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Abstract

Whey, a component of milk, is co-product of cheese-making and casein manufacture in the dairy industry. Nowadays, whey is recognized as a value-added ingredient in many food products. Whey and whey components are viewed as value-added ingredients in infant formulas, sports nutrition foods and beverages, and other food products. Recognition of whey as a source of diverse biologically active compounds with unique physiological and functional attributes provides opportunities for the food industry to develop functional foods or foods that have potential health benefits. Whey-derived bioactive components have antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and enhance immune defense and bone health, and improve antioxidative activity, and help protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease, and enhance the performance of physically active individuals, among other benefits. The present review is an attempt to cover scientific aspects of whey proteins’ health benefits and critique some of the important research findings associated with them to date.
Journal of Food Science and Engineering 2 (2012) 129-137
Health Benefits of Whey Protein: A Review
Birsen Bulut Solak1 and Nihat Akin2
1. Dairy Technology Programme, Department of Food Processing, Karapınar Aydoganlar Vocational College, Selcuk University,
Karapinar, Konya 42400, Turkey
2. Department of Food Engineering, Agriculture Faculty, Selcuk University, Campus, Konya 42031, Turkey
Received: December 19, 2011 / Published: March 20, 2012.
Abstract: Whey, a component of milk, is co-product of cheese-making and casein manufacture in the dairy industry. Nowadays,
whey is recognized as a value-added ingredient in many food products. Whey and whey components are viewed as value-added
ingredients in infant formulas, sports nutrition foods and beverages, and other food products. Recognition of whey as a source of
diverse biologically active compounds with unique physiological and functional attributes provides opportunities for the food
industry to develop functional foods or foods that have potential health benefits. Whey-derived bioactive components have
antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and enhance immune defense and bone health, and improve antioxidative activity, and help
protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease, and enhance the performance of physically active individuals, among other
benefits. The present review is an attempt to cover scientific aspects of whey proteins’ health benefits and critique some of the
important research findings associated with them to date.
Key words: Whey, protein, nutrition, health benefit.
1. Introduction
Drinking milk is a practice that dates back to the
domestication of animals in prehistoric times, and has
taken advantage of the extensive nutritional value of
that natural product. However, one major part of
milk-whey, has traditionally not been paid as much
attention as happened with source milk, probably
because it is a by-product of cheese making, viewed
for a long time as of little value. Interestingly,
Hippocrates already applauded the health properties of
whey in Ancient Greece; and during the Middle Age,
whey was considered not only as a medicine, but also
even as an aphrodisiac and a skin balm: it was in fact a
regular component of salves and potions to soothe
burns, to inspire vitality and to cure various illnesses
[1, 2]. Moreover, whey protein, an excellent protein, is
chosen by individuals of all ages who value the role of
a healthy diet in helping to maintain and improve their
Corresponding author: Birsen Bulut Solak, lecturer,
research field: dairy technology. E-mail:
birsenbirsenbulut@gmail.com.
health. Indeed, there are references to various health
benefits of whey in Italian Literature dating back to
early 17th century [3].
Now we detail at whey protein system, we can see
that whey protein, 20% of total milk protein, consists
of several different proteins, including β-lactoglobulin
(β-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), the heavy-and
light-chain immunoglobulins (Igs), bovine serum
albumin (BSA), lactoferrin (LF), lactoperoxidase, and
glycomacropeptide (GMP) [4]. Whey may also
include the proteose-peptone components and
low-molecular weight products formed by the
enzymatic degradation of the caseins during the
cheesemaking process [5]. Whey protein contains all
20 amino acids and all nine essential amino acids, and
it is a rich and balanced source of the sulphur amino
acids that serve a critical role as antioxidants as
precursors to the potent intracellular antioxidant
glutathione and in one-carbon metabolism [6]. It
contains three to four times more bioavailable cysteine
than other proteins. Cysteine is important for the
D
DAVID PUBLISHING
Health Benefits of Whey Protein: A Review
130
biosynthesis of glutathione, a tripeptide with
antioxidant, anticarcinogen, and immune stimulatory
properties. It also plays a key role in the regulation of
whole body protein metabolism, which results in
changes in body composition [7, 8]. Leucine is a
particularly important factor in tissue growth and
repair [9]. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are thought
to play a role as metabolic regulators in protein and
glucose homoeostasis and lipid metabolism, and play
a role in weight control [7, 10-13].
Currently, the biological activity of some of the
minor whey proteins and peptides that can be isolated
is actively studied. Current evidence for the potential
of whey proteins and peptides to have health benefits
beyond basic nutrition, that is to act as functional
foods/food ingredients, arises from a number of
sources. Emerging research findings largely from in
vitro, experimental animals and limited human studies
suggest a number of beneficial bioactivities of whey
and whey components. Whey protein supplemention
has many proven benefits [14]. Now, this review can
helped us to describe health benefits of whey proteins
and it will focus on the most recent research advances
pertaining to the biological properties of whey
proteins to date.
2. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities
Milk proteins contain many biologically active
proteins. Protein and peptides, in milk, specifically
whey, show promise as antibacterial and antiviral
modifiers. Whey contains several components which
may protect against toxins, bacteria, and viruses.
