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G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.

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... We conducted the main experiment with a sample of 132 US-located respondents recruited through Qualtrics. In line with prior literature (Peinkofer et al., 2022;Barker and Brau, 2020), the necessary sample size was based on Lonati et al.'s (2018) theoretical recommendation for at least 50 observations per cell, and statistical evidence (G*Power) (Faul et al., 2007;Eckerd et al., 2021). All participants were randomly assigned between the two experimental conditions and received US $4 upon completing the study. ...
... Similar to study 1, we followed Lonati et al. (2018) and Faul et al. (2007) to assess the necessary sample size. We conducted the main experiment with a sample of 251 US-located respondents recruited through Qualtrics. ...
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Purpose Given increasing customer expectations and disturbances to product returns management, capabilities such as supply chain resilience (SCR) can complement service recovery strategies in retail supply chains. This study utilizes procedural justice theory (PJT) to conceptualize service recovery resilience as a capability that allows firms to meet customer requirements when dealing with disruptions, and empirically investigates its impact on procedural and interactional justice and customer outcomes (i.e. satisfaction and loyalty) in the context of product replacement. Design/methodology/approach This research employs two scenario-based experiments using a sample of 368 customers to explore the outcomes associated with service recovery resilience. Findings The investigation shows more satisfied and loyal customers when a retail supply chain can overcome service recovery challenges through SCR. The study shows that customers evaluate not only the process itself, but also their interactions with the retailer. Specifically, procedural justice and interactional justice have a significant influence on these relationships. Originality/value This study proposes service recovery resilience as a concept that bridges service recovery theory with supply chain strategy in the unique context of product replacement. Further, this study also notes how information enhances customer satisfaction with the retailer's effort to address disturbances in the recovery process. Finally, this study informs managers on the capabilities needed to face new customers' needs.
... G � power 3.1.9.2 was used to estimate the sample size [47], based on the most complex analysis, a 3 x 2 x 2 mixed factorial ANOVA. A medium effect (f = .25) ...
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Objectives Pharmacological studies using propranolol suggest that if reactivation signals that new information will be learned (i.e., there is an expectation for learning) reconsolidation can be enhanced. We examined if the verbal instructions to expect new learning will enhance reconsolidation of fear memories using the post-retrieval extinction paradigm. Methods On day one, participants (n = 48) underwent differential fear conditioning to two images (CS+ and CS-). On day two, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; groups one and two had their memory for the CS+ reactivated (i.e., a single presentation of the CS+) 10 minutes prior to extinction, whereas group three did not have their memory reactivated but went right to extinction (no reactivation group). One reactivation group was told that they would learn something new about the images (expectation for learning group), and the other group was told that they would not learn anything new (no expectation for learning group). On day three, return of fear was measured following reinstatement (i.e., four shocks). Fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance response (SCR) were measured throughout. Results There was evidence of fear acquisition for participants for SCR but not FPS. With regards to reconsolidation, SCR increased for the CS+ and CS-in all groups from the end of extinction to the beginning of re-extinction (i.e., return of fear). For FPS, post-hoc tests conducted on the sub-group of participants showing fear learning showed that FPS remained stable in the two reactivation groups, but increased to the CS+, but not the CS- in the no reactivation group. Implications These findings suggest that a verbal manipulation of the expectation for learning may not be salient enough to enhance reconsolidation. Results are discussed in relation to theories on differences in between SCR, as a measure of cognitive awareness, and FPS, as a measure of fear.
... Participants with missing data and those who could not complete the questionnaires were excluded. The sample size was determined using G-Power software [12]. The method of multi-variate linear regression was applied and the alpha value was set at 0.05, with a power of 0.80. ...
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Substance and alcohol use in the workplace have become a global health burden; however, the etiologies have seldom been explored. The aims of this study were to develop a Workplace Substance Reuse Questionnaire (WSRQ) to measure the multidimensional factors associated with the reuse of alcohol or illegal substances in the workplace. The predictors of reuse were also investigated. The WSRQs for alcohol (WSRQ-Alc) and illegal substances (WSRQ-Sub) were composed of 15 and 13 items, respectively. Factors associated with workplace substance reuse included workplace environment, workload, social interaction in the workplace and other cues. Construct validity and reliability were performed to verify the questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to estimate the associations between the factors and WSRQ score. A total of 90 patients with substance or alcohol use disorder were recruited. The results demonstrated that the WSRQ-Alc and WSRQ-Sub had acceptable reliability, with variance of 76.4% and 75.4%, respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis fit indices also indicated the adequacy of the model. A longer duration of alcohol use (β = 0.44; p = 0.002) and higher frequencies of changing job (β = 0.32; p = 0.027) and working part time (β = 0.32; p = 0.028) were significantly associated with higher WSRQ-Alc score. Our results highlight the importance of abstinence treatment and job referral for individuals with alcohol or substance use. Further studies are warranted to help extend the applicability and generalizability of the WSRQ.
... Convenience sampling was used to enrol adults who 1) were aged ≥20 years, 2) had no prior experience or education on VRE or CRE, and 3) were not being treated for anxiety or depression. The sample size was calculated using G*Power 3.1.9.4 (Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany) [14]. By applying the independent t-test, and having a medium effect size of 0.5, a significance level of 0.05, and a power of 0.80, a sample size of 51 for each group (total n=102) was calculated. ...
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Background The global increase in the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) among multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) has necessitated contact precaution and isolation in medical institutions. Contact isolation has a negative effect on the mental health of patients, but few interventions have addressed this issue. Aim This study evaluated an isolation-coping programme developed for patients colonized or infected with VRE or CRE. Methods To mitigate the negative effects of isolation due to having MDRO, an infection control nurse in the present study 1) developed an isolation-coping programme and 2) validated the programme’s effect on the uncertainty, anxiety, depression, and knowledge of patients isolated because of MDRO (VRE or CRE) using a pre–post quasi-experimental design. Findings The experimental group (n=56) received education and emotional support via the isolation-coping programme, while the control group (n=55) received only verbal isolation guidelines provided by the medical institution. Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed a reduction in uncertainty (t=-8.925), anxiety (Z=-6.131), and depression (Z=-5.379), and better knowledge (Z=-8.372) (p<.001 for all). Conclusion The novel isolation-coping programme is an effective intervention to improve uncertainty, anxiety, depression, and knowledge in patients isolated with VRE or CRE.
... A priori power analysis was performed based on the effect size observed in our previous studies in which we examined the effects of background acoustic conditions (music) in the context of cognitive tasks (Feizpour et al., 2018). With the significance level of 0.05 and the power at 0.80, the estimated sample size for this study was 61 participants (using G * Power 3.1; Faul et al., 2007). However, 67 participants allowed for full counterbalancing and maintenance of an adequate sample in the circumstance some participants could not complete their data collection. ...
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Auditory stimuli, encompassing a continually expanding collection of musical genres and sonic hues, present a safe and easily administrable therapeutic option for alleviating cognitive deficits associated with neuropsychological disorders, but their effects on executive control are yet to be completely understood. To better understand how the processing of certain acoustic properties can influence conflict processing, we had a large of cohort of undergraduate students complete the Stroop colour and word test in three different background conditions: classical music, white noise, and silence. Because of pandemic guidelines and the necessity to run the experiment remotely, participants also completed the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), so that the reliability and consistency of acquired data could be assessed. We found that white noise, but not classical music increased the response time difference between congruent (low conflict) and incongruent (high conflict) trials (conflict cost), hence impairing performance. Results from the WCST indicated that home-based data collection was reliable, replicating a performance bias reported in our previous laboratory-based experiments. Both the auditory stimuli were played at a similar intensity, thus their dissociable effects may have resulted from differing emotional responses within participants, where white noise, but not music elicited a negative response. Integrated with previous literature, our findings indicate that outside of changes in tempo and valence, classical music does not affect cognitive functions associated with conflict processing, whilst white noise impairs these functions in a manner similar to other stressors, and hence requires further research before its implementation into neuropsychiatric care.
