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Energy Efficient Motor Driven Systems

  • European Copper Institute

Abstract and Figures

Switching to energy efficient motor driven systems can save Europe up to 202 billion kWh in electricity consumption, equivalent to a reduction of €10 billion per year in operating costs for industry. It would also create the following additional benefits: * A saving of €5-10 billion per year in operating costs for European industry through reduced maintenance and improved operations (EU-25). * a saving of €6 billion per year for Europe in reduced environmental costs (EU-25, calculated using the EU-15 fuel mix). * a reduction of 79 million tonne of CO2 emissions (EU-15), or approximately a quarter of the EU's Kyoto target. This is the annual amount of CO2 that a forest the size of Finland transforms into oxygen. If industry is allowed to trade these emission reductions based on energy saved, this would generate a revenue stream of €2 billion per year. For EU-25, the reduction potential is 100 million tonne. * a 45 GW reduction in the need for new power plant capacity over the next 20 years (EU-25). * a 6% reduction in Europe's energy imports (EU-25).
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Energy Efficient Motor Driven Systems
…can save Europe 200 billion kWh of electricity consumption and
100 million tonne of greenhouse gas emissions a year
Hans De Keulenaer, European Copper Institute (B)
Ronnie Belmans, KU Leuven (B)
Edgar Blaustein, Consultant on Energy Policies (F)
David Chapman, Copper Development Association (UK)
Anibal De Almeida, University of Coimbra (P)
Bruno De Wachter, Forte (B)
Peter Radgen, Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (D)
April 2004
The Motor Challenge Programme is a voluntary programme promoted by the European
Commission to help companies improve the energy efficiency of their electric motor
driven systems. The Challenge focuses on electric drives, compressed air, fan and pump
systems, for which it has been demonstrated that there exists a large technical and
economic potential for energy savings.
Any organisations wishing to contribute to the Motor Challenge Programme objectives can
participate. Companies that use motor driven systems can request Partner status.
Organisations (in particular companies that supply motor driven systems and components)
wishing to assist the Commission and Member States in carrying out the Motor Challenge
Programme may become Endorsers.
More information can be found at
Billion 109, or a thousand million
kW kilowatt
kWh kilowatthour
MW megawatt, equal to 1 000 kW
MWh megawatthour, equal to 1 000 kWh
GW gigawatt, equal to 1 000 000 kW
GWh gigawatthour, equal to 1 000 000 kWh
TW terawatt, equal to 1 000 000 000 kW
TWh terawatthour, equal to 1 000 000 000 kWh
Published by European Copper Institute,Tervurenlaan 168 b10, B-1150 Brussels, Belgium
Tel +32 2 777 7070, Fax +32 2 777 7079, Email
The Motor Challenge Programme
Switching to energy efficient motor driven systems can
save Europe up to 202 billion kWh in electricity
consumption, equivalent to a reduction of €10 billion
per year in operating costs for industry. It would also
create the following additional benefits:
Na saving of €5-10 billion per year in operating
costs for European industry through reduced
maintenance and improved operations (EU-25).
Na saving of €6 billion per year for Europe in
reduced environmental costs (EU-25, calculated
using the EU-15 fuel mix).
Na reduction of 79 million tonne of CO2emissions
(EU-15), or approximately a quarter of the EU's
Kyoto target. This is the annual amount of CO2
that a forest the size of Finland transforms into
oxygen. If industry is allowed to trade these
emission reductions based on energy saved, this
would generate a revenue stream of €2 billion
per year. For EU-25, the reduction potential is
100 million tonne.
Na 45 GW reduction in the need for new power
plant capacity over the next 20 years (EU-25).
Na 6% reduction in Europe's energy imports (EU-25).
To achieve this a four-year package of measures is
suggested, investing €400 million in the motor systems
market. The Motor Challenge Programme should
continue to be the forum for developing common tools
and fast learning, and ensure that the national
programmes are implemented and achieve their goals.
The package of measures should include:
Nintroduction of audits of energy systems in
industrial installations
Nfinancial support for training and certification of
energy auditors
Nfiscal and financial incentives for investments in
energy saving projects
Na framework for claiming emissions credits for
investments in electricity saving (eg the ‘White
Certificates’ in Italy)
Nan information campaign based on the Motor
Challenge Programme.
Executive Summary
Benefit Beneficiary Annual Benefit (€ billion for EU-25)
Energy cost saving Industry 10
Non-energy saving benefits Industry 5-10
Reduced environmental costs Society 6
Benefits of switching to energy efficient motor driven systems
Executive Summary
1. Introduction 1
2. Benefits of Implementing Energy Efficient Motor Systems 2
2.1 Electricity savings potential - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -2
2.2 Environmental benefits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -2
2.3 Micro economical benefits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -5
2.4 Macro economical benefits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -5
3. Market Barriers 6
3.1 Major barriers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -6
3.2 Medium barriers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -7
3.3 Moderate barriers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -7
4. Solutions 8
4.1 Regulation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -8
4.2 Information and education - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -9
4.3 Shop floor assistance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -9
4.4 Finance mechanisms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -9
4.5 Working with suppliers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10
4.6 Supporting the R&D of manufacturers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10
4.7 Setting environmental standards - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10
4.8 Procurement and life cycle costing - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10
4.9 Need for an integrated approach - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10
5. Ongoing Programmes 11
5.1 Description of the ongoing programmes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -11
5.2 Critical success factors - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -13
5.3 A textbook case - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -14
6. Conclusion 15
Annex I: Motor Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -16
Annex II: References - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -20
Annex III: Notes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -21
Motor driven systems account for approximately 65% of
the electricity consumed by EU industry. New products
and techniques hold great promise for large electricity
savings. Implementing high efficiency motor driven
systems, or improving existing ones, could save Europe
over 200 billion kWh of electricity per year. This would
significantly reduce the need for new power plants and
hence free up capital and resources. It would also
reduce the production of greenhouse gases and push
down the total environmental cost of electricity
generation. High efficiency motor systems can reduce
maintenance costs and improve operations in industry.
Nevertheless, adoption of high efficiency motor driven
systems has been limited by a number of factors,
including their higher purchase cost and the lack of
knowledge in the market place about their energy
savings potential. Few people know that, in the majority
of cases, investments in high efficiency motor systems
have a short pay-back time. Effective regulation
combined with information campaigns should help
stimulate change and bring significant benefits to the
European economy and environment. This would
increase the competitiveness of European manufacturing
industry and improve its position with respect to those
regions that have already taken significant steps towards
improving energy efficiency.
According to European studies [1 - 5], the best strategy
is a mix of information campaigns, financial incentives and
regulation. The Motor Challenge Programme has made
a good start in raising the awareness of industry. To
achieve the target benefits, however, more resources
should be allocated.
A particularly promising concept is the EU emissions
trading scheme, which could be broadened to enable
companies to claim emissions credits for investments
that reduce energy consumption.
Section 2 of this report provides a more detailed
overview of the benefits of implementing energy efficient
motor driven systems. Section 3 discusses the barriers,
which are primarily technical and managerial, and
Section 4 suggests possible actions to overcome them.
Section 5 presents an overview of existing programmes
and Section 6 proposes an action plan.
Annex 1 on page 16 provides a brief introduction to
motor driven systems and their components and
outlines case histories of energy savings achieved by
improving efficiency of components and systems.
Annex 11 lists the references, identified by ‘[n]’ in the text
and Annex III contains notes referred to in the text,
identified with a superscript.
Baggage handling at Charles de Gaulle Airport
(Copyright Siemens)
Compressed air-driven robots in car
(Copyright Druckluft Effizient)
Motor driven systems are used
extensively in Europe and
account for 65% of industrial
electricity consumption.
Motors and drives in a paper mill
(Copyright ABB)
1. Introduction
The best kWh is the one that is saved. Indeed, saving
energy is beneficial for many reasons. Less fuel needs to
be burned and fewer power plants need to be built. This
saves money as well as saving the environment. Motor
driven systems consume about 65% of industrial
electricity in the European Union. The SAVE studies
supported by the European Commission [1-5] identified
that, where modern high efficiency equipment was
properly selected and installed,large energy savings were
possible. Making energy savings a high priority is likely to
yield significant financial benefits.
2.1 Electricity savings potential
Economic savings potential
Total electricity consumption in the EU-151in 2000
was 2 574 billion kWh, of which 951 billion kWh was
used in industry [6]. Of this, 614 billion kWh, or 65%,
was consumed by motor driven systems. The SAVE
studies [1-5] calculated the economical savings
potential of those industrial motor driven systems2to
be 181 billion kWh, or 29%3. This means a savings
potential of more than 7% of the overall electricity
consumption in the EU.
The above figure is the 'economic energy savings
potential'. This is the savings potential of measures with
a reasonable pay-back time, typically between 2 and 3
years. Its calculation is based on current electricity
prices and can therefore vary with time. The 'technical
energy savings potential' is the energy that would be
saved by implementing all existing technical measures,
without concern for economic efficiency. The technical
savings potential is, of course, higher than the economic
savings potential.
The motor and its application
Industrial facilities use very large numbers of motor
driven systems,hereafter called motor systems. A motor
system consists of the electric drive itself, sometimes a
variable speed drive (VSD) and the driven load.
Compressed air, pumping or ventilation systems (see
Annex I) represent about 60% of the motor loads.
Other important uses include materials processing
(mills, mixers, centrifugal machines, etc) and materials
handling applications (conveyors, hoists, elevators, etc).