These components include Igs, LF and its peptide
derivative, lactoferricin, lactoperoxidase, GMP and
sphingolipids [15, 16]. Furthermore, antimicrobial
peptides may be generated from whey protein by
proteolysis during gastrointestinal transit [17]. LF,
α-LA and β-LG have been assayed for inhibitory
activity aganist human immunodeficiency virus type-1
(HIV-1) [18]. In particular, ß-LG may be potential
agents for preventing transmission of genital
herpesvirus infections as well as the spread of HIV
[19]. LF and lactoferricin inhibit a diverse range of
microorganisms including gram-negative bacteria,
gram-positive bacteria, yeast, fungi and parasitic
protozoa [20]. It has been shown to inhibit the growth
of some harmful foodborne pathogens such as E. coli
and Listeria monocytogenes [16]. LF also shows
significant antiviral activity against human
immunodeficiency virus, human cytomegalovirus
(HCMV), herpes viruses, human papillomavirus
(HPV), alphavirus and hepatitis C, B and G viruses,
among others. In addition, LF is effective aganist
several non-enveloped viruses like rotavirus,
enterovirus, paliovirus (PV), adenovirus and feline
calicivirus (FCV) [21]. It can enhance the antibacterial
activity of lysozme [22]. The antimicrobial role of LF
is of particular interest to intestinal function and in the
prevention of gastroenteric diseases through control of
intestinal microflora. While LF exhibits bactericidal
activity aganist pathogens such as coliforms, it also
provides probiotic support for benifical
microorganisms such as Bifidobacteria and
Lactobacilli ssp. [23]. Helicobacter pylori is known as
the causative agent in the majority of duodenal ulcers.
It is believed to be responsible for 50%-60% of all
gastric carcinomas. A number of studies have reported
that daily administration of LF positively suppresses
gut colonization of Helicobacter pylori in infected
subjects [24]. Whey protein activates immune cell
and/or prevents infection. Whey protein shows
promise to help combat rotaviral diarrhea, which is a
common infection that results in the death of nearly
500,000 children annually [25]. Recent studies have
shown that whey protein (α-LA) fed infants had no
diarrhea [26]. The natural antimicrobial action of
lactoperoxidase is being used in a range of oral
healthcare products and is finding application in such
products directed toward the preventation and
treatment of xerostimia (dry mouth). The
lactoperoxidase containing products have been
clinically proven to inhibit harmful microorganisms
Health Benefits of Whey Protein: A Review
131
associated with gingivitis and oral irritation, to
promote the healing of bleeding gums and reduce
inflammation, and combat both the causes and effects
of halitosis (bad breath) [27]. In vitro, findings are
indicated that the whey-derived sphingolipids,
sphingosine and lysosphingolmyelin, have
antimicrobial activity [28]. Glutathione protects the
cells against free radical damage during exercise [29].
Also, it could potentially decrease infection in HIV
infected children. Whey protein can stimulate
glutathione synthesis. Oral whey protein
supplementation increases glutathione levels in HIV
infected children. Whey protein concentrate
supplementation can possibly decrease the occurrence
of associated co-infections [30].
Caseinophosphopeptides and GMP inhibit growth of
cariogenic bacteria. Glycomacropeptide inhibits
streptococcus mutans [31]. One study demonstrated
that the inclusion of specific immunoglobulins in a
food product may extend the shelf life of the product
while it also helping in the prevention of dental caries
and oral infections [32].
3. Immune Modulating Activity
Whey products and its components are shown to
participate in host immunity [33]. Whey contains
bioactive components that may offer protection
against infections and viruses, enhance immunity,
protect against some cancers. In particular, three whey
peptides are known to boost the immune system by
increasing production of glutathione (α-LA, β-LG and
LF). Growth factors known as IgF-I and IgF-II
promote gut health and wound healing [34]. Immune
response is the highest in dietary whey protein. A
number of whey proteins (α-LA, β-LG, LF) have been
cited for their immunomodulatory effects on the
body’s immune system. Immune respone of whey
protein (α-LA) was higher than casein, soy or whey
protein [35]. LF is secreted by neutrophils and can
stimulate the growth of various cells of the immune
defense system including lymphocytes,
macrophages/monocytes, humoral immune response,
and antibody response [36]. GMP, κ-casein f
(106-169), is a highly biologically active peptide that
has the ability to modulate immune function [37].
Whey proteins contain some immunomodulating
peptides which can be released by enzymatic digestion.
Identification and isolation of these bioactive peptides
could provide insights into the preparation of potent
immunomodulating products [38]. α-Lactorphin, α-LA
f (50-53), and β-LG f (102-105), β-lactorphin also act
as ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors
[39]. Enzymatic hydrolates of α-LA have the ability to
bind calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese,
phosphorus and zinc [40]. LF has shown to play a
major role in iron regulation in mammals. Another
advantage to the use of iron-saturated LF observed in
the human trial was that it did not produce any of the
common side effects of iron supplements such as
stomach pain, cramps [41].
4. Anticancinogenic Properties
Cancer patients undergoing radiation or
chemotherapy often have difficulty in meeting their
daily nutritional requirements due to nausea and lack of
appetite. Whey protein is an excellent protein choice for
cancer patients as it is very easy to digest and very
gentle to the system [42, 43]. Whey proteins and
peptides, as well as the other whey components, may
protect against some cancers [33]. Diets supplemented
with lactoferrin or with β-LG enhance protection
aganist the devolopment of putative tumor precursors.
