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Reefs at risk in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia - status and outlook

Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 7-11 July 2008
Session number 18
Reefs at risk in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia - status and
A. Moore1, S. Ndobe2
1) Yayasan Palu Hijau, Jalan Setia Budi Lorong Siswa No12, Palu 94111, Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia,
2) Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan dan Kelautan, PO Box , Jalan Soekarno-Hatta, Kotak Pos 1016, Palu 94118,
Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia, email:
Abstract. Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia in the heart of the Coral Triangle with over 4,500km of
coastline including the Banggai Archipelago, Togean Islands Park and several smaller MPAs. Since the Reefs at
Risk study in 2000/2001 predicted high threat levels for most reefs in the Province, several survey and
monitoring programmes have been supported by international, national and local sources. This paper
summarises coral reef condition and socio-economic data over the period 2001-2007 in 7 of the 10 District/City
areas, key conclusions and local initiatives. Based on the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)
scale, the average condition is Poor, with reefs in Very Poor, Poor, Average and Good condition in all 7 areas
but extremely limited areas in Very Good condition. Major impacts include coral mining, sedimentation,
destructive fishing (including invertebrate collection.), increasingly severe overfishing, take of protected species
and predation by Acanthaster plancii, with low awareness regarding many illegal and/or destructive practices.
Initiatives include coastal/reef ecology, survey and conservation for undergraduates, community MPAs, COTs
clean-up and habitat restoration. However the extent and scope of management efforts still needs to be greatly
increased to reverse the destructive trends and ensure "Reefs for the Future" here.
Key words: Central Sulawesi, Reef status, Reef monitoring, Reef management
Introduction and Methods
Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia in the heart of
the Coral Triangle has over 4,500km of coastline and
over 700 islands including the Banggai and Togean
Archipelagos, with almost continuous fringing reefs,
extensive barrier reefs, patch reefs and several atolls.
The Togean Islands National Park was declared in
2004 and there are several smaller national and local
MPAs. Since the Reefs at Risk study in 2000/2001
(Burke et al. 2001) predicted high threat levels for
most of the reefs in the Province, a number of survey
and monitoring programmes have been undertaken
using GCRMN methods: Reef Check (Hodgson et al.,
2004); manta tow, Line Intercept and Point Intercept
transects (LIT/PIT) (English et al., 1997) in 7 of the 9
Districts and in Palu City, with support from
international, national and local sources (Fig. 1.).
Many of these surveys also collected socio-
economic data, mainly using the KAP (Knowledge,
Attitude and Perception) method (CRITC 2001) or
livelihoods survey tools (STREAM 2002). Published
survey data and official reports (listed under
References) are supplemented with as yet unpublished
data and information collected by the authors.
The data available was analysed for two
geographical areas: the so-called "West Coast" facing
the Makassar Straits and Sulawesi Sea, including the
Donggala, Tolitoli and Buol Districts and the City of
Palu, and the "East Coast" around the Gulf of Tomini
and Gulf of Tolo, including the Districts of Parigi
Moutong, Poso, Tojo Una-Una, Banggai Kepulauan, ,
Banggai and Morowali.
Figure 1: Coral Reef Survey Sites in Central Sulawesi 2001-2008
for which data was available for this study
West Coast: Makassar Straits and Sulawesi Sea
Tolitoli and Buol Districts form part of the Sulu-
Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME) where Indonesia,
Malaysia and Philippines have signed an agreement
as basis for integrated sustainable management,.
However so far there has been no involvement of
regional (District and Provincial) Governments or
Where time series are available there has been little
change in overall condition since 2004, though there
is a slight downward trend. The average condition is
Poor (11-30% hard coral cover), with highest coral
cover generally observed near the reef crest except at
Pasoso MPA where corals thrive to depths below
Reef Check standards or even safe diving limits.
The most recent Manta Tow data indicating the range
of coral reef condition by District and Reef
Check/PIT data indicating hard coral cover at sites in
this area are shown in Fig. 2.
Figure 2: Most recent West Coast coral condition data, Manta Tow
(above) and Reef Check/PIT (below)
Large fish are increasingly rare though some large
demersal fish were seen in Buol. The Reef Check data
from survey sites in the Makassar Straits and Palu
Bay generally indicate very low populations of most
commercial fish and invertebrate species.