The efficiency of a motor system depends on several
factors, including:
Nmotor efficiency
Nmotor speed control
Nproper sizing
Npower supply quality
Ndistribution losses
Nmechanical transmission
Nmaintenance practices
Nend-use mechanical efficiency (pump, fan,
compressor, etc).
Figure 1 illustrates the synergistic effects of the
combination of different energy efficient technologies to
reduce the electricity consumption of a pumping system
by more than half 4.
Table 1 specifies the energy savings potential in industry
in the EU of using high efficiency motors (HEM), installing
variable speed drives (VSD) and optimising the
application part of the drive system.
2.2 Environmental benefits
Kyoto target
One of the major current environmental concerns is the
'greenhouse gas' emissions (CO2,N
2O, etc) created by
the use of fossil fuels. After signing the Kyoto protocol
in 1997, the EU committed itself to reducing its overall
2. Benefits of Implementing Energy Efficient Motor Systems
Savings potential (billion kWh/year)
EU-15 EU-25 France Germany Italy UK
High efficiency motors 24 27 4 6 4 3
Variable speed drives 45 50 8 10 7 6
Application part of the motor systems (pumps, fans,compressors) 112 125 19 26 17 15
Total electricity savings potential 181 202 31 42 28 24
Table 1 - Overview of energy savings potential for motor systems in the EU
greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2008 to 2012
by 8% compared to 1990 levels, i.e. a reduction of
336 million tonne CO2equivalent (CO2eq) [7]. This
cannot be achieved without serious efforts in all areas of
the economy, including the generation and use of
electrical energy.
There are four ways of reducing CO2eq emissions from
Nincrease the use of renewable energy sources
Nincrease the use of nuclear power
Nthrough cogeneration and increased power plant
efficiency (eg by using other fuels)
Nenergy saving.
Of these, energy saving currently offers the biggest
potential at the lowest cost.
Power generation in the EU results in an average CO2
emission of 0.435 kg CO2/kWh [5] (EU-15, 1999). This
means that the savings potential on industrial motor
systems of 181 billion kWh (EU-15) corresponds to the
saving of 79 million tonne CO2, or 24% of the Kyoto
target. This is the annual amount of CO2that would be
saved by 360 million solar roofs, or that an
average European forest of 355 500 km2transforms into
oxygen6, i.e. an area larger than Finland.
Table 2 shows the emission reduction potential as a
proportion of the 'Kyoto gap', i.e. the difference between
expected emissions and 2010 Kyoto target emissions:
NFrance: Emission reduction potential is small
because of the high proportion of nuclear
generation. However, improving efficiency of
motor driven systems would release emission-
free electricity for sale to other countries.
NGermany: Emission reduction is greater than the
Kyoto gap, making an additional 10 million tonne
CO2emissions available for trade.
Figure 1 - a) Conventional pumping system (total efficiency = 31%)
b) Energy-efficient pumping system combining efficient technologies (total efficiency = 72%)
EU-15 EU-25 France Germany Italy UK
Reduction potential for greenhouse gas emissions
(Million tonne CO2eq per year) 79 100 3 27 14 12
% of Kyoto gap 24% - 6% 175% 26% n/a
Table 2 - Overview of the CO
reduction potential related to efficient motor systems
NItaly: Emission reduction represents 26% of the
Kyoto gap.
NUK: Current policy measures are expected to
meet the Kyoto targets. Emission reduction due
to high efficiency motor driven systems would
give the UK 12 million tonne of tradable credits.
Non-greenhouse gas emissions
The burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation
produces various types of emissions. Apart from CO2,
the main offenders are SO2and NOx
8, which contribute
to the acidification of the environment. These pollutants
have long range transborder effects and have therefore
become a major concern for most European countries.
The European Union participates in the UN sponsored
Geneva Convention on Long Range Transborder Air
Pollutants which is the international body attempting to
reduce this type of pollution.
Additionally, emissions also contain heavy metals (nickel,
zinc, chrome, copper, mercury etc) and dust. Although
they can be substantially reduced by using the latest flue
gas cleaning techniques, a small amount will always
escape into the environment. Burning fossil fuels also
produces fly ashes and solid ashes.
The 202 billion kWh that can be saved by optimising
industrial motor systems means a reduction of 7% in the
overall European electricity production, so it will lead to
an equivalent reduction of all the emissions mentioned
Cost of burning fossil fuel
A European Commission research project9calculated
the cost of the environmental impact of power
generation in Europe. These "fuel cycle externalities" are
the costs imposed on society and the environment that
are not included in the market price, for example the
effects of air pollution, influences on public health,
occupational diseases and accidents.
There is a wide range in estimates for external costs
reflecting, for example, political preferences, or the
use of different technologies for power generation10
(Table 3).
So the environmental cost of an average European kWh
is calculated at around 3 eurocents. This needs to
be added to the typical industrial market price of
5 eurocents/kWh. Current eco-taxation schemes in the
EU member states do not internalise the full external
costs of electricity generation11.
Therefore, saving 202 billion kWh/year in electricity also
means saving €6 billion of environmental costs for society.
Energy efficiency and energy sector investments
Improving the industrial motor systems in Europe (EU-25)
could result in an annual saving of 202 billion kWh of
energy consumption. This would eliminate the need for
adding 45 GW of power generating capacity to the
European electricity system12. This is equivalent to:
N45 nuclear power units (1 000 MW)
N130 fossil fuel power units (350 MW)
The 202 billion kWh is equivalent to about five times the
electricity production of all wind power units in Europe
(EU-25) in 2003 (5 x 40 billion kWh)13.
According to [8], the EU needs to add 320 GW of new
base load capacity in the next 30 years to cope with
increasing electricity demand. This expansion will cost
Europe between €200 and €300 billion and a similar
additional amount of investment in transmission and
distribution systems. High efficiency motor systems
Fuel External cost range
Mean value
Generation in EU-15
Contribution to external cost
Coal 5 - 8 7½ 27 2.03
Oil 5 - 11 8 6 0.48
Gas 1 - 3 2 18 0.36
Nuclear 0.5 0.5 33 0.17
Hydro 0.3 0.3 14 0.04
Other 0.1 0.1 2 < 0.01
Total 3.07
Table 3 - External costs for the use of different technologies for power generation
would reduce this expansion need by more than 10%
and would save Europe around €50 billion - or €5 billion
capital cost a year (discount rate 10%).
2.3 Micro economical benefits
The pay-back periods for most investments in energy
efficient motor systems are relatively short, ranging
from 3 months to 3 years.
The non-energy benefits of higher efficiency systems are
better process control,reduced disruption and improved
product quality. Sometimes reliability is improved, but
not always (a variable speed drive can be less reliable
than a direct on-line system). Overall cost savings
related to these benefits can be in the same order of
magnitude as the energy cost saving itself [9-12]. So
companies or organisations that invest in energy saving
on motor systems also improve profit in an indirect way.
2.4 Macro economical benefits
Increased competitiveness
Using energy as efficiently as possible is a crucial
requirement to maintain the competitiveness of the
European economy. Since motor systems account for
65% of all industrial electricity use, they are the most
important area of attention for cutting energy costs. The
US has already created extensive programmes to
stimulate energy saving with motor systems14. Falling
behind the US would have long-term adverse
consequences for the European economy.
Raised employment
Investments in high efficiency motor systems have the
direct effect of creating jobs in three areas:
Nenergy service companies, engineering
consultants, and contractors, many of which are
Nmanufacturers of motors, variable speed drives,
compressors, fans and pumps and other system
components such as hoses, tubes or control
Njobs in energy or maintenance departments; a
shift from 'fire fighting' to condition monitoring
and preventive maintenance that can increase the
added-value of manufacturing.
Although most investments create employment, money
can only be invested once. When faced with several
choices, it is necessary to decide whether investing the
same amount of money in another area would not
create more jobs. In other words, when judging an
investment, the overall net creation of employment and
its influence on the whole economy should be
Investing to reduce the energy use of motor systems
pays back over a relatively short period, after which the
energy cost savings are pure profit. Therefore, investing
in high efficiency motor systems does not divert money
from other essential areas. On the contrary, it even
creates more money for new investments and,
consequently, new jobs.
Reduced dependency of fossil fuels
Saving 202 billion kWh a year (EU-25) also improves
Europe's security of supply and reduces dependency on
fossil fuel imports. It represents 42.5 million tonne oil
equivalent annually, reducing imports of primary fuel by
6%15. Therefore, saving energy on motors would allow
more time to develop alternatives for fossil fuels. With
just this argument in mind, it would even be defensible to
look beyond the current economic savings potential of
motor systems (calculated with the current kWh price,
see 2.2), and to encourage technology that can make
them as energy efficient as possible. In other words, in
the long-run, a large portion of today's technical savings
potential could become tomorrow's economic savings
If the savings potential of energy efficient motor systems
is as high as described in Section 2, why does it receive so
little attention? What are the restraints preventing
implementation of energy efficient drive systems? If those
restraints are removed, which mechanisms can still block
the actual implementation of more efficient systems?
Studies show that a whole spectrum of causes exist
[1-5]. Some of them are specific to certain industrial
sectors or certain categories of motor systems (eg
pumps, compressors, fans). Nevertheless, some general
observations stand out. The following nine types of
market barriers, grouped into categories according to
importance, describe the largest part of the problem:
MMaajjoorr bbaarrrriieerrss
1. Pay-back time is too long due to low
electricity prices
2. Reluctance to change a working process
3. Split budgets
MMeeddiiuumm bbaarrrriieerrss
4. Not all parties in the supply chain are motivated
5. Lack of correct definitions of motor system
6. Oversizing due to lack of knowledge of
mechanical characteristics of load
7. Lack of management time
MMooddeerraattee bbaarrrriieerrss
8. Shortage of capital
9. Other functional specifications conflict with
energy efficiency.