The mechanism behind the apparent anticancer activity
of dietary whey protein in these studies may be related
to their sulfur amino acid contents (cysteine,
methionine) [44]. Whey protein is more protective
against development of intestinal tumors. Dairy
proteins, particularly whey offers protection against
intestinal induced tumors when compared to other
protein sources. Diets containing whey have been
shown to reduce intestinal, mammary, and colon
cancers [45]. Total dietary whey protein was
Health Benefits of Whey Protein: A Review
132
demostrated to have a protective effect aganist the
development of colon cancer in the young rat when
compared with other common proteins, including
casein, meat and soy. Intracellular concentration of
glutathione, an anticarcinogenic tripeptide, measured in
liver, was greatest in whey protein and casein. Whey is
a source of precursors (cysteine-rich proteins) for
glutathione synthesis and it may be important in
providing protection to the host by stimulating
glutathione synthesis [46]. Whey proteins contain other
critical components with proven health benefits. Its low
molecular weight peptides are natural antioxidants
potentiators that may protect body tissues from aging
and certain cancers [47]. In a vitro study, whey protein
isolate enhanced the effectiveness of an anticancer drug
[48]. Among individual whey proteins, attention has
focused on the cancer inhibitory effect of LF and
lactoferricin. In laboratory animals given chemical
carcinogens, bovine lactoferrin has been shown to
significantly inhibit colon, esophagus, lung, and bladder
cancers when administered orally in the post-initiation
stage [49, 50]. When human prostate epithelial cells
were treated with whey protein isolate, intracellular
levels of glutathione dramatically increased [51].
Sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids suppress colon
tumor development in animal experiments [52]. A
variety of studies suggest a beneficial role for calcium
against some cancers [53]. Whey proteins combat skin
cancer. Treatment with topical α-lactalbumin-oleic acid
has a beneficial and lasting effect on skin papillomas
[54]. BSA may also display anticancer activity. Breast
cancer in human is inhibited by several commerical
BSA preparations during in vitro cell culture [55].
Mader et al. [56] also demonstrated that the nature of
both synthetic and pepsin-generated lactoferricin B is
against human leukemia and carcinoma cell lines
(Colon, breast, and ovary).
5. Cardiovascular Health
Whey proteins potentially improve cardiovascular
health. Milk peptides help lower high blood pressure
[57]. Fermented milk with whey protein concentrate
lowers triglyceride levels in the blood [58]. Also,
whey protein improves blood pressure and vascular
function in overweight and obese individuals [59].
Wang et al. [60] repoted that β-LG had the ability to
bind cholesterol. Futhermore, LF was reported to
significantly inhibit the accumulation of cellular
cholestery esters in macrophages by acting as a
scavenger in a vitro study. Hydrolyzed whey protein
isolate reduced blood pressure and cholesterol [61].
Whey peptides have been shown to inhibit the activity
of ACE. ACE converts the inactive angiotensin I
hormone into angiotensin II which constricts vascular
smooth muscle thereby, increasing blood pressure.
Inhibition of ACE lowers blood pressure. 20 g dose of
hydrolyzed whey protein isolate decreases blood
pressure and it increases white blood cell count. It also
decreases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
[62]. Whey protein exhibits anti-hypertensive effects.
β-lactosin B from a commercial whey product is a
new anti-hypertensive peptide [63]. They stated that
whey protein supplementation has the potential to be
used as an added component in dietary plans and in
functional foods aimed in the management of the
metabolic syndrome risk factors
6. Physical Performance
Whey and whey components offer several benefits
for individuals with physically active lifestyles
according to a review [64]. Whey protein is a rich
source of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs),
containing the highest known levels of any natural
food source. BCAAs are important for athletes since
unlike the other essential amino acids, they are
metabolized directly into muscle tissue and these are
the first ones used during periods of exercise and
resistance training. Whey protein provides the body
with BCAAs to replenish decreased levels and start
repairing and rebuilding lean muscle tissue. Essential
amino acids and whey protein are equally effective in
stimulating muscle protein synthesis in elderly
Health Benefits of Whey Protein: A Review
133
individuals [65]. These amino acids provide an energy
source during endurance exercise which allows
athletes to train more intensively for longer periods of
time [66]. Moreover, whey protein is an excellent
source of the essential amino acid, leucine. Leucine is
important for athletes as it plays a key role in
promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscle
growth. Research has shown that individuals who
exercise benefit from diets high in leucine and have
more lean muscle tissue and less body fat compared to
individuals whose diet contains lower levels of leucine.
Whey protein is easy to digest protein and is
efficiently absorbed into the body. It is often referred
to as a “fast” protein for its ability to quickly provide
nourishment to muscles [29]. Indeed, its consumption
has been shown to result in faster muscle protein
synthesis as compared to other proteins. This makes
whey protein more effective than other proteins for
repairing exercise-related muscle damage and building
bigger, stronger muscles. Its consumption results in a
higher peak amino acid concentration in the blood
than other proteins [67]. Whey proteins are rich in the
amino acids, arginine and lysine, which may increase
the release of growth hormone, a stimulator of muscle
growth. Whey protein cans creatine showing an
increase in lean muscle fiber adaptations [68]. Milk
protein is better than soy protein for greater gains in
lean mass and greater muscle hypertrophy. 20 g of
whey protein casein switches net amino acid balance
to positive after ingestion. It influences muscular
power and strength and increase intracellular
glutathione. It increases net protein gain. The rate of
protein digestion affects protein gain differently
during aging in humans. Whey protein is digested
faster than casein. Faster digestion gives rise to a
quicker amino acid flood into muscle cells. Whey
protein is the preferred protein for net protein gain
[69]. Dietary protein and resistance training affect
muscle body composition in older persons. Adequate
intake of protein combats sarcopenia. Resistance
training helps older people gain muscle, hypertrophy
muscle, and increase whole body fat-free mass.
Adequate intake of protein and resistant exercise
synergistically can reduce sarcopenia [70].
7. Weight Management
Studies show that achieving and maintaining a
healthy weight can add years to your life and help
prevent weight related complications, including
diabetes, cancer and heart disease. Diet plays a key
role in any weight management program and adding
whey protein often helps make a positive difference.
