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Students use Facebook to organize their classroom experiences [1], but hardly to share and form opinions on subject matters. We explore the benefits of argument diagrams for the formation of scientific opinion on behaviorism in Facebook. We aim at raising awareness of opinion conflict and structuring the argumentation with scripts [2]. A lab study with University students (ten dyads per condition) compared the in-fluence of argument structuring (students built individual argument diagrams before discussing in Facebook) vs. no argument structuring (only Facebook discussion) on opinion formation, measured through opinion change. The argumentation script was implemented in the web-based system LASAD to support sound argumentation [3]. Fig. 1. View of LASAD diagram Facebook discussions and conflict awareness led students of both conditions to change their opinions, t(39)=8.84, p<.001. Evidence suggests a connection between opinion change and the number of conflicts in a discussion. Together with a high correlation for no argument structuring between opinion change and knowledge gains, r(20)=.54, p<.05, the results suggest benefits of raising awareness of opinion conflicts in Facebook to facilitate scientific opinion formation and change. References.
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Argument Diagrams in Facebook: Facilitating the
Formation of Scientifically Sound Opinions
Dimitra Tsovaltzi, Armin Weinberger, Oliver Scheuer, Toby Dragon,
Bruce M. McLaren
Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany, P.O. Box 151150
Dimitra.tsovalzi@mx.uni-saarland.de
Students use Facebook to organize their classroom experiences [1], but hardly to
share and form opinions on subject matters. We explore the benefits of argument
diagrams for the formation of scientific opinion on behaviorism in Facebook. We aim
at raising awareness of opinion conflict and structuring the argumentation with scripts
[2]. A lab study with University students (ten dyads per condition) compared the in-
fluence of argument structuring (students built individual argument diagrams before
discussing in Facebook) vs. no argument structuring (only Facebook discussion) on
opinion formation, measured through opinion change. The argumentation script was
implemented in the web-based system LASAD to support sound argumentation [3].
Fig. 1. View of LASAD diagram
Facebook discussions and conflict awareness led students of both conditions to
change their opinions, t(39)=8.84, p<.001. Evidence suggests a connection between
opinion change and the number of conflicts in a discussion. Together with a high
correlation for no argument structuring between opinion change and knowledge gains,
r(20)=.54, p<.05, the results suggest benefits of raising awareness of opinion conflicts
in Facebook to facilitate scientific opinion formation and change.
References.
1. Lampe, C., Wohn, D., Vitak, J., Ellison, N., Wash, R.: Student use of Facebook for organ-
izing collaborative classroom activities. International Journal of Computer-Supported Col-
laborative Learning 6(3), 329-347 (2011)
2. Weinberger, A., Stegmann, K., Fischer, F.: Learning to argue online: Scripted groups sur-
pass individuals (unscripted groups do not). Computers in Human Behavior 26(4), 506
515 (2010)
3. Loll, F., Pinkwart, N., Scheuer, O., McLaren, B.M.: How Tough Should It
Be? Simplifying the Development of Argumentation Systems using a Configurable Plat-
form. To appear in: Pinkwart, N, McLaren, B.M. (eds.) Educational Technologies for
Teaching Argumentation Skills, Bentham Science Publishers (in press)
... SD ¼ 9.26) posted more, followed by argumentation scripts (M ¼ 19.19, SD ¼ 6.84) and the combination condition (M ¼ 15.26, SD ¼ 6.11). To take these differences into account, which result from differences in the duration of the collaborative phase, and since the number of arguments cannot explain differences in learning outcomes (Tsovaltzi, Weinberger, Scheuer, Dragon, & McLaren, 2012), all other values for the process data were calculated as mean percentages of the scores of the individual participants divided by the number of posts a group shared. This represents the ratio of qualitative high categories that appears during collaborative argumentation that can be put down to the intervention. ...