3.1 Major barriers
Pay-back time is too long due to low
electricity prices
In general, energy efficient motor systems have reasonable
to very good pay-back times, but some companies still
consider these to be too long to be of interest.
This is often because the economics are based on simple
pay-back times instead of the more appropriate internal
rate of return. A pay-back time of two years is about
equivalent to a rate of return of 50% [13].
It was established in section 2.2 that not all of the costs of
providing electricity to society are included in the market
price. As a result, when a kWh is saved, not all of the
benefit goes to the company that made the effort. A
significant part of the benefit is to society and is never
taken into account in a purely financial analysis. To make
matters worse, liberalisation enables large electricity users
to use their market power to negotiate a lower price,
thereby further reducing the incentive for saving energy.
Reluctance to change a working process
Often, the idea of switching to more energy efficient
systems is only considered when a component, such as
the motor, fails. In such a case, a decision has to be taken
quickly and energy considerations are left aside.
Repairing the motor often seems to be the fastest and
thus cheapest option. This often means a missed
opportunity for switching to a more energy efficient
model. In general, a repaired motor has a lower
efficiency than a new motor, although a high quality
repair of an old motor can actually improve efficiency by,
for example, the use of better insulation materials. The
replace-repair decision needs to be part of a motor
management policy and energy considerations should be
taken into account.
If the decision is made to replace the motor, there is
usually no time to reassess the system. More often than
not, exactly the same type of motor will be purchased.
Another problem is that many sites have stocks of older,
salvaged motors and use these 'free' motors as
For compressed air, pumping and ventilation systems
with downstream piping, a further complication is that
efficiency upgrades may only be possible during
scheduled maintenance periods. However, minor
maintenance procedures, such as the repair of leaks, can
be performed on an operating process.
Split budgets
There can be a situation in which one budget is used to
spend money so that another budget can show savings.
For instance, investing in new parts of a compressed air
or pump system can be the responsibility of the
maintenance department and earmarked for its budget,
while the savings due to energy efficiency accrue to a
budget of general costs.
It also happens that the energy costs are not
apportioned to individual production areas; another case
where little incentive is generated to reduce energy use.
3. Market Barriers
3.2 Medium barriers
Not all parties in the supply chain are motivated
Many intermediate stages exist between the
manufacturer of a motor system and the department that
will actually be using it and paying the bill for the energy
use. In other words, the interests of those in the supply
chain focus on first cost while users' interests should
focus on lifetime costs. If any element of the supply
chain is not aware of the importance of energy
efficiency, the spread of energy efficient motor systems
will stall.
Components and sub-systems, like motors, fans and
pumps, for instance, are often manufactured by OEMs,
driven by their clients to supply at the lowest cost.
Moreover, systems are often sold via distributors who
are not always aware of the importance of energy
A complete pumping, ventilation or compressed air
system is often designed by engineers and installed by
engineering contractors, introducing two further parties
to be convinced but without a stake in energy
Also on the procurement side, intermediate parties can
block the move. Some larger companies have purchasing
policies that impose the same specifications for all their
purchases. These specifications often become outdated,
so that less efficient models continue to be purchased
without question. Another example is the use of fans for
indoor climate systems. These are often restricted by
contracts between the building owner and the supplier
stipulating that the fans meet functional requirements,
ignoring the energy issue.
Lack of correct definitions of motor system
The efficiency of motor systems is often difficult to
define and calculate. The EU/CEMEP system divides the
motors into three clearly defined classes. This should
help overcome the historical barrier of the lack of a
precise definition of what constitutes a high efficiency
motor. However, for complete motor systems such as
fans or pumps, the lack of a clear definition persists.
The efficiency of a complete motor system is much
more difficult to assess than the efficiency of a motor
alone. Diverse efficiency test methods result in
different values causing some scepticism among
purchasers who then tend to ignore manufacturers'
efficiency data.
Oversizing due to unknown mechanical load
Installing a high efficiency system is pointless if it is
oversized for the job, yet it often happens. The system's
mechanical load characteristics may be difficult to
determine or may be overestimated or the size may be
determined by start-up, rather than running load.
Sometimes regulations prescribe a large safety margin.
In other cases, the specifications for new systems are
determined allowing for future plant expansion.
Lack of management time
In general, the concept of investing in energy efficient
motor systems is raised by an engineer. However,
engineers are typically weak in 'selling' the project. They
refrain from translating the arguments into terms
familiar to decision makers and, for this reason, sound
investment opportunities can be rejected by the financial
Sometimes there is a senior management commitment,
but the distribution of the commitment between the
divisions and departments of the company goes wrong.
The engagement lacks a clear action plan. In that case,
conflicting pressures mean that well-intended
commitments are soon forgotten.
3.3 Moderate barriers
Shortage of capital
Shortage of capital makes it difficult for companies to
invest in more efficient systems, despite potentially
profitable opportunities. In such cases, the limited capital
available is usually reserved for investments that are
clearly compatible with strategic business objectives.
Energy services companies (ESCOs) can help to
overcome this barrier, but need support.
Other specifications conflict with energy
Even when energy efficiency is taken into consideration,
it is often given lower priority than other issues. Many
companies assign the responsibility of motor systems to
the maintenance department. Logically, they view the
availability of production assets, their maintenance effort
and costs as priorities. Sometimes this is in conflict
with energy efficiency. A variable speed drive, for
example, saves energy but is also sensitive to voltage dips
and introduces harmonics.
Overcoming market barriers
How can the barriers described in Section 3 be
overcome so that the European market for motor
systems can be transformed? The conventional wisdom
is that a good mix of actions, spread intelligently over
time, is the best way. Co-ordinating all activities under a
single central programme will enhance the clarity of the
benefits for the target audience and help to achieve the
One proven tactic for changing a market is the three-
tiered approach of the carrot, the stick, and the
tambourine. The carrot represents the incentives, the
stick regulation, and the tambourine stands for
education. All three pillars are equally important.
The most important actions to overcome the barriers
and achieve success can be summarised as follows:
1. Regulation - for example creating efficiency
classes, licensing of motor systems as a part of the
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control
(IPPC) operating licence of industrial installations,
and mandatory audits.
2. Information and education - providing publications
and seminars, tackling issues from the point of
view of the target audience.
3. Shop floor assistance - decision-support tools
(electronic databases, energy savings calculators,
education of personnel on the job and, above all,
energy audits).
4. Financial support - kick-start promotional rebates,
support of distributors, enhanced capital
allowances, special leasing contracts and the
trading of emissions credits. In each case,
incentives should be of adequate value in order to
be successful.
5. Working with suppliers - the ideal partners for
distributing information, but a perceived loss of
independence should be avoided.
6. Environmental standards - accreditations like
ISO 14001 as a framework to promote efficiency.
7. Supporting R&D of manufacturers - supporting
R&D directly or indirectly results in designing
more energy efficient products.
8. Procurement & life cycle costing - a proven
technique to increase business and environmental
performance at the same time.
9. Integrated approach - none of the above solutions
will work in isolation but, combined, provide a
powerful tool for change.
4.1 Regulation
Section 3 (Market Barriers) describes the importance of
establishing an agreement over what exactly constitutes
a high efficiency motor system. A first step in achieving
agreement is to define efficiency levels. When these
levels have been established, motors can then be officially
classified and labelled. This phase has already been
accomplished for the motors themselves. The
EU/CEMEP system divides motors into three well-
defined classes: EFF3, EFF2 and EFF1 (EFF1 being the
highest efficiency). It is important to note that energy
efficiency standards, whether they are voluntary or
regulated, should not be seen as fixed, but rather as
something constantly being re-evaluated to determine
the right time to increase it to a higher level. Experience
has shown that EFF3 motors are now a negligible
fraction of the market, but the same is true for the EFF1
motors. In other words, the voluntary scheme has
moved the market focus onto EFF2 motors. To move the
market to EFF1 motors, and allow the huge cost-effective
energy savings to be tapped, there may be a need to
impose mandatory minimum efficiency standards.
For the complete motor system, such labelling is often
difficult. This is because the efficiency levels of those
systems not only depend on the machines purchased,but
just as much on the method of installation and
operation. A possible way to ensure energy efficiency
could be to:
Nrecommend best practice for motor system
efficiency in the IPPC operating licence for
industrial sites16
Nimplement a mandatory auditing scheme,
currently foreseen in the draft directive on
energy services17.
Classification and labelling are still a good idea for
standardised motor systems that are usually sold as an
integrated unit.
For fan systems, there are at present several different
efficiency test standards in the EU. A single, widely
accepted standard would, of course, be better. Once
there is a consensus regarding such a standard,
manufacturers and users can then meet to develop a
labelling scheme.
For smaller water circulation pumps a definition of
general efficiency levels is still lacking. One problem is
that the tolerances of published pump data are currently
4. Solutions
too large to allow for a higher number of efficiency
levels. Reducing these tolerances would be a good start.
4.2 Information and education
Publications and seminars are the main tools for
distributing information. Various types of publications
already exist on the subject but many of them merely
arouse interest and are not detailed enough to be of
practical value. In contrast, there are also very
specialised, learned papers available that require close
reading and are more suited to academia. It is the gap
between these two extremes that needs to be filled.