KAP data from 2007 confirms this, with almost all
fishers perceiving a fall in catch per unit effort
(CPUE). In Tambu Bay, previously a source of fish
for Palu City (Anonymous 2002) most fish sold is
now from Kalimantan or the Gulf of Tomini
(Anonymous 2007a)
Almost all marine species protected under the Law
PP No. 7 1999 are found in the area and apart from
the Coelacanth (recently discovered in Buol) all are
exploited, most of them heavily. As an example, in
Tambu Bay fishermen say the triton Charonia tritonis
and napoleon wrasse Cheilinus undulatus are now
fished out and turtles are increasingly rare; and all six
species of Tridacnidae are collected in huge numbers
and sold at low prices (cheaper than fish) in Tolitoli.
COTS attacks: the corallivorous Crown of Thorns
starfish Acanthaster plancii is a major problem in all
areas surveyed from 2004 onwards, a trend which was
predicted from 2002 data (Anonymous 2002)
Coral mining: although illegal, massive corals are
sold openly for around $10/m3. According to
community members law enforcement personnel are
often involved actively or in collusion
East Coast: Gulf of Tomini and Gulf of Tolo
Tomini Gulf data were available for Parigi Moutong
and Tojo Una-Una, and Tolo Gulf data was from
Banggai Kepulauan, whereas no data were available
from Poso, Banggai, and Morowali Districts, meaning
coral reef data for the Sulawesi mainland were limited
with none for the Gulf of Tolo.
Banggai Kepulauan District comprises the Banggai
Islands, and most coral reef data were from habitat
and population surveys of the endemic Banggai
cardinalfish, Pterapogon. Kauderni, there were no
Reef Check indicator species data. However recorded
observations and KAP study results indicate that
overfishing is generally less severe than in the Gulf of
Tomini or the West Coast. The abundance of fisheries
produce has prompted the establishment of an
industrial-scale fish processing plant at Biak in the
Gulf of Tolo.
The average condition is (just) Average, with more
Good reefs seen than on the West Coast (Fig. 3).
Figure 3: Most recent East Coast coral condition data, Manta Tow
(above) and Reef Check/PIT (below)
Near to the shore, including the Togean Islands
National Park, there is much severe damage due to
broadcast use of poisons (including cyanide), coral
mining, gleaning etc, whereas bomb damage is
generally worst at remote sites and mechanical
damage when gleaning or harvesting invertebrates
with crowbars especially abalone (Haliotis sp.) is
often even more severe than the effects of better
known forms of illegal and destructive fishing.
COTS: A. plancii is causing major damage at sites
in Banggai Island (2004-2007) and was observed in
high number at some sites in Tojo Unauna in (2008),
other locations may be affected.
Ornamental fish trade: high in the Banggai Islands,
increasing in Tojo Unauna and Parigi Moutong, as is
the live reef fish trade which is prevalent in the area,
with frequent use of poisons and mechanical damage.
Sedimentation is severe near larger rivers, high
seasonal discharges seem to have killed some reefs
near to estuaries, the remaining visible tips attesting
to the recent nature of this phenomena. The majority
of mangroves have been degraded or lost, according
to a recent study comparing available historical data.
In most areas domestic garbage is a common sight,
and in some areas severe eutrophication has been
observed, especially near intensive paddy fields.
However in the islands water quality is generally
excellent, there is high marine biodiversity and
despite extensive damage this area has several dive
destinations with potential to expand, including reef
conservation activities, “macro” photography and
other specialty interests.
The process of establishing MPAs in Parigi-
Moutong, Tojo Unauna and Banggai Kepulauan
Districts has been facilitated by the communication of
survey data to local stakeholders. Several de-facto
reserves have evolved around marine tourism sites,
often not without conflict.
General Trends and Threats
Some of the trends and threats observed across the
Province include:
Coral condition monitoring: slight downward trend
in coral condition; increased indirect impacts
Attitudes: KAP studies from 2002 and 2007 show
growing community-level awareness regarding
destructive fishing but little change as regards most
other threats
Destructive fishing: bomb fishing: substantially
reduced in some areas; poison fishing: reduced in
some areas but increased in others, linked to the
spread of the live and ornamental fish trades; other
less-well known forms, especially related to
invertebrate collection (abalone, clams etc), are often
as damaging or even more so
Coastal abrasion: a growing problem in all areas,
linked to the widespread coral mining & mechanical
Take of protected species: rife wherever
economically worthwhile, sometimes due to
ignorance but more often knowingly;
Overfishing: seems to be increasing
IUU fishing: many incursions by foreign vessels,
mis/non-reporting of catch/cargo, etc
COTS outbreaks are occurring in all areas surveyed
since 2004, causing substantial damage.
Recent initiatives and IYOR events
Initiatives since the presentation at the 10th ICRS in
Okinawa in 2004 (Moore et al. 2004) have included:
Further dive/survey capacity building/training
supported by the Sea Partnership Programme and
Tojo Unauna Tourism Service.