... Also, our study shows that argumentation scripts that structure the argumentative process are beneficial during collaboration, overruling the conjecture that scripts can cause over-scripting in the context of SNS (Dillenbourg, 2002;Tsovaltzi et al., 2010). This finding also contradicts standard measures of number of arguments, that is, participation, as a good measure of quality of discussion and a predictor of learning, in line with (Tsovaltzi et al., 2012). It rather supports the theory of AKC that brings to focus the quality of arguments with regard to learning. ...
... Finally, the correlation between shared knowledge and learning outcomes, as well as the mediation effects knowledge coconstruction explaining the negative shared knowledge outcomes after individual preparation also support theoretical benefits of knowledge co-construction for learning (Fischer & Mandl, 2005). In conjunction with previous research (Baker & Lund, 1997;Asterhan & Schwarz, 2009;Fischer et al., 2013;Tsovaltzi et al., 2012Tsovaltzi et al., , 2014Weinberger, 2010) our results congeal the knowledge of the learning sciences on the significance of group processes in collaborative argumentative knowledge construction, in particular knowledge co-construction and especially argument elaboration, as facilitators of individual knowledge outcomes. ...
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Social Network Sites (SNS) like Facebook bear potential for collaboration through rich social interactions, but the shared arguments are often poorly elaborated, and lack epistemic quality. In a controlled 2 × 2 study (N = 128), we investigated how individual preparation and argumentation scripts can support argumentative knowledge co-construction in Facebook. Individual preparation has been shown to motivate participants, activate prior knowledge, reduce process losses and promote unbiased arguments. Argumentation scripts can support quality of argumentative discussions and evidence-based argumentation. Their combination may, thus, enhance the argumentation quality in SNS interactions and facilitate domain knowledge acquisition. We found negative effects of individual preparation, ascribable to lack of knowledge co-construction and knowledge convergence, that point to knowledge consolidation. Scripting argumentation has some positive effects, but not in combination with individual preparation. We identify possibilities and risks of applying standard collaborative learning instructions in the context of SNS, and discuss theoretical consequences.
... However, little is known about whether and how academic opinion change and AKC can be facilitated in SNS. Existing argumentation practice in informal SNS discussions typically needs contentious quality [46]. ...
... Argument structure provided through individual argument diagramming is among the most prominent approaches to foster AKC in CSCL environments [47]. However, there is little known about the extent these approaches can be applied to learning in SNS [46,48]. ...
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In this era of rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), online collaborative and social learning has been seen as one of the ways to encourage students' critical thinking skills. Past studies have proven that students' critical thinking skills were shown significantly when it is done socially and collaboratively amongst peers. Previous researches also stated that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of thought and preserve information longer than learners who work quietly as individuals. In addition, working in a collaborative environment also involves processes of evidence and argumentation. Argumentation refers to making convincing claims backed up by sound evidence and broad understanding of various aspects of an issue. Argumentation learning activities can serve as an effective mechanism of spreading of knowledge through a network of exchanges in small groups. However, argumentative knowledge construction (AKC) in social collaborative learning environments is often insubstantial. So, does an argumentative learning activity in social collaborative learning environment truly result in enhancing students' higher order thinking skills (HOTs) and knowledge construction? Thus, the purpose of this paper is to discuss a meta-analysis on thinking skills that lead to the need for social collaborative learning and argumentative knowledge construction process towards enhancing students' HOTs.
... Following our theoretical discussion on the benefits of argumentation scripts, we look into two implementations of argumentation scripts. LASAD, a tool for graphical argumentation script (Loll & Pinkwart, 2013, seeFigure 1) was used to implement an argumentation script in Study 1 (pilot study) based on an argumentation ontology (Tsovaltzi, Weinberger, Scheuer, Dragon, & McLaren, 2012). The ontology allowed students to annotate their arguments (written in the boxes) in the graphical representation with general argument types (claim, counterclaim, evidence and rebuttal) as well as domain specific categories (ethics vs. effectiveness of behaviouristic principles, example vs. every-day knowledge vs. empirical result). ...
