia de los alimentos transgénicos, la autopsia de cerdos alimentados con una mezcla de soya y maíz transgénicos mostró inflamaciones de estómago 2,6 veces superiores a las de los cerdos que comieron soya y maíz convencionales. También, las hembras alimentadas con la mezcla de soya y maíz transgénicos tenían úteros significativamente mayores que las que comieron soya y maíz no transgénicos. ...
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Las investigaciones en biotecnología vegetal han conducido a la introducción en la agricultura de numerosos productos científicos, entre los que se destacan el mejoramiento genético y la multiplicación acelerada de especies vegetales, la conservación de germoplasma y las plantas transgénicas. Al mismo tiempo, se ha mantenido un constante debate sobre los beneficios y costos sociales de las aplicaciones biotecnológicas, principalmente dirigido hacia la inserción de los organismos genéticamente modificados en la agricultura. Este artículo tiene como objetivo hacer un balance de las perspectivas actuales y futuras de la aplicación de las biotecnologías vegetales en la agricultura, y de las implicaciones de su empleo para la sociedad. Se discuten los resultados más recientes obtenidos en esta área del conocimiento. Se concluye que la biotecnología vegetal ha demostrado su valor científico y aplicación práctica, aunque subsisten desigualdades en la propiedad sobre los avances y las ganancias obtenidas, las cuales tienden a mantenerse en el futuro.
... published by individual scientists (Arjo et al., 2013) and regulatory agencies (EFSA, 2012;FSANZ, 2012). Another animal study (Carman et al., 2013) was published in a journal that primarily has editorial board members with experience in marketing or soil science. The study conduct or review would have greatly benefited from technical contributions from an animal scientist, veterinary pathologist or toxicologist. ...
Article
During the 40(th) Annual Meeting of The Toxicology Forum, the current and potential future science, regulations, and politics of agricultural biotechnology were presented and discussed. The range of current commercial crops and commercial crop traits related to transgenic proteins were reviewed and example crop traits discussed, including insecticidal resistance conferred by Bt proteins and the development of nutritionally enhanced food such as Golden Rice. The existing regulatory framework in the USA, with an emphasis on US FDA's role in evaluating the safety of genetically engineered crops under the regulatory umbrella of the FD&C Act was reviewed. Consideration was given to the polarized politics surrounding agricultural biotechnology, the rise of open access journals, and the influence of the internet and social media in shaping public opinion. Numerous questions related to misconceptions regarding current products and regulations were discussed, highlighting the need for more scientists to take an active role in public discourse to facilitate public acceptance and adoption of new technologies and to enable science-based regulations.
... Unfortunately, many consumers are not able to discern accurate from faulty studies, and many controversial studies now end up in predatory journals or other journals that do not have an adequate peer review (Ryan and Vicini, 2016). One example for animals is a swine paper published in a journal (Carman et al., 2013) with editors that don't list backgrounds in animal or veterinary sciences. The design and analysis of the study had several flaws that would have been caught if reviewed by experts in animal health and pathology. ...
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• Genetically modified (GM or GMO) crops have been widely adopted by growers and are a significant source of feed for animal agriculture. • Most GMO crops commercialized for animal feed have input traits that do not change their composition or nutritional value for animals. • Feeding GMO crops does not result in detection of transgenic DNA or their translated proteins in meat, milk, or eggs. • Genetically modified crops help reduce greenhouse gases, decrease agricultural chemical use, and increase farmer incomes. • Genetically modified crops provide better pest protection and weed control, which increases yields and preserves more land for wildlife and biodiversity.
... Esto constituye un riesgo, en función de lo anteriormente expuesto con respecto a la posibilidad de inserción de genes y su expresión. En otra investigación importante sobre el tema, se corroboró que la soya transgénica provocó alteraciones en el endometrio de hembras de rata (Brasil et al. 2009), y mezclada con maíz transgénico causó inflamaciones de estómago y úteros alterados en cerdas (Carman et al. 2013). ...
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En 1983, después de una década de investigaciones en ingeniería genética, se creó la primera planta transgénica de tabaco. Unos diez años después se aprobó la introducción de plantas transgénicas en la producción agrícola, iniciándose una vertiginosa carrera ascendente en la presencia de los organismos genéticamente modificados (OGMs) en la agricultura. Sin embargo, hasta hoy se mantiene una álgida controversia entre los que, por un lado, defienden la inocuidad de los alimentos transgénicos y los que, en el extremo opuesto, se oponen tajantemente a su consumo. El debate ha conducido a que muchos países hayan legislado sobre el uso de los cultivos transgénicos y los alimentos resultantes. Los objetivos de este artículo fueron analizar el posible riesgo de los alimentos transgénicos y el estado en que se encuentran las legislaciones sobre ellos en Sudamérica. Se realizó una investigación documental sobre los riesgos de los alimentos obtenidos a partir de OGMs y las legislaciones vigentes en el subcontinente. El estudio permitió definir que aunque no se han informado afectaciones de los alimentos transgénicos a la salud humana, los datos no son concluyentes. Existen legislaciones en varios países sudamericanos, pero su perdurabilidad no está garantizada, lo que podría acarrear perjuicio a los consumidores.
... A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet [47] Judy A. Carman and colleagues 2013 ...
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Genetic modification is a specific part of gene technology that changes the genetic structure of living organisms, such as animals, plants, or microorganisms. Genetically Modified, is known with such names as Transgenic or Transgenic. In recent years, discussions have arisen about the potential effects of transgenic corn on health There are also discussions about its effect on other insects and other plants due to the gene flow The study was conducted as a systematic double-blind review by searching the Internet at the Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Highwire, MD Consult and Scopus databases. From the result of this study, we can come to a Conclusion that any transgenic product is not usable and can have many disadvantages, while some of them are completely safe and usable.
