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Abstract

Bodenlebende Larven von Insekten, v.a. von Zweiflüglern (Arthropoda, Insecta: Diptera), sind wichtige Zersetzerorganismen. Während in Tallagen und in alpinen Böden Regenwürmer die wichtigsten Zersetzer darstellen, übernehmen Dipterenlarven zunehmend diese Funktion in hochalpinen Böden. Um einen ersten Überblick über Fliegen und Mücken mit bodenbewohnenden Larven zu bekommen, wurden deren Schlüpfraten während einer Vegetationsperiode erhoben.

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... In Britain, it was found in coastal localities and open mountainous habitats. According to Seeber et al. (2012) it is common in high alpine localities, and Heller (2014) caught large numbers in malaise-traps placed in gardens in Northern Germany. In Thy, the species was trapped in almost all localities in both types of dune. ...
... In Britain, it was found in coastal localities and open mountainous habitats. According to Seeber et al. (2012) it is common in high alpine localities, and Heller (2014) caught large numbers in malaise-traps placed in gardens in Northern Germany. In Thy, the species was trapped in almost all localities in both types of dune. ...
... In Britain, it was found in coastal localities and open mountainous habitats. According to Seeber et al. (2012) it is common in high alpine localities, and Heller (2014) caught large numbers in malaise-traps placed in gardens in Northern Germany. In Thy, the species was trapped in almost all localities in both types of dune. ...
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On the basis of re-evaluation of morphological characters of the Lycoriella group of genera and subgenera, generic rank is given to the two species groups belonging to Lycoriella (Hemineurina) Frey, 1942 and to Lycoriella (Coelostylina) Tuomikoski, 1960. The Lycoriella (Hemineurina) inflata group, including the type species of the subgenus, Sciara conspicua Winnertz, 1867, is treated as the genus Hemineurina stat. n. and the Lycoriella (Hemineurina) vitticollis group as the genus Trichocoelina gen. n. (type species Sciara vitticollis Holmgren, 1883). Coelostylina Tuomikoski, 1960 (type species Lycoriella (Coelostylina) freyi Tuomikoski, 1960) is a junior homonym of Coelostylina Kittl, 1894, and is renamed Stenacanthella nom. et stat. n. The genera are diagnosed and their phylogeny is discussed. Eight species are excluded from the Lycoriella group. They are transferred to the genera Bradysiopsis Tuomikoski, 1960, Camptochaeta Hippa & Vilkamaa, 1994, Merizomma Sasakawa, 2003 stat. n. and Scatopsciara Edwards, 1927 (five species) or are for the time being regarded as incertae sedis (two species) and as nomen nudum (one name). Numerous nomenclatural corrections are made also in the genera Hemineurina Frey, Stenacanthella Vilkamaa & Menzel and Trichocoelina Vilkamaa & Menzel. Altogether 42 new combinations, three changes in status and one new synonym are presented. A lectotype is designated for Hemineurina algida (Frey, 1948) and two Hemineurina species names are removed from synonymy and given full species status. The following species of Trichocoelina are newly described: Trichocoelina absidata sp. n. (Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T. aemula sp. n. (Finland, Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T. biplex sp. n. (Canada: Newfoundland and Labrador, Yukon), T. dicksoni sp. n. (Russia: Arkhangelsk oblast, Kemerovsk oblast, Krasnodarsk region), T. dispansa sp. n. (Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T. dividua sp. n. (Canada: Northwest Territories), T. hians sp. n. (Canada: Yukon), T. imitator sp. n. (Canada: Yukon), T. incrassata sp. n. (USA: Alaska), T. ithyspina sp. n. (Norway), T. jukkai sp. n. (Finland), T. magnifica sp. n. (Canada: Yukon), T. nefrens sp. n. (Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T. obesula sp. n. (Norway), T. oricillifera sp. n. (Finland, Norway), T. planilobata sp. n. (Finland), T. quintula sp. n. (Finland), T. semisphaera sp. n. (Finland, Norway), T. semusta sp. n. (Italy, USA: Alaska), and T. tecta sp. n. (Canada: Nunavut, Yukon, Russia: Krasnodarsk region, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, USA: Alaska). The Trichocoelina species are keyed, the 20 new species are described and illustrated, and the 9 previously known ones, transferred to the new genus, are briefly diagnosed and the taxonomically relevant literature regarding them is listed. Trichocoelina janetscheki (Lengersdorf, 1953) comb. n. and Trichocoelina brevicubitalis (Lengersdorf, 1926) comb. n. are redescribed. The genus Trichocoelina currently includes 29 species: 17 in the Palaearctic, 6 in the Nearctic and 6 in the Holarctic. All known species are northern or montane.
