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Effects of Drought Stress on Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars and Accumulation of Proline and Soluble Sugars in Sheath and Blades of Their Different Ages Leaves

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... Generally, duration of grain filling influenced with plant senescence and reveals that scary of water causes the short duration of grain filling period and early biological aging but increases remobilization of assimilates (reserved in the stems and sheaths of rice and contribute grain weight) from the straw to the grains. Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi (2009) revealed that plant growth can get affected due to drying of soil in lack of standing water but grain production may not be hamper because of droughttolerant rice variety. Water scarcity at vegetative stage may reduce yields less than terminal stage because of recovery growth in the later growing season; however it demands extra farm labor that raises concerns about unpredictable rainfall (Sarvestani et al., 2008). ...
... Different sugars involved in synthesis of several compounds and production of energy besides of stabilization of membranes by operating as compatible osmolytes which include proline, polyamines (PAs) and polyols (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). In water scarcity, for example the diversion of carbon to polyol biosynthesis that are non-reducing sugars may also store excess carbon that decreases the activity of carbon metabolizing enzymes such as invertase and sucrose synthase (SUSY). ...
... Several observation and study has been taken place about carbohydrate collection during various abiotic stresses in the temperate grasses and cereals from the Gramineae family where long term carbohydrate accumulation takes place at the time of reproductive development (Parvaiz and Satyawati, 2008;Chen et al., 2012). The accumulation of sugars in response to water scarcity is also quite well documented (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). Soluble sugars allow plants to maximize sufficient carbohydrate storage under standard conditions however, under stress they regulate internal osmolarity and stabilize the membranes and protein, thus protect them against different biotic and abiotic stresses (Andersen et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews different cultivars of rice-based on morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters under two planting conditions (aerobic vs. transplanted)
... Sucrose, glycine betaine, Proline, and several other solutes when accumulates in cytoplasm, osmotic adjustment is achieved which improves water uptake by a plant from drying soil. Among these compounds, due to its large importance in the stress tolerance, proline is most widely studied (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009;Chutia et al. 2012). The accumulation of soluble sugars is also induced by drought (Usman et al. 2013;Maisura et al. 2014). ...
... Better antioxidant production was observed in drought-tolerant varieties as compared to susceptible ones (Lum et al. 2014). Also, the drought tolerance varieties shows increased proline level and higher soluble sugars production under drought stress (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009;Chutia et al. 2012). ...
... Due to its osmolytic properties, proline accumulation contributes to drought tolerance and better performance to plant (Vajrabhaya et al. 2001). Under drought stress condition in rice, the variation in proline concentration has been observed (Sheela and Alexallder 1995;Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009;Bunnag and Pongthai 2013;Kumar et al. 2014;Lum et al. 2014;Maisura et al. 2014).Proline accumulation in the leaf of rice was increased by 1.3-to 10.2-folds from 9 to 18 days of drought treatment (Nasrin et al. 2020).Likewise, Swapna and Shylaraj (2017) ...
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop that belongs to family Gramineae and needs a larger amount of water to complete its life cycle as compared to other crops. Hence, rice production is severely affected by water stress. Drought is an important issue in rainfed areas across the globe which limits rice production. Several morphological characters like germination, plant height, plant biomass, number of tillers, various root and leaf traits, physiological characters like photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water use efficiency, relative water content, chlorophyll content, photosystem-II activity, carbon isotope discrimination, membrane stability, and abscisic acid content of rice are reduced under drought conditions. Drought also induces the accumulation of several biochemical osmoprotectants like proline, polyamines, sugars, antioxidants and alters the expression of several genes including transcription factors and defense-related proteins, hence thereby affects the yield of rice crop. Drought escape, drought avoidance, and drought tolerance are the mechanisms that prevent plant from harmful effects of drought. Thus, this review is focused mainly on recent information about the morphological, physio-biochemical, and molecular effects, responses, and adaptation mechanisms of rice under drought stress. Here we also discussed that how we can improve the rice for drought tolerance using various molecular tools and techniques.
... A lot of work had been already done on drought resistance in rice at vegetative stage (Yang et al., 2014) but research work on impact of drought stress in rice at flowering stage is limited. Therefore, there is requirement to identify excellent donors of upland rice tolerant to drought at flowering stage (Chaturvedi and Ingram, 1988;Mishra, 2005). Like other abiotic stresses, Initially drought affects water relations on the cellular level as well as entire plant (Beck et al., 2007). ...
... To characterize the genotypic performance of rice under drought stress, plant height, panicle number, root volume, fertile spikelets, plant biomass, leaf area development, root/shoot ratio, grain yield, chlorophyll, starch, soluble sugar and proline contents were used in various drought stress experiments (Mishra, 2005;Maisura et al., 2014). Hence, keeping above considerations in mind the present investigation was carried out to determine the impact of drought stress at flowering stage in rice varieties on morphological components. ...
Article
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Rice is a staple food crop in India as well as whole world. Plant growth and productivity of rice is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. Water deficit is one of the major abiotic stresses, which adversely affects crop growth and yield. Water stress is a limiting factor in agriculture production by preventing a crop from reaching the genetically determined theoretical maximum yield. In present study, a pot experiment was conducted with 20 rice (1 Non Basmati and 19 Basmati) genotypes during kharif season 2018-19 and 2019-20 at field laboratory, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, S.V.P.U.A.&T., Modipuram, Meerut, U.P., India in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Drought treatment was given for 10 days at flowering stage. The screening of rice genotypes was done on the basis of plant height, panicle length, seed per panicle, yield per plant, test weight and flag leaf area. The rice genotypes Nagina22 followed by Pusa Basmati 1121 showed less percent reduction in yield and yield components comparatively all other varieties. The maximum reduction in yield and other parameters under drought stress condition was observed in Basmati 386 variety. Therefore, on the basis of yield and yield component Nagina 22 showed maximum tolerance in compare to other genotypes.
... Both drought or water deficit (Liu et al. 2006, Wassmann et al. 2009Raman et al. 2012;Kumar et al. 2014a) and heat stress (Jagadish et al. 2007, 2008, Matsui 2002 during flowering causes spikelet sterility in rice, by affecting anther dehiscence, pollination, pollen germination and shedding. Exposure of rice plants to drought or heat stress at the flowering and booting stages not only causes spikelet sterility, but also disrupts floret initiation, delays grain filling, reduces grain size and weight, and ultimately leads to lower productivity (Pantuwan et al. 2002;Kamoshita et al. 2004;Castillo et al. 2006;Venuprasad et al. 2007;Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009;Ji et al. 2012;Rabara et al. 2018). According to Lawas et al. (2018) combined drought and heat stress at the flowering and early grain filling stages resulted in a significant reduction in panicles per meter square, spikelets per panicle, spikelets per meter square, percent seed-set and 1000-grain weight in three rice cultivars (N22, Dular and Anjali). ...
... Pro content increases in rice at temperatures ranging between 25 and 35 C, but then decreases at 40 C and above (Tang et al. 2008;Sánchez-Reinoso et al. 2014), which might be due to plant sensitivity to prolonged stress periods. Many studies report an increase in Pro content in rice plants under drought (Sheela and Alexallder 1995;Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009;Bunnag and Pongthai 2013;Kumar et al. 2014b;Lum et al. 2014;Maisura et al. 2014). Pro not only serves as an osmoprotectant, but also acts as a metal chelator, and signaling and antioxidant molecule (Hayat et al. 2012;Hossain and Fujita 2014). ...
Chapter
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Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the principal cereal crops and is a major source of calories for billions of people around the globe. It has been predicted that rice production will decrease in near future due to the negative effects of global climate change. The increase in temperature and scarcity of irrigation water poses a serious threat to rice cultivation, as rice is very sensitive to heat and drought stress, particularly during the reproduction and grain-filling stages. Individually, the above stressors negatively affect almost all of a rice plants growth and developmental processes, leading to significant impacts on photosynthesis, floral abnormalities, pollen/spikelet sterility, grain yields and quality. Moreover, the combination of drought and heat stress, which commonly occurs under field conditions, can result in deleterious additive effects on the growth, physiology and productivity of rice cultivars. This threat to food security, and the associated economic losses, has increased the need for the development of abiotic stress-resilient rice varieties, with better yield potentials. A comprehensive understanding of the various morphological, bio-chemical, physiological, and molecular components governing rice yields under a combination of stressors is vital for the development of climate resilient rice varieties. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the most common combinations of stressors faced by rice plants under field conditions, with special emphasis given to drought and heat stress, and the influence of these stressors, alone and in combination, on the growth, morphology and yields of rice. We also highlighted the potential strategies that can be used to develop rice plants adapted to the multiple abiotic stressors faced by plants under field conditions.