... Observing feed consumption or body weight gain in toxicity studies with swine (Carman et al., 2013), rats (He et al., 2009), rabbits (Salisu et al., 2018), poultry (McNaughton et al., 2007) and cows (Mohanta et al., 2010) can be a sensitive predictor of toxicity in animals. The lack of any biologically meaningful changes in these parameters further validates the biosafety of Cry and CP4-EPSPS proteins. ...
Article
Genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal and herbicide-tolerant traits offer a new strategy for crop protection and enhanced production; however, at the same time present a challenge in terms of toxicology and safety. The current experiment presents the findings of a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats with transgenic cottonseed which is expressing insecticidal Cry proteins (Cry1Ac and Cry2A), and tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate. There were 100 rats in this experiment divided into 5 groups of 10 rats/sex/group. Cottonseed from transgenic and control (near-isogenic) lines was formulated into standard diets at levels of 10% and 30% (w/w). All formulated diets were nutritionally balanced. Overall appearance, feed consumption, body weight, organ weight, haematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis were comparable between control and treatment groups. In addition, there was no treatment-related difference in findings of microscopic histopathology and gross appearance of tissues. In conclusion, following the 13-week of feeding transgenic cottonseed, no treatment-related adverse effects were observed in any of the parameters measured in this experiment. Thus, this study demonstrated that transgenic cottonseeds do not cause toxicity and are nutritionally equivalent to its conventional counterpart.
... Come tutti gli organofosforici può essere correlato alla ADHD, sindrome da deficit di attenzione e iperattività (Bouchard et al. 2010;Suarez-Lopez et al. 2013;Yu et al. 2016;Marks et al. 2010). Dimethoate è un interferente endocrino: interferisce con l'azione degli ormoni tiroidei; aumenta la concentrazione nel sangue di insulina; diminuisce la concentrazione nel sangue dell'ormone luteinizzante (Mnif et al., 2011) Antiandrogeno (Orton et al, 2011 Brooker et al., 1991;Tasker et al., 1980;Carman et al., 2013;Krüger et al., 2013a;Mnif et al., 2011;CLP classification 2013;Suresh, 1993;ISPRA 2015, tab. 46;Arbuckle et al., 2001;Suarez-Lopez et al., 2013). ...
... Отже, зазначений вище огляд літературних джерел дає підставу вважати, що остаточної відповіді щодо безпеки (небезпеки) ГМ-кормів для організму тварин світовим науковим співтовариством ще не отримано і на це акцентують увагу сучасні багаточисельні наукові дослідження [13,14,15]. Тому, роботи з вивчення наслідків їх застосування у тваринництві і, зокрема свинарстві, на здоров'я та продуктивність тварин досить актуальні не тільки в плані підвищення ефективності використання кормів, але й екологічної безпеки та розвитку суспільства. ...
... Judging by the reaction of the scientific community, the next similar investigation (Carman et al., 2013) equally contributed to a negative perception of the prospects of genetic engineering and caused an equally acute socio-political resonance. However, this report was more substantiated from the point of view of the canons of classical epistemology, and its conclusions were more balanced. ...
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The monograph is an English, expanded and revised version of the book Cheshko, V. T., Ivanitskaya, L.V., & Glazko, V.I. (2018). Anthropocene. Philosophy of Biotechnology. Moscow, Course. The manuscript was completed by me on November 15, 2019. It is a study devoted to the development of the concept of a stable evolutionary human strategy as a unique phenomenon of global evolution. The name “An Evolutionary Metaphysics (Cheshko, 2012; Glazko et al., 2016). With equal rights, this study could be entitled “Biotechnology as a result and factor of the evolutionary processˮ. The choice in favor of used “The Evolutionary Metaphysics of Human Enhancement Technologiesˮ was made in accordance with the basic principle of modern post-academician and human-sized science, a classic example of which is biotechnology. The “Metaphysics of Evolution” and “Evolutionary Metaphysics” concepts are used in several ways in modern philosophical discourse. In any case, the values contain a logical or associative reference to the teleological nature of the evolutionary process (Hull, 1967, 1989; Apel, 1995; Faye, 2016; Dupre, 2017; Rose, 2018, etc). In our study, the “evolutionary metaphysics” serves to denote the thesis of the rationalization and technologization of global evolution and anthropogenesis, in particular. At the same time, the postulate of an open future remains relevant in relation to the results of the evolutionary process. The theory of evolution of complex, including the humans system and algorithm for its constructing are а synthesis of evolutionary epistemology, philosophical anthropology and concrete scientific empirical basis in modern science. ln other words, natural philosophy is regaining the status bar element theoretical science in the era of technology-driven evolution. The co-evolutionary concept of 3-modal stable evolutionary strategy of Homo sapiens is developed. The concept based оn the principle of evolutionary complementarity of anthropogenesis: value of evolutionary risk and evolutionary path of human evolution are defined bу descriptive (evolutionary efficiency) and creative-teleological (evolutionary correctness) parameters simultaneously, that cannot bе instrumental reduced to others ones. Resulting volume of both parameters define the vectors of blological, social, cultural and techno-rationalistic human evolution Ьу two gear mechanism genetic and cultural co-evolution and techno-humanitarian balance. The resultant each of them сап estimated Ьу the ratio of socio-psychological predispositions of humanization / dehumanization in mentality. Explanatory model and methodology of evaluation of creatively teleological evolutionary risk component of NBIC technological complex is proposed. Integral part of the model is evolutionary semantics (time- varying semantic code, the compliance of the blological, socio-cultural and techno-rationalist adaptive modules of human stable evolutionary strategy). It is seem necessary to make three clarifications. First, logical construct, “evolutionary metaphysics” contains an internal contradiction, because it unites two alternative explanatory models. “Metaphysics”, as a subject, implies deducibility of the process from the initial general abstract principle, and, consequently, the outcome of the development of the object is uniquely determined by the initial conditions. Predicate, “evolutionary”, means stochastic mechanism of realizing the same principle by memorizing and replicating random choices in all variants of the post-Darwin paradigm. In philosophy, random choice corresponds to the category of “free will” of a reasonable agent. In evolutionary theory, the same phenomenon is reflected in the concept of “covariant replication”. Authors will attempt to synthesize both of these models in a single transdisciplinary theoretical framework. Secondly, the interpretation of the term “evolutionary (adaptive) strategyˮ is different from the classical definition. The difference is that the adaptive strategy in this context is equivalent to the survival, i.e. it includes the adaptation to the environment and the transformation (construction) of the medium in accordance with the objectives of survival. To emphasize this difference authors used verbal construction “adaptiveˮ (rather than “evolutionaryˮ) strategy as more adequate. In all other cases, the two terms may be regarded as synonymous. Thirdly, the initial two essays of this series were published in one book in 2012. Their main goal was the development of the logically consistent methodological concept of stable adaptive (evolutionary) strategy of hominines and the argumentation of its heuristic possibilities as a transdisciplinary scientific paradigm of modern anthropology. The task was to demonstrate the possibilities of the SESH concept in describing and explaining the evolutionary prospects for the interaction of social organization and technology (techno-humanitarian balance) and the associated biological and cultural mechanisms of the genesis of religion (gene-cultural co-evolution). In other words, it was related to the sphere of cultural and philosophical anthropology, i.e. to the axiological component of any theoretical constructions describing the behavior of self-organizing systems with human participation. In contrast, the present work is an attempt to introduce this concept into the sphere of biological anthropology and, consequently, its main goal is to demonstrate the possibility of verification of its main provisions by means of procedures developed by natural science, i.e. refers to the descriptive component of the same theoretical constructions. The result of this in the future should be methods for assessing, calculating and predicting the risk of loss of biological and cultural identity of a person, associated with a permanent and continuously deepening process of development of science and technology.