Whey protein is a good choice for diabetics who need
to carefully manage food intake. It has potential as an
added component in dietary plans and in functional
foods aimed at control of appetite and body weight
and in the management of the metabolic consequences
of excess body fat. It has potential as physiologically
functional food component for persons with obesity
and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes,
hyper-and dislipidemia) [71]. It is the best protein for
fat loss during energy restricted diets, when combined
with exercise [72]. It improves body composition and
reduces waist circumference. The researchers found
that individuals who consumed whey protein weighed
less, had less body fat [73]. Whey protein is the best
protein for fat loss during energy restricted diets [72].
It influences on appetite and hunger controlling
hormones [74]. A high-protein diet reduces energy
intake and adiposity and that whey protein is more
effective than red meat in reducing body weight gain
and increasing insulin sensitivity [75]. In addition,
whey protein helps control blood glucose levels and
has been shown to be beneficial for weight
management, both of which are often a concern for
type-II diabetics. The meal with α-lactalbumin
preserves lipid oxidation and rapidly delivers amino
acids for use during exercise improved the efficiency
of exercise training to decrease adiposity [76].
8. Bone Health
Milk contains several components effective for
Health Benefits of Whey Protein: A Review
134
bone health. Milk basic protein promotes bone
formation and suppresses bone resorption in healthy
adult men. Milk basic protein is in the whey protein
fraction. 300 mg of milk basic protein increases serum
osteocalcin concentrations. Milk basic protein
promotes bone formation and suppresses bone
resorption [77]. The milk basic protein of whey is the
active protein that activates osteoblast. The active
component in the whey protein plays an important
role in bone formation by activating osteoblasts [78].
LF is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and
increases bone formation in vivo. It increases
osteoblast differentiation and forms new bone
formation. It also decreases bone breakdown [79]. It
has powerful anabolic, differentiating and
anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts, and inhibits
osteoclastogenesis. It is a potential therapeutic target
in bone disorders such as osteoporosis and possibly an
important physiological regulator of bone growth [80].
Glycomacropeptide has shown inhibitory activity to
enamel demineralization and promotes tooth enamel
remineralization [31]. Some whey components (e.g.,
proteose-peptones) may protect against tooth tissue
demineralization, and other whey components,
because of their immunostimulatory effects, may have
favorable effects on dental plaque [81].
9. Other Health Benefits
An imbalance in brain serotonin levels is a possible
factor manifesting the negative effects of chronic
stress, fatigue, and delirium [82]. α-LA, a whey
protein in cow's milk with a high content of
tryptophan (a precursor of serotonin) improves
cognitive performance (i.e. memory scanning) in
stress-vulnerable individuals. α-LA rich whey protein
increases serotonin activity. Stressed individuals were
less stressed when they fed α-LA [83]. It reduces
sleepiness and improves attention processes [84].
Infant formula based on predigested (hydrolyzed)
whey protein is little less allergenic than standard
infant formula and possibly decrease the risk that the
infant will later develop allergies [85]. Whey protein
is often the preferred choice for high protein products
recommended by physicians following surgery or
burn therapy. Whey protein contains many of the
same components found in human breast milk and for
this reason, it is a key ingredient in a wide variety of
infant formulas, including those for premature infants.
In addition, whey protein is an excellent protein
choice for the expectant mother who needs increased
amounts of protein. Whey protein concentrate protects
gastric mucosa from ethanol damage. The protective
properties are due to sulfhydyl compounds,
stimulators of glutathione synthesis [86]. Whey
protein is digested quickly and provides a quick rise in
plasma amino acids [87].
10. Conclusion
The above review summarizes the results of
research undertaken to date. In some cases, the
benefits of the active peptides were demonstrated in
human and animal trials. The health benefits of whey
protein and whey proteins have been a subject of
growing commercial interest in the context of
health-promoting functional foods. Whey components,
particulary the proteins and peptides, will incresingly
be preferred as ingredients for functional foods and
nutraceuticals as active medical agents. They built
upon the strong consumer trends for health and
wellbeing, and continuing discovery and
substantiation of the biological functionalty of whey
constituents. As a result, we are likely see major
developments by the food and healthcare sectors in the
widespread application of whey proteins and their
associated peptides as functional food ingredients,
nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements.
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... Whey protein can be described as a value-added ingredient due to its well-cited nutritional and health benefits [1,2]. Accordingly, whey protein is often fortified into different food matrices to enhance protein intake; such applications typically include the older consumer (to help prevent malnutrition and sarcopenia) or the sport, health and lifestyle consumer (to enhance performance or health) [3]. ...
... Methven et al. [13] demonstrated in ONS (standard ONS vs sweetness suppressed ONS) that increased sweetness correlated with reduced mouthdrying. This finding was supported by two additional studies: (1) soymilks with increased sucrose reduced astringency [14] and (2) adding sucrose and vanilla flavouring suppressed mouthdrying in WPBs [7]. However, these studies were limited as they added a set amount of sugar to increase sweetness, rather than a progression to understand at what point sweetness could suppress mouthdrying. ...