... Menurut Akram et al., (2013) kekeringan dapat menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan volume fotosintesis sebesar 30% pada inisiasi malai dan 28% pada saat antesis, sehingga akan menurunkan produksi. Kekeringan juga dapat menghambat inisiasi pengisian biji serta menyebabkan spikelet steril dan gabah hampa (Mostajeran and Eichi, 2009). ...
... Hal ini diduga karena pada saat fase pembungaan dan pengisian biji terjadi cekaman kekeringan sehingga proses pengisian gabah menjadi tidak maksimal. Pengaruh kekeringan dapat menurunkan jumlah gabah isi dan meningkatkan jumlah gabah hampa sehingga menurunkan produksi (Mostajeran and Eichi, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Pengembangan varietas padi gogo produktivitas tinggi adalah hal yang sangat penting karena luasnya lahan kering yang potensial lahan pertanian termasuk produksi padi gogo. Pengujian 14 genotipe padi gogo berupa galur harapan dan varietas pembanding telah dilakukan pada lahan kering di Kabupaten Banyumas. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan empat ulangan. Hasil pengamatan menunjukan bahwa karakter tinggi tanaman dan produksi berkorelasi positif nyata sedangkan karakter umur berbunga dan vigor berkorelasi nyata negatif. Sementara nilai duga heritabilitas berkisar antara 0.40-0.66 (sedang hingga tinggi) sehingga karakter tersebut memiliki proporsi genetic yang tinggi terhadap variasi fenotipiknya. Oleh karena itu karakter vigor pada fase vegetative dapat digunakan sebagai karakter seleksi untuk menduga produksi.
... Rice is considered to be drought susceptible as it exhibits serious deleterious effects when exposed to water stress at critical growth stages, especially at the reproductive stage (Suriyan et al., 2010). As a result drought stress is affecting about 50% of rice production in the world (Mostajean and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). The percentage of drought affected land has approximately doubled over time, affecting grain yield and the quality of various crops resulting in food shortages in the world (Isendahl and Schmidt, 2006). ...
... Purple rice, Binadhan-8 and BRRI dhan66 varieties were less affected by the highest drought stress. Several studies have revealed a similar trend of reduction in the dry and fresh weights of roots (Ji et al., 2012) and shoots (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009) under drought conditions. Fresh root and shoot weights and lengths reduction ultimately reduce the biochemical processes and photosynthetic rate in rice (Usman et al., 2013). ...
... Rice is considered to be drought susceptible as it exhibits serious deleterious effects when exposed to water stress at critical growth stages, especially at the reproductive stage (Suriyan et al., 2010). As a result drought stress is affecting about 50% of rice production in the world (Mostajean and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). The percentage of drought affected land has approximately doubled over time, affecting grain yield and the quality of various crops resulting in food shortages in the world (Isendahl and Schmidt, 2006). ...
... Purple rice, Binadhan-8 and BRRI dhan66 varieties were less affected by the highest drought stress. Several studies have revealed a similar trend of reduction in the dry and fresh weights of roots (Ji et al., 2012) and shoots (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009) under drought conditions. Fresh root and shoot weights and lengths reduction ultimately reduce the biochemical processes and photosynthetic rate in rice (Usman et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Drought is a major abiotic stress that restricts the production of crops throughout the world, Bangladesh is not a exception to this. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a drought sensitive crop shows considerable varietal differences towards this environmental stress. With an aim to identify drought tolerant rice variety an experiment was conducted at the Physiology Growth Chamber of the Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Purple rice, Binadhan-8, Binadhan-19, BRRI dhan66 and BRRI dhan71 were evaluated for their drought tolerance during germination and early seedling growth stage. The varieties were tested against four levels of drought stress imposed by Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000) @ 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design with three replications. The results showed gradual decrease in values of all the five varieties towards increasing drought stress of all the considered parameters. The difference in values between control and 5% PEG conc. was not so noticeable but at highest stress level the change was dramatic. From the experiment it can be seen that Purple rice, Binadhan-8 and BRRI dhan66 were considerable tolerant towards increasing concentration of PEG and showed better performance in all the considered parameters in this experiment. But the performance of BRRI dhan71 at higher level of drought stress for all the parameters studied in the experiment were quite low compared to the other varieties.
... The PCA analysis showed that productivity and spikelet sterility index are the main characteristics responsible for the discrimination between tolerant and susceptible varieties (Fig 3A). According to Castillo et al. (2006) and Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi (2009) drought stress can reduce translocation of sugars to the grain, which reduces yield, weight and increases the percentage of unfilled grains. The RWC showed negative correlation with MDA and EE (Fig 3B and S1). ...
... chlorophyll a and b are stable in Catetão, while strongly reduce in Mira under drought stress (Fig S2). Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi (2009), showed that tolerant varieties to the drought stress are able to retain green colors longer than susceptible varieties under drought stress. In addition, tolerant varieties can maintain and/or stimulate the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids, which are fundamental for the correct modeling, assembly and insertion of photosynthetic proteins in the thylakoid membranes (Horn and Paulsen, 2002). ...
Article
Among the abiotic stresses that can affect the growth and development of the crop, drought is considered one of the main factors that can reduce the global food production. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of drought stress on several morphological and physiological parameters in ten traditional upland rice varieties. The experimental design set up in a factorial scheme 10 x 2 (varieties x treatments) with four replicates under greenhouse conditions. At the start of the reproductive stage, rice varieties were submitted to control and drought conditions during 30 days and evaluated for physiological and morphological parameters. Rice varieties were considered as tolerant and susceptible to drought stress based on the classification proposed by five different stress tolerance indices (SSI, TOL, SSSI, DYI and DTE). The results suggest that the adopted indices associated with multivariate analysis from the parameters analyzed are efficient to discriminate between tolerant and susceptible rice varieties to the drought stress. Catetão and Piauí were considered as the most tolerant, while Quebra Cacho and Mira were the most susceptible. The analysis of morphological and physiological parameters through multivariate analyses revealed as an important tool to assist breeders in the identification of tolerant and susceptible varieties and to characterize how the varieties alter their metabolism to withstand the drought stress.
... Soluble sugars act as key osmoprotectants in plants during osmotic stresses. To support the growth of newly developing tissues under water-deficit stress conditions, they (predominantly glucose and fructose) are remobilized from older to young and apical leaves (Dubey and Singh 1999;Mohammadkhani and Heidari 2008;Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009;Nemati et al. 2011;Boriboonkaset et al. 2013). Drought hampers the photosynthetic fixation of carbon into sugars and affects their transport by decreasing the cellular osmotic potential. ...
... Drought triggers the remobilization of soluble sugars, predominantly glucose and fructose, from older leaves to young and apical leaves under osmotic stress conditions (Dubey and Singh 1999;Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009;Nemati et al. 2011;Boriboonkaset et al. 2013), which can be reversed by an enhanced concentration of cytokinins (Peleg et al. 2011;Reguera et al. 2013;Gashaw et al. 2014). In the present study, we examined the effect of cytokinin treatment on the contents of total soluble sugars during drought stress, by the spectrophotometric quantification in the flag leaves (Fig. 1A, B). ...
Article
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Oryza sativa cv. PTT1 (Pathumthani1) was treated with phenyl-urea-based synthetic cytokinin under drought stress. Soluble sugar contents were examined in rice flag leaves at tillering and grain-filling stages. The same leaf samples were used to analyze the differential abundance intensities of proteins related to metabolism and transport of soluble sugars, and the process of senescence. The results showed drought-induced accumulation of hexose sugars (glucose and fructose) in rice flag leaves, which could be corroborated with enhanced accumulation of MST8 under drought stress. On the other hand, cytokinin-treated plants maintained the normal contents of hexose sugar in their flag leaves under drought stress, alike well-watered plants. In the case of sucrose, cytokinin treatment reduced its accumulation at tillering stage, but the results were reversed at the grain-filling stage, where the cytokinin-treated plants maintained significantly higher contents of sucrose under drought stress. Growth stage dependent variations in sucrose contents corroborated with the accumulation of SPS (SPS1, SPS2, and SPS5) proteins, implicated in sucrose biosynthesis. In our study, among the proteins involved in sucrose transport, SUT1 transporter was induced by drought stress at both the growth stages, whereas SUT2 transporter accumulated equally in all the treatments. However, cytokinin treatment reversed the effect of drought on the accumulation of SUT1. Similarly, SWEET5, and SWEET13 proteins, which were induced by drought stress treatment, were inhibited by cytokinin treatment. However, the accumulation SWEET6, SWEET7, and SWEET15 was not influenced by the treatment of cytokinin in the flag leaves of rice. In addition, cytokinin treatment reduced the leaf wilting, enhanced the fresh weight and grain yield, and curtailed the accumulation of proteins involved in drought-induced senescence. In conclusion, the cytokinin treatment had a positive agro-economic impact on the rice plants and provided better drought adaptability.