The introduction of coastal ecology and
conservation-related subjects into the curriculum of
all local fisheries and marine undergraduate courses
including field activities such as survey/monitoring
and coral restoration trials
The establishment of several community MPAs
(some proving effective) and the Togean Islands
National Park (management to date ineffective with
poor stakeholder relations)
Dive for Earth Day COTS control & reef
monitoring (Reef Check, AWARE Fish Count, Coral
Watch) in Palu Bay by YPH and STPL-Palu,
supported in 2007 by Yayasan Reef Check Indonesia,
in 2008 an IYOR event.
The establishment of the Tojo Una-Una Coral
Triangle Centre (CTC) in February 2008 as a local
response to the Coral Triangle Initiative (Fig 4.)
Figure 4: Declaration of the Tojo Unauna CTC in the Togean
Islands by the District Head Drs Damsik Ladjalani.
Some IYOR activities have already taken place,
however further events planned to celebrate the
second IYOR in Central Sulawesi include:
Activities in connection with the Togean Festival
and the Tojo Unauna CTC
“Fish homes” reef restoration in Palu Bay
(Provincial Fisheries Service), Palu City and
Donggala District (underway)
Biorock coral reef restoration training and
application in Palu Bay (Provincial Fisheries Service)
and Tojo Una-Una District (Sea Partnership
Consortium and Tojo Unauna CTC)
Since 2004, a significant development is the
promulgation of several national laws relating to
coastal ecosystems, especially UU No27 of 2007
regarding coastal management, under which all
activities which damage or destroy coral reefs are
forbidden and most main threats to coral reefs are
explicitly listed with heavy fines and prison sentences,
including coral mining, at present possibly the
number one direct threat to reefs in Central Sulawesi.
However as far as the authors are aware no cases have
yet been brought to court let alone resulted in
conviction. At the local level, Provincial and District
regulations for coastal management (PERDA Pesisir)
and other instruments are in being drafted or even
already promulgated, but similarly have yet to be
(effectively) implemented.
Outlook for the future
Overall the outlook for reefs in Central Sulawesi is
both better and worse than in 2004.
A positive point is the increase in awareness among
stakeholders at community and government level
including decision-making groups. However this is
not always reflected in actions.
The improvements in the legal framework have yet
to have a noticeable effect and law enforcement
officials often seem to be among the least aware.
Government planning is beginning to be directed
towards conservation and restoration and some local
government authorities are beginning to implement
programmes based on survey and monitoring data.
However the awareness of legislative bodies seems
to lag behind that of the executive and in many cases
have not ratified reef and other coastal system related
budget items proposed by line agencies.
New threats are emerging. In particular, increasing
threats from global climate change. Water
temperatures range from 26-31°C, with 29-30°C
being the most common, close to the upper tolerance
limit for many coral species, though no significant
bleaching has yet been recorded.
There is a long road ahead to ensure the protection
of the reefs in good or average condition, stop or
mitigate direct and indirect causes of degradation and
restore damage. A major question is: can we increase
the condition of our reefs and maximise their
resilience to these new impacts, at a great enough
scale and in time?
The authors wish to express their gratitude to all the people and
institutions who have assisted the work on which this paper is
based, especially since the 10th ICRS in Okinawa. In particular, the
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia (NACA), especially the
STREAM Hub in Indonesia; the Mitra Bahari (Sea Partnership)
Program of the Department for Marine Affaires and Fisheries;
many Provincial and District Government Agencies and other
institutions in Central Sulawesi; Yayasan Reef Check Indonesia;
and of course all the survey team members. Special recognition is
due to those who helped make the production and presentation of
this paper possible, especially Tonny Wagey, Jill Heyde, Ederyan,
Akhdary Supu and our colleagues at YPH and the STPL-Palu.
