[Clinical and radiographic evaluation of open reduction and internal fixation with headless compression screws in treatment of lisfranc joint injuries]


    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of headless compression screws for Lisfranc joint injuries.
    A retrospective analysis was made on clinical data of 34 patients (36 feet) with Lisfranc joint injuries who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with headless compression screws between January 2006 and January 2012. There were 22 males (24 feet) and 12 females (12 feet), aged 21-73 years (mean, 38.9 years). The causes of injury included traffic accident in 16 cases (17 feet), falling from height in 11 cases (12 feet), crushing in 5 cases (5 feet), and sports in 2 cases (2 feet). Of them, there were 19 cases (20 feet) of closed injury and 15 cases (16 feet) of open injury; there were 7 cases (8 feet) of pure dislocations of tarsometatarsal joints and ligamentous Lisfranc injuries (LD), 22 cases (23 feet) of Lisfranc joint fracture dislocations (LFD), 5 cases (5 feet) of combined Chopart-LFD (CLFD). According to Myerson classification, 5 cases (5 feet) were rated as type A, 7 cases (8 feet) as type B1, 14 cases (15 feet) as type B2, 5 cases (5 feet) as type C1, and 3 cases (3 feet) as type C2. Associated fractures included 12 cases (13 feet) of metatarsal shaft fracture, 4 cases (4 feet) of cuboid fracture, 4 cases (4 feet) of navicular bone fracture, 6 cases (7 feet) of coneiform bone fracture/dislocation, 8 cases (10 feet) of ipsilateral lower limb multiple fracture, and 4 cases (4 feet) of contralateral lower limb multiple fracture. The clinical outcomes were evaluated according to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Postoperative X-ray films were taken to assess the reduction, internal fixation, and the foot arch height.
    All patients were followed up 1 year to 5 years and 2 months (mean, 3.5 years). X-ray films showed anatomical reduction in 31 cases (33 feet, 91.7%). At last follow-up, AOFAS score and VAS score averaged 80.6 (range, 60-100) and 2.3 (range, 0-6), respectively; the AOFAS score was significantly higher in patients having anatomical reduction than the patients having no anatomical reduction, in patients with LD and LFD than in patients with CLFD, and in patients without cuneiform bone fracture/dislocation than in patients with cuneiform bone fracture/dislocation (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the talus-first metatarsal angle, the distance between the lateral edge of the base of the first metatarsal bone and the medial edge of the base of the second metatarsal bone, and the arch height between the injured foot and normal foot (P > 0.05). Reduction loss was observed in 1 case (1 foot) because of early weight bearing; post-traumatic arthritis developed in 9 patients (10 feet). The incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis was higher in the patients with non-anatomic reduction, coneiform bone fracture/dislocation, comminuted intra-articular fractures of Lisfranc joints, the injury types (P < 0.05).
    Headless compression screws for fixation of Lisfranc joint injuries can provide satisfactory short- and mid-term clinical and radiographic outcomes. During surgery, the precise anatomic reduction and stable fixation should be paid attention to, especially in patients with CLFD, coneiform bone fracture/dislocation, and comminuted intra-articular fractures of Lisfranc joints so as to control the incidence of the post-traumatic osteoarthritis.