... Haynes, Belyaeva, and Kingston (2013) reported that increasing the EC and pH of soil due to high doses of Si application reduces plant growth. Also, there are some reports indicating that lower soil moisture might inhibit photosynthesis and decrease translocation of assimilate to the grain and increase unfilled grains panile À1 (Liu et al. 2008;Mostajeran andRahimi-Eichi 2009 andSandhu et al. 2012). ...
... Haynes, Belyaeva, and Kingston (2013) reported that increasing the EC and pH of soil due to high doses of Si application reduces plant growth. Also, there are some reports indicating that lower soil moisture might inhibit photosynthesis and decrease translocation of assimilate to the grain and increase unfilled grains panile À1 (Liu et al. 2008;Mostajeran andRahimi-Eichi 2009 andSandhu et al. 2012). ...
Article
The amount of monosilicic acid, plant absorbable silicon, released from fertilizers can be influenced by silicon source and soil properties. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different sources of silicon application on rice under different irrigation regimes in 2018. The treatments included two Si doses (250 and 500 kg Si ha⁻¹ as potassium silicate (Ps), sodium silicate (Ss), calcium silicate (Cs) and biochar (Bi) sources) under two irrigation regimes (continuous flooding (W1) and irrigation when perched 70% field capacity (W2)) in two soil series with different textures (sandy-loam (S1) and silty-clay (S2)). The experiment was laid out in a split-factorial design with three replications. The results showed that S1W1Bi1 and S2W1Ps1 treatments were the best treatments to reach maximum plant height, the number of tiller and 1000 grain weight. The highest silicon content of stem (52.1 mg Si kg⁻¹), leaves (87.5 mg Si kg⁻¹) and paddy (95.5 mg Si kg⁻¹) was observed in S2W1Ps1 treatment. Based on these results, a yield depression was observed at the higher Si rates (500 kg ha⁻¹ compared to 250 kg ha⁻¹) in fertilizer treatments of potassium and sodium silicates in sandy-loam soil under W2 irrigation regimes. After harvest of rice, the highest residual Si concentration in both soils (S1: 82.0 mg Si kg⁻¹; S2: 145.6 mg Si kg⁻¹) was found in Ps1W1 treatment compared with the control. In conclusion, biochar and potassium silicate treatments showed the highest increase in growth and yield components in S1W1 and S2W1 conditions, respectively.
... In the present study, imposition of drought at both 20-32 DAS and 30-42 DAS has negative effect on total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents but more severe effect of drought was observed at 30 DAS of drought imposition. Hence, screening during vegetative stage is best to done at 30-42 DAS to determine genotypes with higher tolerance to drought stress in terms of total chlorophyll and total carotenoids response [31][32][33][34]. ...
... Higher proline content was observed with irrigation when water level reaches 10 cm below soil surface (I 4 ) ( Table 1). Increase in soil moisture decreased the tissue proline content and under continuous flooding period tissue proline content was less [19]. Drought tolerance of the plant was indicated by tissue proline content, there was a strong positive correlation between tissue proline accumulation and drought tolerance. ...
Article
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A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, during summer 2019 to study about the changes in physiological parameters of rice under various establishment and water management strategies and to find out the suitable method of rice establishment and irrigation management practices for tank irrigated command areas during water scarcity situation. Field experiment comprised of four establishment methods in combination with four irrigation management strategies. Medium duration fine grain rice variety TKM 13 was used for the study. Results of the study revealed that machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation after formation of hairline crack recorded improved physiological parameters and yield. It was on par with machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation when water level reaches 5 cm below soil surface. Higher gross return, net return and B:C ratio were observed with machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation after formation of hairline crack. This was followed by machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation when water level reaches 5 cm below soil. Hence, the result of study concluded that machine transplanting under unpuddled soil combined with irrigation when water level reaches 5 cm below soil surface can be recommended as the suitable technology for the farmers of tank irrigated command area to get higher return with minimum use of resources under water scarcity situation.
... Seed priming with Se in combination with foliar application of Se revealed that the maximum increase in leaf Chl contents in Camelina and canola under both normal and limited water conditions. In our case, maximum TSS accumulation at vegetative stage under drought stress in priming and Se foliar treatments which is confirmed by previous studies, who reported that TSS accumulation under drought stress in various crops such as rice, wheat, and soybean (Mostajeran & Rahimi-Eichi, 2009;Akladious, 2012;Liu et al., 2011). TSS was increased by supplementation of Se in pear jujube, soybean, canola and potato (Zhao et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Considering the burning issue the present study was undertaken in pot culture at the Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies (CIDS), The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan for enhancing drought tolerance in two oilseed crops (OC) crops camelina (Camelina sativa L.) and canola (Canola napus L.) through improving physiological, biochemical, and antioxidants activity by foliar application of selenium (Se) under drought stress. Two Camelina (i.e., 'Australian Camelina' and 'Canadian Camelina') and canola genotypes (i.e., 'AARI Canola' and 'UAF Canola') were used as plant materials during the growing season of 2016. Both Camelina and Canola genotypes were grown under normal (100% FC) and water deficit (drought stress) (40% FC) conditions. Four levels of Se: such as seeds priming with 75μM Se, foliar application of Se at 7.06 μM and foliar Se in combination with seeds priming (7.06 μM & 75μM) along with control were applied at the vegetative stage of both OC crops for screening drought tolerant genotypes. All treatments were arranged three times in a randomized complete block design. Both OC crops were grown upto the maturity and data on physiochemical, antioxidants and yield components were recorded during this study. Results of the present study indicated that the physio-biochemical parameters such as WP (water potential), OP (osmotic potential), TP (turgor pressure), proline, TSS (total soluble sugar), TFAA (total free amino acids), TPr (total proteins) and TS (total sugars); and total chlorophyll contents were improved by foliar application Se along with seed priming by Se in both OC crops in both drought stress and non-stress (control) conditions. Similarly, osmoprotectants such as GB (Glycinebetaine), anthocyanin, TPC (total phenolic contents) and flavonoids; as well as antioxidants such as APX (ascorbate peroxidase), SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) were also showed better enhancement in both OC crops through foliar application in combination with seed priming with Se (7.06 μM & 75μM) under normal as well as water deficit (drought) conditions. Yield and its components i.e., branches plant-1 (no.), 1000-seed weight (g), seed and biological yield (t ha-1) of both OC crops were increased through foliar application in combination with seed priming by Se (7.06 μM & 75μM) under drought and non-drought stress conditions. Both camelina and Canola genotypes categorized based on all the above-mentioned parameters under the water deficit (drought stress) condition and foliar application of Se, the genotype 'Canadian Camelina' maintained the highest values for all these attributes. Therefore, it is revealed that foliar application in combination with seed priming by Se helps to improve drought tolerance of OC crops and also leads to an increase in the productivity of crops under drought stress. Among the genotypes, 'Canadian Camelina' performed the best when seeds of the genotypes were primed with Se in combination with foliar application of Se at the vegetative stage.