... Whey isolate 1 Volactive Ultra-Whey 90 Instant (5% w/v, WPI powder in deionised water) Overall aroma intensity 3,4 Intensity of aroma within cupcake/scone Sweet 3,4 Sucrose (5.76 g/L) Lemon 3 Lemon zest (grated) Buttery 3,4 Cooked butter (melted unsalted butter) Eggy 3 Intensity of eggy notes Floury 4 Intensity of floury notes (self-raising flour) Savoury/Cheesey 4 Toasted cheddar cheese Off-Flavours 3,4 Curded buttermilk (cooked buttermilk) 3,4 Intensity of flavour within cake Lemony 3 Lemon zest (grated) Buttery 3,4 Cooked butter (melted unsalted butter) Floury 4 Intensity of floury notes (self-raising flour) Savoury/Cheesey 4 Toasted cheddar cheese Eggy 3 Intensity of eggy note Liquorice 3 Liquorice (liquorice twists) Off-flavours 3,4 Curded buttermilk (cooked buttermilk) Mouthfeel Body 1,2 Fullness of sample (low to high) Powdery 1,2 Dry fine insoluble powder Mouthdrying 1.2,3,4,5 Drying sensation in the mouth Firmness of bite 3,4,5 Degree of force with first bite (soft to firm) Moist sponge/dough 3,4,5 Slightly damp sponge/dough (dry to moist) Chewy 3,4,5 Ease of ability to chew Greasy lips 3,4 Degree of oiliness/greasiness on lips Crumbliness of sponge/dough 3,4,5 Ease to break into small pieces Crumb size 3 Size of crumb inside of cake Pasty (cohesive) 3,4,5 Sticking to surfaces Rate of breakdown & clearance 3,4,5 Clearing sample from mouth (slow to fast) Cooling sensation 3 A stimulation resulting in feeling of coolness Aftertaste Aftertaste strength 1,2 The strength of the overall aftertaste Mouthdrying 1,2, 3,4 Drying sensation in the mouth Metallic 1,2,3,4 Iron (II) sulphate heptahydrate (0.0036 g/L) Sweet 1,3,4 Sucrose (5.76 g/L) Lemon 3 Lemon zest (grated) Buttery 3,4 Cooked butter (melted unsalted butter) Savoury/Cheesey 4 Toasted cheddar cheese Off-flavours 3,4 Curded buttermilk (cooked buttermilk) Salty 3,4 Sodium chloride (1.19 g/L) Salivating 3,4 Increased saliva within mouth Liquorice 3 Liquorice (liquorice twists) All anchors not to very unless otherwise stated. o Panellists consumed a sip to evaluate taste/flavour followed by two further sips for mouthfeel and aftertaste o Panellists were provided with 10 mL of beverage in 25 mL plastic cups o To prevent bias evaluation, modality appearance was not assessed in case of potential visual differences o All evaluation was carried out using nose clips; therefore, aroma was also not evaluated Cupcakes 3 10 37 o Panellists were asked to break each cupcake in half and consume from the middle o Panellists assessed appearance and aroma then consumed a bite to evaluate flavour followed by two further bites for mouthfeel and aftertaste Table 3. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mouthdrying is commonly associated with whey protein fortified products. Therefore, mitigating strategies could be key to reducing mouthdrying and maximising the benefits from such products. Currently, few studies have successfully mitigated whey protein derived mouthdrying and this paper aims to investigate different strategies to reduce mouthdrying effects. Accordingly, a series of experiments were carried out with a trained sensory panel (n = 11). Two different whey protein food matrices were tested: (a) whey protein beverages (WPB) varying in lactose (0.05–12.4% w/v) and fat (0.9–7.2% w/v) levels and (b) whey protein fortified snacks: cupcakes with differing whey protein concentrate (WPC) powders (standard and heat-stable) and scones with varying fat content (with and without cream topping). Overall results suggested the tested strategies had limited significant effects on whey protein derived mouthdrying. Increasing lactose (9.4% w/v) in WPBs and fat levels (via cream topping) on scones significantly suppressed mouthdrying. However, all other tested strategies (increasing fat in WPBs and heat-stable WPC in cupcakes) had no significant effect on suppressing perceived mouthdrying. This work demonstrates the challenges with mitigating whey protein derived mouthdrying; however, cross-modal taste suppression and increasing lubrication warrant further investigation.
... Worldwide, whey protein is the most consumed protein as a supplement in sports nutrition. This protein, obtained as a by-product in the production of cheese and butter, is very interesting both, economically, since it is considered a cheap by-product, and nutritionally, as a highquality protein with a notable content in essential amino acids and BCAAs (22). There are numerous studies that prove its efficacy in sport performance, such as muscle recovery (23,24), increment of strength or changes in body composition (25). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrition and sport play an important role in achieving a healthy lifestyle. In addition to the intake of nutrients derived from the normal diet, some sport disciplines require the consumption of supplements that contribute positively to improved athletic performance. Protein intake is important for many aspects related to health, and current evidence suggests that some athletes require increased amounts of this nutrient. On the other hand, society's demand for more environmentally friendly products, focus on the search for alternative food sources more sustainable. This review aims to summarize the latest research on novel strategies and sources for greener and functional supplementation in sport nutrition. Alternative protein sources such as insects, plants or mycoproteins have proven to be an interesting substrate due to their high added value in terms of bioactivity and sustainability. Protein hydrolysis has proven to be a very useful technology to revalue by-products, such as collagen, by producing bioactive peptides beneficial on athletes performance and sport-related complications. In addition, it has been observed that certain amino acids from plant sources, as citrulline or theanine, can have an ergogenic effect for this target population. Finally, the future perspectives of protein supplementation in sports nutrition are discussed. In summary, protein supplementation in sports nutrition is a very promising field of research, whose future perspective lies with the search for alternatives with greater bioactive potential and more sustainable than conventional sources.