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Little is known about the effect of decomposer diversity on litter decomposition in alpine areas. Especially under the premise that alpine ecosystems are very sensitive to global change and are currently undergoing extensive land-use changes, a better understanding is needed to predict how environmental change will affect litter decomposition. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to compare the effects of the most common and functionally diverse invertebrates (earthworms, millipedes and sciarid larvae) found in alpine soils on decomposition rates and to assess how decomposer diversity affects litter decomposition. Experimental and estimated (i.e. projected to field decomposer-biomass) litter mass loss was 13–33% higher in the three-species treatment. Notably, the variability in decomposition was greatly reduced when decomposer diversity was high, indicating a portfolio effect. Our results suggest that invertebrate decomposer diversity is essential for sustaining litter decomposition in alpine areas and for the stability of this service.
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In dieser Masterarbeit wurde das Nahrungsnetz wirbelloser Tiere der Größenordnung Makrofauna (größer als 2 mm) in hochalpinen Rasen auf 2500 und 2600 m erhoben. Dazu bedienten wir uns klassischer Methoden durch Entnahme von Bodenproben und der Trockenextraktion nach KEMSPON ET AL. An vier unterschiedlichen Probenflächen wurden an drei Terminen je 6 Bodenproben genommen. Es wurde auch Rücksicht auf die Einflüsse einer Schafbeweidung an den Flächen genommen. Nachdem die Tiere aus dem Boden extrahiert worden waren, wurden sie identifiziert und für die Stabile-Isotope-Analyse (kurz SIA) vorbereitet. Mit Hilfe dieser modernen Methode konnten Rückschlüsse auf die Nahrungsquellen (13C) und deren Position innerhalb des Nahrungsnetzes (15N) gezogen werden. Die Tierfunde zeigten sehr unterschiedliche Verteilungsmuster in Bezug auf die vier Flächen und im Verlauf der Vegetationsperiode im alpinen Gelände. Diplopoda zeigen ihre Verbreitungsgrenze und kommen nur in den unteren Standorten (KD, KF, 2500 m) vor. Lumbricidae weisen auf KG die größten Abundanzen auf, jedoch fehlen sie auf KH (2600 m, Schafliegeplatz) fast ganz. Mit der Höhe nehmen auch Diptera-Larven und Coleoptera stark an Zahl zu. Dies bestätigt die Vermutung, dass Lumbricidae und Diplopoda (agieren als Zersetzer) durch Diptera-Larven und der Mesofauna (kleiner als 2 mm) abgelöst werden. Hauptaugenmerk wurde dem Nahrungsnetz gewidmet. Das Streumaterial konnte als Hauptnahrungsquelle bestätigt werden; der Mineralboden spielt eine untergeordnete Rolle in hochalpinen Rasen. Trophische Ebenen im klassischen Sinne konnten nicht erkannt werden. Vielmehr resultieren inter- und intraspezifische Unterschiede in einem Kontinuum von Zersetzer (an der Basis) zu Räubern (an der Spitze) im Nahrungsnetz zu bilden. Cecidomyiidae-Larven und Lumbricidae bilden die unterste Zersetzerschicht und ernähren sich vermutlich von Streu; Letztere fehlen auf KH aufgrund der besonderen Bedingungen (verdickter Boden, große Mengen Schafmist). Diplopoda zeigen auf KD und KF die höchsten Zersetzer-Signaturen, und werden an den restlichen beiden Flächen durch Scarabaeidae und Diptera-Larven ersetzt: sie fressen verweste Streu (samt Mikroorganismen) und tierische Rückstände. Die Räuber-Gruppe zeigt Carabidae- und Chironomidae-Larven an erster Stelle, welche sich hauptsächlich von der Zersetzer-Gruppe ernähren. Als „Top-Prädatoren“ wurden durchwegs Empididae- und Rhagionidae-Larven, sowie Staphylinidae erfasst, welche sowohl Zersetzer wie auch innerhalb der Räuber-Gruppe ihre Beute beziehen.
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In April–October 1990–95 soil sciarids emerging in two Danish barley fields were recorded by means of emergence traps. In 1990–92 the fields were conventionally tilled, in the autumn of 1992 one of the fields was abandoned as annual set-aside (1993) and in 1994–95 most of the field was recropped. In the cropped and uncropped fields 480–527 ind. m−2 and 369–433 ind. m−2 emerged, respectively. Ten sciarid species were recorded, eight of which are well-known farmland inhabitants. Apparently, abandonment affected Scatopsciara atomaria negatively, whereas Corynoptera perpusilla was encouraged. The predominant species were probably bivoltine or trivoltine. In Lycoriella castanescens, Scatopsciara atomaria, Corynoptera perpusilla and Bradysia trivittata the female proportion increased significantly during the season. It is assumed that the primary sex ratio of the species is spanandrous. The seasonal change in sex ratio might arise from the unusual modes of reproduction demonstrated in Sciaridae. In Lycoriella castanescens, Bradysia trivittata and Corynoptera perpusilla a significant seasonal increase in wing length was recorded, whereas the wing length of Scatopsciara atomaria and Bradysia rufescens decreased significantly during the season. This suggests a seasonality in the production of large, potentially migrant females. In arable fields sciarid life history traits such as sex ratio, adult biometry and fecundity might be facultative.