An important point is that the publications should be
technically sound and always written with the target
audience in mind. There are many different groups of
people involved in the selection of a motor driven
system, from maintenance staff to accountants, and
appropriate information has to be available for all of
Another successful way of spreading information is
through seminars. Here the remarks regarding
publications are equally valid. They should avoid being
too general on the one hand and too academic on the
other. The best seminars are those with a very practical
agenda, leaving plenty of time for discussion. An engineer
who tells an energy saving story from real-life
experience can bring the whole event to the level of the
audience. The most effective speakers are those who
are not only technically competent, but also good
presenters. In order to be able to present interesting
case stories in publications and seminars, it is a good
idea to set up demonstration and pilot projects that
deal with specific problems. It must be remembered,
however, that every presentation needs to be impartial
to be credible. The best method for evaluating the
effectiveness of seminars is through the use of formal
evaluation questionnaires, completed by the seminar
Involving equipment suppliers is also a good idea,both as
speakers and exhibitors. It can be a good way to
reinforce their necessary commitment (see Section 3:
Market Barriers).
4.3 Shop floor assistance
In general, shop floor assistance by an independent
specialised advisor is the best guarantee that optimum
energy saving measures will be identified; the whole
motor system needs to be assessed, not just the motor
itself. Stimulating and supporting audits is probably one
of the measures with the highest return on investment a
government can take. Along with actual advice, advisors
can also educate personnel on the job and can even help
them present appropriate investment proposals to
Special 'energy savings calculators' are a good way to
focus initial attention on energy savings potential before
an advisor is called in for an audit. While calculators do
not use methods that consider every variable necessary
for a completely accurate result, their approximations
can indicate where there are good energy saving
opportunities. This can be a very successful method of
raising initial awareness.
Electronic databases, for example EuroDEEM18, that
compare different motor options, are also a good
support tool, though their use sometimes suffers from a
general reluctance to learn how to use new software.
Training sessions, such as those given in seminars, can be
a good way of overcoming this barrier.
4.4 Finance mechanisms
Rebates are a very simple way to encourage the sales of
energy efficient motor systems. The rebate programmes
of US utility companies in the 80s, however, show that it
is not always the most cost-efficient way of reaching the
goal. To be effective, a rebate scheme must offer an
adequate value and this makes these programmes very
expensive. As the sale of energy efficient systems
increase, the 'free rider' effect - people who would have
bought those systems anyway - makes rebate schemes
progressively less effective. They are a good way to kick-
start promotional and legislative measures, but are best
phased out as the market develops.
The support of distributors is of vital importance. They
need to allocate enough space to stock high efficiency
systems. Distributors must have a financial incentive to
participate and, even more importantly, they must believe
in the effectiveness of the overall programme.
One way of giving financial support is to make
allowances on company taxes when investments are
made in energy efficient motor systems. The UK
Enhanced Capital Allowances Scheme (ECA scheme, see
Section 5) is a good example of such a programme.
Another type of financial support is leasing. This is
usually offered by the manufacturer and, if necessary,
supported in some way by government. Its principal
attraction to customers is that they can achieve savings
without having to spend capital. Contracting is usually
offered for larger motor systems,such as compressed air
systems. Some special contracts even specify that the
customer pays the contracting company only from
savings in energy costs. This is an excellent way of
completely overcoming the barrier of capital shortage.
Financial assistance can be provided through energy
service companies (ESCOs), third party financing or
performance contracting.
A particularly promising concept is the EU emissions
trading scheme, which could be broadened to allow
companies to claim emissions credits for investments in
energy reducing equipment. This follows the principle
that the saved kWh is the most environmentally friendly
kWh. If a company saves a kWh, this results in a kWh
less to be produced by the power station, and
consequently a reduction of the greenhouse gas
emissions from the power station. At present,the power
station can receive emissions credits for this reduction.
But, to be fair, and to stimulate energy savings
investments, the company that made the investment in
energy savings measures should get at least a share of
those credits.
Also, revenue obtained from carbon taxes could be
recycled to finance energy-efficiency investments. This
would make those taxes neutral for European industry,
while at the same time helping to improve its
4.5 Working with suppliers
Since equipment suppliers visit customers on a regular
basis, they are the ideal partners for distributing
information. These suppliers are not necessarily
manufacturers. It is critical that the actual OEM
equipment distributors are reached. Working with
suppliers requires a delicate balance between the free
promotional effort and the perceived loss of
independence. It also risks the loss of credibility since
companies aim to profit from selling products or
4.6 Supporting the R&D of
The maturity of standard motors and the huge cost
involved in making significant advances means that
there are rarely opportunities for making cost-effective
efficiency improvements. The same is true, to a lesser
degree, for complete motor systems such as pumps,
compressors and fans. Recently, however, a French
company announced that their production process for
manufacturing copper rotors is ready for the market.
The process has, up to now, always been impossible to
industrialise because of the high melting point of
copper (around 1 083°C). Because of copper's high
conductivity, this new process increases efficiency of
the motor by 3%.
A good way for stimulating R&D, and for the
development of energy efficient products, are Product
Procurement Groups. These are groups of users that
offer manufacturers a guaranteed market if they develop
a new product to meet a particular specification.
4.7 Setting environmental standards
ISO 14001 and EMAS [14] accredited companies can be
an interesting target for motor system efficiency
improvement. Such efficiency improvements can be
reported as an improvement in the company's
environmental performance.
The IPPC directive [15] requires industrial installations
falling under it to apply best available technology for
energy efficiency, among other things. This includes high
efficiency in motor driven systems.
4.8 Procurement and life cycle costing
Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is a forceful tool to improve
business performance and, at the same time, protect the
environment by reducing energy consumption. LCC
guidelines have been developed in the SAVE
programme19. They are primarily intended for
application in procurement work in the engineering
industry and may be included as part of a procurement
manual or a quality system in industry. The target group
includes industry management, purchasers, consultants,
contractors and manufacturers.
4.9 Need for an integrated approach
A successful programme needs to incorporate several of
the above actions, in a coordinated approach to change
the market. Regulation is needed on minimum efficiency
performance standards for different parts of motor
systems. Actually, so far, only motors have been
addressed. To realise the savings potential in motor
systems energy audits are essential, but they need to be
supported by a regulatory framework of periodic
inspections. Such inspections can cover all energy
systems at a plant. In order to maintain quality,
inspectors need to be trained and, where necessary,
certified. Information and promotion need to work in
parallel, in order to train users to comply with the
requirements of any new regulations. Test cases need to
be developed in the market, preferably with industry
leaders, to demonstrate the benefits of high efficiency
motor systems. Often, lack of capital is a barrier, and
needs to be addressed by financial schemes, such as
performance contracting or tax incentives.
A number of programmes for promoting enhanced
motor system efficiency have been initiated in the
European Union and the United States. They each
concentrate on certain types of activities (see Section 4).
A short description of each of these programmes is
given below, followed by the most important lessons
that could be derived from them.
1. The European Motor Challenge Programme - a
voluntary programme instituted by the European
Commission to improve the efficiency of motor
driven systems
2. France - 1977 Energy saving decree - requires
mandatory energy inspection in industry
3. Italy - 2001 Energy efficiency decree - linked to
liberalisation, it requires distribution utilities to
implement an energy saving programme with
quantified, progressive annual targets
4. EU motor efficiency labels - devised by the
European Committee of Manufacturers of
Electrical Machines and Power Electronics, and
the European Commission
5. US EPAct - the Energy Policy Act describes the
minimum standards for energy efficient motors
6. US NEMA Premium - the National Electrical
Manufacturers Association labels high efficiency
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7. EuroDEEM - the European database of efficient
electric motors
8. EEBPp - the UK government's Energy Efficiency
Best Practice Programme
9. Efficient Compressed Air Systems 'Druckluft
Effizient' - a German programme to inform users
about savings potentials in compressed air
10. European Guide to Pump Efficiency - a first
example in Europe for classification and labelling
of pumps.
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11. ECA - Enhanced Capital Allowances by the UK
IInntteeggrraatteedd pprrooggrraammmmeess
12. Sparemotor - The Danish government gave
subsidies for high efficiency motors as part of a
larger campaign
13. Polish Efficient Motor Programme (PEMP) -
supported by the United Nations and Global
Environmental Facility, this programme includes
dissemination, demonstration, financial incentives
and definition of regulation.
As can be seen from the list above, there are only a few
programmes that address motor systems. Most
programmes focus on the motor, as motors alone are
much easier to handle and to understand but, at the
same time, many saving opportunities are missed by
failing to take the motor system approach.
5.1 Description of the ongoing
5.1.1 The European Motor Challenge Programme
The European Motor Challenge Programme (MCP) is a
voluntary programme supported by the European
Commission to improve the efficiency of motor driven
systems. The 'Partner Companies' in the Motor Challenge
Programme do not have legal obligations, but a strong
commitment is required. The core of the programme is
the Action Plan, in which they commit to undertake
certain measures. The companies themselves define the
scope of this Plan. In order to succeed, they receive
advice and technical assistance from the Commission and
a National Contact Centre. In addition to this operational
advice, the Partners receive public recognition through
the programme's promotional campaign.
The 'MCP Endorsers' are companies or organisations
that wish to support the Motor Challenge Programme
with their knowledge and help to promote MCP to
industry. They have to write and execute an MCP
Promotion Plan defining specific actions to disseminate
information and support MCP Partners in putting the
recommendations into practice. In return, the Endorsers
receive public acknowledgement similar to that of the
MCP Partners.