... Whey proteins (WP) are used widely as food ingredients (any substance that is added to a food to achieve a desired effect, like to maintain or improve food safety and freshness, nutritional value, taste, texture, and appearance) or food additives (any substance was directly or indirectly added to foods for specific technical and/or functional purposes) currently, but traditionally were not paid much attention, perhaps because they are by-product of cheesemaking and were thought invaluable in the past (Madureira et al., 2007). People began to notice the health properties of WP in Ancient Greece; WP was used in salves and potions to cure various illnesses in the Middle Age; and nowadays, WP is recognized as part of a healthy diet (Solak & Akin, 2012). WP, which makes up about 20% of the total milk protein, contain a mixture of globular proteins, such as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), immunoglobulins (IGs), bovine serum albumin (BSA), lactoferrin (LF), and lactoperoxidase (LP) (Malcata et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanins (ACN) are natural pigments that produce bright red, blue, and purple colors in plants and can be used to color food products. However, ACN sensitivity to different factors limits their applications in the food industry. Whey protein (WP), a functional nutritional additive, has been shown to interact with ACN and improve the color, stability, antioxidant capacity, bioavailability, and other functional properties of the ACN‐WP complex. The WP's secondary structure is expected to unfold due to heat treatment, which may increase its binding affinity with ACN. Different ACN structures will also have different binding affinity with WP and their interaction mechanism may also be different. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy show that the WP secondary structure changes after binding with ACN. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that the WP maximum fluorescence emission wavelength shifts, and the fluorescence intensity decreases after interaction with ACN. Moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggests that the ACN‐WP binding forces are mainly hydrophobic interactions, although there is also evidence of electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding between ACN and WP. In this review, we summarize the information available on ACN‐WP interactions under different conditions and discuss the impact of different ACN chemical structures and of WP conformation changes on the affinity between ACN and WP. This summary helps improve our understanding of WP protection of ACN against color degradation, thus providing new tools to improve ACN color stability and expanding the applications of ACN and WP in the food and pharmacy industries.
... Researches conducted worldwide with emphasis on the health benefits of the whey were reviewed by Kadam et al. (2018), and whey from different milk sources and whey proteins in the context of other known food antioxidant were compared by Corrochano et al. (2018). Other conducted reviews included selected uses of whey and whey preparations in the food industry (Królczyk et al., 2016), whey protein, its fractions, and the therapeutic effect, and its application in the food processing and pharmaceutical field (Kassem, 2015), most recent advances on the controlled modifications of whey protein structures for specific functionalities (Guyomarc'h et al., 2015), health benefits of whey proteins, especially research advances about their biological properties (Solak and Akin, 2012), as well as physiological properties of bioactive peptides obtained from whey proteins, including the stabilities of such peptides obtained during their gastrointestinal route (Madureira et al., 2010). Earlier workers like Madureira et al. (2007) and Jovanović, Barać, and Maćej (2005) respectively reviewed the biological properties of whey proteins, and whey protein properties and their possible use in dairy industry. ...
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The massive research interest in whey has strengthened its position among coagulated milk products. Previously conducted reviews demonstrate that whey-derived functional foods provide a cascade of beneficial applications that promote health and wellbeing, and in managing numerous chronic diseases. To improve the understanding about how whey protein processing brings about new products that help in tackling health challenges is what we have attempted in this review paper. Herein, we provide an insight perspective into whey proteins processing and its derivatives from constituents, bioactivities, functionalities to therapeutic applications, drawing from: (a) prime constituents of whey protein; (b) composition and production of sweet/acidic whey; (c) bioactive peptides aspects of whey and its health/wellbeing benefits; (d) whey processing techniques: improving whey proteins’ functionalities; (e) whey and its derivatives-based products: generating new functional foods and beverages and (f) whey-derived products in health and wellbeing: some therapeutic applications.
... Whey is no longer a by-product, but rather a coproduct of cheese manufacture. This transition evolved from the 1980s in tandem with developments in membrane-separation (e.g., ultrafiltration, UF, or microfiltration, MF, in combination with diafiltration, DF) and enzyme technologies that enable the separation, fractionation, concentration and/or controlled hydrolysis of whey proteins into high-value protein ingredients with unique nutritional, biofunctional and physicochemical properties that are desired in a variety of applications including infant formula, sports and nutritional foods and beverages (Minj & Anand, 2020;Solak & Akin, 2012;Yadav et al., 2015). Nevertheless, the direct recovery of whey protein from milk to cheese continues to have potential as a sustainable approach of enhancing the nutritional and biofunctional status of rennet-curd cheese, and removes the energy costs associated with separation, concentration and drying of whey protein/protein fractions, and ...
Article
High temperature treatment of milk (HTT) at temperatures (e.g., 75–100 °C for 1–10 min) higher than those used in conventional pasteurisation (72 °C for 15–30 s) has been used in the manufacture of rennet-curd cheeses to increase the recovery of whey protein, enhance cheese yield, and/or improve the texture of reduced-fat cheese. HTT results in denaturation and interaction of denatured whey proteins with κ-casein. The denatured whey protein/κ-casein complexes remain with the para-κ-casein micelle following rennet hydrolysis, and impede its fusion during gelation and syneresis of the resultant curd, to a degree that increases with severity of HTT. Consequently, cheese from HTT-milk has higher contents of moisture and denatured whey protein, is softer, and has inferior melting properties on baking or grilling. The effects of HTT can be partially mitigated by alteration of cheesemaking parameters to normalise cheese composition, and/or addition of exogenous proteinases to improve melting properties.
... Various DS types include multivitamins alone or in conjunction with Ginseng and Gingko Biloba, omega 3 fatty acid, whey protein, calcium, other supplements (prescription and natural products) non-supplements used by the participants. Previous studies showed that protein supplementation is verily common among students as it improves physical performance [22,23], whereas omega 3 fatty acid may increase sleeping attributes and decrease depression and anxiety [24]. Abbas et al. have reported that anxiety and depression due to academic studies may prevail in undergraduate students [25][26][27]. ...