... Since the authors planned to use Welch's t-tests (for differences between OCD and non-OCD people on continuous variables), several power analyses were performed. We relied on G*Power software to accomplish this procedure [68,69]. Power analysis allows researchers to determine the sample size required to detect an effect of a given size with a given degree of confidence. ...
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Social media (SM) are the new standard for social interaction and people with OCD use such platforms like everyone else. However, the research on these individuals provides limited, sporadic, and difficult-to-generalize data outside of social-media evidence for one specific context concerning how SM is experienced by people with OCD. Our cross-sectional study involved 660 participants (71.4% females, 28.6% males) with 22% of the sample surpassing the 90° percentile threshold to be identified as high-level OCD-symptomatic individuals. Our work highlighted that roughly all OCD types are affected by social media in terms of mood and that these individuals appeared to give SM more importance than non-OCD individuals. The evidence presented, although very narrow, can be conceived as the first building blocks to encourage future research considering how individuals with OCD experience social media, since they appear to be affected more by them compared to non-OCD individuals.
... The sample size was calculated by G*Power 3.1 [28], indicating that 80 participants would be sufficient for 80% power (a = 0.05, effect size = 0.40) to test the primary outcome [29,30]. A total of 91 children aged 5-6 years in the kindergarten affiliated with Tongji University were selected as experimental subjects. ...
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Children’s motor skills can be fully developed only by the appropriate stimulation of physical activities and the environment, and the poor development of motor skills greatly increases the risk of cognitive impairment, obesity, and movement coordination disorder. This study aimed to examine the effects of Chinese martial arts on the motor skills of preschool children aged 5–6 years through a randomized controlled trial. A total of 87 children aged 5–6 years served as participants in a martial arts sensory teaching group (MAST, n = 29), a martial arts traditional teaching group (MATT, n = 29), and a free activity group (FA, n = 29). The interventions were conducted twice weekly for a total of 10 weeks, with each session lasting 30 min. Children’s motor skills were assessed before and after the intervention using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The results indicated that the balance index scores in the MAST (p < 0.001) and MATT (p = 0.014) groups were significantly higher than those in the FA and that the MAST score was significantly higher than the MATT (p = 0.004). Meanwhile, the MAST was significantly higher in total scores on motor skills when compared to the FA (p = 0.039), and the MAST showed significantly higher scores on manual dexterity when compared to both the MATT (p = 0.021) and FA (p = 0.011). Chinese martial arts can significantly improve the balance ability of preschool children, and the MAST method was found to be better than that of the MATT. Meanwhile, the MAST had good potential for the development of preschool children’s manual dexterity and their overall level of motor skills.
... Moreover, using the 10 times rule of thumb, G*Power program version 3 was also to be employed to ensure that the sample size was sufficient for the study. A prior test of analysis for G*Power was to be used for the proper sample size estimation on some statistical parameters [106]. Using two predictors, a medium 0.15 effect size, a 0.05 level of significance, and this study obtained a 200-sample size at the statistical power of 0.95. ...
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The issues surrounding corporate sustainability (CS), which have gained importance in organizational theory and practice that could help in gaining a competitive advantage, are becoming complex and far-reaching. Competitive advantage could decline if CS will not be maintained. Various factors affect CS. Among those, corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices, organizational culture (OC), and reputation (R) are important factors to consider for improving corporate sustainability. Therefore, the current study objective was to investigate the impact of OC on CSR in the hospitality industry. In addition, the mediating role of R between CSR and CS has been analyzed. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from 350 managers, who were working in the hospitality industry across the country, by using a convenient sampling technique to test the proposed hypotheses empirically and validate the findings. Using a cross-research design and a quantitative-research approach, the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) findings indicated a positive impact by OC, CSR, and R on CS. Based on these findings, the study has practical and theoretical implications for researchers and practitioners. Moreover, the current study is also considered to be a pioneer study, contributing to the related findings in the previous literature specifically in the context of Pakistan.
... The focus will be on answering the following questions: (1) All experiments described used a high-resolution computer screen for stimulus presentation, and a constant width of dots and lines of 9 arc min. For each experiment, there were at least ten observers (mostly psychology undergraduates); this number was decided upon a priori in order to achieve a statistical power of 1 − β ≥ 0.95 for repeated-measures analyses of variance with α = β = 0.05, and f ≥ 1 [11]. Written, informed consent was obtained from all participants, and they were treated in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki [12]. ...
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Geometrical visual illusions have long been used as tools in neuroscience. Most commonly, researchers have taken illusions as a given and attempted to explain phenomenal impressions in terms of known neural mechanisms. In a psychophysical approach to this topic, it is customary to modify stimuli until conditions for which illusions are enhanced, attenuated, or annihilated have been found. Additionally, the focus is not exclusively on response bias but equally on sensitivity, because observers may fall prey to an illusion but at the same time be able to discriminate between stimuli perfectly. For the T-figure, the length of the undivided line is usually overestimated relative to the length of the divided line, and evidence has accrued that suggests that the illusion may be due to the processing of the figure as a coherent unit (a “T-schema”). Dissecting the T or tilting its lines influenced the amount of illusion, suggesting that interactions between orientation-sensitive and end-inhibited neurons are at work. Examples of cognate research with the Ponzo, Ebbinghaus, and Müller-Lyer illusions are also discussed.
... The total sample size was calculated using a repeated measures longitudinal design sample. According to G*Power (Faul et al., 2007) with parameters α = .05, β = .80, ...
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Aims To identify the different classes of total knee arthroplasty patients according to the heterogenous trajectories of psychological resilience and investigate the predictors for different patterns of resilience. Design A prospective cohort study. Methods A total of 210 patients with total knee arthroplasty from March to December 2021 were included. Baseline assessment (T0) data were collected before surgery and included demographic, biological (clinical characteristics), psychological (psychological resilience, self‐efficacy, psychological distress, hope, medical coping mode) and social (social support) factors. Resilience measurements were repeated at 3 days after surgery (T1), the date of discharge (T2), and 1 month (T3) and 3 months (T4) after discharge. Latent growth mixture modelling was employed to define different resilience trajectories. Predictors of class membership were identified using multinomial logistic regression. Results Data from 198 patients were analysed. Three latent classes were identified with similar patterns in different intercepts, showing a significant decrease in resilience from admission (T0) to 3 days after surgery (T1) followed by an increase from T1 to T4. The three trajectories of psychological resilience were named the stable‐resilience class (65.66%), high‐resilience class (17.68%), and low‐resilience class (16.66%). Multinomial logistic regression showed that compared with the stable‐resilience class, the high‐resilience class was predicted by having a higher level of hope, having higher education, living in urban areas and having more children, while the low‐resilience class was predicted by having lower levels of self‐efficacy and hope, living in semirural areas, and having more children. Conclusions The three trajectories indicated that surgery was the major stressor influencing patients' psychological resilience and that patients in the low‐resilience class needed to be intervened. Impact Predictors of patients in different classes provide evidence for the identification of vulnerable populations and lay a foundation for future research contributing to the development of targeted interventions for improving patients' psychological resilience. No patient or public contribution but the time points of investigation were decided based on our interviews with 12 total knee arthroplasty patients.
... Due to the lack of existing literature on this topic area, we relied on the conventional method of power analysis. G power software (version 3.1) was used to perform a priori power analysis [19][20][21]. The a priori power analysis was conducted to ascertain the required sample size for a test with a predetermined alpha and beta (power) level. ...
