Article

When Does Transparency Generate Legitimacy? Experimenting on a Context-Bound Relationship

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Abstract

We analyze the main rationale for public administrations and political institutions for supplying transparency, namely, that it generates legitimacy for these institutions. First, we discuss different theories of decision making from which plausible causal mechanisms that may drive a link between transparency and legitimacy may be derived. We find that the common notion of a straightforward positive correlation is naïve and that transparency reforms are rather unpredictable phenomena. Second, we test the effect of transparency on procedure acceptance using vignette experiments of representative decision making in schools. We find that transparency can indeed generate legitimacy. Interestingly, however, the form need not be “fishbowl transparency,” with full openness of the decision-making process. Decision makers may improve their legitimacy simply by justifying carefully afterward the decisions taken behind closed doors. Only when behavior close to a deliberative democratic ideal was displayed did openness of the process generate more legitimacy than closed-door decision making with postdecisional justifications.

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... Dessa forma, a legitimidade é fundamentada na história e no ambiente institucional de cada área protegida(LANDAU et al., 2014). Portanto, é interessante proporcionar transparência para que a gestão de uma UC, ou qualquer outro tipo de organização, seja capaz de ter legitimidade(LICHT et al., 2014). A legitimidade é entendida como um processo interativo de construção social, atuando entre indivíduos e grupos (SUDDABY; BITEKTINE; HAACK, 2017). ...
... A legitimidade é entendida como um processo interativo de construção social, atuando entre indivíduos e grupos (SUDDABY; BITEKTINE; HAACK, 2017). Esse conceito, aplicado a uma unidade de conservação, remete a uma gestão que precisa ser legítima, isto é, referindo-se à interação entre instituições que trabalham conjuntamente com seus parceiros(CARDOZO et al., 2019) e agindo com transparência(LICHT et al., 2014).O princípio da Subsidiariedade, no contexto das unidades de conservação, é definido como a atribuição de autoridade e responsabilidade administrativa àquelas instituições que estão mais próximas dos recursos(DUDLEY, 2008). No entanto, esse princípio também se faz presente no contexto público governamental, que por um determinado período esteve distante do debate social, mas que voltou a ser mais utilizado no final do século XX, quando o tratado de Maastricht o estabeleceu, em 1992, como um dos princípios das fundações da União Europeia, época em que esse princípio foi implementado em muitas leis nacionais, tornando-se uma das referências dos sistemas de assistência social em muitos países avançados (MARTINI; SPATARO, 2018). ...
... Ou seja, proteger os recursos naturais é um objetivo complementar a defender os direitos humanos (VOIGT;GRANT, 2015). Além disso, as consequências diretas da não proteção dos recursos naturais, como a mudança climática, afetam principalmente os grupos sociais que já sofrem com a violação dos direitos humanos, como grupos minoritários, de baixa renda, ou que vivem em locais de risco (LEVY;PATZ, 2015). Os direitos humanos tornam capazes e legítimas as manifestações de visões conflitantes dos indivíduos sobre a organização social, as normas e as regras compartilhadas (GENEST; PAQUEROT, 2016). ...
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Este material é composto por uma seleção de pesquisas desenvolvidas nas ou sobre as unidades de conservação do Piauí. Apesar de ser o segundo volume do livro e termos recebido, no total, 16 propostas de capítulos, ainda entendemos haver muitas lacunas sobre pesquisas nesse campo. Muitas unidades do estado ainda permanecem praticamente desconhecidas pela ciência. A maior parte das pesquisas envolvem as unidades federais, muito provavelmente pelo tamanho das mesmas e pela facilidade de acesso a informações via órgãos federais.
... Transparency has been demarcated into two kinds of openness: transparency in process and transparency in rationale (Mansbridge, 2009;Licht et al., 2014). Under this delineation, transparency in rationale refers to "information on the substance of the decision and of the facts and reasons on which it was based." ...
... Transparency has been promoted as bringing a number of benefits for governmental decision-making. One such benefit is normative in nature: that is, the general belief that public institutions should be open and transparent, rather than closed and secretive (Licht et al., 2014). As articulated by former Commissioner of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Donald Kennedy, "government decisions, particularly regulatory decisions, should be based on publicly available information" because "people affected by government decisions have a right to know the basis on which they are made" (Sharfstein et al., 2017). ...