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Full-text available
Background Dietary supplements (DS) are products that improve the overall health and well-being of individuals and reduce the risk of disease. Evidence indicates a rising prevalence of the use of these products worldwide especially among the age group 18–23 years. Aim The study investigates the tendencies and attitudes of Bangladeshi undergraduate female students towards dietary supplements (DS). Methods A three-month (March 2018-May 2018) cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in undergraduate female students in Chittagong, Bangladesh using a pre-validated dietary supplement questionnaire. The study was carried among the four private and three public university students of different disciplines in Chittagong to record their prevalent opinions and attitudes toward using DS. The results were documented and analyzed by SPSS version 22.0. Results Ninety two percent (N = 925, 92.0%) of the respondents answered the survey questions. The prevalence of DS use was high in undergraduate female students. The respondents cited general health and well-being (n = 102, 11.0%) and physician recommendation (n = 101, 10.9%) as a reason for DS use. Majority of the students (n = 817, 88.3%) used DS cost monthly between USD 0.12 and USD 5.90. Most of the students (n = 749, 81.0%) agreed on the beneficial effect of DS and a significant portion (n = 493, 53.3%) recommended for a regular use of DS. Highly prevalent use of dietary supplements appeared in Chittagonian undergraduate female students. They were tremendously positive in using DS. The results demonstrate an increasing trend of using DS by the undergraduate females for both nutritional improvement and amelioration from diseases. Conclusion Dietary supplements prevalence was so much higher in students of private universities as compared to students of public universities. Likewise, maximal prevalence is indicated in pharmacy department compared to other departments. Students preferred brand products, had positive opinions and attitudes towards dietary supplements.
... Whey protein ingestion can result in an improved muscle protein synthetic response, which is considered to be due to its higher leucine content and quicker digestion and absorption kinetics compared with other protein sources [79]. Review papers have identified a number of additional potential health benefits associated with whey protein consumption, such as its antimicrobial, antiviral and anticarcinogenic effects, as well as improved immune, bone and cardiovascular health [72,80]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Protein needs are considered to increase with age, with protein consumption being associated with many positive outcomes. Protein-fortified products are often used to improve nutritional status and prevent age-related muscle mass loss in older adults. Accordingly, older adults are commonly provided with products fortified with whey protein; however, such products can cause mouthdrying, limiting consumption and product enjoyment. Currently, the extent to which age and individual differences (e.g., saliva, oral health, food oral processing) influence the perception of whey protein-derived mouthdrying is relatively unclear. Previous research in this area has mainly focused on investigating mouthdrying, without taking into account individual differences that could influence this perception within the target population. Therefore, the main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the relevant individual differences likely to influence mouthfeel perception (specifically mouthdrying) from whey protein-fortified products, thereby enabling the future design of such products to incorporate better the needs of older adults and improve their nutritional status. This review concludes that age and individual differences are likely to influence mouthdrying sensations from whey protein-fortified products. Future research should focus more on the target population and individual differences to maximise the benefits from whey protein fortification.
Article
Whey proteins (WPs) reportedly enhance cutaneous tissue regeneration in in vivo studies. However, the underlying mechanisms of such regenerative processes are poorly understood. In this study, we show that low-molecular-weight WPs (LMWPs; 1–30 kDa) accelerate the dermal collagen production via the transforming growth factor β receptor (TβR)/Smad pathway. We showed that LMWPs increased type I and III collagen expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Moreover, LMWPs rapidly induced Smad protein phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Notably, type I TβR/Smad signaling inhibitor treatment or type II TβR siRNA knockdown blocked the LMWP-induced type I collagen expression. To identify the active components, we fractionated LMWPs and identified β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin as potential TβR/Smad signaling inducers. Our findings unravel novel biological functions of WPs, involving the TβR/Smad-dependent induction of dermal collagen synthesis, highlighting the therapeutic potential of LMWPs in wound healing.
Chapter
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the definition, classification, structure, market, regulation, and functional aspects of food hydrocolloids. The narrow and wide definition of hydrocolloids is compared. A detailed classification based on the source of hydrocolloids is summarized and the molecular structure of typical hydrocolloids, such as polysaccharides and proteins, is introduced. Food hydrocolloids show diverse potentials in the application of food, nutrition, and biomedicine industries. They can act as thickening agents, and form gels with controlled physical properties and functionalities. They can also be employed as stabilizers for various dispersions, and delivery carriers for bioactive ingredients. Besides, many hydrocolloids, e.g., whey proteins, or dietary fibers, possess potential health benefits and can provide basic and essential nutrients for maintaining human life activity. Furthermore, food hydrocolloids can be tailored into functional materials with advanced applications in food packaging, biomedical materials, bionanomaterials, polymer electrolytes, synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles, and removal of organic pollutants. The market and regulatory aspects of food hydrocolloids are also briefly reviewed.
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Whey is a component of milk that is co- product of cheese-making and casein manufacture in the dairy industry. Apart from being valued as a medicinal agent in the 17th and 18th centuries, whey has primarily been considered a waste by the dairy industry. In the late 20th century, regulations prevented disposal of untreated whey. At the same time, recognition of the value of whey components accelerated. Modern science has unravelled the secrets of whey proteins and other components, and established a sound basis for their nutritional and functional value. Nowadays, whey is recognized as a value-added ingredient in many food products including dairy, meats, bakery, confections, snack foods, and beverages. Whey and whey components are viewed as value-added ingredients in infant formulas, sports nutrition foods and beverages, and other food products. These advances have continued through the early 21st century with the focus more on the biological functionality of whey components. Recognition of whey as a source of diverse biologically active compounds with unique physiological and functional attributes provides opportunities for the food industry to develop functional foods, or foods that have potential health benefits beyond their nutrient content. Findings from in vitro, experimental animal, and limited human studies suggest beneficial bioactivities of whey/whey components. A number of health benefits have been claimded for whey proteins. Whey-derived bioactive components have antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and enhance immune defense and bone health, and improve anti-oxidative activity and help protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease and enhance the performance of physically active individuals, among other benefits.