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Background and Objectives Remdesivir is an antiviral drug used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a relatively obscure cardiac effect profile. Previous studies have reported bradycardia associated with remdesivir, but few have examined its clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate remdesivir associated bradycardia and its associated clinical characteristics and outcomes.Methods This is a single-institution retrospective study that investigated bradycardia in 600 patients who received remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19. A total of 375 patients were included in the study after screening for other known causes of bradycardia (atrioventricular [AV] nodal blockers). All patients were analyzed for episodes of bradycardia from when remdesivir was initiated up to 5 days after completion, a time frame based on the drug’s putative elimination half-life. Univariate and multivariate statistical tests were conducted to analyze the data.ResultsThe mean age of the sample was 56.63 ± 13.23 years. Of patients who met inclusion criteria, 49% were found to have bradycardia within 5 days of remdesivir administration. Compared to the cohort without a documented bradycardic episode, patients with bradycardia were significantly more likely to experience inpatient mortality (22% vs 12%, p = 0.01). The patients with bradycardia were found to have marginally higher serum D-dimer levels (5.2 vs 3.4 µg/mL, p = 0.05) and were more likely to undergo endotracheal intubation (28% vs 14%, p = 0.008). Male sex, hyperlipidemia, and bradycardia within 5 days of completing remdesivir were significant predictors of inpatient mortality. No significant differences in length of stay were found.Conclusions Bradycardia that occurs during or shortly after remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients may be associated with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality. However, COVID-19 and its cardiac complications cannot be excluded as potential contributors of bradycardia in the present study. Future studies are needed to further delineate the cardiac characteristics of COVID-19 and remdesivir.
... A priori power analysis using the GPower software (Faul et al., 2007) to determine the minimum sample size required for this study. The median effect size was always set to f 2 = 0.15 in previous studies that have used regression analysis to calculate mediating effect (Ge, 2020;Pozzoli et al., 2016;Yang et al., 2018). ...
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Aggressive collective action online has many negative impacts on the online environment and can even lead to political violence or social panic in the offline world. Although the effect of relative deprivation on aggression toward the compared object is well known, the influence of relative deprivation on aggressive collective action online toward deprivation-related provocateurs within the group has been ignored. Thus, this study attempted to explore the effect, as well as the mediating mechanism underlying it. We found that group relative deprivation manipulated by an employment problem scenario (with the triggering event as a covariable) can enhance aggressive collective action online toward deprivation-related provocateurs within the group, with hostile feelings mediating the effect. These results support and develop the relative deprivation theory, frustration–aggression theory, stress and coping theory, and deepen the understanding of the relationship between relative deprivation and aggression. The findings also suggest that colleges should focus more on graduate employment problems and decreasing the relative deprivation experienced by undergraduate students in efforts to prevent aggressive collective action online.
... The exploratory nature of this cross-sectional comparison study provided no requirement for power calculation prior to analysis [56]. However, retrospective sample size calculation using G*power determined that for p < 0.05, 80% power and to detect an effect size of at least 0.6 (medium-to-large), 47 participants for a 2 group comparison via Mann-Whitney U is required [57]. Therefore, limitations can be considered in comparisons between the KOA (n = 47) and AC (n = 37) group which were slightly underpowered. ...
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An advanced ultrasound imaging technique, sonoelastography (SE) is used to evaluate tissue elasticity. To determine SE potential to detect pathological-related changes, and characteristics related to tendon pathology we aimed to (1) compare quadriceps and patellar tendon findings in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and asymptomatic older adults (AC), and (2) explore associations between SE, participant characteristics (age, BMI, and leg circumference) and KOA status. 84 participants (47; KOA and 37; asymptomatic older adults) underwent SE examination of quadriceps (distal) and patellar (distal, proximal) tendon in a supine position with the knee bent at 30°. Colour score (CS) and Elasticity Ratio (ER) analysis were performed by a blinded experienced operator using Esaote Mylab 70 XVG Ultrasound equipment. Significantly reduced elasticity in the distal quadriceps (median (IQR) 2(2), 3(1), p = 0.033 for KOA and AC, respectively) and proximal patellar (3(1), 3(0), p = 0.001) tendons and more elastic distal patellar (1.50 (0.55), 1.87 (0.72), p = 0.034) tendons were observed in the KOA group. Significant associations) were identified between SE and participant BMI (Rs = − 0.249-0.750, p < 0.05) and leg circumference (Rs = − 0.260-0.903, p < 0.05). Age, BMI and KOA status, were independent explanatory variables of SE CS findings at the distal quadriceps tendon patellar tendon, proximal patellar tendon and distal patellar tendon, explaining 66%, 81% and 64% of variance, respectively. Age, BMI and KOA status were independent explanatory variables of SE ER findings at the distal patellar tendon explaining 19% of variance. Potentially clinically relevant altered tendon stiffness were observed between individuals with KOA and asymptomatic controls. Key KOA risk factors and participant characteristics explained variance in tendon stiffness. Findings provide context for future studies to investigate the potential for targeted SE detected early clinical management based on associated participant characteristics.
... participated in the group dynamics course. A sensitivity analysis (using the G*Power calculator; Faul et al., 2007) revealed that this sample afforded 80% power to detect an effect size of η p 2 > .06. The Jewish sample included 2,179 students, of whom 1,052 (48.3%) participated in the group dynamics course. ...
Article
We examined the association between intergroup contact and academic performance at university among minority students in a context with a segregated pre-university school system. Study 1 tested whether participation in a group dynamics course, which involves intimate interpersonal contact between Israeli Arab (n = 125) and Jewish students, was associated with better grade point average (GPA). As expected, Arab students who participated in the course had a higher GPA than those who did not, even when controlling for pre-university achievements. The corresponding difference among Jews was substantially smaller. Study 2 (N = 90), a longitudinal study, revealed that the quality of contact with Jewish students at university was associated with Arab students’ subsequent higher GPA, even when controlling for pre-university contact, proxies of academic achievements, and perceptions of intergroup relations. The quality of contact with Jewish students was also associated with Arab students’ sense of academic belonging. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... This study takes a quantitative approach through a purposive and convenience sampling method. For calculating the required sample size, G * power software was deployed with statistical power of 80% and effect size of 0.01 (Faul et al., 2007), which was combined with suggestions of Hair et al. (2017) (Min R 2 = 0.10, α = 0.01). The resulting range was calculated between 131 and 180. ...
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Individuals working in different industries were forced to change their work environments to their homes and quickly cope with technical and social changes not experienced before the occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic. This led to blurred boundaries between work and family roles, diminishing performance and wellbeing. Within the scope of the Research Topic “Workplace effects of COVID-19 on employees,” this research emphasizes on the positive impact of job autonomy provided by employers in reducing work-family conflicts. Moreover, the effect of work-family conflict on employees’ performance and wellbeing is analyzed. Furthermore, informational support is examined regarding its moderating effect to mitigate work-family conflicts and enhance wellbeing. A survey was administered among employees of small-medium enterprises in Lebanon, through purposive and convenience sampling with 198 participants. The data was analyzed using PLS-SEM, and the results show that job autonomy reduces work-family conflict. This in turn improves performance and wellbeing as individuals have more control on their tasks. Furthermore, informational support provided to the employees serves as a buffer between work-family conflict and wellbeing. These results can be beneficial for managers of small and medium enterprises, seeking to enhance the performance and wellbeing of their employees in the era of the pandemic. Similarly, scholars can benefit from theoretical premises of current study and the potential pathways for future analyses.
