Article

Population dynamics of citrus leaf miner on different varieties of citrus in correlation with abiotic environmental factors in Sargodha District, Punjab, Pakistan

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Abstract

From January 2010 to December 2011, samples of leaves from citrus varieties Kinnow, Musambi and Feutral were taken from the five tehsils (administrative subdivisions) of Sargodha District in Pakistan including Sargodha, Bahalwal, Silanwalli, Sahiwal and Kotmomin, to study the population trends in citrus leaf miner (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), and its correlation with various environmental factors: (temperature, humidity and rainfall); plant morphological factors: moisture contents of leaves, leaf thickness, surface area (cm2 ), and biochemical percentage of calcium, potassium and magnesium in leaves. The maximum population of CLM was observed on Kinnow and Feutral, followed by Musambi. The effect of these factors on the larval population was 8.39- 2.30(Mg)+2.73(K)-0.398(Ca)-0.100(Temp)0.038(Humidity)+0.567(Rain)+0.07(Moist) 1.01 (Thickness)-0.022(Surface area). This equation revealed that magnesium, calcium, temperature, humidity, leaf thickness and leaf surface area are negatively correlated with larvae population, whereas potassium, rainfall and moisture are positively correlated with larvae population.

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... During 1990, this pest was described as a serious pest of citrus in hilly areas of the country (Taher, 1996). To date it has been reported in various localities of Pakistan, namely Sargodha, Faisalabad, Layyah, Multan, Toba Tek Singh, Swabi, Malakand Agency and Haripur (Zeb et al., 2011;Ahmed et al., 2013;Mustafa et al., 2013Mustafa et al., , 2014. ...
... Phyllocnistis citrella larvae are a major concern as they lead to secondary infections from bacteria such as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, which causes citrus canker disease (Grafton-Cardwell et al., 2009). In Pakistan, one mine per leaf is usually observed, but in heavy infestations the larval density can increase to up to four mines per leaf (Mustafa et al., 2014). Infestations of one to three mines per leaf were recorded from Australia, while wetter conditions in other areas, such as Florida, may facilitate more mines per leaf (Jones, 2001). ...
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... Citrus leaf miner (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is one of the most important pest species of citrus crops in several producing regions, including Brazil, India, China, Mexico, and United States (Chhetry et al. 2012;Mustafa et al. 2014). This pest preferentially attacks new shoots of citrus plants, forming galleries in the leaf limb, causing direct damage by reducing photosynthesis, premature leaf drop, and reduction in the development of new shoots, compromising the orchard production (Heppner 1993). ...
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... The citrus leafminer (CLM) Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is a serious pest of commercial citrus production throughout the world (Hoy & Nguyen, 1997;Smith et al., 1997;Mustafa et al., 2014). Eggs are laid on young leaves and larvae feed within the leaf tissue in distinctive serpentine mines, finally pupating in a pupal cell at the leaf margin. ...
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The Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella is an important pest of citruses in the Sudan and other parts of the world. Studies on its biology have shown that the egg stage took 2 to 6 days to hatch, the average larval (4 instars) and pupal durations were 7–8 and 8–9 days, respectively; while the total life cycle from egg laying to adult emergence took about 18 days (winter time). The insect preferred the lower surface of the leaf for egg laying. On the basis of infested area, number of living larvae and pupae per leaf and length of mines, grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, was found to be the most susceptible citrus species while mandarine C. nobilis was found to be the least susceptible one followed by lime, C. aurantiifolia. Suggested reasons for this preference and susceptibility were given. Beiträge zur Biologie und zum Vorkommen der Zitrusminiermotte, Phyllocnistis citrella Staint. (Gracilariidae, Lepid.) im Sudan Die Zitrusblattminiermotte, P. citrella, tritt als wichtiger Schädling an Zitrusbäumen im Sudan und in anderen Ländern auf. Untersuchungen im Sudan zeigten, daß die Ei-Entwicklung 2–6, die Entwicklung der 4 Larvenstadien 7–8 und jene der Puppen 8–9 Tage dauerten. Die Gesamtentwicklung von der Eiablage bis zum Schlüpfen der Motten beanspruchte im Winter 18 Tage. Der Schädling bevorzugte zur Eiablage die Blattunterseite. Gemessen an dem befallenen Areal, der Zahl lebender Larven und Puppen/Blatt und der Länge der Minen erwies sich die Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, als die vom Schädling bevorzugteste Zitrusart. Es folgte die Limone, C. aurantiifolia, gefolgt von der Mandarine, C. nobilis. Die Gründe dieser Nahrungspflanzenwahl werden erörtert.
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This chapter contains section titled:
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