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Emotions and Information Diffusion in Social Media — Sentiment of Microblogs and Sharing Behavior

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As a new communication paradigm, social media has promoted information dissemination in social networks. Previous research has identified several content-related features as well as user and network characteristics that may drive information diffusion. However, little research has focused on the relationship between emotions and information diffusion in a social media setting. In this paper, we examine whether sentiment occurring in social media content is associated with a user's information sharing behavior. We carry out our research in the context of political communication on Twitter. Based on two data sets of more than 165,000 tweets in total, we find that emotionally charged Twitter messages tend to be retweeted more often and more quickly compared to neutral ones. As a practical implication, companies should pay more attention to the analysis of sentiment related to their brands and products in social media communication as well as in designing advertising content that triggers emotions.
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Entre los mayores desafíos de las sociedades modernas se sitúa la prevención de conductas antisociales. Quizás por ello, en las últimas décadas, la investigación sobre conductas antisociales ha sido muy fructífera. Esto ha permitido avanzar en su conocimiento y revelar uno de los pocos conocimientos seguros respecto a las conductas antisociales, concretamente, la existencia de una relativa continuidad. Es por ello por lo que prevenir las conductas antisociales desde edades tempranas, conocer y actuar sobre factores de riesgo para reducir sus efectos y potenciar los factores de protección, resulta crucial para lograr el desarrollo optimo y el bienestar de individuos y sociedades. 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En el segundo estudio se han usado datos longitudinales de 450 participantes de Córdoba y Sevilla (España) para mostrar la relación entre bullying, cyberbullying y otras conductas antisociales en tanto que estas conductas no ocurren de forma paralela, sino que se asocian y configuran distintos patrones de conductas antisociales. En el tercer estudio se buscó mejorar la comprensión sobre los patrones longitudinales de conductas antisociales examinando la influencia de varios factores individuales como edad, sexo, competencias socioemocionales, empatía, emociones morales, desconexión moral y desconexión moral inducida por los padres. Para ello, se han usado datos longitudinales de 898 niños y adolescentes con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 17 años de Córdoba y Sevilla (España). Los hallazgos del primer estudio mostraron que la implicación en bullying (tanto victimización, como perpetración) se relaciona con mayor abuso de tecnologías. Asimismo, un nivel alto de competencias socioemocionales se relaciona con baja implicación en abuso de tecnologías. Por su parte, la expresión y uso de contenido emocional en la red se relacionó con mayor abuso de tecnologías. El modelo teórico probado en este estudio mostró que un nivel alto de competencias socioemocionales protege frente al bullying, y también, frente al abuso de tecnologías. A su vez, el efecto protector del alto nivel de competencias socioemocionales frente al abuso de tecnologías disminuye cuando esta relación está mediada por la expresión y el uso de contenido emocional en la red. En el segundo estudio se han descubierto cuatro patrones de conductas antisociales (antisocial bajo, altamente antisocial y victimizado, alta victimización por bullying y ofensas fuera de la escuela) que suelen permanecer relativamente estables durante la adolescencia ya que, por lo general, los adolescentes implicados en conductas antisociales en un momento dado continúan mostrando conductas antisociales un año después. A su vez, los resultados revelaron la naturaleza cambiante del patrón caracterizado por alta victimización de bullying, siendo los chicos de educación primaria los que muestran mayor probabilidad de estar implicados en el patrón de alta victimización por bullying. En cambio, los estudiantes de secundaria tenían una mayor probabilidad de mostrar los patrones altamente antisocial y victimizado y ofensas fuera de la escuela. En el tercer estudio se ha encontrado que la edad, varios mecanismos de desconexión moral, la desconexión moral inducida por los padres y varias competencias socioemocionales predijeron los patrones ofensas fuera de la escuela y altamente antisocial y victimizado, incluida su estabilidad en el tiempo. Asimismo, se ha encontrado que la edad, ser chico y la desconexión moral inducida por los padres predijeron el patrón alta victimización por bullying. Ser chico y un alto nivel de deshumanización y culpa a la víctima predijeron la estabilidad del patrón alta victimización por bullying un año después. Además, ser chico, de temprana edad y una baja toma de decisiones responsables predijeron una alta victimización por bullying que cesó en el seguimiento. La presente tesis doctoral proporciona evidencia empírica acerca del rol clave de las competencias socioemocionales y morales en la prevención de las conductas antisociales, para interrumpir la continuidad y transición de las conductas antisociales de formas más leves a formas más graves. Los resultados sugieren que los programas de aprendizaje socioemocional que incorporen los factores de naturaleza socioemocional y moral examinados en este trabajo podrían mejorar su efectividad ante las distintas conductas antisociales llevadas a cabo dentro y fuera del contexto escolar. En base a los resultados presentados en este trabajo parece razonable incluir algunos componentes en estos programas para promover una expresión y uso del contenido emocional en la red que sea ajustado y adecuado. Asimismo, los resultados apuntan al fomento de la sensibilidad moral y ética para que los adolescentes valoren como legítimos las necesidades y los derechos de los demás, que logren concienciarse de la importancia de la convivencia positiva y valores como la prosocialidad. Los resultados también sugieren que, para las estrategias de prevención e intervención educativas se deben considerar los patrones de conductas antisociales en lugar de estudiar conductas antisociales especificas por separado. A menudo los programas de prevención e intervención en las escuelas se centran en un tipo de conducta problema (p. ej., bullying, cyberbullying). Sin embargo, los hallazgos empíricos presentados en la presente tesis doctoral muestran que los esfuerzos de prevención deberían centrarse más bien en los patrones de conductas antisociales teniendo en cuenta las conductas de los adolescentes desde una perspectiva holística e integral. 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Asimismo, este trabajo se suma a los esfuerzos de la comunidad científica y ofrece argumentos empíricos sobre la importancia de las competencias socioemocionales y morales en la prevención de conductas antisociales. Se pretende avanzar hacia estrategias de prevención integrales y mejoradas, apostando por empoderar a niños y adolescentes con las habilidades socioemocionales y morales necesarias para minimizar los efectos perjudiciales y la implicación en conductas antisociales, tomar decisiones de forma responsable, y guiarlos a través de prácticas educativas basadas en la evidencia para alcanzar el desarrollo psicosocial optimo y saludable.
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