Article
Background Lifestyle support is essential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and eHealth may be an easy and affordable solution to provide this support. However, CVD patients vary in their ability and interest to use eHealth. This study investigates demographic characteristics determining CVD patients' online and offline lifestyle support preferences. Methods We used a cross-sectional study design. 659 CVD patients (Harteraad panel) completed our questionnaire. We assessed demographic characteristics and preferred lifestyle support type (coach, eHealth, family/friends, self-supportive). Results Respondents mostly preferred being self-supportive (n = 179, 27.2%), and a coach in a group or individually (n = 145, 22.0%; n = 139, 21.1%). An app/internet to work independently (n = 89, 13.5%) or being in touch with other CVD patients (n = 44, 6.7%) was least preferred. Men were more likely to prefer being supported by family/friends (p = .016) or self-supportive (p < .001), while women preferred a coach individually or via an app/internet (p < .001). Older patients mostly preferred self-support (p = .001). Patients with low social support were more likely to prefer being coached individually (p < .001), but not support from family/friends (p = .002). Conclusion Men and older patients are more interested in being self-supportive, and patients with lower levels of social support could need extra support outside their social network. eHealth could provide a solution, but attention should be paid to spike interest for digital interventions among certain groups.
Article
Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) interventions and effective therapeutic alliance (TA) are associated with greater treatment success. Furthermore, burnout syndrome could be detrimental to the development of such TA. Objective To examine the association between EBP competencies and burnout level with the quality of TA among Spanish physiotherapists. Methods Cross-sectional research with an electronic survey including the EBP Questionnaire-19, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) and administered to 471 physiotherapists. Results Regarding the EBP Questionnaire-19, physiotherapists scored highest on attitude and lowest on knowledge. For WAIS which achieved appropriate results of internal consistency and validity in the sample analyzed, bond scored the highest and goals the lowest. Years of experience was significantly associated with the task (r = 0.5; p = .003) and bond (r = 0.7; p = .002) and the WAIS total score (r = 0.8; p < .001), and all burnout subscales (−0.7 < r > 0.7; p < .001 for all). Conclusion Lower levels of burnout and improved EBP competencies are associated with a TA of greater quality. The association between attitudes toward EBP, a higher level of self-confidence and a lower perception of depersonalization appear to be determinant factors for improving TA.
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Kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) involves imagining the feeling and experience of movements. We examined the effects of KMI, number visualizing, and KMI with number visualizing on the excitability of spinal motor neurons and a behavioral outcome measure in a pinch force task. Healthy participants (13 men and 8 women; mean age: 24.8 ± 5.5 years) were recruited. We compared the F-waves of the left thenar muscles after stimulating the left median nerve at the wrist during each motor imagery condition after a practice session. The KMI condition consisted of imagining muscle contraction, the number visualizing condition consisted of imagining the pinch force increasing numerically, and the KMI with number visualizing consisted of alternating between the KMI and imagining the pinch force increasing numerically. Before and after motor imagery, the time required to adjust to the target pinch force was compared. The time required to adjust the pinch force was shorter in the KMI with number visualizing condition than in the KMI and number visualizing conditions. There was no difference in the F/M amplitude ratio between each MI strategy condition, indicating the excitability of spinal motor neurons. Numerical information helped to improve the ability of participants to perform KMI.
Article
Objective To evaluate the degree of postoperative pain in patients with necrotic teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis after applying ultrasonic irrigation or manual dynamic agitation. Methods Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with necrotic mandibular first molar with symptomatic apical periodontitis were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 separate groups (n=26); Manual Dynamic Agitation group, Ultra X group, or NaviTip group (control). After a single-visit root canal treatment and a specific method of agitation, depending on each group, the patients were given a questionnaire on which they would mark the degree of pain in a scale from 0 to 10 at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days post-operative. Data were statistically analyzed with a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results Final irrigation protocol including Ultrasonic agitation and NaviTip (control) groups showed significantly lower values of pain than the MDA group. There was a reduction in pain values by time in all groups. Conclusion There was significantly less pain associated with passive ultrasonic agitation and side vented needle (NaviTip) irrigation compared to Manual Dynamic Agitation.
Article
System justification theory suggests that high-status group members endorsing status hierarchies will favor their ingroup and may show less positive outgroup attitudes. Understanding which variables influence these relationships is important. We explored whether trait mindfulness would decouple the relationship between racial-system justification, negative ethnic attitudes, and other-group orientation, among samples of White Americans. Studies 1 and 2 suggested that trait mindfulness moderated (i.e., decoupled) the negative influences of system justification on the outcome variables. In some circumstances, intergroup anxiety mediated the findings for those low and moderate in trait mindfulness, as compared to those with high trait mindfulness. Our findings support the predictions of system justification theory but reveal that trait mindfulness can decouple the relationship between system justification and outgroup attitudes. This suggests that trait mindfulness may best serve as a moderator that decouples pernicious relationships, as compared to having direct influences on prejudice. These findings are important, because understanding factors which reduce prejudice are relevant given its persistence in the United States.
Article
The growing concerns regarding the risks of transmitting the COVID-19 virus has intensified the job-related stressors commonly encountered by teachers in various cultural contexts. Evidence shows how the COVID-19 crisis has negatively impacted teachers' mental health outcomes such as stress, depression, and quality of life, which highlights the significance of designing psychological programs to boost teachers' well-being. This study examined the effects of a well-being intervention based on the Positivity, Relationship, Outcomes, Strength, Purpose, Engagement, and Resilience (PROSPER) framework on well-being outcomes among 76 in-service teachers (Mage = 26.05 years, SD = 4.71, range = 20–45; female = 93.4%) in Hong Kong. Participants completed survey measures associated with the seven PROSPER outcomes at baseline and 2-month follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that there were statistically significant multivariate effects for intervention conditions, Wilks' Lambda F(7, 58) = 4.50, p = .01. Results demonstrated that teachers who were assigned to the intervention condition (n = 36) had significantly higher scores than those in the control condition (n = 40) on positivity (b = 0.41, 95% CI [0.16, 0.65], p = .01), strength (b = 0.62, 95% CI [0.23, 1.01], p = .01), purpose (b = 0.61, 95% CI [0.18, 1.04], p = .01), and resilience (b = 0.57, 95% CI [0.07, 1.07], p = .04). Our findings provide evidence on the mental health benefits of the PROSPER-based psychological intervention program for preschool teachers.
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Epidemiological data have proved the association of consumption of areca nut with the causation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). OSF is a chronic inflammatory disease with the potential for malignant transformation from 7 to 13%. The establishment of animal models makes it easier for researchers to focus on the therapeutic options to combat this disease further. We developed and compared two areca nut extract (ANE) administration methods in Swiss albino mice to establish OSF. This study compared an invasive intrabuccal injection technique with a non-invasive intraoral droplet administration. The duration of induction was around 12 weeks. Histopathology (H&E, Masson’s trichrome staining) and gene expression analysis (COL-I, COL-II, and α-SMA) were performed using RT-PCR to confirm the OSF in animals. Our study showed that ANE administration through the intraoral droplet method exhibited significantly higher fibrosis than the intrabuccal injections, as evidenced by the H&E and Masson’s trichrome staining. Furthermore, intraoral administration of ANE significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of COL-I, COL-II, and α-SMA, as revealed by the RT-PCR analysis. The non-invasive droplet method could simulate the absorption of areca nut seen in humans through daily dosing. This study establishes the intraoral droplet method as an efficient and non-invasive method to administer the ANE to develop OSF. These findings will aid in the efficient development of OSF animal models for interventional studies, including screening novel drugs in the reversal of the OSF.