... For one, transparency can promote accountability and prevent arbitrary decision-making based on the availability of a clear set of rules against which members of the public can assess government decisions (Hood, 2006). In addition, transparent government processes-and the facts and reasons considered as a part of those processes-can improve the legitimacy of governmental decision-making by helping members of the public understand the reasons for a decision and any countervailing arguments (Licht et al., 2014). This provides a basis upon which members of the public can judge, and make comment on, the fairness of those procedures, potentially improving the decision-making process further (Licht et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Public participation, transparency and accountability are three of the pillars of good governance. These pillars become particularly important for innovative, personalised health technologies, because of the tendency of these technologies to raise distinct scientific, ethical, legal and social issues. Genome editing is perhaps the most personal of all innovative health technologies, involving precise modifications to an individual’s genome. This article focuses on the adequacy of current requirements for public participation, transparency and accountability in the governance of the market authorisation for genome edited products. Although clinical trials for genome edited products are only just underway, lessons can be drawn from the marketing approvals pathways for related gene therapy products. This article provides a broad overview of the regulatory pathways that have been adopted by the US Food and Drugs Administration, the European Medicines Authority, and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration for reviewing gene therapy products for marketing approval. This analysis focuses on the extent to which public participation processes and transparency and accountability of review pathways are incorporated into marketing approval policy and practice. Following this review, the article proposes the application of Sheila Jasanoff’s “technologies of humility” as a foundation for meaningfully incorporating these pillars of good governance into regulatory processes for the review of products of genome editing. We conclude by articulating clear mechanisms for operationalising technologies of humility in the context of public participation, transparency and accountability, providing a blueprint for future policy development.
... Estudos anteriores avançaram na identificação de dimensões da transparência, como Heald (2006), que propõe uma análise da relação triangular entre transparência, abertura e vigilância, explorando as direções e variedades da transparência. Acerca dos mecanismos causais que podem conectar transparência e legitimidade, Licht et al. (2014) definem a transparência na lógica e a transparência nos processos. Considerando os arranjos da transparência governamental, Meijer, Hart e Worthy (2015) defendem os domínios da transparência política e da transparência administrativa. ...
... Além disso, a transparência das organizações públicas tem sido reconhecida como a solução para diversos problemas de corrupção ou autoritarismo (Cicatiello, De Simone, & Gaeta, 2016;Hansen & Flyverbom, 2014;Kolstad & Wiig, 2009;Licht et al., 2014;Worthy, 2010), uma vez que estimula o exercício da cidadania e a confiança da sociedade nas organizações públicas (Park & Blenkinsopp, 2011;Porumbescu, 2017bPorumbescu, , 2017a. Assim, a transparência é frequentemente associada à provisão de informação sob a perspectiva metafórica de que a luz do sol é o melhor desinfetante (Etzioni, 2010;Flyverbom, 2015). ...
... No tocante à proposta de reflexão sobre as camadas da transparência apresentada aqui, alguns estudiosos apresentam dimensões da transparência fortemente relacionadas aos registros organizacionais, ou seja, com foco primordial no objeto da transparência (Grimmelikhuijsen, Porumbescu, Hong, & Im, 2013;Michener & Bersch, 2013;Schnackenberg & Tomlinson, 2016), enquanto outros destacaram a dimensão das ações, tomada de decisão e processos organizacionais associada a objetivos organizacionais, valores e princípios, que nesta pesquisa estão ligados à camada da transparência das intenções (Hollyer, Rosendorff, & Vreeland, 2014;Licht et al., 2014;Valle-Cruz, Sandoval-Almazan, & Gil-Garcia, 2016). Por fim, diversos pesquisadores apresentam de forma simultânea as três camadas de transparência propostas aqui (Balkin, 1999;Bannister & Connolly, 2011;Cucciniello et al., 2017;Douglas & Meijer, 2016;Fenster, 2015;Marino et al., 2017;Meijer, 2013;Meijer et al., 2015;Parris et al., 2016;Piotrowski & Van Ryzin, 2007;Rawlins, 2008b) , mesmo que não sejam apresentadas pela perspectiva presente neste trabalho. ...