... Seed priming with Se in combination with foliar application of Se revealed that the maximum increase in leaf Chl contents in Camelina and canola under both normal and limited water conditions. In our case, maximum TSS accumulation at vegetative stage under drought stress in priming and Se foliar treatments which is confirmed by previous studies, who reported that TSS accumulation under drought stress in various crops such as rice, wheat, and soybean (Mostajeran & Rahimi-Eichi, 2009;Akladious, 2012;Liu et al., 2011). TSS was increased by supplementation of Se in pear jujube, soybean, canola and potato (Zhao et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Considering the burning issue the present study was undertaken in pot culture at the Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies (CIDS), The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan for enhancing drought tolerance in two oilseed crops (OC) crops camelina (Camelina sativa L.) and canola (Canola napus L.) through improving physiological, biochemical, and antioxidants activity by foliar application of selenium (Se) under drought stress. Two Camelina (i.e., ‘Australian Camelina’ and ‘Canadian Camelina’) and canola genotypes (i.e., ‘AARI Canola’ and ‘UAF Canola’) were used as plant materials during the growing season of 2016. Both Camelina and Canola genotypes were grown under normal (100% FC) and water deficit (drought stress) (40% FC) conditions. Four levels of Se: such as seeds priming with 75μM Se, foliar application of Se at 7.06 μM and foliar Se in combination with seeds priming (7.06 μM & 75μM) along with control were applied at the vegetative stage of both OC crops for screening drought tolerant genotypes. All treatments were arranged three times in a randomized complete block design. Both OC crops were grown upto the maturity and data on physiochemical, antioxidants and yield components were recorded during this study. Results of the present study indicated that the physio-biochemical parameters such as WP (water potential), OP (osmotic potential), TP (turgor pressure), proline, TSS (total soluble sugar), TFAA (total free amino acids), TPr (total proteins) and TS (total sugars); and total chlorophyll contents were improved by foliar application Se along with seed priming by Se in both OC crops in both drought stress and non-stress (control) conditions. Similarly, osmoprotectants such as GB (Glycinebetaine), anthocyanin, TPC (total phenolic contents) and flavonoids; as well as antioxidants such as APX (ascorbate peroxidase), SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) were also showed better enhancement in both OC crops through foliar application in combination with seed priming with Se (7.06 μM & 75μM) under normal as well as water deficit (drought) conditions. Yield and its components i.e., branches plant-1 (no.), 1000-seed weight (g), seed and biological yield (t ha-1) of both OC crops were increased through foliar application in combination with seed priming by Se (7.06 μM & 75μM) under drought and non-drought stress conditions. Both camelina and Canola genotypes categorized based on all the above-mentioned parameters under the water deficit (drought stress) condition and foliar application of Se, the genotype ‘Canadian Camelina’ maintained the highest values for all these attributes. Therefore, it is revealed that foliar application in combination with seed priming by Se helps to improve drought tolerance of OC crops and also leads to an increase in the productivity of crops under drought stress. Among the genotypes, ‘Canadian Camelina’ performed the best when seeds of the genotypes were primed with Se in combination with foliar application of Se at the vegetative stage.
... AsA may be engaged in the up-regulation of soluble sugars and proline synthesis to enhance tolerance mechanisms under water stress. The increase in the antioxidant activity was attributed to the increases of secondary metabolites (phenolics and flavonoids) which are considered as a tolerance advantage of water, as well as, other abiotic stresses as reported by and El-Amier et al. [52], Mostajeran and Rahimi Eichi [57], and Reddy et al. [58]. This study recommends the use of AsA at a dose of 200 or 400 mg L −1 for improving osmoprotectant and antioxidant systems of the common bean, with a positive growth and yield response as a consequence. ...
Article
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One of the most vital environmental factors that restricts plant production in arid and semi-arid environments is the lack of fresh water and drought stress. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is severely limited by abiotic stress, especially climate-related constraints. Therefore, a field experiment in split-plot design was carried out to examine the potential function of ascorbic acid (AsA) in mitigating the adverse effects of water stress on common bean. The experiment included two irrigation regimes (100% or 50% of crop evapotranspiration) and three AsA doses (0, 200, or 400 mg L−1 AsA). The results revealed that water stress reduced common bean photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids), carbonic anhydrase activity, antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical activity scavenging activity and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation assay), growth and seed yield, while increased enzymatic antioxidants (peroxidase), secondary metabolites (phenolic, flavonoids, and tannins), malondialdehyde (MDA), and crop water productivity. In contrast, the AsA foliar spray enhanced all studied traits and the enhancement was gradual with the increasing AsA dose. The linear regression model predicted that when the AsA dose increase by 1.0 mg L–1, the seed yield is expected to increase by 0.06 g m–2. Enhanced water stress tolerance through adequate ascorbic acid application is a promising strategy to increase the tolerance and productivity of common bean under water stress. Moreover, the response of common bean to water deficit appears to be dependent on AsA dose.
... The response of rice plants to drought stress depends on the severity of the drought, growth phase (Kadir 2011), and genotypes (Castillo et al. 2006). Drought in the vegetative phase can inhibit leaf growth and roots, reduce the number of tillers and changes in root patterns (Mostajeran and Eichi 2009;Audebert et al. 2013), in the reproductive phase. Drought stress at panicle initiation will reduce panicle dry weight and number of grains per panicle, which has an impact on decreasing grain yield. ...
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Yunita R, Dewi IS, Lestari EG, Purnamanengsih R, Rahayu S, Mastur. 2020. Formation of upland rice drought-tolerant mutants by mutation induction and in vitro selection. Biodiversitas 21: 1476-1482. Increased production can be done by increasing the planting area, but the available land is sub-optimal land with drought stress. Drought-tolerant rice varieties are needed to utilize this land. To create drought-tolerant rice can use induction mutation and in vitro selection methods. This study aims to obtain tolerant upland rice mutants through mutation and in vitro selection. The parents used were Batutegi and Situpatenggang varieties. This research consisted of several main activities, namely callus induction, determination of LD 50% value ofPEG determination of LC 50% value of gamma-ray irradiation, mutation induction and in vitro selection, bud regeneration and acclimatization. The results of this study are mutant callus formed by gamma-ray irradiation at a dose of 24.68 Gy for Situpatenggang and 22.15 Gy for Batutegi (LD50) and selected on PEG media at a dose of 24.11% for Situpatenggang and 25.18% for Batutegi (LC50). The mutant callus regenerated on MS + BA 3 mg/L + Zeatin 0.1 mg/L produced 83 Situpatenggang shoots and 73 Batutegi shoots and successfully acclimatized were 52 Situpatenggang lines and 49 Batuteg linesBatutegi
... It is well documented that an increase in contents of proline in response to water stress, in various plants helped the plants to maintain the homeostasis in leaf tissues (Slama et al., 2007;Mostajeran & Rahimi-Eichi, 2009;Kumar et al., 2011). In the current study, it was examined that under the limited water conditions, accumulation of proline has been enhanced. ...
... Trought is a climate phenomenon that can occur periodically in all climate zones [10], as a limiting factor for the accumulation of compatible osmotic plants [11], as the main limitation on crop yields and productivity throughout world [12], influencing plant growth and development [13]. ...
... Irrigation is important for crop production. Water stress reduces the photosynthesis rate, growth, and biomass production and thereby decreases grain yield [24][25][26] . In addition, water stress leads to increases in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in antioxidant parameters 27,28 , and the expression of a series of genes in response to drought stress has been assessed 29,30 . ...
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The effect of light and water on aromatic rice remain largely unclear. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of light-water treatments (CK: natural light and well-watered conditions, WS: natural light and water-stressed conditions, LL: low light and well-watered conditions, LL-WS: low light and water-stressed treatment) on yield and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) formation in aromatic rice. Compared with CK, the light-water treatments decreased grain yield (10.32-39.19%) due to reductions in the filled grain percentage and total dry weight, in the regulation of biomass distribution, and in the attributes of gas exchange and antioxidant response parameters. The 2AP content in grains increased in the LL treatment (5.08-16.32%) but decreased in the WS treatment compared with that in CK. The changes in 2AP were associated with changes in 2AP formation-related traits and element content. Low light and water stress led to yield declines in aromatic rice, but low light alleviated the decrease in 2AP content caused by water stress.
... The RPS plants produced the lowest grain yield (2.54 to 4.20 t ha -1 ). This result supported the findings of Boonjung and Fukai (1996); Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, (2009). They found that drought stress at vegetative phase of rice had a minor effect on subsequent growth and grain yield. ...