... After adding 269.9 mg/kg of Roundup and 134.95 mg/kg of GLP to the diet of rats for one week and two weeks, the weights of the liver, spleen and kidney of rats were not affected (El-Shenawy, 2009). Similarly, pigs were fed with non-GM (without glyphosate herbicide) and GM (with glyphosate herbicide) soybeans and maize respectively, which had no effect on their heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney indices (Carman et al., 2013). Because our trial dose is only exploring the toxic effects on weaned piglets at the level of the Ministry of agriculture, it is lower than previous studies, and our results are consistent with previous studies. ...
Article
Glyphosate (GLP), the most widely used and productive pesticide worldwide, which safety and reliability gradually become a social concern. It is important to explore the toxic of GLP on the limitation level by governments on piglets and the potential role of hepatic CAR/PXR and Keap1-Nrf2 pathways in low levels of glyphosate detoxification. Compared with the control group, the production performance and organ index of GLP group showed no significant change. However, the liver GLP residue of 40 mg/kg group was significantly higher than the control group. We also found that the activity of ALP increased linearly and DBIL content increased quadratically. Furthermore, GLP could significantly increase SOD and GSH-Px and decrease T-AOC and CAT activities and significantly increase MDA and H2O2 contents (P < 0.05); however, the genes expression of Keap1/Nrf2 pathway was not affected. Gene expression of CAR/PXR pathway showed that GLP could significantly stimulate the expression of CAR, but it could not affect the expression of phase Ⅰ (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2A19, CYP3A29), phase Ⅱ (UGT1A6, GSTA1, GSTA2) detoxification enzymes and transporters (MDR1, MRP2, P-gp). Our study showed that although 10-40 mg/kg GLP would inevitably cause some liver damage and dysfunction, it can self-alleviating the toxic effect of GLP.
... Glyphosate, patented as an antimicrobial (Monsanto Technology LLC M, 2010), has been shown to disrupt gut bacteria in animals, preferentially killing beneficial forms and causing an overgrowth of pathogens. Moreover, evidence of the disruption of gut bacteria by glyphosate is available for poultry , cattle (Krüger et al., 2013), and swine (Carman et al., 2013). Similar studies for crabs are lacking; thus, the effects of glyphosate exposure on the richness and diversity of the intestinal flora of E. sinensis were studied in order to reduce the effects of glyphosate on the health of aquatic animals. ...
Article
Glyphosate is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world and can be transported easily by surface runoff, air, and rivers, potentially affecting aquaculture. In this study, the survival rate, intestinal and hepatopancreatic immune and digestive functions, and the intestinal microbial diversity of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) were evaluated after 7 days of exposure to glyphosate (48.945 mg/L from 1/2 96-h LC50 value). The results showed that glyphosate significantly reduced the survival rate of E. sinensis. After exposure to glyphosate, the totoal antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the midgut and hindgut of E. sinensis was significantly decreased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the midgut was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After glyphosate exposure, the activities of digestive enzymes (including lipase and amylase) in the intestinal tract were significantly decreased and trypsin was significantly increased, while three enzymes in the hepatopancreas were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Using high-throughput sequencing analysis of the gut microbiota, the results showed that glyphosate significantly decreased the diversity of E. sinensis gut microbiota, while significantly increasing the taxonomic richness of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (P < 0.05). This study suggested that these bacteria may be involved in glyphosate effects on survival by regulation of immune and digestive function.
... Moreover, Al caged by glyphosate dimers and trimmers [125] bears a certain resemblance to chelation complexes of Al citrate. Given its biocidal effects on gut biota [126,127], leading to inflammatory intestinal disorders commonly treated by Al-containing antacids [128], Al interacting with glyphosate is likely to increase its crossing of the endogenous intestinal biofilm barrier into the blood stream [129,130]. Such Al-induced leaking of the endogenous biofilms of the gut and blood brain barrier could increase Al accumulation in the CNS. ...
