BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit
publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to
Petrocosmea melanophthalma, a New Species in Section
Deianthera (Gesneriaceae) from Yunnan, China
Author(s): Wang Huan-Chong Zhang Li-Bing He Zhao-Rong
Source: Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 22(4):486-490. 2013.
Published By: Missouri Botanical Garden
BioOne (www.bioone.org) is a nonprofit, online aggregation of core research in the
biological, ecological, and environmental sciences. BioOne provides a sustainable
online platform for over 170 journals and books published by nonprofit societies,
associations, museums, institutions, and presses.
Your use of this PDF, the BioOne Web site, and all posted and associated content
Usage of BioOne content is strictly limited to personal, educational, and non-
commercial use. Commercial inquiries or rights and permissions requests should be
directed to the individual publisher as copyright holder.
Petrocosmea melanophthalma, a New Species in Section Deianthera
(Gesneriaceae) from Yunnan, China
Institute of Plant Science, School of Life Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China; and
Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Kunming 650204, People’s Republic of China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 U.S.A.; and Chengdu Institute of
Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 416, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People’s
Republic of China. Libing.Zhang@mobot.org
Institute of Plant Science, School of Life Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091,
People’s Republic of China.
Author for correspondence: email@example.com
ABSTRACT.Petrocosmea melanophthalma Huan C. sect. Anisochilus Hemsl., and Petrocosmea sect.
Wang, Z. R. He & Li Bing Zhang, an attractive new Deinanthera W. T. Wang (Wang, 1985). New reports
species (Gesneriaceae, Petrocosmea sect. Deianthera and taxonomic novelties of this genus have been
W. T. Wang) from Yunnan, China, is described and consistently reported (e.g., Wang et al., 1990, 1998; Li
illustrated. It is similar to P. kerrii Craib in the & Wang, 2004; Wei & Wen, 2009; Guo et al., 2010;
zygomorphic calyx and brevirostrate anther. The new Middleton & Triboun, 2010; Zhao & Shui, 2010) such
species differs from the latter by its peltate leaves and that Petrocosmea currently comprises 32 species and
the blue corolla with two striking black spots on the four varieties. The genus is native to Asia, occurring in
tube, as well as the geniculate filaments of the China, northeastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, and
stamens that thicken above the middle. Petrocosmea southern Vietnam. Approximately 24 species are
melanopthalma was found on basalt cliffs in concentrated on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and
evergreen broad-leaved forest on Mopan Shan. most species restrict to relatively small geographical
Key words: China, Gesneriaceae, IUCN Red List, areas in distributions. Herein we describe a new
Petrocosmea, Yunnan. species of Petrocosmea, in section Deinanthera sensu
W. T. Wang (1985), from basalt cliffs in south-central
Petrocosmea Oliv. is a small genus of Gesneriaceae Yunnan.
established by Oliver with the single species P. Petrocosmea melanophthalma Huan C. Wang, Z.
sinensis Oliv. (Oliver, 1887). Plants in this genus are R. He & Li Bing Zhang, sp. nov. TYPE: China.
perennial, acaulescent herbs with entirely basal Yunnan: Xinping Co., Mopan Shan,
leaves. The inflorescences are cymose, axillary, 1- to 23856.609N, 101858.499E, on basalt cliffs in
4- (to 7-) flowered; the corolla can be blue to purple or evergreen broad-leaved forest, 2200–2300 m,
white and is zygomorphic and bilabiate. There are two 26 May 2005, H. C. Wang 20050321 (holotype,
stamens with basifixed anthers and parallel thecae; YUKU; isotypes, CDBI, KUN, MO, YUKU).
there are three staminodes, but these can be only one Figures 1, 2.
or absent. There is no disc; the ovary is 1-loculed with
two placentas in parietal orientation; the single stigma
is terminal, capitate, and undivided (Li & Wang, Species nova P. kerrii Craib affinis, sed ab ea foliis
peltatis, corolla caerulea tubo intus basi maculis nigris
2004). Taxonomic revision of the genus Petrocosmea ellipticis duabus ornata atque filamentis supra medium
was first provided by Craib (1919) and later by Wang incrassatis geniculatisque quam antheris longioribus differt.
