Variations in Potassium Channel Genes Are Associated With Breast Pain in Women Prior to Breast Cancer Surgery
Preoperative breast pain in women with breast cancer may result from a number of causes. Previous work from our team found that breast pain occurred in 28.2% of women (n = 398) who were about to undergo breast cancer surgery. The occurrence of preoperative breast pain was associated with a number of demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as variation in two cytokine genes. Given that ion channels regulate excitability of sensory neurons, we hypothesized that variations in potassium channel genes would be associated with preoperative breast pain in these patients. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated for associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms and inferred haplotypes among 10 potassium channel genes and the occurrence of preoperative breast pain in patients scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify those genetic variations that were associated with the occurrence of preoperative breast pain while controlling for age and genomic estimates of and self-reported race/ethnicity. Variations in four potassium channel genes: (1) potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed rectifier, subfamily S, member 1 (KCNS1); (2) potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 (KCNJ3); (3) KCNJ6; and (4) potassium channel, subfamily K, member 9 (KCNK9) were associated with the occurrence of breast pain. Findings from this study warrant replication in an independent sample of women who report breast pain following one or more breast biopsies.
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