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The relative contribution of indigenous chicken breeds to poultry meat and egg production and consumption in the developing countries of Africa and Asia

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... Village poultry makes a substantial contribution to food security and poverty alleviation in many countries around the world (Dolberg , 2008;Alders and Pym, 2009); 80 to 95% of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia keep one or more species of poultry (Gueye, 2003). Village poultry makes up about 80% of poultry stocks in low-income food-deficit countries (Gueye, 2003;Pym et al., 2006) and provides high-quality food that improves the nutritional status and health of household members. This is important for rural poor people in developing countries, especially young children and their mothers who do not consume enough animal-based food and suffer high rates of under-nourishment and micronutrient deficiency. ...
... However, as figures for the proportion of poultry kept under family-based operations are not available, village poultry production is not visible in national statistics and often not considered by policy makers and development planners. It is therefore essential to estimate properly the relative contributions of the different sources to poultry meat and egg production and consumption (Pym et al., 2006) as well as the impact on employment and income generation. ...
... Poultry production and husbandry methods in developing countries such as Africa is largely dominated by backyard, traditional, or household poultry; representing about 80% of poultry stocks and can be intensive, semi-intensive, or extensive [67][68][69]. This type of poultry production in African countries often consist of free indigenous breeds, with various species mixed in the same flock [68,[70][71][72]. ...
... Poultry production and husbandry methods in developing countries such as Africa is largely dominated by backyard, traditional, or household poultry; representing about 80% of poultry stocks and can be intensive, semi-intensive, or extensive [67][68][69]. This type of poultry production in African countries often consist of free indigenous breeds, with various species mixed in the same flock [68,[70][71][72]. Poultry closely mingles with humans in the same household as well as with wild birds and other livestock where they are also exposed to vermin. ...
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in 2006; thereafter this virus has spread rapidly from Nigeria to 11 other African countries. This study was aimed at utilizing data from confirmed laboratory reports to carry out a qualitative evaluation of the factors responsible for HPAI H5N1 persistence in Africa and the public health implications; and to suggest appropriate control measures. Relevant publications were sought from data banks and repositories of FAO, OIE, WHO, and Google scholars. Substantiated data on HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in Africa and in humans across the world were mined. HPAI H5N1 affects poultry and human populations, with Egypt having highest human cases (346) globally. Nigeria had a reinfection from 2014 to 2015, with outbreaks in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, and Burkina Faso throughout 2016 unabated. The persistence of this virus in Africa is attributed to the survivability of HPAIV, ability to evolve other subtypes through genetic reassortment, poor biosecurity compliance at the live bird markets and poultry farms, husbandry methods and multispecies livestock farming, poultry vaccinations, and continuous shedding of HPAIV, transboundary transmission of HPAIV through poultry trades; and transcontinental migratory birds. There is, therefore, the need for African nations to realistically reassess their status, through regular surveillance and be transparent with HPAI H5N1 outbreak data. Also, it is important to have an understanding of HPAIV migration dynamics which will be helpful in epidemiological modeling, disease prevention, control and eradication measures.
... Native chicken breeds represent great value to the majority of consumers, particularly in the rural sector of the most developing and underdeveloped countries. Their meat and eggs are preferred by the majority of rural communities and often urban people (Pym et al., 2006;Ajayi and Agaviezor, 2016;Fathi et al., 2017a). However, poor productive performance of the native chicken breeds is considered an important factor affecting their spread on a large scale. ...
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Fertility and hatchability are two major parameters that highly influence the reproductive performance of chicken breeds. The objective of this study is to investigate how the genetic background of chickens affects the aspects of fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality pattern. Six different native chicken genotypes (black, black-barred, brown, gray, naked neck, and frizzle) kept under similar conditions were evaluated. A total of 1645 fertile pedigreed eggs from all genetic groups were collected and incubated in forced draft setter. Fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and hatched chick weight were determined. The data were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance with breed (genotype) as a fixed effect. Sire components of variance were used to compute heritability estimates for hatchability traits. The results showed that the fertility and hatchability of the eggs produced from the naked neck or frizzle genotypes exhibited higher values compared to the other genetic groups. An increase in the relative weight of hatched chicks was detected in hatching eggs weighing 44 g or higher. Therefore, attention should be given to the egg size produced by native chicken populations to achieve maximum hatchability performance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the settable egg weight and the egg weight loss during incubation are the main factors affecting the relative weight of hatched chicks of all genotypes.