5. Ongoing Programmes
The number of companies joining the MCP is gradually
increasing. It is still too early to provide valid statistics
on the total energy savings, but it is already clear that a
voluntary programme will never win over the large
majority of motor system users.
5.1.2 France - 1977 energy saving decree
Regulatory measures [4] are used by governments to
impose certain energy saving technologies. This is done
routinely in building regulations, for example. In France,
the July 5, 1977 decree instituted a broad system of
mandatory energy inspections in industry. Finland also
has a mandatory auditing scheme.
5.1.3 Italy - 2001 energy efficiency decree
In 2001 an energy efficiency decree was approved in Italy.
The decree is connected with the liberalisation of the
electricity market and requires electricity utilities to
implement energy saving programmes in order to
increase energy efficiency in end-use and meet
quantitative targets. The decree requires electricity
distributors to identify, finance and implement a specific
energy saving programme. The suggested measures,
listed within an attachment of the decree, include the
adoption of high efficiency electric motors and variable
speed drives in all sectors. The quantitative objectives to
be reached by electricity distributors are fixed and
progressive each year.
At the moment the decree is not in effect because a
revision is in progress.
5.1.4 CEMEP and the efficiency labels
CEMEP (the European Committee of Manufacturers of
Electrical Machines and Power Electronics) and the
European Commission have devised motor efficiency
classification labels - EFF1, EFF2 and EFF3 - to make it
much easier for purchasers to identify energy efficient
motors on the market. The programme was
implemented by a voluntary agreement between the
Commission and the motor manufacturers to reduce
sales of EFF3 motors by half by 2003, a target which has
been reached.
5.1.5 US EPAct (the Energy Policy Act)
EPAct was passed in 1992 to reduce US dependence on
imported petroleum, to enhance the nation's energy
security and improve environmental quality. One section
of EPAct relates to energy efficiency of motor systems.
5.1.6 NEMA Premium (National Electrical
Manufacturers Association)
NEMA Premium is a US energy efficiency motors
programme. NEMA invites member motor manufacturers
to participate in a voluntary partnership under which an
efficiency audit of their products is made. If the products
comply with the NEMA Premium motor efficiency
guidelines, they may be NEMA Premium™ labelled,
helping purchasers identify high efficiency motors.
5.1.7 EuroDEEM - the European motor system
To include all the necessary factors when calculating
efficiency, the European Commission developed the
EuroDEEM software (the European Database of Efficient
Electric Motors). For instance, load conditions,
temperature and power quality can result in significant
efficiency variations when in operation. With
EuroDEEM, companies have an assessment tool to
consider and optimise motor efficiency.
5.1.8 United Kingdom - EEBPp (Energy Efficiency
Best Practice Programme)
The EEBPp is the UK Government's principal
programme for information, advice and research on
energy efficiency. It is directed at organisations in both
the public and private sectors. Since its establishment in
1989, it has helped many organisations to save up to 20%
on their energy bills. It has already led to energy savings
in the UK of around £650M a year. It also maintains the
biggest library of independent information on energy
efficiency in the UK.
The EEBPp promotes best practice through free
publications and events, and encourages action at every
stage (planning, design, implementation and
management). It also supports R&D on energy efficient
motor systems.
5.1.9 Germany - Druckluft Effizient
Since 2001 the German campaign Druckluft Effizient
(Efficient Compressed Air) has been aiming to improve
the efficiency of compressed air systems in Germany.
The campaign follows the system approach,looking at all
components such as generation, treatment, distribution
and end use. The main elements of the campaign are a
large website with practical information, case studies and
tools to improve compressed air systems, a free
compressed air audit campaign, an efficient compressed
air award, a contracting guide, a compressed air seminar
and compressed air benchmarking. The campaign is
supported by a partnership between the private sector
and government.
5.1.10 European guide to pump efficiency
This application guide, developed by a project team, with
support from the European Commission, allows users to
select an efficient pump. It has been published jointly by
the European Commission and EUROPUMP, under the
Motor Challenge Programme20.
5.1.11 United Kingdom - ECA (Enhanced Capital
The goal of ECA is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
This programme offers companies who invest in low
carbon technologies and energy-saving systems the
option of writing off their entire capital expenditure in
the same year as their investment. Companies can
source the relevant approved products from a list,
updated monthly.
5.1.12 Denmark - Sparemotor
Between 1996 and 1998 this campaign educated Danish
trade and industry on the advantages of replacing old
electric motors with high efficiency motors. The campaign
approached 4 000 companies through newspaper
advertisements, newsletters and folders. The campaign
website can help interested companies compare high
efficiency and standard motors and also includes a list of
energy efficient motors. In addition to this information
campaign, a subsidy of €60/kW was given for a certain
period of time.
The campaign was a success with almost 100 000 new
energy efficient motors sold between the start of the
campaign in 1996 and 1999, one year after it ended.
5.1.13 Polish Energy Efficient Motors Programme
(PEMP) from United Nations Development
Programme - Global Environment Facility
The Polish Energy Efficient Motors Programme (PEMP)
aims to overcome the barriers to increased market
penetration of energy efficient motors and related
efficiency improvements in electric motor systems21.
The project has four main activities supported under the
GEF. The first focuses on building capacity and raises
awareness by providing information and services related
to energy efficient electric motor systems. The second
involves demonstration projects to establish and
showcase the technical and economic benefits of energy
efficient motor systems and to increase awareness. The
third has the objective of stimulating market
transformation and competition through a financial
incentive mechanism, supported by coordinated and
targeted awareness raising activities. The fourth, a policy
component, comprises both institutional and
information instruments, and has been identified as a
separate component because it addresses a different
target group and requires a different approach at a
national government level.
5.2 Critical success factors
From the programmes described above, several
conclusions can be drawn. These are a few of the critical
success factors for every programme that aims to
promote high efficiency motor systems in Europe:
1. A legal framework
2. Adequate support
3. High quality information, in relevant terms
4. Streamlined with other programmes
5. Measuring results and giving feedback
6. Involvement and co-ordination between different
interested parties
7. Differentiating for each separate market.
5.2.1 A legal framework
Most countries have no legal framework for favouring
high efficiency motor systems. The success achieved in
those countries that do (Denmark, US) shows the
potential benefit of such a step. The European Motor
Challenge Programme certainly lacks the support of a
legal framework and financial resources.
5.2.2 Adequate support
Ongoing programmes show that the more resources
that are invested, the higher the return. This does not
mean that all the support needs to be in the form of
financial incentives. Also other kinds of campaigns need
enough financial support to maintain a minimum quality.
Programmes in the UK and Denmark show that
investing in large, high-quality programmes pays off.
5.2.3 High quality information, in relevant terms
All materials and communications must be of high
quality. Low quality information reduces the credibility
of the message. Messages need to be formulated in
terms that are relevant and appropriate to the target
audience. It should be understood that energy efficiency
is rarely a key driver: other issues, such as maintenance
and energy costs, are very important for many sites.
Information is also more acceptable when it comes from
a neutral source such as a public body or a research,non-
profit making or teaching organisation.
5.2.4 Streamlined with other programmes
If the number of programmes and the amount of
material become too large, the audience can become
confused by multiple messages from multiple sources.
Attention should be paid to streamlining all related
activities, especially in those countries that have more
resources for promoting energy saving, so that the
message is clearly delivered.
5.2.5 Measuring results and giving feedback
For every programme built-in methods of evaluation and
measurement are essential. This is indeed the only way
to monitor impact and to fine-tune the programmes.
5.2.6 Information and co-ordination between
different interested parties
All stakeholders in the market, including equipment
suppliers, distributors, purchasing divisions of large
companies and other key players, need to act as
5.2.7 Differentiating for each separate market
The structure of the motor systems market shows a
significant variation within Europe, even within Western
Europe. As a result, no single action is likely to bring
about a significant change throughout the entire
European motor market. The best strategy seems to be
the development of a combination of well-designed
activities, in the right sequence, which match the
requirements of the various national markets.
5.3 A textbook case
An example of a programme that successfully deals with
all of the critical factors given above is the British
Columbia Hydro Project in Canada. It clearly
demonstrates how a market can be transformed by a
properly structured campaign. (See Figure 2).
NLarge incentives (covering more than the
difference in cost between efficient and standard
motors) had a major impact at the start of the
project. This was slowly reduced as the
programme matured.
NSupport was generated by customer visits and
the selection of tools. The high proportion of
motor energy used in the mineral and paper
industries meant that these companies were very
ready to consider the HEM proposition.
NDistributors received 20% of the incentive value.
By 1993 over 60% of motors sold to OEMs were HEMs.
This figure is due to the fact that many OEMs were
selling equipment to the local market.
In 1995 minimum efficiency standards were introduced
and rebates were halted.
Why did it work?
NThe project provided for a major rebate
programme, with attractive incentives for both
purchasers and distributors.
NIt provided for a substantial education
programme, including both customer visits and a
good database of available motors.
NThe Canadian province of British Columbia has
large industries keen to support energy efficiency
improvement initiatives.
NMany OEMs were selling to the local market.
NThe initiation of the minimum efficiency standards
regulation made people take more notice.
The unanswered question is what would have happened
without the minimum efficiency standards?
Figure 2 - Example of successful market transformation
(British Columbia Hydro Project)
'82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Market share of HEMs
Realising the savings potential of 202 billion kWh for the
EU would benefit European industry, society as a whole,
save up to €10 billion a year and contribute to EU
energy policy objectives. However, without action by
government this potential will not be realised, despite
the strong economic drivers. The market will not deliver
energy efficiency because of technical and managerial
barriers explained in Section 3.