Article
The experiment was conducted at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Gazipur farm during Boro 2003-04 seasons to observe the moisture stress effects in relation to nutrient rates on growth and yield of rice. The treatments were three moisture stresses (NS= Always saturated condition i.e. 1-2 cm standing water; VPS= Withholding water at the vegetative phase i.e. 15 days after transplanting (DAT) to maximum tillering stage; RPS=Withholding water at the reproductive phase i.e. PI to flowering stage) and three fertilizer doses (F0= No fertilizer; HD= Half of the optimum dose and OD= Optimum dose i.e. 120-60-40-10-2 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, K2O, S and Zn respectively). The treatments were applied in high yielding variety BRRI dhan29. The result showed that irrespective of nutrient rates, drought stress decreased plant height, tiller number and shoot dry weight. Unstressed plants (NS) produced the highest grain yield (3.14 to 6.51 tha-1) followed by vegetative phase stressed (VPS) plants (2.73 to 4.50 tha-1). The reproductive phase stressed (RPS) plants produced the lowest grain yield (2.54 to 4.20 t ha-1). Regardless of water stress, application of optimum dose (OD) of nutrients produced the highest grain yield followed by half dose (HD) of nutrients. No fertilizer treatment (F0) produced the lowest grain yield. Due to water stress, the highest grain yield reduction occurred in OD (22-32%) followed by HD (12-19%) and the lowest in F0 (4-15%). Bangladesh Rice j. 2018, 22(2): 23-30
... Farooq et al, (2010) suggested that total dry biomass can be exploited as a stress parameter to estimate drought tolerance. Under drought stress, the reduction in dry matter can be attributed to the reduction of leaf area leading to slow photosynthesis rate resulting in limited assimilates under drought (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). Under drought condition, RSR changed significantly with an average increment of 86 per cent. ...
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Holistic and growth stage-specific screening is needed for identifying tolerant genotypes and for formulating strategies to mitigate the negative effects of abiotic stresses on crops. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic variability of 100 rice lines for early-season vigor, growth and physiological plasticity, and drought and temperature tolerance. Five studies were conducted to accomplish these objectives. In study 1 and 2, 100 rice genotypes consisting of several cultivars and experimental breeding lines were characterized for early-season vigor using several shoot and root morphological, physiological, and yield related traits. In study 3, low- and high-temperature tolerance assessed on select rice cultivars/hybrids during early-season. In study 4, genotypic variability in response to drought stress tolerance using morpo-physiological traits including roots was assessed under pot-culture conditions in a mini-greenhouse conditions. In study 5, the 100 rice genotypes were used to identify and validate SNP markers, and genome-wide association study (GWAS) to generate genotypic and phenotypic data with the objective of identifying new genetic loci controlling drought stress traits. Significant variability was recorded among rice genotypes and treatments for many traits measured. Early-season cumulative vigor response indices (CVRI) developed by summing individual responses indices for each trait varied among the rice genotypes, 21.36 (RU1404196) to 36.17 (N-22). Based on means and standard deviation of the CVRI, rice genotypes were classified as low- (43) and moderately low- (33), high- (16), and very high-vigor (5) groups. Total low-temperature response index values ranged from 18.48 to 23.15 whereas total high-temperature responses index values ranged from 42.01 to 48.82. Antonio, CLXL 745, and Mermentau were identified as sensitive to cold- and heat, and XL 753 was highly cold and heat tolerant genotypes tested. A cumulative drought stress response index (CDSRI) values varied between 14.7 (CHENIERE) and 27.9 (RU1402174) among the genotypes tested. This preliminary analysis of GWA indicated that substantial phenotypic and genotypic diversity exists in the 100 rice genotypes, despite their narrow genetic pool. The stress tolerant and high vigor rice genotypes will be valuable for rice breeders for developing new genotypes best suited under growing environments prone to early-season drought and temperature.
... Goswami, Banerjee, and Raha (2013) reported that drought stress affect leaf expansion, tillering as well as abrupt photosynthetic decline which eventually leads to leaf area reduction as a result of premature senescence. It has been proposed by Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi (2009) that although soil drying affects plant growth, however, it may not affect grain synthesis provided the plant is resistant to drought stress and has the ability to cope with adverse conditions before grain the process of grain filling. Therefore, drought stress is a key constraint in rice production and the problem is disturbing in areas where rice production is dependent upon rainfall. ...
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Rice is an important cereal consumed globally, however, poor germination and non-uniform seedling establishment are major causes of low rice yield in water-limiting arid ecosystems. Seed priming study with KNO3, SA and SiO2 to enhance germination and seedling growth was carried out with the objectives of (1) to determine the effects of seed priming on germination and early seedling growth, and (2) to evaluate effects of seed priming on physiological growth characteristics of rice seedling under drought stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Under well-watered conditions, rice seeds were primed with concentrations of KNO3 (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%), SiO2 (2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4% and 4.5%) and SA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mM). While under drought stress, rice seeds were primed with 2.5% and 5% KNO3; 3% and 3.5% SiO2 and 1 mM and 2.5 mM SA. The results showed that all primed rice seedlings under both well-watered and drought stress conditions had significantly enhanced rice seedling growth parameters of seedling length, plumule length, root length, seedling vigor, seedling biomass and germination index and shorter germination time compared to unprimed controls. However, seed priming with concentrations of 2.5% and 5% KNO3; 3% and 3.5% SiO2, and 1 mM and 2.5 mM SA increased rice seedling growth parameters studied better than other concentrations. However, germination percentage was not significantly affected. Thus, priming of FARO44 rice with these concentrations of chemicals is recommended for fast germination, seedling growth and emergence in arid ecosystems.
... Rice cultivation in any ecology has many constraints which are either biotic and/ or abiotic. The key abiotic stress affecting optimum rice production is drought (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). Kenya is prone to drought stress, with 20% of country receiving optimal and regular annual rainfall. ...
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In Kenya, the key abiotic stress affecting rice production is drought stress which is experienced mainly during reproductive phase of the crop. This study evaluated the performance of Kenyan rice populations including 19 generation of crosses, 6 parental and 5 checks under well-watered and drought stressed environment with the aim of identifying the phenotypic traits that confer drought tolerance in rice. The 19 generation of crosses were in F3 when they were evaluated in the short rains season and later advanced to F4 in the long rains season. Nineteen generation of crosses rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines, six parental and five check lines were evaluated for response to drought under drought stressed and well-watered environment. The study was conducted over two seasons in the year 2016/2017 at Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization (KALRO)-Mwea Centre. The experiment was set up in an alpha lattice design with three replications. Drought stress was imposed at panicle initiation by withholding irrigation till physiological maturity meanwhile the well-watered environment continued to enjoy the recommended irrigation regime from planting to physiological maturity. Yield data were scored for drought tolerance. AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield showed that genotypes from crosses of crosses of SARO5XNERICA11, NERICA2XSARO5 and NERICA15XSARO5 expressed high grain yield. AMMI stability Variance (ASV) showed genotypes NERICA15, Duorado Precoce and progenies from crosses of NERICA11XNERICA2, SARO5XKomboka and NERICA2XNERICA11 expressed high stability in both well-watered and drought-stressed environment. GGE analysis showed that Principal Components (PC1) and PC2 accounted for 96.46% and 3.54%, respectively. GGE biplots showed that genotypes from crosses SARO5XNERICA11 and NERICA15XSARO5 were the most stable and high yielding. GGE biplots ranked the rice lines as follows: those above average in performance, the stable ones, unstable and those below average in performance. SARO5XNERICA11 is worth of selection due to its high mean yield value and is stable across the mega-environments.
... Based on the results of this study plant strain 51 was suspected of having an indication of the resistance character to drought stress because leaf proline levels increased significantly. It fits with researches from reference, the rice of rood Zayande cultivars have an increase in the levels of proline significant at drought stress conditions [23]. ...
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Drought stress is a factor that affects plant growth and development, both in terms of morphology, anatomy, and physiology. Mutant Oryza sativa L. strain 51 of Cempo Ireng cultivar as the result of gamma-ray irradiation is superior mutant black rice strain which has a faster planting period of 10-20 days than its control and shorter plant height. This study aims to determine the morphological, anatomical, and physiological responses, especially the proline content inside the leaves of mutant black rice strain 51. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with the treatment of drought stress using PEG 6000 in Yoshida liquid media. The seedlings were planted for 21 days in untreated media, then treated for 14 days. Observation of morphological characters was carried out by measuring plant height, root length, leaf area, and plant biomass. Observations of anatomical characters were carried out by observing the cross-section of the root. Observation of physiological character was carried out by measuring leaf proline levels. The results showed that drought stress with PEG 6000 inhibited the growth and development of mutant rice strain 51. Drought stress reduces plant height, root length, leaf area, plant biomass and the area of root aerenchyma. Proline leaf content increased significantly at a PEG concentration of 30%. Mutant rice strain 51 showed a tolerant response to drought stress with the significant increased of proline, the increased of root stele diameter and the constant number of metaxylem.
