Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia with veterans: Evaluation of effectiveness and correlates of treatment outcomes
This paper examines the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in Veterans and the effects of two process measures on CBT-I outcomes: 1) therapist ratings of patient adherence and 2) patient ratings of therapeutic alliance. Data are from 316 therapists in the Department of Veterans Affairs CBT-I Training Program and 696 patients receiving CBT-I from therapists undergoing training. Mixed effects model results indicate Insomnia Severity Index scores decreased from 20.7 at baseline to 10.9 (d = 2.3) during a typical course of CBT-I. Patients with highest tercile compared to those with lowest tercile adherence achieved, on average, 4.1 points greater reduction in ISI scores (d = 0.95). The effect of therapeutic alliance on change in insomnia severity was not significant after adjusting for adherence to CBT-I. These results support the effectiveness and feasibility of large-scale training in and implementation of CBT-I and indicate that greater focus on patient adherence may lead to enhanced outcomes. The current findings suggest that CBT-I therapists and training programs place greater emphasis on attending to and increasing patient adherence.
Available from: Tracey L Sletten
- "Some form of support and therapeutic alliance seem necessary for optimal benefits through CBT-I, especially for individuals with depression (Lancee et al., 2013). This is because a positive therapeutic alliance can improve adherence to CBT-I interventions (Trockel et al., 2014). Furthermore , nonspecific factors of psychological treatment, including expectancy of treatment effects, therapeutic alliance, and life circumstances , personal resources, or readiness to change in the participant, typically account for a much larger percentage (up to 85%) of overall outcome variance in comparison with the specific factors of a model of treatment (as little as 15% of outcome variance; Hubble & Miller, 2004). "
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ABSTRACT: Insomnia and depression are highly comorbid conditions that show a complex, bidirectional relationship. This study examined whether cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a therapist compared with self-help CBT-I (written materials only) reduces insomnia and depression severity in individuals with comorbid insomnia and depression. A total of 41 participants (18-64 years; 25 females) with comorbid depression and insomnia, treated with antidepressants for at least 6 weeks, were randomized to receive 4 sessions of either CBT-I or self-help CBT-I over 8 weeks. Insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]) were assessed at baseline, following each session, and at 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were sleep quality and duration (actigraphy and diaries), anxiety, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness. Compared with self-help CBT-I, BDI-II scores in the CBT-I group dropped by 11.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] [6.60, 17.27], p < .001) more points, and ISI scores dropped by 6.59 (95% CI [3.04, 10.15], p = .001) more points across treatment. At 3-month follow-up, 61.1% of CBT-I participants were in clinical remission from their insomnia and depression, compared with 5.6% of the self-help group.
CBT-I administered by a therapist produced significant reductions in both insomnia and depression severity posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with a control condition in which participants received only written CBT-I material. Targeting insomnia through CBT-I is efficacious for treating comorbid insomnia and depression, and should be considered an important adjunct therapy for patients with depression whose symptoms have not remitted through antidepressant treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record
(c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent among military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. We evaluated the effects of a military version of a brief behavioral treatment of insomnia (BBTI-MV) compared to an information only control (IC) condition in combat-exposed Veterans of Operations Enduring/Iraqi Freedom or Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) on insomnia, sleep quality, and daytime symptoms of anxiety and depression. Forty OEF/OIF/OND Veterans (Mean age = 38.4 years old, s.d. = 11.69; 85% men; 77.5% white) were randomized to one of two conditions. BBTI-MV consisted of two in-person sessions and two telephone contacts delivered over four weeks, and included personalized recommendations to reduce insomnia. The IC condition also consisted of 2 in-person sessions two telephone contacts delivered over four weeks, and Veterans were encouraged to read written information about sleep-promoting behaviors. The Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PTSD Checklist, and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories were completed at baseline, post-treatment, and at the six-month follow-up. Both interventions were associated with clinically significant improvements in insomnia, although the magnitude of improvements in sleep and rates of treatment response and remission were greater for BBTI-MV compared to IC from pre- to post-treatment. Both BBTI-MV and the provision of information were associated with clinically significant improvements in insomnia among Veterans. Despite the preliminary nature of the findings and limitations inherent to small controlled trials, the findings suggest that both approaches may provide viable options in a stepped-care approach to the treatment of insomnia in retuning combat-exposed Veterans. Larger, confirmatory effectiveness trials are required.
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ABSTRACT: Replies to comments by H. Holt and L. E. Beutler (see record 2014-40532-003), M. M. Steenkamp and B. Litz (see record 2014-40532-004), and L. R. Greene (see record 2014-40532-006) on the original article by B. E. Karlin and G. Cross (see record 2013-31043-001) on the national dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. Karlin and Cross comment on and clarify key issues raised in the commentaries and related aspects of the dissemination and implementation model. At the same time, several of the issues raised in the commentaries are beyond the scope of the original article, including issues related to specific research or the relative effectiveness of psychotherapies, on which there is rich discussion and debate in other contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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