Article
Over the last 200 years, mining, smelting, and refining of aluminum (Al) in various forms have increasingly exposed living species to this naturally abundant metal. Because of its prevalence in the earth’s crust, prior to its recent uses it was regarded as inert and therefore harmless. However, Al is invariably toxic to living systems and has no known beneficial role in any biological systems. Humans are increasingly exposed to Al from food, water, medicinals, vaccines, and cosmetics, as well as from industrial occupational exposure. Al disrupts biological self-ordering, energy transduction, and signaling systems, thus increasing biosemiotic entropy. Beginning with the biophysics of water, disruption progresses through the macromolecules that are crucial to living processes (DNAs, RNAs, proteoglycans, and proteins). It injures cells, circuits, and subsystems and can cause catastrophic failures ending in death. Al forms toxic complexes with other elements, such as fluorine, and interacts negatively with mercury, lead, and glyphosate. Al negatively impacts the central nervous system in all species that have been studied, including humans. Because of the global impacts of Al on water dynamics and biosemiotic systems, CNS disorders in humans are sensitive indicators of the Al toxicants to which we are being exposed. (PDF) Aluminum-induced entropy in biological systems: Implications for neurological disease. Journal of Toxicology, 2014, Article ID 491316, 27 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/491316.. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333582751_Aluminum-induced_entropy_in_biological_systems_Implications_for_neurological_disease_Journal_of_Toxicology_2014_Article_ID_491316_27_pages_2014_doi1011552014491316 [accessed Jun 03 2019].
... Estudos realizados com animais mostraram toxicidade hepática e renal, bem como o surgimento de tumores em ratos alimentados com milho GM (De Vendomois et al. 2009, Magana-Gomez e De La Barca 2009, Séralini et al. 2012, Séralini et al. 2014, inflamação no estômago em suínos alimentados com soja e milho GM (Carman et al. 2013) e danos às membranas mucosas da superfície do jejuno em ratos alimentados com milho GM (Ibrahim e Okasha 2016). ...
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Resumo Este trabalho se propõe a discutir o consumo de organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM), principalmente considerando a realidade brasileira. O consumo de OGM vem sendo as-sociado ao aumento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, obesidade, autismo, doenças hepá-ticas e renais, doença celíaca, entre outras. No ambiente, a produção de OGM se associa a perda da biodiversidade. Nesse contexto é feita uma reflexão quanto o cultivo de OGM no Brasil e a presença dos mesmos na dieta da população brasileira. Isso porque, no Brasil, o principal objetivo das modificações genéticas é desenvolver plantas resistentes ao uso de agrotóxicos, a exemplo do glifosato, cujos malefícios já são comprovados cientificamente. E quase a totalidade da área plantada de soja, milho e algodão são geneticamente modificadas no Brasil. A problemática da liberação e cultivo de alimentos geneticamente modificados (GM) no Brasil se acentua ao se con-siderar o amplo uso dos subprodutos, principalmente de soja e milho, presentes em grande parte dos alimentos industrializados. Ademais, a legislação brasileira de rotulagem de alimentos exige a identificação de OGM no rótulo somente de produtos que contenham mais de 1% de ingre-dientes GM (Brasil 2003a). Considerando a promoção de uma alimentação saudável e sustentável, atrelada à promoção da segurança alimentar e nutricional, deve-se fomentar o consumo de ali-mentos provenientes de produção orgânica e de base agroecológica, produzidos por produtores locais, garantindo o consumo de um produto livre de OGM. A legislação brasileira deve considerar a rotulagem obrigatória aplicada a todos os produtos contendo OGM, permitindo ao consumidor tomar decisões a partir de uma informação adequada. Palavras-chave: Organismos Geneticamente Modificados; Sustentabilidade; Alimentação saudável; Consumo alimentar.
... J. Carman et al. [3] виявили, що у свиней, яких годували ГМ-соєю та кукурудзою протягом 22,7 тижня, кількість важких форм запалення стінок шлунку зростає втричі порівняно з тваринами, які отримували корм без ГМО. Встановлено аномальне збільшення матки самок, яких годували кормом з ГМО, що піднімає питання про можливий зв'язок ГМО з порушеннями роботи репродуктивних органів. ...
... However, there is already some research that points out the effects of transgenic products on health. Carman et al. (2013) studied the influence of transgenic foods in pigs that were fed with transgenic soybean and corn; the autopsy of the pigs showed stomach inflammations 2.6 times higher than those of pigs that ate conventional soybean and corn. Also, female pigs fed with the mixture of genetic modified (GM) soybean and corn had significantly higher uteri than those who ate non-GM soybean and corn. ...
Chapter
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Plant biotechnology is an essential tool that allows agriculture improvement by increasing food production through tissue culture, molecular biology, and crop improvement. At present, agriculture is facing many problems that affect food production seriously; some of these problems are degradation of soils, salinity, contamination with heavy metals and hydrocarbons, drought, desertification, deforestation, and one of the solutions is biotechnology. This chapter will discuss aspects related to sustainable agriculture and food challenge, plant biotechnology, and plant biotechnology and sustainability. First, the incidence of agriculture is analyzed, on the one hand, in the reduction of hunger, and on the other, in the degradation of the environment, which can only be resolved through a sustainable model. Secondly, the most relevant applications of modern biotechnology in the accelerated propagation of plants, germplasm conservation, and genetic improvement are described. Next, both elements are linked, and it is analyzed how biotechnology can contribute to sustainability through modern technologies. The contribution of modern biotechnologies to sustainability in agriculture is illustrated through the presentation of examples of work done with the genus Lupinus. This genus comprises species useful for sustainable agriculture, which serve as a source of proteins and secondary metabolites, as well as in crop rotation. This chapter shows some of the results achieved in the multiplication and in vitro conservation of species from Lupinus, as examples of the application of biotechnology with an environment friendly approach.
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The production of the transgenic plant is an important tool in plant and agricultural biotechnology, which alters the plant genetic characters for improving the species-specific traits or for adding any novel or a beneficial trait that usually remains absent naturally in economical crops. The introduction of genetic transformation conquered the major constraint of conventional plant breeding. As a result, transgenic plant technology has been shown to enhance crop yield, reduce the use of insecticides and pesticides, and reduce crop production costs. Notably, crop yield loss due to insects is a leading threat to economic loss and food security worldwide. Insects cause two main classes of damage to growing crops—one is direct contact and the other is indirect damage through infection. One of the accomplishments of the transgenic plant has been the establishment and commercial cultivation of insect-resistant plants against different insect pests. This chapter sheds light on an important aspect of the different transgenic plants used in the development of insect resistance and their future impact on their ecological and economic perspectives.