(1985). Twenty-seven species and four varieties were
recognized by W. T. Wang, classified into three Perennial, small herbs; rhizomes short, ca. 5 mm.
sections: Petrocosmea sect. Petrocosmea,Petrocosmea Leaves 10 to 25, basal, crowded, the inner leaves
NOVON 22: 486–490. PUBLISHED ON 18 OCTOBER 2013. doi: 10.3417/2011035
with petioles short or absent, the outer leaves with 1–3.5 30.6–2 cm, the blade apex acute, the base
long petioles to 7 cm; leaf blades flaccid, slightly peltate, margin repand, adaxial blade surface densely
papery when dry, the outer blades narrowly elliptic, pubescent, abaxial surface purple, short glandular,
oblong or ovate-oblong, rarely lanceolate, 4–7( 10) 3densely adpressed villous, lateral veins 4 to 8 on
1–2.5( 4) cm, the inner blades ovate or suborbicular, either side of midrib; petioles densely adpressed,
Figure 1. Petrocosmea melanophthalma Huan C. Wang, Z. R. He & Li Bing Zhang. —A. Fertile plant habit. —B. Flower. —C.
Anther. —D. Calyx and style. —E. Calyx, flattened. —F. Leaf base. Drawn by Che-Wei Lin from the holotype, H. C. Wang
Volume 22, Number 4 Wang et al. 487
2013 Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) from China
villous, base usually ferruginous, 1–7 cm. Scapes 1 to southwestern China. It was observed to grow on basalt
5 (to 10), 3–5 cm tall, densely appressed villous; cliffs in evergreen broad-leaved forest, predominated
bracts 2, opposite, linear, ca. 3.5 mm; cymes usually by species of Lithocarpus Blume, at altitudes of
1-flowered; pedicels 1–1.5 cm. Calyx zygomorphic, 2100–2300 m.
6–7 mm, unequally divided into 3 lobes from base,
outer surface densely villous, inner surface glabrous, IUCN Red List category.Petrocosmea melanoph-
the adaxial calyx lobe larger, 3-dentate almost to thalma is known only from Mopan Shan, Xinping Co.,
middle, 4–6 mm broad, the abaxial calyx lobes 2, Yunnan, where its distribution area is less than 5 km
smaller, entire, narrowly triangular to lanceolate, ca. and the total number of individuals is approximately
1–1.8 mm broad. Corolla blue, bilabiate, 1.2–1.6 cm, 500–800 (D1, D2). Following the IUCN criteria
externally puberulent, internally glabrous or some- (IUCN, 2008), this species should be categorized as
what puberulent, the adaxial corolla lip usually Vulnerable (VU).
shorter than abaxial lip, corolla tube 6–8 mm, with
2 large black maculae evident on the abaxial tube Phenology. According to field observations and
surface internally; adaxial corolla lip ca. 0.5–0.7 mm experiments in cultivation, Petrocosmea melanoph-
315–2 cm, 2-lobed, lobes with rounded apex, thalma flowers from May to June when the dry season
abaxial lip ca. 0.6–0.8 32–2.8 cm, 3-lobed, lobes comes to an end on the Yunnan Plateau. Although we
with rounded apex; stamens 2, filaments inserted on have carried out field surveys several times in the
base of corolla, puberulent, ca. 3.5 mm, geniculate type locality and in adjacent areas, fruits were largely
and thickened above the middle, anthers ovate, lacking and have been rarely collected.
cordate at apex, ca. 2 31 mm, apex brevirostrate;
staminodes 2, linear, puberulent; pistil ca. 13 mm; Etymology. The specific epithet melanophthalma
ovary ca. 3 mm, narrowly ovate, the style sparsely is derived from the Greek prefix ‘‘melan-’’ or black
puberulent near base. Capsule ellipsoid, 3–4 mm. and the Greek ‘‘ophthalmos’’ or eye, referring to the
two black eye-like spots on the corolla tube.