The actions described in Section 4 are well known and
have been demonstrated in the market place. The
optimal mix of actions includes regulation, financial
incentives and information campaigns. Because of the
excellent financial pay-back, both government and
industry can justify a large-scale investment to realise
this savings potential.
1. Along with the direct financial benefit of saving
energy, a saving of €6 billion per year can be
made for European society in reduced
environmental costs (EU-25, calculated using the
EU-15 fuel mix). Allowing industry to trade the
greenhouse emissions for improved energy
efficiency could be a good measure; this measure
alone would internalise about a third of
environmental costs.
2. High efficiency motor systems also bring
secondary cost benefits to industry through
reduced maintenance costs and improved
operations. These savings can be estimated at
€5 -10 billion per year.
If we take into account an annual avoided cost of only
€16 billion (electricity saving and avoided environmental
pollution), and require a 3 year pay-back time, this
results in a potential investment of €48 billion, to be
spread over 10-20 years.
A role for government
A four-year package of measures is suggested, investing
€400 million in the motor systems market. The
programme should run at national level in the EU
member states. The Motor Challenge Programme
should continue to be a forum for developing common
tools and fast learning. Measures should include:
Nthe introduction of audits of energy systems in
industrial installations
Ndevelopment of energy services to help industry
implement cost-effective measures in motor
Nfinancial support for training and certification of
energy auditors
Nfiscal and financial incentives for investments in
energy saving projects
Na framework for claiming emissions credits for
investments in electricity saving (eg the ‘White
certificates in Italy, [16])
Nan information campaign based on the Motor
Challenge Programme.
While €400 million may seem a large amount, this needs
to be evaluated against the contribution the programme
could make to specific energy policy objectives, such as
reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving the
security of supply. Revenue from carbon taxes may
provide some funding, while another part may be
implemented through measures designed to be neutral
on the public budget. Some cash portion, however,
needs to be provided to support the information,
education, training, audits and inspections.
A role for industry
Industry's role is to embrace initiatives such as the
Motor Challenge Programme and invest in staff training
and high efficiency systems. This could be done within
the framework and the support created by government.
The investment requirement of €48 billion is actually
very close to the €50 billion investment in power plants
that efficient motor systems would make unnecessary.
It is therefore suggested that, instead of building
additional power plant capacity, a better alternative is
investment in energy efficient manufacturing systems. In
this way environmental performance is increased and
Europe's energy dependency reduced. Existing power
plant capacity would, of course, need to be maintained
with old power generation plant being replaced at the
end of its life by new plant.
6. Conclusion
Annex I: Motor Systems
Definition of a motor system
In this report 'an industrial motor system' is any system
driven by an electrical motor consisting of:
Nthe electrical motor drive
Nsometimes, a variable speed drive (VSD)
Nthe system that is driven by the motor, eg:
compressed air system (comprising the
compressor itself and the whole distribution
a pump system (comprising the pump itself and
the piping)
a fan system (comprising the fan itself and the
whole distribution ducting)
mixers, conveyor belts, packaging machines...
end use devices (eg compressed air tools,
pneumatic cylinders).
The electrical motor drive
All electric motors consist of a rotating part, the rotor,
and a static part, the stator. The rotor turns through the
interaction of the magnetic fields of the rotor and the
There are several types of electrical motor drive. By far
the most widely-used in industry is the induction motor,
also called the asynchronous motor. They exist in all
ranges of power, except very low or very high. In an
induction motor, the stator contains copper windings,
connected to a power supply. Because of the voltage
across the winding, a radial rotating magnetic field is
formed. This induces a current into conductive loops in
the rotor and creates forces on these conductors that
make the rotor turn. The turning movement can then be
used to drive a system. This type of motor is called
'asynchronous' because the mechanical rotation is a little
slower than the rotation of the magnetic field.
High Efficiency Motors (HEMs)
The efficiency of electrical motors can be improved
mainly by:
1. Reducing the losses in the windings. This is done
by increasing the cross-sectional area of the
conductor or by improving the winding technique
to reduce the length
2. Using better magnetic steel
3. Improving the aerodynamics of the motor
4. Improving manufacturing tolerances.
Motors with improved efficiency are called 'High
Efficiency Motors' or HEMs.
Figure 3 - A compressed air system
(Copyright Druckluft Effizient)
Case history
At Delta Extrusion (UK brass mill), five motors were
replaced with higher efficiency motors to give a
reasonable cross-section of the range of cast iron motor
ratings. Three of the motors were running continuously.
The remaining two ran on a 5-day/3 shift operational
Measurements showed that the 5 motors saved
12 MWh/year. The overall payback for the investment
premium in 5 high efficiency motors was 1.6 years. The
range of payback on individual motors was between
9 months and 3.4 years22.
Variable Speed Drives (VSDs)
A VSD varies the feeding frequency and voltage of the
supply to the motor, thus controlling its speed. It is built
using power electronics components.
If correctly applied, this kind of speed adjustment can
lead to better process control, less wear in the
mechanical equipment, less acoustic noise and significant
energy savings. Special attention should be paid to avoid
the introduction of disturbances in the power quality of
the supply.
They should not be added in systems operating mostly
at full load as the electronics add losses in the range of
3%. If a system often operates at part load, these extra
losses are over-compensated by savings and a VSD
becomes profitable.
Case history
Hanson Brick reduced its electricity use per brick
produced by 8.7% through the use of variable speed drives.
Overall pay-back of the investment was 1.4 years [17].
Compressed air systems
Compressed air is a frequently used energy source in
industry. An electrical motor drives a compressor. The
compressed air is distributed, through a network of
pipes, all over the production site to the end use devices
(car industry robots, high pressure spraying pistols, etc).
System performance depends on the performance of
each element, yet overall system design and operation
have an even greater influence on performance. Together
with the use of high efficiency motors and variable speed
drives, the following technical measures could improve
the overall performance of a compressed air system:
Nan optimal choice of the type of compressor for
the specific end use applications
Nthe improvement of compressor technology
(eg multi-stage compressors)
Nthe use of sophisticated control systems
Nthe recuperation of heat for use in other
Nimproving air treatment (eg drying, filtering)
Na better overall system design, including the
introduction of multi-pressure systems
Nimproving the air flow in pipework to reduce the
pressure losses caused by friction
Nreducing air leaks
Noptimising specific end use devices.
Porsche received the ‘Compressed Air Efficiency’ award
in 2003 for the measures taken to improve their
system's efficiency (see also 5.1.9).
Figure 5 - Maintenance of a compressed
air system at Porsche
(Copyright Druckluft Effizient)
Figure 4 - A low-voltage induction motor
(Copyright Siemens)
Case history
Optimising the compressed air supply of a car maker
In 1997 the compressed air system of Plant 2 of German
car maker Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG in Stuttgart
was made up of a water-cooled screw compressor
(22.2 m³/min free air delivery, FAD) plus four water-
cooled piston compressors of 15 m³/min each.
Maximum operating pressure was 8.7 bar. Specialists
from a compressor manufacturer staged an analysis of
compressed air requirements, which showed the
demand for compressed air varying from 15 to
65m³/min. After processing all relevant data with the
compressor manufacturer's energy saving system, a new
compressed air system with optimised energy utilisation
was designed.
Action taken
The new system was fitted in two stages, comprising only
air-cooled screw compressors. Peak loads were catered
for by three machines with an FAD of 5.62 m³/min each,
while four compressors with an FAD of 16.4 m³/min each
provided the base load. All seven compressors were co-
ordinated depending on their relative workload by means
of a compressed air management system.
Optimising the compressed air system has led to a clear
cost and energy saving. Thanks to better utilisation of
the compressors, and to being able to lower the
maximum operating pressure from 8.7 to 7.5 bar, the
specific overall power rating of the compressor station
was reduced from 8.19 to 6.19 kW/(m³/min). The
overall savings amounted to 483 000 kWh less electricity
per year plus, of course, roughly €55 000 savings per year
by reducing the need for cooling-water. Therefore
optimising the compressed air system has paid off very
Pump systems
Pumps are machines with rotary blades used to maintain
a continuous flow of liquids. There is a very wide range
of pumping applications, from industrial dishwashers to
large pumps in the cooling circuit of a power station.
This wide use produces a broad spectrum of available
pump types.
Improving the efficiency of pump systems is achieved
mainly by selecting the correct pump for the application
and working conditions.
Important factors are:
Nthe design of the section head of the pump
Nthe pump flow
Nthe design of the pump impeller
Nthe properties of the fluid
Nthe motor speed selected
Case history
Energy saving by reducing the size of a pump impeller
A manufacturer used a centrifugal pump to move
condensate from a process and return it to a boiler.
Operational analysis showed that the pressure
generated by the pump was considerably higher than
necessary. The high degree of throttling that was needed
had led to instability in the system, resulting in mal-
operation and high maintenance costs.