Technical Report
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Si presentano gli effetti ecologici dell'uso eccessivo e massiccio di glifosate.
Article
A number of widely debated research articles claiming possible technology-related health concerns have influenced the public opinion on genetically modified food safety. We performed a statistical reanalysis and review of experimental data presented in some of these studies and found that quite often in contradiction with the authors’ conclusions the data actually provides weak evidence of harm that cannot be differentiated from chance. In our opinion the problem of statistically unaccounted multiple comparisons has led to some of the most cited anti-genetically modified organism health claims in history. We hope this analysis puts the original results of these studies into proper context.
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Objective A systematic review of animal and human studies was conducted on genetically modified (GM) food consumption to assess its safety in terms of adverse effects/events to inform public concerns and future research. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from January 1st 1983 till July 11th 2020 for in vivo, animal and human studies on the incidence of adverse effects/events of GM products consumption. Two authors independently identified eligible studies, assessed the study quality, and extracted data on the name of the periodical, author and affiliation, literature type, the theme of the study, publication year, funding, sample size, target population characteristics, type of the intervention/exposure, outcomes and outcome measures, and details of adverse effects/events. We used the Chi-square test to compare the adverse event reporting rates in articles funded by industry funding, government funding or unfunded articles. Results One crossover trial in humans and 203 animal studies from 179 articles met the inclusion criteria. The study quality was all assessed as being unclear or having a high risk of bias. Minor illnesses were reported in the human trial. Among the 204 studies, 59.46% of adverse events (22 of 37) were serious adverse events from 16 animal studies (7.84%). No significant differences were found in the adverse event reporting rates either between industry and government funding ( χ ² = 2.286, P = 0.131), industry and non-industry funding ( χ ² = 1.761, P = 0.185) or funded and non-funded articles ( χ ² = 0.491, P = 0.483). We finally identified 21 GM food-related adverse events involving 7 GM events (NK603 × MON810 maize, GTS 40-3-2 soybean, NK603 maize, MON863 maize, MON810 maize, MON863 × MON810 × NK603 maize and GM Shanyou 63 rice), which had all been on regulatory approval in some countries/regions. Conclusion Serious adverse events of GM consumption include mortality, tumour or cancer, significant low fertility, decreased learning and reaction abilities, and some organ abnormalities. Further clinical trials and long-term cohort studies in human populations, especially on GM food-related adverse events and the corresponding GM events, are still warranted. It suggests the necessity of labelling GM food so that consumers can make their own choice.
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Biomass is material which is available in plenty and is a renewable source of energy. Several routes are there to extract energy from biomass viz. physical conversion, thermo-chemical conversion, bio-chemical conversion etc. However bio-chemical conversion processes are most popular as these are more efficient and cleaner. Bio-chemical conversion of biomass comprises of processes like biogas production, hydrogen production, fermentation, biodiesel and composting. Biogas is a flammable gas which is harnessed by anaerobic decomposition of agricultural waste in specifically designed biogas plants. Hydrogen is a high calorific value fuel can be derived from enzymes. Ethanol is popular fuel can be drawn from biomass by fermentation and from algae. Free fatty acid alkyl esters termed as biodiesel can be derived from biomass oil by the process of transesterification. Natural breakdown of organic matter due to controlled decomposition by the microorganisms is termed as composting. These all biofuels can be drawn by different processes and have their own advantages as well as limitations. Renewable sources are significant energy sources from a view of recent future.
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In this chapter, I reflect on my transition from natural science work in biochemistry and biotechnology to becoming a professor in the social and policy sciences. I discuss how I’ve viewed biotechnology policy from standpoints of ethics and philosophy, biochemistry and molecular biology, risk analysis, science and technology policy, and the social sciences. The “trails” of each period of this career have informed my recent work on the policy “trials” or controversies surrounding governance of emerging technologies, including agricultural biotechnology. At this critical juncture of enormous advances in biotechnology (e.g. synthetic biology, gene editing, and gene drives), I end the chapter with a plea for each of us to recognize our own biases and respect the viewpoints of others. I hope to see the current biotechnology revolution shaped by many different viewpoints, so it is done in the best interest of all of society. Only then will we be able to move past the inflamed and divisive rhetoric and enable safe, responsible, socially-desirable and appropriate use of genetic engineering.
Article
Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; control and GM-corn fed group administered with 30% GM-corn for 90 days. Specimens from the jejunum were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Different morphometrical parameters were assessed. Specimens from GM-corn fed group showed different forms of structural changes. Focal destruction and loss of the villi leaving denuded mucosal surface alternating with stratified areas were observed, while some crypts appeared totally disrupted. Congested blood capillaries and focal infiltration with mononuclear cells were detected. Significant upregulation of PCNA expression, increase in number of goblet cells and a significant increase in both villous height and crypt depth were detected. Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes with focal loss of the microvillous border were observed. Some enterocytes had vacuolated cytoplasm, swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some cells had dark irregular nuclei with abnormally clumped chromatin. It could be concluded that consumption of GM-corn profoundly alters the jejunal histological structure.