... V" W . B k\ / 4 Z ;,F" 4k k *k k 5 = k k5 &" k k@ ! Z<k k2, D,k k" ) Pym and Hoffmann, 2006;Tongsiri et al., 2019 . ...
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The present study aimed to estimate the inbreeding coefficient and its impact on the economically important traits in West Azerbaijan native fowls. In this research, 61563 records collected from 1994 to 2018 (21 generations) from the breeding station of West Azerbaijan native fowls was used. The inbreeding coefficient of birds and the impacts of individual and maternal inbreeding on traits were estimated. Pedigree analysis showed that 54981 (89.31 %) of all chickens were inbred in the breeding station of West Azerbaijan native fowls and the averages of individual and maternal inbreeding coefficients were estimated to be 0.06 and 0.05, respectively. Inbreeding depression for body weight at hatch, at eight weeks and 12 weeks of age, age and weight at sexual maturity, egg number (the first 12 weeks of production), an average of egg production in 28th, 30th, and 32nd weeks of production, and weight at the first egg-laying due to one percent increase in individual inbreeding was as -0.04, -1.52, -2.49, 0.12, -1.22, -0.01, -0.01 and -0.02, respectively. The results showed despite close population in Azerbaijan native chicken station, the inbreeding rate was low because of implementing appropriate mating designs. Although, the absence of inbred birds is almost impossible in the closed population, it is possible to have a suitable mating design for reducing the probable undesirable effects of inbreeding.
... Understanding the husbandry practices can assist greatly in the management of rearing local chickens. Local chicken production systems are normally practiced under free range systems and the major proportion of the feed is obtained through scavenging [13]. Normally these chickens are reported to depend more on insects, worms, and plant materials, with very small amounts of seeds and table leftover supplements from their keepers [99,100]. ...
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There has been a research gap in the genetic, physiological, and nutritional aspects of indigenous chickens of Africa over the past decade. These chickens are known to be economically, socially, and culturally important to the people of Africa, especially those from marginalised communities. Although they are associated with poor productivity in terms of the number of eggs laid, most consumers prefer their flavoursome meat. Several local chickens have been classified into breeds or ecotypes, but many remain unidentified and are facing extinction. To prevent this, the Food and Agriculture Organization has launched an indigenous poultry conservation programme. In addition, the Agricultural Research Council in South Africa has established a programme to protect four local chicken breeds. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed understanding of the description, uses and conservation methods of local chicken breeds of Africa. Several studies have been conducted on the nutritional requirements of local chickens, but the results were inconclusive and contradictory. This review concludes that local chickens play a significant role in improving livelihoods, and strategies to preserve and sustain them must be intensified.
... poultry systems have a minimum flock size of 100 birds, operate as commercial farms with much higher productivity levels ranging from 200 to 340 eggs per bird per year (Chatterjee & Rajkumar, 2015;Pym, Guerne Bleich, & Hoffmann, 2006). In rural areas, intensifying production through aggregation of smallholders as contract farmers or through cooperatives are known to improve productivity for several foods such as cereals, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and chicken meat (Prowse, 2012). ...
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Availability and consumption of eggs, especially in Sub‐Saharan Africa and Asia, is low despite their apparent benefits. We investigated constraints in egg production in four countries; Kenya, Ethiopia, Malawi, and India and identified five business models that are viable and sustainable. They are (a) micro‐franchising, (b) microfinancing, (c) co‐operative farming, (d) enterprise development, and (e) out‐grower model. All of them involve smallholder farmers to increase egg production. These farmers have access to soft loans and use improved inputs and extension services to varying degrees. Inputs include resilient breeds of day‐old chicks or point‐of‐lay hens, feed, vaccines, medicines, and housing. Outgrower and enterprise development models have a significant potential of rapidly increasing egg yields, achieve self‐sufficiency, operate at or near scale, and provide a high income for the farmers. This study shows how a range of actors in commercial, not‐for‐profit and microfinance sectors with specialized skills, can facilitate the transformation of the egg production sector. Specific skills include brooding (hatchery operations), feed milling, aggregation, and training of smallholder farmers or large‐scale rearing. The five archetypes we describe here are promising ways to increase egg availability in rural areas.