... Hence, there is a need for AWD specifications for its implementation in different parts of the world. Severe drying of AWD also reduces relative water contents, inhibits cell division, elongation, and cell wall thickening (Maheswari et al., 2007;Kima et al., 2015), reduces evapotranspiration and chlorophyll contents (Mostajean and Eichi, 2009;Kima et al., 2014). Moreover, it also decreases total carotenoids (Cha-Um et al., 2010), increases electrolyte leakage (Jahan et al., 2014), pigment degradation, reduces photosynthetic rate (Tuna et al., 2010), leaf cell expansion and translocation of assimilates under severe drying event (Davantgar et al., 2009). ...
Article
Global warming and declining water resources are threatening the sustainability of rice production and global food security. Conventional continuously flooded system (CF) of rice production requires huge amount of water inputs, which is 3-5 times higher than the other cereals. In addition to huge water demand, CF poses severe threat to ecosystem due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and accumulation of heavy metals [e.g., arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg)] in the rice grain, in this scenario, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) system of rice production is an attractive alternative to CF. The AWD reduces the crop water requirements by 25-70% depending upon weather conditions, soil type, crop duration and has the potential to improve the paddy yield by 10-20%. It has also potential to cut down the emission of GHGs by 5-95% and restricts the accumulation of As and Hg in rice grains depending upon drying severity. The AWD system has also reported to improve the grain quality through reduction in chalkiness as well as abortiveness, and increase the head rice recovery and grain micronutrients contents. The AWD system is gaining momentum and being adopted in all major rice producing regions. In this review manuscript, influence of the AWD system of rice production on soil health, nutrient dynamics, rice growth and yield formation, grain quality, water use efficiency and emission of GHGs have been discussed in comparison with CF rice production system. Furthermore, adoption and economics of AWD system has also been described.
... Perubahan iklim yang terus meningkat akan menjadi penyebab terjadinya kekeringan pada areal pertanaman (Abobatta, 2019 (Fauza, 2013). Hal tersebut akan menyebabkan penurunan pengisian bulir, kualitas hasil, dan produktivitas (Mostajeran & Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). Cekaman kekeringan pada padi menyebabkan penurunan produktivitas 10 -100% tergantung tingkat cekamannya. ...
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Drought stress affected growth and decreases rice yield. The use of high yielding varieties and drought tolerance is a strategic step that can be applied during drought stress. The aim of this research was to examine the response of the growth of IPB 4S rice varieties on planting media with drought stress during vegetative phase. The research used a nonfactorial Completely Randomized Design with six levels: field capacity, 10% of field capacity, 20% of field capacity, 30% of field capacity, 40% of field capacity, and 50% of field capacity. The treatments were repeated three times. The growth parameters were plant high, number of tiller, leaf color, leaf area, root length, root dry weight, canopy dry weight, and biomass. The results showed that the drought stress significantly different to leaf area, root length, canopy dry weight, and biomass but were not significantly different to plant height, number of tiller, leaf color, and root dry weight. Increased of drought stress 30 to 50% of field capacity decreased of leaf area, canopy dry weight, and biomass, but increased root length
... In the present study, imposition of drought at both 20-32 DAS and 30-42 DAS has negative effect on total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents but more severe effect of drought was observed at 30 DAS of drought imposition. Hence, screening during vegetative stage is best to done at 30-42 DAS to determine genotypes with higher tolerance to drought stress in terms of total chlorophyll and total carotenoids response [31][32][33][34]. ...
... Drought is a major limiting factor in rice production [24] because it can reduce the amount of filled grain [25]. Breeding and adoption of rice cultivars with enhanced yield potential and short growth duration is a common objective of the breeders. ...
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Rice in Indonesia is still the main staple food, and every year the demand has increased. Indonesian governments have policies to reach self-sufficiency. The strategic programs to increase rice production were through breeding programs. The research was conducted on paddy fields in the village of Ranomeeto District of South Konawe. The study was carried out from October 2018 to April 2019. This study aimed to determine the differences in the agronomic traits in the aspect of vegetative and generative character from some new types of advanced red rice promising lines grown on the paddy field. The experiment was laid out based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), which consisted of six red rice lines (GS12-1, GS12-2, GS44-1, GS44-2, GS16-1, GS16-2) and one check variety (trisakti). Each treatment was repeated four times, so there were 28 experimental units. Parameters observed were plant height, leaf number, leaf area, number of tillers, panicle length, total grain number, 1000-grain weight, filled grain percentage, unfilled grain percentage and dry weight per m ² The results showed that there were differences in the agronomic traits of the promising rice lines GS12-1, GS12-2, GS44-1, GS44-2, GS16-1, GS16-2, and trisakti variety on paddy field. The new type of advanced red rice promising lines can well be adapted on paddy fields obtained in GS16-1 lines, followed GS16-2 lines and GS44-2 lines.
... Slow grain-filling rates and low grain weights of low quality spikelets have often been attributed to limitations in carbohydrate supply (Young and Zhang, 2006). According to the (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009), the underlying factors responsible for the difference in grain filling between upper and lower spikelets remain unknown. This study shows that some varieties flower earlier than others. ...
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The high selection pressure applied to rice breeding since it was domesticated thousands of years ago has initiated a narrowing its genetic variability. Obtaining new rice varieties therefore becomes a major challenge for breeders and the development of techniques to increase genetic variability has attracted the attention of various research groups. Understanding mutations and their application has paved the way for the interpretation of immersion tolerant rice. Creating variability through mutations has therefore become the most important tool for rice improvement. Gamma-rays were able to create genetic variables for abiotic stress tolerance, such as submergence tolerance as well as plant height, number of tillers, shoot and root weight, total biomass, and panicle length. Among the three parents of BRRI dhan52, Guti swarna and Mamun swarna, the highest average yield plant-1 (46.56 g) was produced by Mamun swarna (cont.) and the lowest (18.16 g) by BRRI dhan52. On the other hand, the group of all mutants, Mamun swarna-250 (M3) was more productive (39.30 g) and the maturation was 142.66 days from Guti swarna-300 (M3) (20.20 g) and maturity duration was 151.66 days. The first three principal components studied, including the Eigen value, explained 80.4% of the total variation in 11 rice genotypes for 9 quantitative traits. The gene diversity value of allele across 11 genotypes was 0.469. The value of polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.359 (SC34 / RM23679) and the allele frequency (%) was 62. However, this assessment may be effective in developing reliable mutants for significant submergence stresses in rice.
... Therefore, research on the grain filling in rice in response to stress is essential for us to increase our understanding to employ strategies to combat drought stress, through which grain weight can be enhanced, consequently increasing the grain yield per plant (Peng et al., 2013). For that reason, basic requirement is to know the mechanism of drought tolerance potentiality of plant for better yield in limited rainfall (Mostajeran and Rahimi, 2009). It can be achieved through development of short duration high yielding lines through breeding or transgenics, which may give better yield under environmental stress . ...
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the world’s single most important staple food source for over half of the world’s population, whose demand is expected to increase as human population increases almost exponentially every year. There are different kinds of abiotic and biotic stresses that a rice plant endures. Among the different forms of environmental stresses, drought hampers the production of rice grains notably. The reality of climate change is so stark that more and more droughts are expected to be evident in the distant future. Water, being a requisite for rice cultivation, is gradually becoming a highly limited resource across the earth. In comparison to other cereal crops, rice is more sensitive to the soil water content. Decrease of soil water content or the unavailability of water triggers drought stress in rice. Therefore, the management of drought stress for the growth of rice plants is essential as even moderate stress during reproductive growth may result in a drastic reduction of grain yield. The distinct changes brought about by drought stress not only range from morphological to physiological changes but also from biochemical to molecular changes as well. A number of starch synthesis related enzymes like granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), soluble starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) play important role in grain filling, which are also affected by limited water under drought environment. Due to water scarcity, the rate of photosynthesis decreases, as a result of which dry matter accumulation decreases, which ultimately affects grain filling in rice. Drought causes delayed flowering as well as spikelet sterility, followed by low grain yield during harvesting. The prevalence of drought over longer periods causes reactive oxygen species to form within the rice plants which subsequently denatures proteins and nucleic acids. In many places where drought continues for longer periods, rice plants die resulting in huge loss of grain yields. The effective strategies that have been adopted involves-the development of stable drought tolerant rice varieties through plant breeding programs, the development of short duration rice cultivars which have short growing cycle and harvesting periods that may help the plant to escape drought, the development of rice plants having deep root system such that it can penetrate the soil to find the available moisture and water required for growth, as well as the development of transgenic drought tolerant rice plants which over express specific genes to withstand drought, are few of the effective management strategies that need special attention. Thus, it can be said that drought management for rice production is a crucial step towards food security and food production in the world. The present discussions will emphasize on the negative impact of drought in rice plants and also discuss possible key management practices that can address the existing and imminent drought related problems on rice plants.