... In this study, we analyzed the influence of individual preparation supported by argumentation script on knowledge co-construction (Tsovaltzi, Weinberger, Scheuer, Dragon, & McLaren, 2012). ...
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... Additionally, even though AKC aims towards exploration of alternative perspectives and attitude change (e.g. Erber, Hodges, & Wilson, 1993;Eagly & Chaiken, 1995), attitude change has rarely been analyzed as a learning outcome of collaborative AKC (Kuhn & Lao, 1996) and of argumentative discussions in SNS (Tsovaltzi et al., 2012;Tsovaltzi, Judele, Puhl, Weinberger, this Issue). Attitude change with regard to environmental responsibility was observed when participants interacted in an open interest Facebook group: After the intervention, participants reported more environmental responsibility as a result of their daily exchange in Facebook (Robelia, Greenhow, & Burton, 2011). ...
... We build on studies that investigate scripts and GATs in SNS (McLoughin, & Lee, 2010;Tsovaltzi, Weinberger, Scheuer, Dragon, & McLaren, 2012;Tsovaltzi, Puhl, Judele, Weinberger, 2013) and on research that looks at different degrees of guidance of argumentation scripts in small groups (Papadopoulos, Demetriadis, & Weinberger;. We extend this research and consider GATs without scripts and GATs with scripts as different approaches to supporting learning in SNS. ...
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... Here we explore two kinds of scripts, individual preparation (where students are granted extra time to prepare their arguments before collaboration) and argumentation scripts, and their effects on knowledge co-construction and outcomes in three studies set up in FB. We look into two implementations of argumentation scripts: In Study 1, an argumentation ontology was implemented in LASAD (Loll & Pinkwart, 2013) to script argumentation prior to discussing in FB (Tsovaltzi, Weinberger, Scheuer, Dragon, & McLaren, 2012). For Study 2 and 3, we built a FB App with typical FB-functions -"like" and "comment" -which implemented the ontology directly inside FB (see Figure 1). ...
... This pilot study (N=40) analyzed the influence of individual preparation with an argumentation script (LASAD) on subsequent knowledge co-construction discussions in dyads inside FB with a 1×2 design (Tsovaltzi et al, 2012). The results showed that both conditions changed their opinions and general attitude towards behaviorism as a teaching strategy, t(39) =8.84, p<.001, d=1.40, but there were no differences between groups, F(1,38)=.09, ...
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... Next to argument diagramming, argumentation scripts are among the most prominent approaches to foster AKC in CSCL 3 environments (Noroozi, Weinberger, Biemans, Mulder, & Chizari, 2013;Scheuer, Loll, Pinkwart, & McLaren, 2010). However, there is little known about the extent to which these approaches can be applied to learning in SNS (McLoughin, & Lee, 2010;Tsovaltzi, Weinberger, Scheuer, Dragon, & McLaren, 2012). SNS and the social web in general have arguably become a large arena of informal learning (Greenhow, 2008;Greenhow & Robelia, 2009). ...
... Even though such processes are related in the literature with attitude change (e.g. Eagly & Chaiken, 1995;Erber, Hodges, & Wilson, 1993) and may ultimately lead learners to explore alternative perspectives and to re-consider initial standpoints, attitude change has rarely been analysed in this context (Tsovaltzi et al., 2012). Supporting learners through structuring the construction of pro and contra arguments can facilitate argumentative knowledge construction (Weinberger et al., 2010). ...
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... Argument structure provided through individual argument diagramming is among the most prominent approaches to foster AKC in CSCL environments (Scheuer et al, 2010). However, there is little known about the extent these approaches can be applied to learning in SNS (McLoughin, & Lee, 2010; Tsovaltzi et al, 2012). Current argumentation practice in informal SNS discussions lacks argumentative quality. ...
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