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Objective: Isometric exercise training (IET) over 4-12 weeks is an effective antihypertensive intervention. However, blood pressure (BP) reductions are reversible if exercise is not maintained. No work to date has investigated the long-term effects of IET on resting BP. Methods: We randomized 24 unmedicated patients with high-normal BP to a 1-year wall squat IET intervention or nonintervention control group. Resting BP and various clinically important haemodynamic variables, including heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured pre and post the 1-year study period. Results: One year of IET produced statistically significant reductions in resting systolic (-8.5 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.3 ± 5.8 mmHg, P < 0.001) BP compared with the control group. There was also a significant reduction in resting HR (-4.2 ± 3.7 b/min, P = 0.009) and a significant increase in SV (11.2 ± 2.8 ml, P = 0.012), with no significant change in CO (0.12 ± 2.8 l/min, P = 0.7). TPR significantly decreased following IET (-246 ± 88 dyne·s/cm5, P = 0.011). Adherence to the IET sessions was 77% across all participants (3x IET sessions per week), with no participant withdrawals. Conclusion: This novel study supports IET as an effective long-term strategy for the management of resting BP, producing clinically important, chronic BP adaptations in patients at risk of hypertension. Importantly, this work also demonstrates impressive long-term adherence rates, further supporting the implementation of IET as a means of effective BP management in clinical populations.
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Four experiments tested the hypothesis that meeting someone new who is boring would result in people feeling superior to the boring individual, which would then result in people viewing themselves as better than others and increased confidence. Respondents reported greater feelings of superiority, meaninglessness, and difficulty paying attention when they wrote about meeting a new, boring individual than a new or manipulative individual. Feeling superior, but not meaninglessness and attention, mediated the effect of interpersonal boredom on viewing oneself as better than others, but not on confidence. These finding did not occur when people wrote about a boring task or a disliked, manipulative individual. The experiments elucidate how interpersonal boredom, albeit a negative experience, can enhance people’s sense of self.
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Social vulnerability refers to the inability of some populations, organisations and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed, such as natural hazards. In this paper, we examine the existence of positional concerns (i.e. willingness to incur a loss so as to be above or not to be below others) in social vulnerability that may undermine the strategies and policies aiming at fostering the resilience of socially vulnerable populations. We found that the majority of people express egalitarian preferences, namely, they reject Pareto efficient allocations or gain improvements that benefit more to others than to them because they dislike inequalities. Our results showed that positional concerns are more often expressed than absolute concerns and suggest that policy makers, when tackling the problem of social vulnerability, should take into account citizens’ preferences. We suggest solutions to cope with the problem of positional concerns.
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BACKGROUND: Health and wellness programs can be implemented at police departments. Little research has detailed the characteristics of officers within these programs. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the health and fitness data of officers involved in a health and wellness program from 2018–2020, and to profile the officers involved relative to population norms. METHODS: Analysis was conducted on archival data from 633 officers (523 males, 110 females) who participated in a health and wellness program from a large city police department. Data included: body mass; body fat percentage; blood pressure (BP); estimated maximal aerobic capacity; sit-and-reach; push-ups; vertical jump; grip strength; sit-ups; bench press ratio. Data were grouped by year (2018, 2019, 2020), and a univariate ANCOVA with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment determined any significant between-group differences. Individual officer data were also compared to population norms. RESULTS: The 2020 group had higher systolic BP compared to both other groups, and superior sit-and-reach and grip strength compared to the 2018 group (p < 0.05). Compared to population norms across the 3 years, 74–86% of officers had BP elevated above normal levels. Depending on the fitness component measured most officers (69–98%) were categorised as average or better. CONCLUSIONS: There were few differences between the year groups, although the 2020 officers did have superior sit-and-reach and grip strength. The higher systolic BP from the 2020 group may be indicative of the challenges of the year (pandemic, civil unrest). Officers generally had good profiles relative to population norms. The wellness program appeared to benefit the well-being of officers.
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Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are cartilage-like structures of extracellular matrix molecules that enwrap in a net-like manner the cell-body and proximal dendrites of special subsets of neurons. PNNs stabilize their incoming connections and restrict plasticity. Consequently, they have been proposed as a candidate mechanism for drug-induced learning and memory. In the cerebellum, PNNs surround Golgi inhibitory interneurons and both inhibitory and excitatory neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). Previous studies from the lab showed that cocaine-induced conditioned memory increased PNN expression in the granule cell layer of the posterior vermis. The present research aimed to investigate the role of cerebellar PNNs in cocaine-induced conditioned preference. For this purpose, we use the enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to digest PNNs at different time points of the learning process to ascertain whether their removal can affect drug-induced memory. Our results show that PNN digestion using ChABC in the posterior vermis (Lobule VIII) did not affect the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned preference. However, the removal of PNNs in Lobule VIII -but not in the DCN- disrupted short-term memory of conditioned preference. Moreover, although PNN digestion facilitated the formation of extinction, reinstatement of cocaine-induced conditioned preference was encouraged under PNN digestion. The present findings suggests that PNNs around Golgi interneurons are needed to maintain cocaine-induced Pavlovian memory but also to stabilize extinction memory. Conversely, PNN degradation within the DCN did not affect stability of cocaine-induced memories. Therefore, degradation of PNNs in the vermis might be used as a promising tool to manipulate drug-induced memory.
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The sensations to own and control a body as well as being located in a body describe the relation between ourselves and our body, termed embodiment. Embodiment plays a central role in our everyday actions. However, its assessment is challenging. Recent findings suggest that measures on embodiment are confounded by demand characteristics and suggestibility. To investigate the impact of demand characteristics on embodiment and presence, we compared results from an online experiment measuring participants’ expectations, to the same experiment in virtual reality (VR). In the online experiment, participants watched a video of a participant performing the VR experiment. In the VR experiment, participants performed a soap-bubble-kicking task, which allowed the feelings of embodiment and presence to arise. We manipulated temporo-spatial movement synchrony (Movement: synchronous, asynchronous) and avatar visibility (Visibility: visible, invisible). In addition, we assessed participants’ suggestibility with exercises. The introduced manipulations influenced the ratings in both experiments similarly. Embodiment ratings were additionally affected by suggestibility. Altogether, our results show that participants were aware of the research hypotheses, which indicates that demand characteristics confound embodiment and presence research alike. Overcoming challenges of demand characteristics is crucial to correctly interpret scientific results and to translate these results into applied settings.
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The term “Activities of Daily Living” (ADLs) refers to a set of fundamental tasks (i.e., toileting, bathing, personal care, eating, grooming, and getting dressed) considered necessary for living and being autonomous in everyday life. Although in the clinical setting ADLs efficiency is a marker to diagnose dementia, limited evidence on the mechanism implicating muscular function and cognitive alterations in ADLs skills in late adulthood exists. This study primarily intended to determine the extent to which executive functions mediate between muscular strength, as assessed through handgrip strength (HGS) measurement, and ADLs skills of older community-dwellers. A further goal was to explore the impact of gender and cognitive status on ADLs and HGS scores, using education as a covariate. Three hundred and thirty-four older participants, 199 females and 135 males (Mage = 77.5 years, SD = 5.6 years, age range = 63–93 years) completed a battery of tests assessing ADLs, HGS, and executive functions. The results showed that 34–56% of the variance in the ADLs condition was explained by HGS and executive functioning. Furthermore, cognitively healthy participants exhibited better ADLs skills, whereas cognitively impaired individuals, both males and females, exhibited poorer HGS efficiency. In conclusion, in clinical settings, the concurrent evaluation of ADLs skills, motor, and higher-order cognitive processes should be encouraged to detect individuals needing a person-tailored intervention to boost their quality of life.
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Associative memory (AM) is the ability to remember and retrieve multiple items bound together. Previous studies aiming to modulate AM by various transcranial electric stimulation (tES) techniques were inconclusive, although overall suggestive that tES could be a tool for AM enhancement. However, evidence from a direct comparison between different tES techniques is lacking. Here, in a sham-controlled cross-over experiment, we comparatively assessed the effects of three types of tES—anodal tDCS, theta-band transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and theta-oscillatory tDCS (otDCS), delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex, during a short-term digit-color AM task with cued-recall. The effects were tested in 40 healthy young participants while both oscillatory tES were delivered at a previously determined individual theta frequency (4–8 Hz). All three active stimulations facilitated the overall AM performance, and no differences could be detected between them on direct comparison. However, unlike tDCS, the effects of which appeared to stem mainly from the facilitation of low-memory demand trials, both theta-modulated tACS and otDCS primarily promoted AM in high memory demand trials. Comparable yet differential effects of tDCS, theta tACS, and otDCS could be attributed to differences in their presumed modes of action.