... Indigenous poultry populations reared using backyard production systems account for more than 80% of poultry in some developing countries (Conan et al 2012;Pym et al 2006). Women tend to be the main participants in poultry keeping with most rural families rearing one or more species (Guèye 2005). ...
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Poultry are playing an increasingly important role in ensuring food security especially in developing countries. They are a source of dietary protein as well as a source of income. In Kenya, there is an overreliance on chicken to provide poultry products like meat and eggs. Other poultry species such as domestic ducks (Carina moschata and Anas plathyrynchos), geese (Anser anser and Anser cygnoides), pigeons (Columba livia) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), in this paper referred to as minor poultry, have not been adequately exploited. This study aimed to characterize the phenotypic traits of these minor poultry species. Quantitative parameters measured were live body weight and shank length, while the qualitative traits of shank colour and skin colour were observed and recorded. Data analysis was done using Excel spread sheets and R Core Version 3.1.2. Geese showed no variation in the qualitative traits scored as all birds sampled had white skin and yellow shanks. Ducks on the other hand exhibited the largest variations in shank colour with six different colours being identified. Ninety-eight percent of the ducks sampled had pink skin colour whereas the remaining two percent were white. More than half of the number of turkeys (fifty-six percent) had white skin colour and almost three quarters (seventy-two percent) had pink shanks. The dominant phenotypes identified in the pigeons sampled were eighty-seven percent with pink skin colour and ninety-four percent with pink shank colour. Males exhibited higher body weights as compared to the females (p≥0.05) in these four species. Shank lengths were significantly longer in males than females (p≥0.05) in all the species except in geese. Results from this study could be used by the National Poultry Improvement Program to establish breeding and improvement programs for minor poultry species. These underutilized poultry species could play a greater role in improving nutrition and alleviating poverty in Kenya, particularly in the rural areas.
... Most of the households in developing countries rear small scale poultry which are managed by women and are using mainly indigenous chickens that depend on scavenging for their feed. Family poultry makes up to 80 percent of poultry stocks in low-income food-deficit countries (Pym et al., 2006) where owners raise poultry in small numbers ranging from single birds up to a few hundred. Being called 'Family Poultry', 'Smallholder poultry', 'Scavenging poultry' or 'Village poultry', the different systems of poultry rearing with various levels of intensification are now adopted by the poor, marginal as well as some of the richer members of the society with intensification levels according to their economical status and requirements. ...
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There is increasing interest in sustainable poultry production in developing economies. This review provides an insight into guinea fowl production in Nigeria as a means of additional high-quality poultry meat and egg production. Under the smallholder scavenging system, flock size of the four investigated plumages (Pearl, Lavender, Black and White) of indigenous helmeted guinea fowl in Nigeria typically ranges from 6 to 9 birds per household, 14-week mean live weight from 917 to 975 g, dressed weight at this age from 700 to 737 g and dressing percentage from 74 to 76%. Under the backyard system of production, mean egg number is typically about 80 eggs per hen/annum while under intensive management it can be up to 147 eggs per hen/annum and egg weight from 29 to 38 g. Under smallholder conditions, hatchability of fertile eggs can range from 70 to 86% while under improved housing and rearing conditions it can be as high as 89%. The present information could be exploited in formulating appropriate management strategies and breeding decisions for sustainable production of hybrid improved guinea fowls, thereby contributing to food security in Nigeria.
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HEALTH AND MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS OF FAMILY POULTRY PRODUCTION IN AFRICA - SURVEY RESULTS FROM KENYA. In Kenya the poultry population is about 25 million, 80% of which comprises local chicken and the rest, improved breeds. With the ever-increasing prices of red meat, local chicken has become the main source of animal protein in the form of meat and eggs for the rural population. Both egg production and egg size varies with season as the quantity and availability of feed varies. This paper describes work done during the wet season to identify constraints of family chicken production in the study area. The study was repeated on the same farms that were identified in work done earlier during the dry season. Data were gathered from 24 family poultry farms located in Kangundo and Kikuyu divisions. Through the Veterinary Officers and the Animal Health Assistants who assisted in the dry season fieldwork the farmers were contacted a week before the intended farm visits. Baseline and disease survey forms were administered again. The baseline survey achieved 100% response rate. During the farm visits, serum samples, blood and faecal samples were collected. Post mortem examination was also done on sick birds. The flock size in the two ecological zones decreased during the wet season, most probably due to the Christmas festivities. The percentage deaths in Ecological Zone III (ECZIII) were high because most farmers in this zone set their chicken free thus predisposing them to predators, disease and harsh weather conditions. Disease control information was scanty as most farmers were not keen about it. Worm infestation was not as prevalent in the wet season as compared to the dry season. Except for three farms, all the other twenty-one farms had been exposed to Salmonellosis at one time or another. Women were involved in aspects of poultry management, while the men were significantly involved in shelter construction. The local birds were free-range feeding on green grass, leafy vegetables and insects. Occasionally, the birds were supplemented with crushed maize grains or household refuse and food leftovers. There was no specialised housing for the birds. They were often provided with simple structures to protect them from the weather elements. Indigenous (local) chicken production is a worthy venture for farmers as long as they are taught about disease control and food supplementation. Since mainly women are the owners of local chicken, extension work focusing on the already existing women groups would be the most convenient and fastest means of channelling technology for improving local chicken production.