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The thesis at hand comprises different impacts arising when introducing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into agricultural landscapes. Different to natural plants, GMOs exhibit biological features that cannot be attained by conventional plant breeding. These traits include resistance against certain pests, e.g. the corn borer, or herbicides like glyphosates. In contrast to the contained use for technical or medical applications, GMOs are released in open agricultural systems implying particular requirements and measures for risk assessment in the course of the approval process. Deliberate release in the environment should only be allowed after innocuousness is assured. According regulations are defined in the directive 2001/18/EC by the European Parliament. In this context, the thesis deals with issues having been rather disregarded in the past, i.e. the landscape ecological analysis whether and to what extent unwanted large-scale impacts are possible in relation to certain cultivation patterns and different environmental frameworks. Possible impacts include coexistence issues, freedom of choice for both producers and consumers, and unwanted effects on agricultural and natural environment. By means of dispersal models, geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistical measures the analyses revealed that the legal regulations, prescribing isolation distances of 150 m for GMO fields to conventional fields and 300 m to organic farming, are not applicable in any case, especially for complex cultivation patterns which are characteristic for certain federal states in Germany like Schleswig-Holstein or Lower Saxony. Even an isolation distance of 300 m to organic maize fields should not prevent from contamination rates of more than 0.9 % being the threshold for labelling the harvested crops as genetically modified. On the other hand, increased isolation distances cannot always be realized without restricting the producer’s freedom of choice cultivating conventional or genetically modified crops since this would imply unreasonable efforts for neighborhood arrangement. Additionally, it became clear that a holistic assessment approach should also consider socio-economic aspects, e.g., the benefit of the introduction of a new cultivation technique for the whole society. Finally, it is mandatory that the data provided by the applicant for risk assessment should be disclosed to allow safety evaluation by independent scientists. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit möglichen Folgen eines Anbaus von gentechnisch veränderten Organismen (GVO) in der Landwirtschaft (Grüne Gentechnik). Anders als bei der konventionellen Pflanzenzüchtung werden Kulturpflanzen Eigenschaften übertragen, die auf natürlichem Weg nicht möglich wären. Hierzu zählen Unempfindlichkeiten gegenüber bestimmten Pflanzenschutzmitteln oder die Resistenz gegenüber Fraßschädlingen wie dem Maiszünsler. Da die gentechnisch veränderten Konstrukte – anders als bei medizinischen oder technischen Anwendungen – im Zuge der landwirtschaftlichen Produktion in offene, natürliche Systeme verbracht werden, gibt es besondere Anforderungen an die Risikoanalyse im Rahmen des Zulassungsverfahrens. Erst nach umfangreichen Untersuchungen zu möglichen Auswirkungen eines flächenhaften Anbaus eines spezifischen GVO darf dieser in den Verkehr gebracht werden. Entsprechende Bestimmungen sind EU-weit in einer entsprechenden Freisetzungsrichtlinie formuliert. Die Arbeit beleuchtet hierbei ein bislang eher vernachlässigter Aspekt des Anbaus von GVO, nämlich die landschaftsökologische Analyse, ob und wie unterschiedlich strukturierte regionale Anbausituationen die Ausbreitung von GVO und damit das Auftreten unerwünschter Effekte im Sinne einer landwirtschaftlichen Koexistenz, der Wahlfreiheit des Konsumenten sowie einer Beeinträchtigung des Naturhaushalts bedingen. Die mit Hilfe von Ausbreitungsmodellen, Geographischen Informationssystemen sowie geostatistischen Verfahren gewonnenen Ergebnisse haben u.a. gezeigt, dass die gesetzlichen Regelungen, die Mindestabstände von 150 m zu konventionellen Äckern und von 300 m zu ökologisch bewirtschafteten Maisfeldern vorschreiben, nicht immer greifen. Gerade für kleinräumige Agrarstrukturen, wie sie etwa für Schleswig-Holstein oder Niedersachsen charakteristisch sind, sind sie mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit nicht sachgemäß zielführend. So würde bei bestimmten räumlichen Anbaukonstellationen selbst bei einem Sicherheitsabstand von 300 m noch ein erheblicher Anteil konventioneller Maisfelder durch eine Einkreuzung von GV-Mais oberhalb der Kennzeichnungsschwelle von 0,9 % gefährdet sein. Würden dagegen zur Sicherung der Koexistenz größere Sicherheitsabstände eingeführt, käme es in einigen besonders intensiv bewirtschafteten Agrarräumen zu Problemen in der freien Wahl des Anbausystems, da entsprechende Entscheidungen aufgrund der komplexen Nachbarschaftsverhältnisse nur noch mit erheblichem Abstimmungsaufwand getroffen werden könnten. Daneben wurde deutlich, dass für eine umfassende Risikobewertung auch sozio-ökonomische Aspekte (z.B. der gesamtgesellschaftliche Nutzen) berücksichtigt werden sollten. Und schließlich ist es erforderlich, dass die mit den Zulassungsanträgen vorzulegenden Forschungsdaten frei zugänglich gemacht werden, um eine Überprüfung durch unabhängige Wissenschaftlicher zu ermöglichen.
Chapter
From a macroscopic point of view, the inflammatory process is considered an event for which it is possible to identify a beginning and an endpoint, typically represented by the appearance and subsequent disappearance of the classical signs and symptoms (rubor, tumor, calor, dolor, fluor and functio laesa), respectively [1, 2].
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Agriculture is an important sector that provides food, fiber, and fuel, and other vital commodities which possibly sustains life on Earth. In recent time, the growing human population demands a large amount of agriculture commodities to fulfill the need. Therefore, agriculture has been escalating rapidly, which introduced various modern practices and technologies that affect the environment in many ways. The excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides contaminates the air, water, and soil. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides enhances crop productivity, it also deteriorates the soil health. There is a need to explore the economically sound and ecologically viable alternatives which can address these concerns. Numerous sustainable cropping practices like the application of biofertilizer, slow-release fertilizers, biochar, vermicompost, zero or low tillage, etc., have been investigated and found substantially effective. In the present chapter, a thorough discussion about these technologies has been made. Moreover, how these technologies can be incorporated with modern/corporate agricultural tools has also been explored.
Technical Report
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Pesticidi da eliminare nelle aree urbane ai sensi del Regolamento di Esecuzione (UE) 2015/408 del Decreto del 22 gennaio 2014 del Decreto del 15 febbraio 2017 del principio di precauzione.