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Category and letter verbal fluency assessment is widely used in basic and clinical research. Yet, the nature of the processes measured by such means remains a matter of debate. To delineate automatic (free-associative) versus controlled (dissociative) retrieval processes involved in verbal fluency tasks, we carried out a psychometric study combining a novel lexical-semantic retrieval paradigm and structural equation modeling. We show that category fluency primarily engages a free-associative retrieval, whereas letter fluency exerts executive suppression of habitual semantic associates. Importantly, the models demonstrated that this dissociation is parametric rather than absolute, exhibiting a degree of unity as well as diversity among the retrieval measures. These findings and further exploratory analyses validate that category and letter fluency tasks reflect partially distinct forms of memory search and retrieval control, warranting different application in basic research and clinical assessment. Finally, we conclude that the novel associative-dissociative paradigm provides straightforward and useful behavioral measures for the assessment and differentiation of automatic versus controlled retrieval ability.
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The Interactive Two Feedback Loops Model (Narciss, 2008, 2013) suggests that not only providing external feedback but also prompting students to generate internal feedback may influence learning and motivation. This study aims at investigating the effects of internal and external feedback on achievement, strategy, and motivation in concept learning. Using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 121 teacher students we investigated the effects of combining internal feedback (i.e. self-explaining why a task solution is correct or incorrect) with three types of external feedback (no feedback; knowledge of result (KR); KR + knowledge about mistakes (KM)). Combining internal and external types of feedback was more beneficial for concept learning achievement, strategy use, as well as students’ intrinsic motivation, and perceived competence, than providing either internal or external feedback. Most notably, if students are asked to generate internal feedback in terms of self-explaining their responses, simple external KR feedback is as beneficial as elaborated KM-feedback.
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Purpose Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder often report poorer sleep compared to parents of typically developing children. When parents do not obtain enough quality sleep, functioning may be compromised placing the onus of care on already stressed parents. However, improving sleep duration may not improve sleep quality and is not always feasible. This study aimed to measure sleep quality in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder, determine if stress and children’s sleep are associated with sleep quality and whether resources, appraisals, and coping moderate these relationships. Materials and Methods Multivariable regression was used to determine the effects of stress and children’s sleep problems on sleep quality and test modifying effects. Results Mean (SD) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores was 8.81 (3.76), with 77.6% of parents scoring above the clinical cut-off. Mean (SD) Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire scores was 54.03 (8.32), with 96.3% of parents rating their child’s sleep above the clinical cut-off. Children’s sleep was the only significant predictor and none of the expected effect modifiers were significant. Conclusion Children’s sleep may be an important target to improve parent sleep quality but requires systematic assessment with interventional research. • Implications for rehabilitation • Both parents and their 4–10-year-old children with ASD experience high levels of sleep disturbances. • Clinicians can start the conversation early with parents about their children’s sleep by providing them with information to increase awareness and recognize healthy sleep habits in their children. • Clinicians are important in the assessment, management, and evaluation of pediatric sleep problems, which may have significant spillover effects on parents of children with ASD. • There is a need for more resources and training to be available to clinicians to assess children and their parents for sleep problems, which could extend beyond the assessment of sleep and consider parent’s daytime functioning and mental health.
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Background Mobile health (mHealth) is promising in developing personalised smoking cessation interventions. By using an adaptive trial design, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of personalised mHealth intervention in increasing smoking cessation. Methods This study is a two-arm, parallel, accessor-blinded Sequential Multiple-Assignment Randomised Trial (SMART) that randomises 1200 daily cigarette smokers from 70 community sites at two timepoints. In the first phase, participants receive brief cessation advice plus referral assistance to smoking cessation services and are randomly allocated to receive personalised instant messaging (PIM) or regular instant messaging (RIM). In the second phase, PIM participants who are non-responders (i.e. still smoking at 1 month) are randomised to receive either optional combined interventions (multi-media messages, nicotine replacement therapy sampling, financial incentive for active referral, phone counselling, and family/peer support group chat) or continued-PIM. Non-responders in the RIM group are randomised to receive PIM or continued-RIM. Participants who self-report quitting smoking for 7 days or longer at 1 month (responders) in both groups continue to receive the intervention assigned in phase 1. The primary outcomes are biochemical abstinence validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (< 4 ppm) and salivary cotinine (< 10 ng/ml) at 3 and 6 months from treatment initiation. Intention-to-treat analysis will be adopted. Discussion This is the first study using a SMART design to evaluate the effect of adaptive mHealth intervention on abstinence in community-recruited daily smokers. If found effective, the proposed intervention will inform the development of adaptive smoking cessation treatment and benefits smokers non-responding to low-intensity mHealth support. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03992742 . Registered on 20 June 2019.
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Beliefs about how memory works explain several effects on prospective metamemory judgments (e.g., the effect of font size on judgments of learning; JOLs). Less is known about the effect of beliefs on retrospective judgments (i.e., confidence). Here, we tested whether font size also affects confidence ratings and whether beliefs play a similar role in confidence than in JOLs. In two experiments, participants studied words in small and large size, rated JOLs, and completed a font-size test in which they indicated the font size at study and a standard old/new recognition test. The results confirmed that font size affected both JOLs and confidence ratings. The presentation of the counter-belief that memory is better for words in small font size in Experiment 2 and the analyses of confidence for participants who did not believe that large fonts improved memory suggested that the effect of font size on confidence was based on beliefs. This research shows that the debate on theory-based and experience-based factors should not be limited to prospective metamemory judgments but also encompass retrospective judgments.
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Conflict adaptation is considered to reflect the adjustment of cognitive control, and it is critical for adaptive behavior. Despite intensive investigations on conflict adaptation, straightforward evidence on how changes in conflict strength influence the behavioral and neural dynamics of conflict adaptation remains scarce. To address this issue, we manipulated conflict strength by varying distractor-target congruency to investigate whether conflict strength per se or the expectancy of conflict strength triggers the adjustment of cognitive control. Behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures were recorded while participants performed a variant four-choice flanker task without feature repetitions. The behavioral results showed that reaction times increased with increasing conflict strength. Importantly, there were conflict adaptations between the congruent and incongruent-low, congruent and incongruent-high, and incongruent-low and incongruent-high conditions. Consistent with the behavioral results, the EEG results revealed that N2 and P3 were sensitive to conflict strength. Critically, there were typical conflict adaptations between every two conflict conditions on the early P3 amplitude related to the adjustment of attentional strategies. However, there were no differences among these conflict adaptation effects, both on reaction times and the early P3 amplitude, demonstrating that the expectancy of conflict strength rather than conflict strength per se may play a crucial role in conflict adaptation. Altogether, these results emphasize the functional role of expectancy based on previous conflict strength in the exertion of cognitive control, which is in accordance with the repetition expectation theory than with the conflict monitoring theory.