Action taken
After discussion with the pump manufacturer, the
company decided to trim the diameter of the pump
impeller from 320 mm to 280 mm, which allowed the
pump to operate without throttling. Reducing the
power required by the pump also allowed a smaller
motor to be fitted, which produced further energy
The measures taken eliminated the instability (cavitation)
and resulted in significant energy savings. The power
consumption of the pump after impeller trimming fell by
nearly 30%. Analysis showed that the energy saved by
trimming the impeller was 197 000 kWh/year, resulting
in an annual saving of €12 714. In addition, an annual
maintenance cost of €4 285 due to the cavitation of the
pump was saved. The smaller impeller allowed the 110 kW
motor to be replaced by a 75 kW motor. This smaller
motor, operating closer to its peak efficiency, produced
additional savings of €1 071. The work involved in
uncoupling, stripping, and rebuilding the pump was
modest and machining the outside diameter of the
small impeller was a simple job. The cost to trim the
impeller was €371. Replacing the 110 kW motor with
a new motor of 75 kW required an additional
investment of €3 600. Reducing cavitation at the
throttling valve also reduced excessive vibration and
unacceptable noise.
The overall combined pay-back for both the impeller
trim and motor size reduction was calculated to be 11.4
weeks. The annual savings were €18 070 on a total
investment of €3 971.
Fan systems
Fans are machines with rotary blades used to maintain a
continuous flow of gas, typically air. The most common
types are the axial and the centrifugal fan.
They range from very small ones used to cool the
electronic components of computers, to very large ones
such as combustion air fans used in power stations.
The opportunities for reducing energy consumption of
fan systems, in addition to the application of HEMs and
VSDs, are summarised as follows:
Nchoosing a high efficiency fan, primarily influenced
by blade geometry and casing shape
Ndesigning the ventilation system for minimum loss
during the required duty. This should include the
length and position of ducts, type of regulation
devices and a variable direction or cross-section.
Nchoosing the best fan for the application
Nchoosing the best type of control to regulate the
fan's speed and cross-section.
A case history
Control of process ventilation
A workshop used a number of process air suction fans
to reduce the concentration of airborne particulates and
chemicals to improve worker safety. The fans were
equipped with manual on/off switches. However, worker
self-discipline was poor in turning off the units after use
or at the end of the working day.
Action taken
The units (20 in number) were equipped with timers
that automatically shut them off after a pre-set delay and
at the end of the working day.
Electricity consumption was reduced by 280 MWh/yr,
which gave a saving of €12 800 per year. In addition,
heating consumption was reduced by 350 MWh/yr,
which gave an additional saving of approx. €10 500 per
year. The total investment was approx. €9 600.
The pay-back time was approximately 0.4 years.
Annex II: References
[1] De Almeida, A, Improving the penetration of energy-
efficient motors & drives, European Commission -
DG TREN, 114 pages, Dec 2000
[2] Study on improving the energy efficiency of pumps,
European Commission - DG TREN, 69 pages, Feb 2001
[3] De Almeida, A, VSDs for electric motor systems,
European Commission - DG TREN, 103 pages,
Dec 2001
[4] Radgen, P, Blaustein, E, Compressed air systems in the
European Union, European Commission - DG TREN,
172 pages, Dec 2001,
[5] Radgen, P, Market study for improving energy efficiency
for fans, European Commission - DG TREN, 152 pages,
May 2002
[6] European energy and transport - trends to 2030,
European Commission - DG TREN, 147 pages,
Jan 2003
[7] Report for a monitoring mechanism of Community
greenhouse gas emissions, European Commission,
22 pages, Nov 2003, COM(2003)735
[8] World energy investment outlook - 2003 insights, IEA,
511 pages, Jan 2003
[9] Elliott, D, Laitner, J, Considerations in the estimation of
costs and benefits of industrial energy efficiency
projects, Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,
2143-2147 pages, Aug 1997
[10] Laitner, J, Ruth, M B, Worrell, E, Incorporating the
productivity benefits into the assessment of cost-
effective energy savings potential using conservation
supply curves, ACEEE, 12 pages, Jul 2001
[11] Laitner, J, Incorporating industrial productivity benefits
into the assessment of energy efficiency investments,
EPA, 12 pages, Sep 2003
[12] Finman, H, Laitner, J, Ruth, M B, Worrell, E, Productivity
benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures, Energy,
28 (2003), Pages 1081 to 1098, Sep 2003
[13] Investment Appraisal for Industrial Energy Efficiency,
Good Practice Guide 69, Energy Efficiency Best Practice
Programme, 59 pages, 1993
[14] REGULATION (EC) No 761/2001 of 19 March 2001
allowing voluntary participation by organisations in a
Community eco-management and audit scheme
(EMAS), OJ European Communities, 29 pages, Mar 2001
[15] Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning integrated
pollution prevention and control
[16] Titoli di efficiennza energetica. Proposte per
l’attuazione dei decreti ministeriali del 24 aprile 2001
per la promozione dell’efficienze energetica negli usi
finali - Autorità per l’energia electricca e il gas. Issued
4th April 2002.
[17] The use of variable speed drives in the ceramics
industry - Hanson Brick Ltd, Energy Efficiency Best
Practice programme, 8 pages, Dec 2000
[18] Final report - conclusions and recommendations
regarding forest related sinks & climate change
mitigation, ECCP - Working Group on Forest Sinks, 53
pages, Mar 2002
[19] Electricity information 2003, IEA, 675 pages,
Sep 2003
[20] Green paper - Towards a European strategy for the
security of energy supply, European Commission,
100 pages, Dec 2001
1EU-25 = the new, extended Union of 25 countries (including Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Malta and Cyprus)
EU-15 = the current European Union (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg,
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK.
2The industrial energy consumption does not include transport, tertiary sector, district heating and residential consumption. The
tertiary sector uses many motor systems due to the use of fans and pumps in HVAC systems. The total electricity consumption
in the tertiary sector in the EU-25 was 652 billion kWh in 2000 [6].
3It is interesting to look at the perspectives for the year 2020. Indeed, energy policies are made based on long-range projections.
Building new power stations, as well as introducing successful energy savings programmes, takes several years. The report
'European energy and transport - trends to 2030' [6] estimates the industrial energy consumption in the EU-25 by 2020 to be
1 432 billion kWh. If the percentage of industrial motor systems' consumption, compared to the total consumption, remains the
same, those systems are expected to use 859 billion kWh by 2020 if no action is taken. If, by then, the EU attains all the
economically efficient energy savings on those motor systems, the result would be an annual saving of 270 billion kWh
(31% of 859 billion kWh), equivalent to the total electricity consumption of Spain in 2000.
4Efficiency values for pumps should normally be given as a range. Hence,a standard pump would have an efficiency range between
30 and 80%. A high efficiency pump would have an efficiency range of 60 to 88%.
5Savings potential for systems in the table below does not include potential for high efficiency motors and variable speed drives.
Savings potential of other systems assumed to be 13%, a conservative figure (for other systems, potential is 18-29%).
EU-25 figures estimated based on a 12% increase in industrial electricity use with 10 new member states [6].
The national savings potentials for high efficiency motors and variable speed drives for Germany, France, Italy and the UK are
estimated by subdividing the EU-15 figures with the same factors as for the application part of the motor systems.
6Report [18] states absorption figures for an average European forest are between 0.49 tCarbon/ha-yr and 1.4 tCarbon/ha-yr, with
a preference for 0.6 tCarbon/ha-yr (p 30). One tonne of carbon is equivalent to 3.67 tonne of CO2and 100 hectare is 1 square
kilometre. A small calculation gives the absorption of CO2per square kilometre per year:
3.67 x 0.6 x 100 = 222 tonne CO2/km2
So 79 million tonne of CO2a year is equivalent to the absorption of 355 500 km2average European forest
(the surface of Finland = 338 000 km2).
Regarding solar photo voltaic, 'typical' figures are assumed for Europe:
solar irradiation = 1 kW/m2
availability of solar energy = 1 000 hours/year
conversion efficiency to electricity = 10%
Hence, electricity generated = 100 kWh/year per square metre
Assuming 5 square metre per roof, 362 million solar roofs are required to generate 181 billion kWh.
Annex III: Notes
System Savings potential on the application side
(billion kWh)
Present electricity use in industry
(billion kWh)
Compressors 23 80
Fans 18 100
Pumps 42 212
Other systems 29 222
Total + 112 614
Table 4 - Savings potential for motor driven systems - source: SAVE studies, 2000 [1-5]
7CO2equivalent (CO2eq) is a metric measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their
global warming potential (GWP). Carbon dioxide equivalents are commonly expressed as 'million metric tonne of carbon dioxide
equivalents (MMTCDE)'. The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the mass of the gas (in tonne) by the
associated GWP:
MMTCDE = (million metric tonne of a gas) x (GWP of the gas)
For example, the GWP for methane is 21 and for nitrous oxide 310. This means that emissions of 1 million metric tonne of
methane and nitrous oxide are equivalent to emissions of 21 and 310 million metric tonne of carbon dioxide respectively.
The average CO2eq emission factor for EU-15 is 0.435 kg/kWh. For the ten accession countries it is 1 kg/kWh. For Germany it
is 0.638 kg/kWh, UK 0.510 kg/kWh, Italy 0.495 kg/kWh and France 0.083 kg/kWh (values given for 1999).
8NOxis not a greenhouse gas. It should not be confused with N2O, which is indeed one of the greenhouse gases.
9European Commission - JRC, the ExternE project,
10 External costs of electricity generation for various fuel cycles: all figures in eurocent/kWh, (n/a in the table below means not
No external cost estimates are available for electricity generation in the accession countries,but it is carbon intensive and heavily
based on coal. Hence, using the EU-15 average to extrapolate to EU-25 provides a conservative estimate.
11 Electricity prices to industry [19]. In this paper,an EU average
price of 5 eurocent/kWh is used.