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Conference Paper
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Abstrak Adanya kilang minyak oleh Pertamina di Cilacap, pengurangan luas hutan mangrove, serta proses pendangkalan alami yang terjadi di Segara Anakan berimbas pada habitat lamun dan populasi dugong yang tergolong fauna langka. Hal ini dikarenakan padang lamun merupakan habitat dan penyedia makanan bagi dugong, sehingga perlu dilakukan konservasi untuk mempertahankan fungsi ekologis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan upaya konservasi yang tepat bagi habitat lamun dan populasi dugong agar pemanfaatan berkelanjutan dapat terlaksana. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan metode Library Research. Data dihimpun dari berbagai sumber, kemudian dianalisis untuk mendapatkan informasi spesifik mengenai kondisi habitat lamun dan populasi dugong. Analisis dan sintesis ide dilakukan untuk menemukan solusi yang efektif dan efisien dari berbagai aspek. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dan sintesis, solusi kuratif melalui teknik konservasi in-situ dapat diterapkan sesuai jenis kerusakan yang terjadi. (1) Kerusakan karena aktivitas di laut dangkal diatasi melalui pemindahan habitat lamun melalui transplantasi dengan atau tanpa jangkar, yang selanjutnya akan diikuti perpindahan populasi dugong ke lokasi yang baru (pengalihan wilayah jelajah). (2) Kerusakan yang disebabkan sedimentasi dari sungai diatasi dengan konservasi kawasan hulu dan pemantauan sepanjang daerah aliran sungai (DAS). (3) Pemantauan kegiatan industri agar beroperasi sesuai dokumen AMDAL untuk menekan kerusakan padang lamun akibat pencemaran. (4) Rehabilitasi habitat lamun yang kritis dilakukan dengan teknik transplantasi untuk membantu suksesi pada ekosistem tersebut. Penerapan eco-eduwisata yang merupakan wisata berbasis edukasi dengan memperhatikan kelestarian ekosistem dapat mendukung upaya konservasi. Program tersebut disempurnakan melalui kampanye Kelautan Greenpeace, pendidikan lingkungan hidup, sosialisasi dan pendampingan masyarakat pesisir serta kerjasama antar sektor. Kata kunci: konservasi, lamun , dugong
Conference Paper
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Dugong (Dugong dugon) merupakan mamalia laut dengan penyebaran yang luas di Indo-pasifik. Status konservasi global pada Daftar Merah (Red List) IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) adalah Vulnerable (rentan terhadap kepunahan) dan dugong terdaftar pada Appendix I CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora). Dugong di Indonesia dilindungi melalui PP No. 7 Tahun 1999 dan termasuk jenis prioritas konservasi sumber daya ikan Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan tahun 2014– 2019. Data studi KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception) di beberapa kawasan Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah tahun 2002–2015 menunjukkan bahwa populasi dugong nyata terancam punah. Populasi di Selat Makassar, Teluk Tomini (termasuk Kepulauan Togean) dan Teluk Tolo (termasuk Kepulauan Banggai) dinilai genting (Critically Endangered). Pada lokasi-lokasi yang dimonitoring (studi KAP), pengetahuan masyarakat tentang status lindung dan terancam punah hewan tersebut cenderung meningkat, namun kesadaran tersebut belum nyata berdampak pada perilaku masyarakat. Aktivitas pemanfaatan ilegal tetap mengancam kelestarian dugong, terutama untuk pemanfaatan organ tubuh seperti: taring, kulit dan daging. Diduga sebagian besar populasi dugong telah punah secara ekologis. Dikarenakan jumlah populasi sangat rendah, tidak adanya upaya pelestarian sebagian populasi rawan terhadap kepunahan akibat faktor genetik. Selain itu, terdapat indikasi penurunan luas dan kondisi habitat dugong (padang lamun). Disarankan program pendataan populasi termasuk kajian genetika dan strategi pelestarian terpadu untuk dugong dan habitatnya.
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Giant clams (Tridacnidae) and the Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) are valued fisheries commodities for local consumption and trade. Heavy exploitation has greatly reduced their abundance in the Wallacea Region. This study on giant calm and Napoleon wrasse around Sulawesi is based on data from biophysical (SCUBA diving) and socioeconomic surveys from 2004 to 2016 in the Spermonde Archipelago and around Selayar Island, South Sulawesi; and in Central Sulawesi (primarily in the Togean Islands) between 2001 and 2015. Giant clam population abundance declined, with some larger species ( Tridacna gigas, T. derasa, T. squamosa, Hippopus porcellanu s) no longer found at many sites. Despite increasing awareness regarding the protected status of giant clams, exploitation has continued, including mass collection for traditional festivals in the South Sulawesi islands. Specifically intended for export, fishing uses destructive methods, Napoleon wrasse abundance also declined. Habitat (coral reef) degradation likely also had a negative impact. Low densities could threaten reproductive success. Effective protection measures are needed to rebuild depleted giant calm and Napoleon wrasse populations. This is done to promote the natural process of reproduction and recruitment, and degraded habitat should be rehabilitated through passive or active coral reef restoration. Ex-situ (hatchery) breeding and restocking could speed the recovery of depleted giant clam populations.
Laporan Akhir pada Program Mitra Bahari
  • Laut Kota Palu Dan Kabupaten
  • Donggala
Laut Kota Palu dan Kabupaten Donggala). Laporan Akhir pada Program Mitra Bahari