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Introduction: Given that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely influenced adolescents' physical and mental health around the globe, it is important to identify protective factors that may promote adolescents' positive adjustment during the pandemic. This study aimed to examine the role of parental attachment and COVID-19 communication in adolescents' health behavior and mental health during COVID-19. Methods: A total of 442 Chinese parent-adolescent dyads (mean age of adolescents = 13.35 years; 50% girls) completed two-wave longitudinal surveys over the span of 2 months during the pandemic (Wave 1: July 2020; Wave 2: September 2020). At each wave, adolescents reported on their COVID-19-related health behavior, general health behavior, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. At Wave 1, parent-adolescent attachment security and COVID-19 communication were also assessed. Results: Adolescents' attachment security to parents was associated with their increased COVID-19-related and general health behavior as well as decreased depression and anxiety over 2 months during COVID-19. Moreover, more frequent parent-adolescent COVID-19 communication was associated with adolescents' increased COVID-19-related and general health behavior over time. Notably, attachment security's and COVID-19 communication's associations with health behavior largely remained the same after taking into account both factors simultaneously. In addition, results from exploratory analyses suggest that more frequent COVID-19 communication mediates the link between attachment security and increased health behavior. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of promoting attachment security and COVID-19 communication between parents and adolescents during the pandemic, which may play a positive role in adolescents' health behavior and mental health.
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Tackling mental health has become a priority for governments around the world because it influences not only individuals but also the whole society. As people spend a majority of their time (i.e., around 90%) in buildings, it is pivotal to understand the relationship between built environment design and mental health, particularly during COVID-19 when people are experiencing recurrent local and national lockdowns. Despite the demonstration by previous research that the design of the built environment can affect mental health, it is not clear if the same influence pattern remains when a ‘black swan’ event (e.g., COVID-19) occurs. To this end, we performed logistic regression and hierarchical regression analyses to examine the relationship between built environment and mental health utilising a data sample from the United Kingdom (UK) residents during the COVID-19 lockdown while considering their social demographics. Our results show that compared with depression and anxiety, people are more likely to feel stressed during the lockdown period. Furthermore, general house type, home workspace, and neighbourhood environment and amenity are identified to have significantly contributed to mental health status. With the ensuing implications, this study represents one of the first to inform policymakers and built environment design professionals of how built environment should be designed to accommodate features that could mitigate mental health problems in any future crisis. As such, it contributes to the body of knowledge of built environment planning by considering mental health during the COVID-19 lockdown.
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Background Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) face deficits in working memory capacity that often persist into adulthood. In healthy peers, exercise targeting motor skill acquisition benefits visuospatial working memory, but its potential to reduce ADHD-related deficits remains unclear. We investigated the effect of a judo training program targeting motor skills on behavioral and neurocognitive indices of working memory capacity in children with ADHD. Methods Children with ADHD aged 8 to 12 years (N=57) were randomly allocated to a judo training group and a wait-list control group. The training program encompassed 120 min of judo per week over three months. Before and after the intervention period, patients completed a bilateral Change Detection task with low and high memory load conditions and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). The contralateral delay activity (CDA) elicited by the cognitive task was recorded using electroencephalography. Results Compared to the control group, the judo training group showed a higher K-score on the Change Detection task and an increased negativity of the CDA on the high load condition following the intervention, when pretest scores (and confounders) were accounted for. In contrast, no group differences were found for MABC-2 score. Conclusion In children with ADHD, judo training may complement pharmacological treatment by increasing the effectiveness of working memory maintenance processes. On a behavioral level, this improvement is accompanied with an increased capacity to store visuospatial information.
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Binding theories assume that stimulus and response features are integrated into short-lasting episodes and that upon repetition of any feature the whole episode is retrieved, thereby affecting performance. Such binding theories are nowadays the standard explanation for a wide range of action control tasks and aim to explain all simple actions, without making assumptions of effector specificity. Yet, it is unclear if eye movements are affected by integration and retrieval in the same way as manual responses. We asked participants to discriminate letters framed by irrelevant shapes. In Experiment 1, participants gave their responses with eye movements. Saccade landing positions showed a spatial error pattern consistent with predictions of binding theories. Saccadic latencies were not affected. In Experiment 2 with an increased interval between prime and probe, the error pattern diminished, again congruent with predictions of binding theories presuming quickly decaying retrieval effects. Experiment 3 used the same task as in Experiment 1, but participants executed their responses with manual key presses; again, we found a binding pattern in response accuracy. We conclude that eye movements and manual responses are affected by the same integration and retrieval processes, supporting the tacit assumption of binding theories to apply to any effector.
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Purpose: This study examined the impact of community service on latent deprivation and mental health of long-term unemployed receiving social assistance by using a two-wave quasi-experimental design with an untreated control group. According to the latent deprivation model, we hypothesized that unpaid participation in community service for the period of three months would alleviate the participants’ experience of latent deprivation and improve their mental health. Method: A total of 209 participants (105 in intervention and 104 in the control group; M age = 44.7, SD = 10.47, 58.9% males) completed pretest and posttest measures. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance, followed by the analysis of variances and post-hoc group comparisons, revealed significant effects of the intervention on several dimensions of perceived latent deprivation, but not on the mental health of social assistance recipients. Conclusion: Community service might mitigate the lack of latent benefits of work associated with unemployment by enhancing time structure, regular social contacts, status, and collective purpose.
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Evidence positions yoga as a promising intervention for enhancing positive embodiment and supporting the prevention of, and recovery from, eating disorders (EDs) by reducing ED symptomatology and building skills that facilitate an ongoing, embodied sense of wellbeing. However, yoga-based programs are few and rigorous literature on their efficacy is limited. This study examined the efficacy and feasibility of a yoga-based program called Eat Breathe Thrive (EBT) which aims to prevent EDs and support embodiment. Participants (N = 168, 93.5 % women) from a community sample in the United States and United Kingdom, ages 18–65, were randomly allocated to a 2-h, 7-week EBT program or waitlist-control condition. Compared to controls, EBT participants experienced significant decreases in ED behaviors, depression, and difficulties regulating emotions. They reported significantly greater use of mindfulness skills, such as interoceptive awareness, mindful self-care, and mindful eating. After a single session, participants reported immediate improvement in their sense of well-being, indicating increased state positive embodiment. Most effects were sustained at 6-month follow-up. The majority of individuals attended most sessions. Self-reported treatment integrity was excellent. Directions for future research are proposed. Results support the efficacy and feasibility of an integrated yoga intervention that fosters positive ways of inhabiting the body.
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Objectives Mindfulness practice increases personal well-being, yet its effect on prosocial behaviors is not well-established. Initial studies suggest that an 8-week mindfulness program has a positive effect on help-giving towards a stranger in distress and that a short meditation promotes care towards an ostracized member. This research aims at examining whether a short mindfulness intervention promotes help-giving intention towards a stranger in distress and to understand the role of empathy in this effect.MethodsA total of 210 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two sessions of mindfulness practice, music, or lecture control conditions. Participants then listened to a sham interview with a student dealing with a chronic illness and were surveyed on their willingness to volunteer in an organization helping such students. Baseline dispositional empathy and consequent empathic care scales were completed to determine their effect.ResultsA significantly higher percentage of participants were willing to provide help in the mindfulness condition (50.8%), as compared to the music (31.2%) and the lecture (31%) conditions, χ2 (2, N = 189) = 9.51, p = .009. A significantly positive effect of dispositional empathy on empathic care was found in the mindfulness group (b = 1.40, SE = .31, p < .001), but not in the control groups.Conclusions This study showed that short mindfulness practice increases help-giving intention as compared to active control groups and moderates the association between dispositional empathy and empathic care. Future research including long-term follow-up will strengthen these findings.