12 The 'power generating capacity' is the maximum capacity of
power stations, calculated in Watt. To know their annual
production in Wh, this figure should be multiplied by the
calculated number of full load operating hours. According to
[19], the average European power station is running 4 500
hours a year. So producing 1 billion kWh of electricity a year
requires on average a 220 MW capacity. In other words,
202 billion kWh of energy savings makes 45 000 MW
(45 GW) capacity unnecessary.
13 According to IEA Electricity Information 2003, the European Union generated 27.2 billion kWh of electricity in 2001 using 17 GW
of wind capacity, i.e. 1.6 GWh per MW installed. Overall electricity production,including conventional power stations, amounted
to 2 477 billion kWh using 549 GW capacity, 4.5 GWh per MW installed. Hence, 1 MW conventional power is equivalent to
2.8 MW wind power. Therefore, 45 000 MW of conventional capacity is equivalent to 126 000 MW of wind capacity. According
to the European Wind Energy Association (, a total of 25 000 MW of wind was installed in Europe by June 2003,
generating 40 billion kWh of electricity per year, when using the IEA average of 1.6 GWh per MW installed.
Fuel Eurocent/kWh
Italy Germany France UK
Oil 5.6 5.1-7.8 8.4-10.9 n/a
Gas 2.7 1.2-2.3 1.9-3.1 1.1-2.2
Hydro 0.3 n/a n/a n/a
Coal n/a 3.0-5.5 6.9-9.9 4.2-6.7
Biomass n/a 2.8-2.9 <0.1 <0.1
Wind n/a <0.1 n/a 0.1
Nuclear n/a 0.4-0.5 n/a n/a
Photo voltaic n/a <0.1 n/a n/a
Country Electricity prices to industry (eurocent/kWh)
2000 2001 2002
France 3.9 3.9 3.9
Germany 5.3 4.4 4.0
Italy 9.7
UK 3.7 3.5 3.4
14 For example NEMA Premium Efficiency, Motor Decisions Matter (, US Compressed Air Challenge,Motor
Systems Initiative of Consortium for Energy Efficiency.
15 A 202 billion kWh energy saving converts to 17 million tonne oil equivalent (Mtoe). Assuming an average conversion efficiency
of European power plants of 40%, this converts to a primary energy equivalent of 42.5 Mtoe, or 3% of Europe's primary energy
consumption [20]. Since Europe imports about half of its primary energy, this reduces imports by 6%.
16 IPPC is based on the principle of the 'best available technology'. The European IPPC Bureau sets out definitions of those 'best
technologies' in the BREF documents that exist for each industrial process in each industrial sector. By creating an Energy
Efficiency BREF document, the energy efficiency of motor systems would be integrated into this licensing system.
17 COM 2003 (739) Final, Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy end-use efficiency and
energy services.
For further information please contact:
Hans De Keulenaer, Electric & Electronic Manager
European Copper Institute
Tervurenlaan 168, b10, B-1150 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: +32 2 777 7084
Fax: +32 2 777 7079
Copyright 2004 European Copper Institute, Fraunhofer-ISI, KU Leuven and University of Coimbra.
Reproduction is allowed, provided the material is unabridged and the source is acknowledged.
While this document has been prepared with care, ECI and any other contributing institutions give no warranty in
regard to the contents and shall not be liable for any direct, incidental or consequential damages arising out of its use.
For further information contact:
Hans De Keulenaer
European Copper Institute (ECI)
Tel: +32 2 777 7084
... Research has also discussed techno-economic potential for energy savings in EMS. In particular, De Keulenaer has discussed the Motor Challenge Programme promoted by the European Commission [29]. Further, studies have discussed energy efficiency standards for electric motors in industry (e.g., Europe [23], Brazil [30], Malaysia [31]), as well as compared different countries in terms of technology, regulatory and trend aspects regarding motor systems [32,33]. ...
Electric motor systems (EMS) cover a remarkable share of industrial power consumption. Despite the wide set of apparently cost-effective opportunities to improve energy efficiency in this cross-cutting technology, often decision-makers do not take them, as the detail for a specific decision can be too high, resulting in an implementation rate quite low. In particular, little knowledge of the features that should be considered when deciding to undertake an action in this area represents a serious hurdle. In many cases, information regarding the characteristics of such energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is quite vague. For this reason, in the present study, we present a thorough overview of EEMs for EMS, basing on an extensive review of scientific and industrial literature. By highlighting their characteristics and productivity benefits, most of which impacting on the adoption decision-making process, we re-categorise EEMs for EMS, offering specific detail over single EEMs and thus support to industrial decision-makers. EEMs are presented according to four main groups, as follows: hardware, motor system drives, management of motors in the plant, and power quality. The novel classification is helpful to support research for the development of a new framework to represent the main factors that affect the adoption of EEMs for EMS. Further, it may help the identification and quantification of productivity benefits for those EEMs. Finally, it could result in a valuable tool offering different perspectives in the decision-making of industrial managers and technology suppliers, as well as industrial policy-makers.
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Disruptive innovations in electrical machine design optimization are observed. Emerging trends were the motivation for this study. Improvements in Mathematics and Computer Science enable more detailed optimization scenarios which cover evermore aspects of physics. In the past, machine design was equivalent to investigating electromagnetic performance. Nowadays thermal, rotor dynamics, power electronics and control aspects are included. Material and engineering science have introduced new dimensions on the optimization process and impact of manufacturing and unavoidable tolerances should be considered. Consequently, multi-faceted scenarios are analyzed and improvements in numerous fields take effect. This article is a reference for both academics and practicing engineers about recent developments and future trends. It comprises the definition of optimization scenarios regarding geometry specification and goal setting. Moreover, a materials-based perspective and techniques for solving optimization problems are included. Finally, a collection of examples from literature is presented and two particular scenarios are illustrated in detail.
According to its ‘Energy Strategy 2050’ (case ‘new energy policy’) Switzerland aims to reduce its industrial electricity demand by 25% and 35% in 2035 and 2050 respectively compared to 2010. Electric motor driven systems in Swiss industry, which currently account for approximately 69% of the sector’s total electricity demand, are expected to contribute significantly to this strategy. This study assesses the potential of electricity savings for electric motor driven systems in industry and its associated specific costs and presents the results in the form of energy efficiency cost curves. For the short term, the economic potential for electricity savings in Swiss industrial electric motor systems is estimated at approximately 17%. The importance of accounting for additionality by using energy-relevant investment instead of total investment for the cost-benefit analysis in order to avoid underestimation of the economic electricity savings potential is demonstrated. The results of this analysis can serve as basis for formulating more effective policies and may also be applicable to other countries with similarly ambitious targets.
Conference Paper
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Many examples exist of industrial energy efficiency projects that are not implemented even though their energy savings would have a payback of less than one year. There are also many examples of projects that show a much less impressive payback but which, in fact, are implemented. The authors suggest that this behavior results from cost and benefit accounting that may be frequently in error. The fundamental thesis of this paper is that, in general: costs and benefits resulting from nonenergy ramifications of energy efficiency projects are often not included in a cost/benefit analysis of energy efficiency projects, although they should be; and total benefits-including both energy and nonenergy savings-that accrue from so-called “energy-saving” projects are significantly greater than those from the energy savings alone. This paper discusses reasons for these “errors”, the complexity and fundamental misunderstanding of how energy fits in with decisions affecting other industrial resource issues, the importance of pursuing further efficiency gains, the correct approach to estimating costs and benefits, and understanding the business-management, decision-making process
We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The paper explores the implications of how this change in perspective might affect the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the U.S. It is found that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research for this important area.
We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.
Fans are one of the largest single consumers of motive power energy, and therefore represent an important area for energy savings to reduce CO2 emissions. The primary objective of this book is to create an awareness in industry, the tertiary sector and policy that the uptake of more efficient fans and system design will reduce energy consumption and emissions and increase the competitiveness of industry. The book concentrates on fans in the range from 0.75 to 750 kW, but the results and methodology will also be of relevance to other categories of fans. The existing EU fan user market and barriers to reducing energy costs are characterised. Against this background, the cost effectiveness of different policy options is evaluated, with particular reference to the effects on manufacturers, users and other stakeholders. Possible EU policies implemented as a result of this book are expected to help generate energy savings ranging between 10 and 20 %. Based on an estimated energy consumption of about 197 TWh of electricity per year for fan applications in the EU, the related CO2 emissions can be reduced by 19000 kt CO2/year. The achievable energy savings will be worth up to 2600 million euro annually.
Incorporating industrial productivity benefits into the assessment of energy efficiency investments, EPA, 12 pages
  • J Laitner
Laitner, J, Incorporating industrial productivity benefits into the assessment of energy efficiency investments, EPA, 12 pages, Sep. 2003
Proposte per l'attuazione dei decreti ministeriali del 24 aprile 2001 per la promozione dell'efficienze energetica negli usi finali – Autorità per l'energia electricca e il gas
  • Titoli
  • Efficiennza
Titoli di efficiennza energetica. Proposte per l'attuazione dei decreti ministeriali del 24 aprile 2001 per la promozione dell'efficienze energetica negli usi finali – Autorità per l'energia electricca e il gas. Issued 4th April 2002.
Energy Efficiency Best Practice programme
  • Ltd
Ltd, Energy Efficiency Best Practice programme, 8 pages, Dec 2000 10 External costs of electricity generation for various fuel cycles: all figures in eurocent/kWh
  • European Commission
  • Jrc The Externe Project
European Commission-JRC, the ExternE project, 10 External costs of electricity generation for various fuel cycles: all figures in eurocent/kWh, (n/a in the table below means not available).