Article
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A transparência das organizações públicas é imperativa para as sociedades modernas, embora ainda não haja consenso sobre a definição deste construto e sobre seus instrumentos de medição. Para contribuir com esta lacuna, este estudo propõe um modelo teórico explicativo da transparência pública em nível organizacional. Para tanto, desenvolve-se revisão da literatura recente nos últimos dez anos sobre o construto. Defende-se que a transparência pública se manifeste em três camadas: transparência dos registros, que está associada a informações do passado; transparência das ações, que se relaciona aos fatos presentes; e transparência das intenções, que se refere aos atos futuros.
... In the context of this study, legitimacy is defined by an employee's normative expectation that leaders will live up to the legal and moral responsibilities of their authority (see also Long and Driscoll 2008;Tucker and Hendrickson 2004;Warren 2003). By drawing on this notion of legitimacy, a basic task of leadership is to institute a legitimacy in their authority in which a normative expectation of trust is developed with their employees (see also De Fine Licht et al. 2014). The development of this trust in a leader's authority is explained by pragmatic and moral forms of legitimacy (see also Dart 2004;Palazzo and Scherer 2006;Suchman 1995). ...
... To develop this procedural justice, leaders are called to develop a greater transparency in their decision-making (Bendahan et al. 2015;De Fine Licht et al. 2014;Ferejohn 1999). Studies argue that an open reporting of a decision-maker's actions is positively related to a decision maker's legitimacy (De Fine Licht et al. 2014). ...
... To develop this procedural justice, leaders are called to develop a greater transparency in their decision-making (Bendahan et al. 2015;De Fine Licht et al. 2014;Ferejohn 1999). Studies argue that an open reporting of a decision-maker's actions is positively related to a decision maker's legitimacy (De Fine Licht et al. 2014). This transparency opens a decision maker's actions to public scrutiny. ...
Article
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Business leaders often rely on the power of their authority to influence their employees. Recent workplace surveys however have found a growing distrust in a business leader’s authority. While such distrust has been increasingly associated with abuses in a leader’s authority, leadership research has primarily focused on the positive outcomes of leadership. The task of this study is to develop a conceptual model of leadership to address this shortcoming. In drawing Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), a concept of opportunistic authority was developed to explain employees’ distrust in their leader’s authority. This opportunistic authority is defined by a legal and moral opportunism in which a leader in a position of authority seeks to beguile, cloak and / or deceive employees of their legal and moral responsibilities. Legitimacy is identified as a solution to overcoming this opportunistic authority. Specifically, a leader’s efforts to develop pragmatic and moral forms of legitimacy develop normative expectations in upholding a leader’s legal and moral responsibilities. These normative expectations reduce a leader’s legal and moral opportunism and develop employees’ trust in the leader’s authority. A contribution of this study is that it not only offers a “darker side” explanation of leadership, but it also introduces a legitimizing process that can transform “ass**le” leaders into leaders that can be trusted.
... In an organizational context, transparency refers to the availability of information about how and why an organization or other entity makes decisions [36]. Decision making is divided into three levels [36]: (1) non-transparency (the final decision is simply announced to the participants); (2) transparency in rationale (the final decision and the reasons for it are announced to the participants); and (3) transparency in process (the final decision and reasons are announced and the participants have an opportunity to observe and discuss the decision-making process) [36]. ...
... In an organizational context, transparency refers to the availability of information about how and why an organization or other entity makes decisions [36]. Decision making is divided into three levels [36]: (1) non-transparency (the final decision is simply announced to the participants); (2) transparency in rationale (the final decision and the reasons for it are announced to the participants); and (3) transparency in process (the final decision and reasons are announced and the participants have an opportunity to observe and discuss the decision-making process) [36]. In the AI context, de Fine Licht et al. [37] stated that a transparent AI decision-making process includes goalsetting, coding, and implementation stages. ...