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GM crops are the most studied crops in history. Approximately 5% of the safety studies on them show adverse effects that are a cause for concern, and tend to be featured in media reports. Although these reports are based on just a handful of GM events, they are used to cast doubt on all GM crops. Furthermore, they tend to come from just a few laboratories and are published in less important journals. Importantly, a close examination of these reports invariably shows methodological flaws that invalidate any conclusions of adverse effects. Twenty years after commercial cultivation of GM crops began, a bona fide report of an adverse health effect due to a commercialized modification in a crop has yet to be reported. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Approved GM oilseed crops being grown worldwide include soyabeans, canola and cotton, which are major sources of oil and protein for human and animal feeding. Soyabeans are the most important of these crops since the beans and extracted oil are used as human food. Only the oil from canola and cottonseed are used as human food, the fat-extracted meals being used as animal feed. A striking feature is the high proportion of GM cultivars of these crops being grown, in some countries approaching 100%. Several GM cultivars of these crops have been approved as food/feed sources by regulatory authorities, based on evidence of safety and nutritional composition. Several countries have also approved their cultivation domestically, but this has not been the case in Europe. Results of scientific investigations confirm the approval granted to GM cultivars by regulatory authorities, and contrary findings published by some investigators have not been accepted as credible by the scientific community. Claims of higher contents of pesticide residues in GM oilseed crops are not supported by the scientific evidence. Based on the available scientific evidence it is clear that the approved cultivars of GM oilseeds produce food and feed that is as safe and nutritious as non-GM cultivars.
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The study of the safety and risk of genetically engineered (GE) food [also described as genetically modified organisms (GMO)] is focused on determining whether intended and/or unintended effects have arisen from their use. Comparison of the unknown with the known has been a major approach to food safety, and is also applied for GE foods. A distinction should be made between the concept of safety and risk. Zero risk is not possible. International bodies have played significant roles in guiding the interpretation of these concepts. Analysis and interpretation of the composition of GE food is key to the targeted approach of assessment. The environmental effects on component concentration are becoming better understood through metaanalyses of crop data. The current global focus is on the value of rodent toxicology studies, nontarget "omics" approaches, trait stacking, and safety studies for foods produced using gene editing techniques.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate potential long-term (110 days) and age-specific effects of feeding genetically modified Bt maize on peripheral immune response in pigs and to determine the digestive fate of the cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin. Forty day old pigs (n = 40) were fed one of the following treatments: 1) isogenic maize-based diet for 110 days (isogenic); 2) Bt maize-based diet (MON810) for 110 days (Bt); 3) Isogenic maize-based diet for 30 days followed by Bt maize-based diet for 80 days (isogenic/Bt); and 4) Bt maize-based diet (MON810) for 30 days followed by isogenic maize-based diet for 80 days (Bt/isogenic). Blood samples were collected during the study for haematological analysis, measurement of cytokine and Cry1Ab-specific antibody production, immune cell phenotyping and cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin detection. Pigs were sacrificed on day 110 and digesta and organ samples were taken for detection of the cry1Ab gene and the truncated Bt toxin. On day 100, lymphocyte counts were higher (P<0.05) in pigs fed Bt/isogenic than pigs fed Bt or isogenic. Erythrocyte counts on day 100 were lower in pigs fed Bt or isogenic/Bt than pigs fed Bt/isogenic (P<0.05). Neither the truncated Bt toxin nor the cry1Ab gene were detected in the organs or blood of pigs fed Bt maize. The cry1Ab gene was detected in stomach digesta and at low frequency in the ileum but not in the distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT), while the Bt toxin fragments were detected at all sites in the GIT. Perturbations in peripheral immune response were thought not to be age-specific and were not indicative of Th 2 type allergenic or Th 1 type inflammatory responses. There was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or Bt toxin translocation to organs or blood following long-term feeding.
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Male weanling pigs (n=32) with a mean initial body weight of 7·5 kg and a mean weaning age of 28 d were used in a 31 d study to investigate the effects of feeding GM (Bt MON810) maize on growth performance, intestinal histology and organ weight and function. At weaning, the pigs were fed a non-GM starter diet during a 6 d acclimatisation period. The pigs were then blocked by weight and litter ancestry and assigned to diets containing 38·9 % GM (Bt MON810) or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 d. Body weight and feed disappearance were recorded on a weekly basis (n 16/treatment), and the pigs (n 10/treatment) were killed on day 31 for the collection of organ, tissue and blood samples. GM maize-fed pigs consumed more feed than the control pigs during the 31 d study (P < 0·05) and were less efficient at converting feed to gain during days 14-30 (P < 0·01). The kidneys of the pigs fed GM maize tended to be heavier than those of control pigs (P = 0·06); however, no histopathological changes or alterations in blood biochemistry were evident. Small intestinal morphology was not different between treatments. However, duodenal villi of GM maize-fed pigs tended to have fewer goblet cells/μm of villus compared with control pigs (P = 0·10). In conclusion, short-term feeding of Bt MON810 maize to weaned pigs resulted in increased feed consumption, less efficient conversion of feed to gain and a decrease in goblet cells/μm of duodenal villus. There was also a tendency for an increase in kidney weight, but this was not associated with changes in histopathology or blood biochemistry. The biological significance of these findings is currently being clarified in long-term exposure studies in pigs.
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In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed.
Article
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Genetically modified corn has been approved as an animal feed in several countries, but information about the fate of genetically modified DNA and protein in vivo is insufficient. Genetically modified corn Bt11 is developed by inserting a recombinant DNA sequence encoding insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. We examined the presence of corn intrinsic and recombinant cry1Ab gene by PCR, and the Cry1Ab protein by immunological tests in the gastrointestinal contents of five genetically modified corn Bt11-fed and five nongenetically modified corn-fed pigs. Fragments of corn zein (242 bp), invertase (226 bp) and of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase genes (1,028 bp) were detected in the gastrointestinal contents of both Bt11 and nongenetically modified corn-fed pigs. Fragments of recombinant cry1Ab gene (110 bp and 437 bp) were detected in the gastrointestinal contents of the Bt11-fed pigs but not in the control pigs. Neither corn intrinsic nor cry1Ab gene fragments were detected in the peripheral blood by PCR. The gastrointestinal contents were positive for Cry1Ab protein by ELISA, immunochromatography, and immunoblot; however, these methods did not work for blood and precluded conclusions about any potential absorption of the protein. These results suggest that ingested corn DNA and Cry1Ab protein were not totally degraded in the gastrointestinal tract, as shown by their presence in a form detectable by PCR or immunological tests.