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Learning of arithmetic facts such as the multiplication table requires time-consuming, repeated practice. In light of evidence indicating that reactivation of encoded memories can modulate learning and memory processes at the synaptic, system and behavioral levels, we asked whether brief memory reactivations can induce human learning in the numeric domain. Adult participants performed a number-fact retrieval task in which they learned arbitrary numeric facts. Following encoding and a baseline test, 3 passive, brief reactivation sessions of only 40 s each were conducted on separate days. Learning was evaluated in a retest session. Results showed reactivations induced learning, with improved performance at retest relative to baseline test. Furthermore, performance was superior compared to a control group performing test-retest sessions without reactivations, who showed significant memory deterioration. A standard practice group completed active-retrieval sessions on 3 separate days, and showed significant learning gains. Interestingly, while these gains were higher than those of the reactivations group, subjects showing reactivation-induced learning were characterized by superior efficiency relative to standard practice subjects, with higher rate of improvement per practice time. A follow-up long-term retention experiment showed that 30 days following initial practice, weekly brief reactivations reduced forgetting, with participants performing superior to controls undergoing the same initial practice without reactivations. Overall, the results demonstrate that brief passive reactivations induce efficient learning and reduce forgetting within a numerical context. Time-efficient practice in the numeric domain carries implications for enhancement of learning strategies in daily-life settings.
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In this study, the effect of sense of suspense on flow experience, perceived fun in sports, and intention to use virtual reality platforms for the sport participation were examined. An experiment was implemented to compare gamified virtual reality experiences where a sense of suspense was stimulated by outcome uncertainty. Virtual reality sports content programmed with artificial intelligence was developed for experimentation. A multivariate analysis of covariance analysis was conducted to test established hypotheses. The experimental group with a higher sense of suspense presented higher flow, fun, and usage intention. While most studies have centered on one’s response to the entity that stimulates suspense, this study emphasizes the significance of gamification using suspense to induce targeted behavioral intentions. The authors further discuss the implications to scholars and practitioners.
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Concerns. Prevailing analytic practices do not reflect the inherent relation between estimation and hypothesis testing (test-based estimation; see, e.g., Cox and Hinkley 1974). Rather unrelated types of analysis are being used for the three types of comparative parameter -- rate difference, rate ratio and odds ratio. Remedies are suggested in both areas. Summary. Chi Square functions for the evaluation of three comparative parameters for two rates, employing the same principles for all three are proposed. Limited evaluation suggests good performance in extreme small-sample situations
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Power analysis after study completion has been suggested to interpret study results. We present 3 methods of estimating power and discuss their limitations. We use simulation studies to show that estimated power can be biased, extremely variable, and severely bounded. We endorse the practice of computing power to detect a biologically meaningful difference as a tool for study planning but suggest that calculation of confidence intervals on the parameter of interest is the appropriate way to gauge the strength and biological meaning of study results.
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The well-known problem of cumulating error probabilities is reconsidered from a general epistemological perspective, namely, the concepts of severity (Popper) and of fairness of tests. Applying these concepts to hypothesis-testing research leads to a reevaluation of the relative importance of the probabilities of Type 1 and Type 2 errors connected with those statistical hypotheses that have been derived from the substantive ones. It is shown that not only Type 1 but also Type 2 errors can cumulate. This cumulation is discussed for various basic types of empirical situations in which substantive hypotheses are examined by means of statistical ones. A new adjustment strategy based on the Dunn-Bonferroni inequality for planned tests is proposed and applied to some empirical examples.
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Discusses a relatively unknown test statistic for multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA)—K. Pillai and Barlett's V-criterion. The computation and testing of V are discussed in the framework of multiple regression and multiple correlation, considering global multivariate null hypotheses and special multivariate null hypotheses. An approximation method is described, which allows control of Type II error probability (beta) of multivariate tests based on the V statistic. (English & French abstracts) (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Contends that when analyzing qualitative data by means of log-linear or logit-linear models, the acceptance of a given model cannot be justified statistically if only the so-called alpha error is controlled. A method for controlling the beta error in the case of chi-square goodness of fit tests is given. The problem of cumulating error probabilities in multiple tests of hierarchical log-linear models is discussed, and strategies for adjusting for probabilities of error are recommended. (English abstract) (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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By using the exact expression of the correlation coefficient distribution function under the alternative hypothesis in the case of a random sample from a normal population, the distribution functions of the Student - and Snedecor -distributions are provided in closed form. The distribution functions obtained are implemented as routines in the symbolic programming language Mathematica.
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This article shows how to assess and control the power of chi-square tests for categorical data. It discusses both the case of simple null hypotheses (i.e., the category or cell probabilities are completely specified a priori) and the case of composite null hypotheses for parameterized multinomial models requiring parameter estimation (e.g., log-linear models). Power calculations are illustrated for chi-square tests of association and chi-square goodness-of-fit tests using standard examples from behavioral research.
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Statistical power analysis can be used to increase the efficiency of research efforts and to clarify research results. Power analysis is most valuable in the design or planning phases of research efforts. Such prospective (a priori) power analyses can be used to guide research design and to estimate the number of samples necessary to achieve a high probability of detecting biologically significant effects. Retrospective (a posteriori) power analysis has been advocated as a method to increase information about hypothesis tests that were not rejected. However, estimating power for tests of null hypotheses that were not rejected with the effect size observed in the study is incorrect; these power estimates will always be ≤0.50 when bias adjusted and have no relation to true power. Therefore, retrospective power estimates based on the observed effect size for hypothesis tests that were not rejected are misleading; retrospective power estimates are only meaningful when based on effect sizes other than the observed effect size, such as those effect size hypothesized to be biologically significant. Retrospective power analysis can be used effectively to estimate the number of samples or effect size that would have been necessary for a completed study to have rejected a specific null hypothesis. Simply presenting confidence intervals can provide additional information about null hypotheses that were not rejected, including information about the size of the true effect and whether or not there is adequate evidence to 'accept' a null hypothesis as true. We suggest that (1) statistical power analyses be routinely incorporated into research planning efforts to increase their efficiency. (2) confidence intervals be used in lieu of retrospective power analyses for null hypotheses that were not rejected to assess the likely size of the true effect, (3) minimum biologically significant effect sizes be used for all power analyses, and (4) if retrospective power estimates are to be reported, then the β-level, effect sizes, and sample sizes used in calculation must also be reported.
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8.1 INTRODUCTION Determining adequate and efficient sample sizes is often critical in designing worthy studies. Yet too many studies have sample sizes that are too small to ensure enough statistical power to confirm meaningful effects. Freiman, Chalmers, Smith, and Kuebler (1979) concluded this about clinical trials in medicine. Sedlmeier and Gigerenzer (1989) reached a similar judgment about studies in psychology. The message in both articles is cogent to all fields that rely on statistical inference. Perhaps such articles are having positive effects, for we see signs that researchers are now paying more attention to power. For example, reviewers of research proposals now often require that sound power analyses be done before they will recommend funding or access to facilities and subject populations. Going through the process of determining and justifying the sample size also has an important ancillary effect: it catalyzes the synergism between science and statistics at the study's conception. The statistician who performs a thorough power analysis is more likely to scrutinize the proposed design, assess issues regarding data management, and develop a sound plan for the data analysis. Such involvement can improve the proposal in a number of ways, thus increasing its chance for approval, funding, scientific success, and publication. In this chapter, we present a strategy for performing power analyses that is applicable to the broad range of methods subsumed by the classical normal-theory univariate or multivariate general linear models. First, we introduce the requisite concepts of statistical power using concepts from the familiar t-test to compare two independent group means. Second, we proceed to the comparison of two correlated means (matched-pairs problem) and on to the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with contrasts for a completely randomized design. Third, we develop power analysis for the univariate general linear model, thus providing a broad range of applications. We illustrate this with an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) problem that has unequal distributions of the covariate's values 1 Supported in part by grants from the US National Institutes of Health (GCRC: RR00082) and the University of Florida Division of Sponsored Research, which funded Zhanying Bai and Yonghwan Um in their wriitng of one portion of the OneWyPow.sas freeware module. Dan Bowling helped in many ways.
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This paper addresses some misconceptions concerning prospective and retrospective power when journal editors, reviewers and readers want to know the observed power of statistical tests within a completed study. In addition, a practical solution to both the problem of computing the power after a study has been conducted and the critical evaluation of null findings is suggested