Color vision impairment is associated with disease severity in multiple sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (Impact Factor: 4.82). 01/2014; 20(9). DOI: 10.1177/1352458513517591
Source: PubMed


Colour vision assessment correlates with damage of the visual pathway and might be informative of overall brain damage in multiple sclerosis (MS).
The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between impaired colour vision and disease severity.
We performed neurological and ophthalmic examinations, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) analyses, on 108 MS patients, both at baseline and after a follow-up of one year. Colour vision was evaluated by Hardy, Rand and Rittler plates. Dyschromatopsia was defined if colour vision was impaired in either eye, except for participants with optic neuritis (ON), for whom only the unaffected eye was considered. We used general linear models adjusted for sex, age, disease duration and MS treatment for comparing presence of dyschromatopsia and disease severity.
Impaired colour vision in non-ON eyes was detected in 21 out of 108 patients at baseline. At baseline, patients with dyschromatopsia had lower Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) scores and Brief Repeatable Battery-Neuropsychology executive function scores than those participants with normal colour vision. In addition, these patients had thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and smaller macular volume, normalized brain volume and normalized gray matter volume (NGMV) at baseline. Moreover, participants with incident dyschromatopsia after one-year follow-up had a greater disability measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale and MSFC-20 and a greater decrease in NGMV than participants with normal colour vision.
Colour vision impairment is associated with greater MS severity.

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Available from: Iñigo Gabilondo, Dec 21, 2014
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    • "OCT is a recently developed, rapid, non-invasive imaging technique that can reveal retinal structure in vivo with axial resolutions of 5 microns or less. It has recently proven useful for identifying thinning of certain retinal layers in several neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) (Khanifar et al., 2010; Martinez-Lapiscina et al., 2014), Parkinson's disease (Satue et al., 2013, 2014; Tian et al., 2011), and Alzheimer'sdisease (Moschos et al., 2012), in addition to focal eye diseases (Leung et al., 2010). Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning – reflecting loss of ganglion cell axons that leave the retina as the optic nerve and synapse onto the lateral geniculate nucleus – as revealed by OCT, is thought to be a good model of brain neurodegeneration, since retinal cells are unmyelinated , and so any thinning directly reflects cell loss (Lee et al., 2013). "
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