... In contrast, drought-resistant genotypes of cotton, tall fescue and wheat were characterized by higher proline accumulation than the susceptible ones [32]. In rice, the concentration of proline was remarkable increased during drought stress [33]. [34] found that the increasing of proline biosynthesis enhanced abiotic stress tolerance in rice varieties. ...
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The world has approximately 90 per cent of its area under rainfed conditions and the dry spells are the characteristics feature of this area which push crop towards water stress. Climate change scenarios predict extended periods of drought and this has emphasized that now we look towards the possibility of positive utilization water stress. However, no one review till date has published that focused on ways of positive utilization of water stress. This review focuses on such intensity and time of occurrence of stress in which a crop is benefited. The crop facing water stress have several changes at morphological and biochemical levels, and these changes not always be deleterious for crop. Fortunately, earlier literature showed that there are many positive effect associated with water stress. For instant trans-generational effects (parent crop during grain formation imposed to water stress and the seeds obtained from them have potential to withstand drought), increase in secondary metabolites, thereby potentially increasing plant defenses and the concentrations of compounds involved in plant quality, particularly taste and health benefits, increase in oil, fiber and protein content etc. Moreover, water stressed produced secondary metabolites has high marketing values (i.e. commercial bio-molecules). However, these positive effects are highly dependent on the degree and time of occurrence of water stress. This review also discusses degree and time of occurrence of water stress with corresponds to positive effects.
... As an essential mechanism, osmotic change is included in plant adaptations to different stresses. Proline is a significant components of osmoregulation in the expanded leaves of numerous species (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). In the current study, observed that the concentrations of proline were decreased because of the salicylic acid treatments. ...
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In this study, investigate the influence of foliar spraying by antioxidants (salicylic, ascorbic, oxalic, boric and nicothinic acid) at rate of 150/300/450 ppm on growth, flowering, chemical and quality composition of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorumRam) plant during winter seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. Salicylic acid at 450 ppm was more successful than most of the other treatments for increasing plant height, number of branches/plant, fresh and dry weight as well as flowering traits as number of flower/plant, also, pigments content of leaves (total chlorophyll and carotenoids) , N, P and K (%), total carbohydrates (%), phenol(mg/100g DW), but decreased proline content. While, the lowest values of all parameters were observed with the control treatment (sprayed with water) except proline content recorded the highest value during both seasons of the experiment.
... Kekurangan air pada fase vegetatif menyebabkan pertumbuhan daun dan akar terhambat (Sujinah dan Jamil (2016) sehingga menghasilkan ukuran tanaman yang lebih pendek, jumlah anakan lebih sedikit dan luas daun yang lebih kecil. Penelitian Rushayati et al. (1989) juga menunjukkan bahwa tanaman yang diberi cekaman air (kadar air 50% kapasitas lapang) selama sepuluh hari pada awal fase ini memberikan hasil yang sangat rendah.Hal ini disebabkan terganggunya inisiasi pengisian biji yang menghasilkan gabah hampa (Mostajeran and Eichi 2009). ...
Thesis
Extreme climate event is one of the main factors causing crop failure in Indonesia. This event makes farmers reluctance to try using better crop management practices as their investment may be squandered.Climate Index Insurance (CII) has been used and implemented in many countries to protect farmers from climate risk, thus encouraging farmers to use better management technologies. Many methods were developed to determine the climate index. This study aims to develop and test two methods for determining the climate index, namely drought and crop simulation approaches. The study was conducted in Kroya Subdistrict, Indramayu Regency for the rainfed rice. The results showed that the climate index produced by the two methods was different. The plant simulation method provides an index that is much higher than the drought method, if the development phase considered to be insured is vegetative and reproductive phases. If only the reproductive phase is considered, the difference in the index of the two approaches is not too large. Integration of the farmers credite scheme (KUT) with climate index insurance along with technology assistance is one way to encourage farmers to adopt climate insurance and improved crop management technologies. With this integration scheme, farmers are facilitated in adopting improved technologies so that the profits gained from farming under good climate will be far greater than the value of premiums that must be paid. While in times of bad climate, farmers will receive payment from the insurance allowing them to replant again for coming season without getting new loan
... In addition to proline, the total soluble sugars can also regulate cell osmotic potential under drought stress to protect cell membrane structure while providing energy and carbon sources that are essential for plant growth and development [4,7]. The drought-tolerant rice variety, Zayandeh-Rood, has a high total soluble sugar content under drought stress [27]. The C. quinoa variety, Sajama, also increases total soluble sugar content under drought stress [10]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this experiment is to study the effects of treatment with 90% (28.5% volumetric water content (VWC)), 75% (24% VWC), 50% (16% VWC), and 25% (8% VWC) of water requirements on the growth of two djulis (Chenopodium formosana Koidz) varieties (red: RP and yellow: OR) and one quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) varieties (PI). The results showed that drought stress (8% VWC) significantly reduced plant growth and relative water content, and increased H2O2 and MDA content in C. formosana and C. quinoa. The most significant increase in these parameters was detected in the OR variety. The antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, APX, and GR activities of PI variety under drought treatment (8% VWC), are significantly increased, while GR activity of C. formosana also increased significantly. Additionally, C. formosana and PI variety remained at a stable AsA/DHA ratio, but the GSH/GSSG ratio decreased during drought treatment. Moreover, drought stress increased total soluble sugars and proline content in the PI variety. However, C. formosana proline content was extremely significantly enhanced, and only the OR variety increased the total soluble sugar content at the same time during the vegetative growth period. In summary, C. formosana and C. quinoa have different drought tolerance mechanisms to adapt to being cultivated and produced under severe drought conditions.
... As major components of osmoregulation, soluble sugars and soluble proteins are considered to be a crucial mechanism of plant adaptation to drought stress and other environmental stresses in the expanded leaves of many species (Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009). Synergic effects of Ze and SA enhanced soluble sugar in this experiment on wheat ( Fig. 2-b). ...
Article
With the prevalence of water scarcity and a growing demand for food, it is imperative to utilize inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials such as zeolite (Ze) and salicylic acid (SA) in agricultural farms. In this regard, in the present study we measured the effects of exogenous application of Ze (4 g/kg soil and 8 g/kg soil) and SA (1 mM) on wheat plants Cv. Sirvan in both normal (100% FC) and drought stress (40% FC) conditions. The study measured several physiological, biochemical and morphological characteristics, including antioxidant enzyme activities (POD, CAT, APX), soluble sugar, soluble protein, inorganic ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), grain number and grain yield. SA and Ze (8 g/ kg) significantly improved drought tolerance of wheat plants. SA and Ze (8 g/ kg) also had positive effects on control plants. We therefore concluded that external application of SA (1 mM) and Ze (8 g/ kg) is recommended for improving drought tolerance.
... Similarly, the -1 correlation between days to flowering and tillers hill , days to -1 maturity and tillers hill , and that between days to maturity -1 and panicles hill was found to be positive and significant. Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009Lafitte et al. 2006Lafitte et al. 2006Gomez et al. 2006 Abarshahr et al., 2011 Table 3 Table 4 given in . Direct effects of biomass yield (kg ha ) on Table 5 -1 DTF-Days to flowering, DTM-Days to maturity, Tillersno-Number of tillers per hill, Panicleno-No. of panicles hill , Plantht--1 -1 ...
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in order to evaluate drought tolerant rice genotypes under different nutrient levels in artificially created stress condition during reproductive stages. The field experiment was conducted in strip plot design with three replications. Three main-plots contain three different levels of fertilizers, each consisting of 14 sub-plots of genotypes. The result revealed that the rice genotypes showed the significant differences for days to flowering, days to maturity and grain yield. Genotype IR83381-B-B-137-1 produced the-1-1 highest grain yield (3851 kg ha), followed by IR83383-B-B-141-2 (3130 kg ha). The differences was-1-1-1 significant for no. of tillers hill , no. of panicles hill and biomass yield kg ha. In terms of level of fertilizers; rice genotypes showed significant differences for days to maturity. Interaction effect was observed significant for days to maturity and no. of panicles. The correlation between tillers-1-1 number hill and panicle number hill was the highest (0.994**) and in path analysis for grain yield; direct effect of biomass yield was the highest (0.58134).
