Hyperglycemia, Assessed by HbA1c, and Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism -The Tromsø Study
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of average plasma glucose during the last 8-12 weeks, is associated with future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Objectives
To examine the association between hyperglycemia, assessed by HbA1c, and future risk of VTE in a population based cohort. Methods
HbA1c was measured in 16 156 unique subjects (25-87 years) who participated in one or more surveys of the Tromsø study (Tromsø 4; 1994-95, Tromsø 5; 2001-2, and Tromsø 6; 2007-8). All subjects were followed, and incident VTE events were recorded through December 31, 2010. ResultsThere were 333 validated first VTE events, of which 137 were unprovoked, during a median follow-up of 7.1 years. HbA1c was not associated with future risk of VTE in analysis treating HbA1c as a continuous variable, or in categorized analyses. The risk of VTE increased by 5% per 1 SD (0.7%) increase in HbA1c (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.97-1.14), and subjects with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% had 27% higher risk compared to those with HbA1c below 5.7% (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.27; 95% CI 0.72-2.26). There was no significant linear trend for increased risk of VTE across categories of HbA1c (p=0.27). Conclusions
Serum levels of HbA1c were not associated with future risk of VTE in multivariable analysis. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of VTE.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: The association between the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke has been previously investigated. However, the association between the HCV infection and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been extensively discussed.
Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000), we selected 3686 patients with newly diagnosed HCV infection. We randomly selected 14,744 people with no HCV or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as comparison group and frequency matched them with patients with HCV infection according to their age, sex, and index year. The incidence density rates and hazard ratios (HRs) of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were calculated until the end of 2011.
The mean follow-up duration of 5.14 years for the HCV cohort and 5.61 years for the non-HCV cohort, the overall incidence density rates of DVT were 7.92 and 3.51 per 10,000 person-years in the non-HCV group, and the HCV groups, respectively (crude HR = 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21–4.21). After adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of DVT remained significantly higher in the HCV group than in the non-HCV group (adjusted HR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.03–3.73). The overall incidence density rates of PE in the HCV and non-HCV groups were not significantly different (crude HR = 2.20; 95% CI = 0.94–5.14).
HCV infection is associated with the risk of DVT in a long-term follow-up period.
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