Distribution and habitat.Petrocosmea melanoph-
thalma is known only from the type locality in Relationships.Petrocosmea melanophthalma dif-
Xinping Co., in south-central Yunnan Province, in fers from previously known species in the genus. It is
Figure 2. Petrocosmea melanophthalma Huan C. Wang, Z. R. He & Li Bing Zhang. —A. Habitat at the type locality, evergreen
forest on Mopan Shan in Xinping county. —B. Plant habit on cliff surfaces at the type locality. —C. Close-up of fertile plants. —
D. Corolla dissected to show the androecium inserted at the base of the corolla tube.
characterized by the peltate leaves, the zygomorphic pubescens D. J. Middleton & Triboun, such as the
calyx, and the blue corolla with two striking black peltate leaves, zygomorphic calyx, and blue corolla,
spots evident within the abaxial corolla tube. The but differs from the latter in that its outer leaves are
filaments of the two stamens are geniculate and narrowly elliptic, oblong or ovate-oblong, and 4–
thickened above the middle, and the anthers are 7(
apically constricted to form a short
10) 31–2.5( 4) cm in size, and its flower has two
beak. black spots on the corolla. Petrocosmea melanoph-
Following Wang’s (1985) taxonomic treatment of thalma shares similar characters with P. coerulea C.
this genus, this new species should be assigned to Y. Wu ex W. T. Wang as well, a species also
Petrocosmea sect. Deinanthera ser. Kerrianae W. T. described from Yunnan, such as the peltate leaves
Wang, as the calyx is zygomorphic and 3-lobed, and and blue corolla, but differs from the latter in its
the anther is apically constricted to form a short beak. zygomorphic (vs. actinomorphic) calyx and breviro-
This series is currently composed of one species with strate anthers. Petrocosmea melanophthalma is
two varieties, P. kerrii var. kerrii and P. kerrii var. somewhat morphologically similar to Metapetrocos-
crinita W. T. Wang. Petrocosmea melanophthalma mea peltata (Merr. & Chun) W. T. Wang, which was
differs from P. kerrii by its peltate (vs. nonpeltate) originally placed in the genus Petrocosmea, but as
leaves, blue (vs. white and not maculate) corolla with Wang indicated (1981), the latter is characterized by
two striking black maculae within the abaxial tube, an elongated rhizome, a white or reddish corolla, with
and filaments that are longer than anthers (vs. being the lip shorter than tube, the villous anthers, and
shorter than anthers), ca. 3.5 mm long (vs. ca. 1.2 mm
long), geniculate and thickened above middle (vs. divergent thecae. Metapetrocosmea peltata is known
straight and not thickened). Both species occur in from Hainan Island in China and is not sympatric to
Yunnan, but P. kerrii extends to the south into the new species. A morphological comparison of
northern Myanmar and Thailand. Petrocosmea mela- Petrocosmea melanophthalma and related species is
nophthalma shares some similar characters with P. given in Table 1.
Table 1. Morphological comparison of Petrocosmea melanophthalma Huan C. Wang, Z. R. He & Li Bing Zhang and similar
species in southeastern Asia.