... Tanaman padi diketahui mempunyai kemampuan adaptasi pada lingkungan yang luas, dapat tumbuh baik antara 530 LU dan 350 LS, meliputi daerah kering sampai genangan serta daerah dari dataran rendah sampai dengan ketinggian 2000 mdpl (Yoshida, 1981). (Mostajeran, 2009). Keberlanjutan produksi padi dalam kondisi air yang terbatas terancam oleh meningkatnya kelangkaan air irigasi (Davatgar, 2009). ...
... Shatpathy et al. (2015) have also reported similar results in paddy plants under imposed moisture stress. Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi (2009) reported that the number of tillers per hill decreased with decreased moisture level and the reduction of tiller production under lower moisture levels (water stress), could be main factor due to which plants were not able to produce enough assimilates. Figure 5 illustrates that the highest number of grains per plant was observed in the absence of both the temperature stress and no water stress. ...
... Moisture stress reduces stomatal opening due to low leaf water potential (Saha et al. 2016) and retards nutrient uptake and net carbon (C) assimilation through photosynthesis, hence causing stunted crop growth with early maturity. However, quantity of osmolytes like proline, glycine, betaine, phenols, total free amino acids, and soluble sugars increased with accelerated stress (Cechin et al. 2006;Simova-Stoilova et al. 2008;Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi 2009). Assessment of concentration of these stress-induced osmolytes could be worthy as they are crucial indicators for stress affected plants. ...
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... Accumulation of free proline in the plant cells in response to the onset of stresses is one of such mechanisms (Vendruscolo et al., 2007) [25] & (Cattivelli et al., 2008) [8] . Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi (2009) [12] also observed a higher amount of plant proline content in nonsubmerged rice and a positive correlation between free proline accumulation and drought tolerance. Singh et al. (2000) [18] mentioned that proline is a non-protein amino acid that forms in plant tissues when subjected to water stress and rapidly metabolized upon recovery from drought. ...
... Finally, Orabi3 and Vandana genotypes showed more stable values of FW and DW for shoots and roots under drought condition at flowering stage which is one of the most important stages. Previous studies indicated significant decrease in dry and fresh weights of roots and shoots under drought stress (Centritto et al., 2009;Mostajeran and Rahimi-Eichi, 2009;Ji et al., 2012). Reduction of fresh weights of roots and shoots as well as their lengths ultimately reduction of the photosynthetic rate of biochemical and physiology processes of rice (Usman et al, 2013). ...
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Water deficiency is one of the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect rice production. Four rice genotypes; Giza177, IR64 (sensitive), Vandana and Orabi3 (tolerant) were used to study the mechanics by which rice genotypes acquire the drought tolerance. Shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights, cell membranes stability as lipid peroxidation as MDA content and rate of electrolyte leakage (EL) were measured as indices for drought tolerance. Total protein analysis and differential display RT-PCR were carried out at different growth stages to study the response of the tested genotypes to drought stress. All determinations were carried out under both normal irrigation (control) and drought stress conditions. Our results indicated that drought tolerant genotypes showed different response through DD-RT-PCR than sensitive genotypes. Changes in protein profile as increasing in band number and intensity were associated with the up regulation or even induction of some RNA transcript in tolerant genotypes. Our data conclude that vegetative growth stage was the most stable under drought stress of all studied genotypes. Analysis of induced RNA followed by DD-RT-PCR to characterize genes may involve in drought tolerance mechanism need further investigation.
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Drought is abiotic stress that can inhibit the growth and yield of rice plants. A simple method to determine the physiological response, growth, and yield of rice is using plant growth analysis. The aim of this research was to study the physiological characters of IPB 4S rice varieties on planting media with different drought stress levels using plant growth analysis. This research used a non-factorial completely randomized design with 6 levels of water percentage from field capacity, namely field capacity, 10% of field capacity, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of field capacity. The treatment was repeated three times so that there were 18 experimental units. Observation of plant growth analysis was carried out by measuring leaf area and plant dry weight at 3 and 8 days after planting. Drought stress 20-50% of field capacity has a net assimilation rate, leaf area index, and plant growth rate 8 weeks after planting lower than drought stress at field capacity up to 10% of field capacity. In general, an increase in drought stress by 20-50% results in a decrease in net assimilation rate, plant growth rate, and leaf area index of 8 weeks after planting. This shows that the IPB 4S variety of rice plants has tolerance to drought stress up to 10% of the field capacity
Chapter
Drought is one of the most expanding stresses limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. It most prominently affects the germination and yield of plants by damaging photosynthetic apparatus, reducing photosynthesis, and decreasing nutrient uptake. The plant growth is severely affected under water scarcity in limited potassium (K) supply. Water scarcity in plants causes increased cell permeability that leads to the outflow of ions especially K⁺. The outflow of ions increases cell cytoplasmic water potential resulting in further decreased water absorbance capability of plants. The resulting K⁺ starvation also disrupts plant metabolism as K⁺ finds its direct role in osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation, and activation of enzymes. Drought stress causes the physiological disorder by decrease in internal K⁺ that leads to the decreased enzymatic activities of some K⁺-dependent enzymes. K optimizes many physiological and biochemical processes that ultimately lead to increase in growth and yield of plant. In this chapter, we discuss the effects of drought on plant growth and various physiological parameters, the role of K in maintaining the various aspects of plant metabolism, and how K is responsible for mitigating the adverse effects of drought on plants by altering various physiological and biochemical mechanisms.
Chapter
The escalating worldwide need for agricultural products accounts for twofold increase in crop yield by 2050. The agronomic crops especially wheat, maize, rice, barley, sugarcane, etc. contribute greatly to human food. The various environmental conditions impact the yield of agronomic crops globally. Complicating the problem, abiotic stresses especially temperature, heavy metal, drought, water, and salt stress induce toxicity in agronomic crops. Exposure to different abiotic stresses severely affects growth, morphology, productivity, and performance of crops all through the growing period. Further, increased generation of reactive oxygen species under stressful conditions might be linked to the decreased yield and development of agronomic crops. This chapter discusses an overview on the types of abiotic stress in crop plants and their effect on growth and morphological parameters. Additionally, inherent tolerance mechanisms adapted by agronomic crops to combat abiotic stress are also discussed briefly in this chapter.
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Drought is abiotic stress that can inhibit the growth and yield of rice plants. A simple method to determine the physiological response, growth, and yield of rice is using plant growth analysis. The aim of this research was to study the physiological characters of IPB 4S rice varieties on planting media with different drought stress levels using plant growth analysis. This research used a non-factorial completely randomized design with 6 levels of water percentage from field capacity, namely field capacity, 10% of field capacity, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of field capacity. The treatment was repeated three times so that there were 18 experimental units. Observation of plant growth analysis was carried out by measuring leaf area and plant dry weight at 3 and 8 days after planting. Drought stress 20-50% of field capacity has a net assimilation rate, leaf area index, and plant growth rate 8 weeks after planting lower than drought stress at field capacity up to 10% of field capacity. In general, an increase in drought stress by 20-50% results in a decrease in net assimilation rate, plant growth rate, and leaf area index of 8 weeks after planting. This shows that the IPB 4S variety of rice plants has tolerance to drought stress up to 10% of the field capacity.
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The experiment was conducted at the research field of the Department of Agronomy of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur during April to August 2014 to assess growth performance of Aus rice varieties under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications, where (i) two irrigation levels as irrigated (control) and rainfed were assigned in the main plot, and (ii) 15 varieties into sub plot. The results indicated that growth parameters were significantly influenced by irrigation levels, varieties and their interaction. The highest TDM, LAI and CGR were noticed at 59 DAS, whereas plant height was the maximum at 66 DAS. RGR and NAR were the highest at 24-31DAS. Among the varieties BRRI dhan27 gave the highest plant height (153.59cm), TDM (883.35 g m-2), LAI(3.11) and CGR (41.36 g m-2 day-1) under irrigated condition. Under rainfed condition also the same variety showed the maximum plant height (147.37cm),TDM (840.48 g m-2), LAI (2.33) and CGR (39.21 g m-2 day-1).However, at 24-31 DAS, the highest RGR(0.244 g g-1 day-1) and NAR (0.0202 g m-2 day-1)were found in Nerika1 under irrigated treatment. Nerika10, Nerika ABSS, BRRI dhan43, Nerika1 and BRRI dhan55 were found early maturing varieties. It was concluded that among the fifteen aus rice varieties, BRRI dhan27 exhibited the best performance in relation to growth characteristics under both growing environment except RGR and NAR.
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