Article
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Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically modified plants (GMP) in animal nutrition properly raises many questions and issues, such as the role of a nutritional assessment of the modified feed or feed additive as part of safety assessment, the possible influence of genetically modified (GM) products on animal health and product quality and the persistence of the recombinant DNA and of the 'novel' protein in the digestive tract and tissues of food-producing animals. During the last few years many studies have determined the nutrient value of GM feeds compared to their conventional counterparts and some have additionally followed the fate of DNA and novel protein. The results available to date are reassuring and reveal no significant differences in the safety and nutritional value of feedstuffs containing material derived from the so-called 1st generation of genetically modified plants (those with unchanged gross composition) in comparison with non-GM varieties. In addition, no residues of recombinant DNA or novel proteins have been found in any organ or tissue samples obtained from animals fed with GMP. These results indicate that for compositionally equivalent GMP routine-feeding studies with target species generally add little to nutritional and safety assessment. However, the strategies devised for the nutritional and safety assessment of the 1st generation products will be much more difficult to apply to 2nd generation GMP in which significant changes in constituents have been deliberately introduced (e.g., increased fatty acids or amino acids content or a reduced concentration of undesirable constituents). It is suggested that studies made with animals will play a much more important role in insuring the safety of these 2nd generation constructs.
Article
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According to the information reported by the WHO, the genetically modified (GM) products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These assessments have not indicated any risk to human health. In spite of this clear statement, it is quite amazing to note that the review articles published in international scientific journals during the current decade did not find, or the number was particularly small, references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods. In this paper, the scientific information concerning the potential toxicity of GM/transgenic plants using the Medline database is reviewed. Studies about the safety of the potential use of potatoes, corn, soybeans, rice, cucumber, tomatoes, sweet pepper, peas, and canola plants for food and feed were included. The number of references was surprisingly limited. Moreover, most published studies were not performed by the biotechnology companies that produce these products. This review can be concluded raising the following question: where is the scientific evidence showing that GM plants/food are toxicologically safe?
Article
It is well known that finely ground diets pose the risk of gastric ulcers, whereas coarsely ground diets reduce Salmonella prevalence in pigs as observed in epidemiological, experimental and field studies with piglets or fattening pigs. Therefore, grinding intensity of components in pig diets came on debate again. The aim of this study was to standardize the measurement of grinding intensity, to recognize influences on particle size distribution in diets, and to monitor the “structure” (particle size) in commercial diets for piglets, fattening pigs and sows (in total n=350). Complete diets of different physical forms (ground, pelleted, crumbled) were analysed by dry and/or wet sieve analysis. The distribution of particle sizes was affected by the type of corn (with or without spelt), post-grinding treatment as well as the method of sieving (dry/wet). While monitoring commercial feeds the highest grinding intensity could be observed in complete diets for piglets and fattening pigs, whereas feeds for sows contained more coarsely ground particles.
Article
The present work has been designed to study the effect of feeding on transgenic potatoes, which carry the CryI gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain HD1, on the light and electron microscopic structure of the mice ileum, in comparison with feeding on potatoes treated with the 'delta-endotoxin' isolated from the same bacterial strain. The microscopic architecture of the enterocytes of the ileum of both groups of mice revealed certain common features such as the appearance of mitochondria with signs of degeneration and disrupted short microvilli at the luminal surface. However, in the group of mice fed on the 'delta-endotoxin', several villi appeared with an abnormally large number of enterocytes (151.8 in control group versus 197 and 155.8 in endotoxin and transgenic-treated groups, respectively). Fifty percent of these cells were hypertrophied and multinucleated. The mean area of enterocyte was significantly increased (105.3 microm(2) in control group versus 165.4 microm(2) and 116.5 microm(2) in endotoxin and transgenic-treated groups, respectively). Several forms of secondary lysosomes or auotophagic vacuoles were recognized in these cells. These changes were confirmed with the scanning electron microscope which revealed a remarkable increase in the topographic contour of enterocytes (23 microm in control group versus 44 microm and 28 microm in endotoxin and transgenic-treated groups, respectively) at the divulged surface of the villi. The basal lamina along the base of the enterocytes was damaged at several foci. Several disrupted microvilli appeared in association with variable-shaped cytoplasmic fragments. Some of these fragments contained endoplasmic reticulum, as well as ring-shaped annulate lamellae. In addition, the Paneth cells were highly activated and contained a large number of secretory granules. These changes may suggest that delta-endotoxin-treated potatoes resulted in the development of hyperplastic cells in the mice ileum. Although mild changes are reported in the structural configuration of the ileum of mice fed on transgenic potatoes, nevertheless, thorough tests of these new types of genetically engineered crops must be made to avoid the risks before marketing.
Article
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), considered a safe insecticide, produces insecticidal proteins named Cry during sporulation, which possess exceptional immunological properties. In this work using an immunohistochemical test we demonstrated that Cry1Ac protoxin (pCry1Ac) binds to the mucosal surface of the mouse small intestine. Ligand blot assay allowed us to detect, under denaturing conditions, six pCry1Ac-binding polypeptides present in brush border membrane vesicles isolated from the small intestine. Moreover, this protein induced in situ temporal changes in the electrophysiological properties of the mouse jejunum. The data obtained indicate a possible interaction in vivo of Cry proteins with the animal bowel which could induce changes in the physiological status of the intestine.
Article
In the mass media in recent months the debate about genetically modified (GM) foods has increased, and scientific journals have not been an exception. Science and other prestigious journals such as British Medical Journal , Lancet , and Nature have contributed to this broad debate, which was