... In an organizational context, transparency refers to the availability of information about how and why an organization or other entity makes decisions [36]. Decision making is divided into three levels [36]: (1) non-transparency (the final decision is simply announced to the participants); (2) transparency in rationale (the final decision and the reasons for it are announced to the participants); and (3) transparency in process (the final decision and reasons are announced and the participants have an opportunity to observe and discuss the decision-making process) [36]. In the AI context, de Fine Licht et al. [37] stated that a transparent AI decision-making process includes goalsetting, coding, and implementation stages. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate how Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision-making transparency affects humans' trust in AI. Previous studies have shown inconsistent conclusions about the relationship between AI transparency and humans' trust in AI (i.e., a positive correlation, non-correlation, or an inverted U-shaped relationship). Based on the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) model, algorithmic reductionism, and social identity theory, this paper explores the impact of AI decision-making transparency on humans' trust in AI from cognitive and emotional perspectives. A total of 235 participants with previous work experience were recruited online to complete the experimental vignette. The results showed that employees' perceived transparency, employees' perceived effectiveness of AI, and employees' discomfort with AI played mediating roles in the relationship between AI decision-making transparency and employees' trust in AI. Specifically, AI decision-making transparency (vs. non-transparency) led to higher perceived transparency, which in turn increased both effectiveness (which promoted trust) and discomfort (which inhibited trust). This parallel multiple mediating effect can partly explain the inconsistent findings in previous studies on the relationship between AI transparency and humans' trust in AI. This research has practical significance because it puts forward suggestions for enterprises to improve employees' trust in AI, so that employees can better collaborate with AI.
... In altri termini, se è vero che la trasparenza può essere un importante strumento di accountability delle amministrazioni pubbliche, è altrettanto vero che la sua efficacia non può considerarsi scontata in quanto dipende dal contesto e dall'insieme degli strumenti messi in campo. Come evidenziato da una serie di lavori empirici, infatti, gli effetti della trasparenza sono a volte limitati e differiscono a seconda delle caratteristiche dei cittadini (Piotrowski, Van Ryzin, 2007), del settore dell'attività amministrativa (Meijer et al., 2015), dall'area dell'amministrazione interessata (de Fine Licht, 2014;de Fine Licht et al., 2014;Grimmelikhuijsen, Meijer, 2014;Porumbescu, 2015). In alcuni casi, gli effetti della trasparenza possono rivelarsi addirittura negativi in quanto alimentano immobilismo, indecisione e disfunzione nell'attività pubblica (Grumet, 2014). ...
... In altri termini, se è vero che la trasparenza può essere un importante strumento di accountability delle amministrazioni pubbliche, è altrettanto vero che la sua efficacia non può considerarsi scontata in quanto dipende dal contesto e dall'insieme degli strumenti messi in campo. Come evidenziato da una serie di lavori empirici, infatti, gli effetti della trasparenza sono a volte limitati e differiscono a seconda delle caratteristiche dei cittadini (Piotrowski, Van Ryzin, 2007), del settore dell'attività amministrativa (Meijer et al., 2015), dall'area dell'amministrazione interessata (de Fine Licht, 2014;de Fine Licht et al., 2014;Grimmelikhuijsen, Meijer, 2014;Porumbescu, 2015). In alcuni casi, gli effetti della trasparenza possono rivelarsi addirittura negativi in quanto alimentano immobilismo, indecisione e disfunzione nell'attività pubblica (Grumet, 2014). ...