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FAMILY POULTRY PRODUCTION IN MAURITIUS: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS. The Republic of Mauritius has been self-sufficient in poultry meat and eggs for more than two decades and has been successfully meeting the increasing demand for these commodities. About 85% of the poultry meat is presently produced by four industrial farms, 10% by small commercial producers, and around 5% by family (backyard) poultry farms. The flourishing broiler production industry has transformed the erstwhile important traditional backyard poultry farming of indigenous chickens into an insignificant side activity on the main island of Mauritius, while on the other hand, scavenging chickens continue to be an important source of both food and income on Rodrigues, the second biggest island territory of the Republic. A survey carried out on 30 selected family poultry farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues in 1999 and 2000 enabled the identification of the major problems faced by smallholder poultry farmers. At the same time the results provided a basis for future interventions for improving family poultry production. The results showed that diseases like fowl pox, Newcastle disease, Gumboro disease, respiratory and parasitic diseases occurred all year round on 42% and 82% of farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. Low to mild helminth and lice infestations were detected on 40% and 50% of the farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. 1. INTRODUCTION The Republic of Mauritius comprises two main islands, Mauritius with a population of 1.2 million and Rodrigues with a population of 35 000, situated 595 km apart. In Mauritius a shift of both entrepreneurship and of labour has occurred from the livestock sector to more attractive and faster developing sectors such as textiles, manufacturing goods and tourism, which have competed with the sugar production sector during the past decades. Thus, a drastic decrease in milk and meat production has occurred in Mauritius. The local milk and meat production accounts for 5% and 10%, respectively, of the total national requirements at present. On the other hand, the economy of Rodrigues is still dependent on livestock farming and fishing. However, the country has been self-sufficient in poultry meat and eggs for the past few decades. The production of poultry meat has risen from 7800 tons in 1988 to 21 000 tons in 1998 and has kept pace with the increasing demand of this commodity. Poultry meat accounts for over 50% of the total meat consumption and it is expected to be 60% by the year 2020. The per capita poultry meat consumption is calculated to be at present 18 kg/per year. About 85% of the total poultry meat is produced by 4 industrial broiler farms. The remaining 15% is produced by small commercial producers and backyard indigenous poultry. It is estimated that around 1000 farmers are involved in backyard family poultry production in Mauritius, and around 4000 in Rodrigues. On the island of Rodrigues all farmers rear indigenous scavenging chickens, which are known as the 'local' breed, presumably a mixture of Rhode Island Red, Australorp and Naked neck breeds introduced on the islands two to three centuries ago by early settlers. Backyard poultry is no longer considered to be of economic importance on Mauritius, whereas in Rodrigues it constitutes an important source of both food and income. Almost all Rodrigues families rear a few to hundreds of scavenging chickens, and Rodrigues exports around 25 000 of these birds live to Mauritius every year. The birds fetch a high price, are considered to be very tasty and have always been in high demand. Being a side activity, family poultry farming has not attracted interest with regard to improving husbandry practices and, therefore, no measures have been taken to prevent and control diseases. Disease outbreaks due to Newcastle disease, parasitic infestations, Fowl pox, Gumboro and other diseases, coupled with weather hazards such as cyclones, have affected adversely family poultry over the years. A Newcastle disease eradication programme, which has been on-going for several years in Rodrigues by the Veterinary Services through free distribution of V4 wet vaccine to farmers, has not met its objective due to insufficient distribution and extension services.