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Introduction Environmental effects are estimated to cause three-fourths of cancer deaths, of which one-third could be reduced by diet modification. Though dairy products are promoted for their nutritional value, and also condemned for alleged health risks, attention is turning to dairy products as sources of functional foods for cancer prevention.
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Putative anti-cancer activity of whey proteins has been investigated in an animal model to evaluate their potential role in disease prevention, and to contribute to a basis for their inclusion as ingredients in functional foods. Animal feeding trials have compared the efficacy of dietary whey proteins in retarding chemically induced colon cancer in a rat model of the disease. Dairy proteins, in particular whey protein, were found to be efficacious in retardation of colon cancer in young rats compared with other dietary proteins (meat, soy). The influence of dietary whey protein on development of colon cancer in mature rats has also been examined. Results similar to those with younger animals have been demonstrated, a finding that suggests age does not significantly alter the outcome. Efficacy of whey protein fractions has also been assessed. Preliminary results suggest that diets supplemented with lactoferrin or with β-lactoglobulin enhance protection against the development of putative tumor precursors (aberrant crypts) in the hind gut wall. The mechanism behind the apparent anti-cancer activity of dietary whey proteins in these studies may be related to their sulfur amino acid content, for which there is a high requirement in the rat, and hypothesised role in protecting DNA in methylated form. In a parallel study, a number of potential functional foods containing whey protein (flavored milk, pasta, ice cream, dessert pudding, muesli, and savory dip) have been developed in preparation for human clinical trials. The foods containing whey protein were generally highly acceptable in taste trials. These products are expected to be suitable as delivery vehicles for dietary whey protein in studies aimed at substantiating the human health benefits of this protein source.
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Objectives: Certain milk factors may help to promote the growth of a host-friendly colonic microflora (e.g. bifidobacteria, lactobacilli) and explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer and milder intestinal infections than those who are formula-fed. The effects of supplementation of formula with two such milk factors was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Infant rhesus macaques were breastfed, fed control formula, or formula supplemented with glycomacropeptide (GMP) or alpha-lactalburnin (alpha-LA) from birth to 5 months of age. Blood was drawn monthly and rectal swabs were collected weekly. At 4.5 months of age, 10(8) colonyforming units of enteropathogenic E.coli O127, strain 2349/68 (EPEC) was given orally and the response to infection assessed. The bacteriology of rectal swabs pre- and post-infection was determined by culture independent fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results: Post-challenge, breast-fed infants and infants fed alpha-LA-supplemented formula had no diarrhea, whilst those infants fed GMP-supplemented formula had intermittent diarrhea. In infants fed control formula the diarrhea was acute. Conclusions: Supplementation of infant formula with appropriate milk proteins may be useful for improving the infant's ability to resist acute infection caused by E.coli.
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Milk contains a number of components with anti-cancer potential. Associated with the fat phase is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is a potent inhibitor of mammary tumourigenesis and perhaps has a role in prostate cancer therapy. Sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids suppressed colon tumour development in mice. Butyric acid, uniquely present in milk, can inhibit mammary tumour occurrence in rats while 13-methyltetradecanoic acid suppressed cell growth in a number of human cancer cell lines and inhibited the growth of human prostate and liver cancer cells implanted in mice. Milk lipids also contain the common anticancer agents beta -carotene and vitamin A. Milk protein, particularly whey protein and its components, have potent anti-tumour action in animal models of colon and mammary tumourigenesis. In this regard whey is superior to other proteins such as beef and soy. This benefit is considered to be due to the content of the sulphur amino acids cysteine and methionine, which are precursors of glutathione, a powerful cellular antioxidant. Glutathione is also responsible for maintaining an effective immune response. Recently a number of studies demonstrated that bovine lactoferrin could inhibit tumour development in the rodent colon, lung, oesophagus, bladder and tongue. In addition, lactoferrin can inhibit angiogenesis and prevent metastases. Milk is a rich source of calcium. A large number of animal studies and human epidemiological and intervention studies suggest calcium can help prevent colon adenoma and carcinoma.
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Metabolic health is now one of the critical challenges for improving human diets. Even when all of the essential nutrients are consumed at adequate levels, people around the world are being recognised with imbalances in macronutrient intakes that lead to severe problems in metabolic regulation. The health problems that are due to imbalances in metabolism include atherosclerosis, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The scientific challenges posed by the need to understand the interactions among diet and metabolic regulation are much greater than previously thought. Over generations, human diets that traditionally maintained populations in good metabolic health were arrived at through trial and error. Scientific knowledge was neither driven nor gained by this process - knowledge was only anecdotal. Now, scientific research must address the problem of guiding individuals to choosing optimal overall diets that not only provide all of the essential nutrients but also deliver all of the macronutrients in an optimal system, such that metabolism itself is balanced. Just as mammalian milk was instrumental in guiding nutrition research to the essential nutrients and in delivering them in adequate quantities, milk is proving to be a knowledge reservoir for understanding diet and metabolic health as well. Comparative compositional, genomic and metabolomic tools are accelerating our capabilities in understanding just how milks of various mammals guide infants to optimal growth, development and metabolism. Dairy productenriched diets are also apparently capable of delivering to humans of all ages many of the recognised benefits that milk provides to infants for optimal growth and metabolism.