Chapter
In the central Alps of Austria, culminating in the Großglockner mts. 3798 m a.s.l. (Hohe Tauern range) and Wildspitze 3774 m (Ötztal Alps), there are two important borders for animal life in the high alpine environment: the timberline and the snow line. Above the timberline at ca 2000 m vegetation changes from dwarf shrub heath to steppe-like grasslands (sedge mats) of (1) the alpine zone (ca. 2000–2700 m), which gradually fade into the grassland fragments of (2) the subnival zone (2600–3000 m); (3) the nival zone above the snow line at ca. 2900–3100 m is characterized by open-cushion vegetation, mosses and lichens remaining at extreme sites. Decrease in temperature and the short period of growth, habitat fragmentation, the effect of wind and snow distribution are the most important ecological factors at high altitudes (see Körner, this vol.) Distribution and zonation of animals in the high Alps have been studied for more than 100 years (Bäbler 1910; Franz 1943; Holdhaus 1954; Janetschek 1956,1993; Schmölzer 1962; Janetschek et al. 1987). A special fauna is found in the forefield of glaciers (Janetschek, 1949) and at the glacier surface itself. To survive under high alpine conditions, animals have evolved various morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations (Sømme 1989). Our report concentrates on the regional situation in the Central Alps, with emphasis on invertebrates, but neglecting Protozoa (see Foissner 1987). Further regional information can be found in Franz (1981), Patzelt (1987), Cernusca (1989); see also results obtained at Munt La Schera in the Suisse National Pare (Matthey et al. 1981). The fauna of the Alps is also discussed in general overviews of high altitude biology presented by Mani (1968) and Franz (1979).
Chapter
High-altitude vegetation is often treated as a special type of tundra, but this is an inadequate simplification. The major common features of real tundra and “alpine vegetation” are the absence of trees, the short stature of plants, and the low annual mean temperature. Most other components of the alpine environment may differ substantially from arctic tundra environments (Table 1; Bilhngs 1973, 1979a). The term “alpine” is used here exclusively for the vegetation above the natural subalpine tree line. Often this boundary is unsharp and is fragmented over several hundred meters of altitude. Where an upper tree line is missing, as in many arid mountain regions, the approximate level of the tree hne in the nearest more humid mountains is taken as a rough guidehne. At the polar end of the alpine vegetation, there is no clear distinction between the arctic-alpine and the arctic-lowland flora. Depending on region, most arctic-alpine vegetation north of 65° to 70°N is possibly better included in the term arctic (similar climate and species composition).
Article
1. Dipteran communities were studied in five terrestrial habitats [beech forest (BE), oak and hornbeam forest (OH), hedgerow (HE), meadow (ME), alder and willow forest (AW)] using emergence traps and diversity patterns of three trophic groups with soil-dwelling larvae (zoophages, phytosaprophages and surface scrapers) were analysed in detail. 2. Across habitats, sampling effort was a poor predictor of species richness, and species richness increased more steeply with sample size in the zoophages than in the phytosaprophages and surface scrapers. 3. Point diversity (S/trap) of phytosaprophages and surface scrapers increased (as predicted) with resource heterogeneity in the litter layer, but that of zoophages did not. It is suggested that this may be due to differential resource requirements of the three trophic groups during adult life. 4. Zoophages attained the highest and surface scrapers the lowest values of Shannon diversity, while phytosaprophages were intermediate. 5. Predator:prey ratios differed between habitats; they were particularly high in the meadow and low in the oak and hornbeam forest communities. 6. Species identity (Sorensen index) of soil-dwelling Diptera arranged habitats in an order of decreasing similarity (BE–OH–HE–ME–AW), but percentage similarity indicated a closer relationship between the meadow and the hedgerow communities [BE–OH–AW–(HE–ME)]. Functional similarity, which was based on the proportional biomass of differently sized trophic groups, was highest between the BE and OH communities, i.e. in the habitats most similar in litter layer and vegetation structure.
Article
Larvae of soil dwelling Diptera represent an important part of the edaphon in a wide range of ecosystems from climax forests to agroecosystems. Their abundance in soil varies from several hundred to several thousand individuals per square meter. They take part in many important biological processes in soil such as the decomposition of plant litter and nutrient cycling. Soil dwelling Diptera include groups and species that vary in size as well as in food and ecological demands. This paper summarizes data concerning their ecology and distribution in various natural and man made habitats and their reaction to stress factors. The response of a soil dwelling dipteran community can be evaluated in several ways, e.g., at the level of food web structure, species composition, or individual response of selected species. The possibilities of interpreting such data as well as perspectives for future research are discussed.
Article
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