P. pubescens D. J. P. coerulea C. Y. Wu
P. melanophthalma P. kerrii Craib Middleton & Triboun ex W. T. Wang
Leaf blade outer leaves narrowly all leaves similar, all leaves similar, all leaves similar,
elliptic, oblong, ovate- elliptic to rhombic- suborbicular to very oblong to elliptic or
oblong, rarely lanceolate, elliptic or ovate, broadly obovate, 4– elliptic-ovate, 1–6.6
4–7 31–2.5 cm; the 1.8–13.5 31.2– 9.3 33.8–9 cm; 30.7–2.2 cm;
inner ovate or 8.5 cm; apices apices rounded; apices slightly
suborbicular; apices widely acute to bases peltate obtuse; bases peltate
acute; bases peltate obtuse; bases
oblique, not peltate
Cyme usually 1-flowered 1- to 7-flowered 1- to 2-flowered usually 1-flowered
Calyx symmetry zygomorphic zygomorphic zygomorphic actinomorphic
Calyx tripartite, larger adaxial tripartite from base, tripartite, larger 5-partite from base
lobe trilobed larger adaxial lobe adaxial lobe trilobed
Flower color and corolla blue, with two corolla white, not corolla blue, not corolla blue, not
maculation black maculae internally maculate maculate maculate
on abaxial tube
Anthers ovoid, ca. 2 mm long, ellipsoid, ca. 3 mm ovoid, ca. 4 mm long, cordate-ovoid, ca. 2.2
apices brevirostrate long, apices apices brevirostrate mm long, apices not
Stamen filaments geniculate, thickened straight, ca. 1.2 mm straight, ca. 2.4 mm straight, ca. 1.2 mm
above middle, ca. 3.5
Capsule length 3–4 mm 5–6.5 mm 10–12 mm not known
Distribution south-central Yunnan southern Yunnan, Chiang Rai, Thailand southeastern Yunnan
(Xinping Co.), China China, northern (Jinping Co.), China
Volume 22, Number 4 Wang et al. 489
2013 Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) from China
Paratype. CHINA. Yunnan: Xinping Co., Mopan Shan, IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria,
23856.609N, 101858.499E, on basalt cliffs in evergreen Version 7. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival
broad-leaved forest, 2200–2300 m, 30 May 2007, H. C. Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge,
Wang et al. 20070055 (YUKU). United Kingdom.
Middleton, D. J. & P. Triboun. 2010. Two new species of
Acknowledgments. We thank Professor Zhu Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae). Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 38:
Weiming (Yunnan University) for his invaluable 42–47.
Oliver, D. 1887. Petrocosmea sinensis Oliv. Plate 1716 in J.
advice in the course of writing this paper, Mr. Che- D. Hooker (editor), Hooker’s Icones Plantarum, Vol. 18.
Wei Lin (Taiwan Forestry Research Institute) for the Kew, Bentham-Moxon Trustees, London.
line drawing, Julian Harber for his help, and two Wang, W. T., K. Y. Pan & Z. Y. Li. 1990. Petrocosmea Oliv.
anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. We are Pp. 329–331 in W. T. Wang (editor), Flora Republicae
grateful for funding from the R1 Foundation of the Popularis Sinicae, Vol. 69. Science Press, Beijing.
Wang, W. T., K. Y. Pan & Z. Y. Li. 1998. Petrocosmea. Pp.
College of Life Science, Yunnan University. 302–308 in Z. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven (editors), Flora of
China (Scrophulariaceae through Gesneriaceae), Vol. 18.
Literature Cited Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden
Press, St. Louis.
Craib, W. G. 1919. Revision of Petrocosmea Oliv. Notes Wang, W. T. 1981. Notulae de Gesneriaceis Sinensibus (II).
Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 11: 269–275. Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(4): 35–75.
Guo, G. Q., X. Y. Wang & Y. X. Xiong. 2010. Petrocosmea Wang, W. T. 1985. The second revision of the genus
xanthomaculata G. Q. Guo & X. Y. Wang, a new species Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae). Acta Bot. Yunnan 7(1): 49–68.
of the genus Petrocosmea Oliv. Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin Wei Y. G. & F. Wen. 2009. Petrocosmea xingyiensis
30: 394–396. (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Guizhou, China.
Li, Z. Y. & Y. Z. Wang. 2004. Petrocosmea Oliv. Pp. 154– Novon 19: 261–262.
166 in Z. Y. Li & Y. Z. Wang (editors), Plants of Zhao H. T. & Y. M. Shui. 2010. Petrocosmea shilinensis,a
Gesneriaceae in China. Henan Science & Technology new species of Gesneriaceae from Yunnan, China. Acta
Publishing House, Zhengzhou. Phytotax. Sin. 32: 328–330.