Chapter
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Il Capitolo analizza il nesso tra trasparenza e accountability evidenziando il ruolo della trasparenza come strumento per promuovere l’efficienza e l’efficacia dell’azione delle AI, nonché la fiducia dei cittadini. A tal fine si richiamano le principali conclusioni della letteratura economica sul rapporto tra trasparenza e accountability per analizzarne le implicazioni rispetto alla specificità del modello istituzionale delle AI. In continuità con l’analisi svolta nell’Annuario precedente 2017-2018, vengono analizzate e aggiornate le tendenze maturate nelle AI nel corso del 2019 in relazione sia alla trasparenza formale sia alla trasparenza sostanziale. Si propongono inoltre alcuni approfondimenti specifici relativi alla questione della reperibilità e della qualità delle banche dati alla base degli atti di regolazione, da un lato, e al ruolo svolto dalla domanda attraverso l’analisi dell’accesso civico, dall’altro. L’analisi dei siti web e dei documenti ufficiali (relazioni al Parlamento, rapporti, etc.) costituiscono le fonti di informazione primarie, unitamente alle evidenze derivanti dalla riflessione interdisciplinare. Il Capitolo si articola come segue. Il secondo paragrafo illustra brevemente la letteratura su trasparenza e accountability. Il terzo paragrafo aggiorna al 2019 l’analisi della trasparenza formale e sostanziale; il quarto si concentra sull’analisi della domanda di trasparenza attraverso l’esame delle modalità di accesso alle informazioni. Il paragrafo finale fornisce alcune considerazioni conclusive
... Although some argue that transparency is key to creating an atmosphere of openness that facilitates trust, others argue that transparency creates and only feeds existing mistrust [24]. Although existing studies do demonstrate a positive effect of transparency on trust [25][26][27][28], these studies also show that the relationship between both constructs is highly dependent on the context [27,28]. Therefore, the results of most of these studies cannot directly be transferred to the context of technology and/or AI. ...
... Although some argue that transparency is key to creating an atmosphere of openness that facilitates trust, others argue that transparency creates and only feeds existing mistrust [24]. Although existing studies do demonstrate a positive effect of transparency on trust [25][26][27][28], these studies also show that the relationship between both constructs is highly dependent on the context [27,28]. Therefore, the results of most of these studies cannot directly be transferred to the context of technology and/or AI. ...
Preprint
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This study uses an experimental setting to study the effect of transparency concerning the use of an AI tool as an alternative to explanations that are common in the field of Explainable AI. It specifically addresses the impact of transparency on the level of understanding and trust among non-expert users.
... Nach der Procedural Justice-Theorie stoßen Entscheidungen von Institutionen wie der Polizei vor Allem dann auf Akzeptanz, wenn die Betroffenen sowohl den Entscheidungsprozess als auch das Ergebnis als fair empfinden. 29 Dies ist vielfach nur bei einer transparenten Gestaltung polizeilicher Maßnahmen denkbar. So bestätigen Forschungen zu Polizeieinsätzen, dass Transparenz in unterschiedlichen Einsatzsituationen zu einer Deeskalation von (potenziellen) 22 Schaar (2015) [52,S.15]. ...
... 28 Näher hierzu Aden (2019) [3]. 29 Konflikten beitragen kann. 30 Im Rahmen der Deeskalation kommt einer kontinuierlichen und fairen Kommunikation eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu, wobei vorrangig ist, die Beweggründe der jeweils anderen Seite zu verstehen 31 und das polizeiliche Handeln darauf auszurichten. ...
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Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag untersucht aus einer rechts- und verwaltungswissenschaftlichen Perspektive Transparenzdefizite, die bei der Ausgestaltung der polizeilichen Datenerhebung und der weiteren Datenverarbeitung bestehen. Diese können nicht nur für die verdeckte Datenverarbeitung konstatiert werden, sondern auch bei der offenen Datenerhebung. Im Anschluss an diesen Befund werden mögliche Instrumente zur Steigerung von Transparenz analysiert.
... In the studies conducted, (Etzioni, 2010;Etzioni, 2014;De Fine Licht, et al, 2014;De Fine Licht, 2014;De Fine Licht, 2011;Grimmelikhuijsen andPorumbescu, 2017) the capacity of transparency to reach the expected goals were investigated. As a result of these studies, it has been revealed that transparency is less effective than expected in achieving the determined goals. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study, to determine the distribution of discourses-promises on transparency in election manifestos of political parties that passed the 10% election threshold in eight general elections according to the distinction of trend slopes, party ideology (right-left) and ruling, opposing party between 1991-2015 in Turkey. Although many qualitative and quantitative studies have been conducted in the literature on the effects of the processes and results of the transparency issue after 2000, there is no study encountered analyzing the transparency discourses-promises in the statements. 28 election manifestos were analyzed with content analysis method in terms of “discourse- promise of transparency”. As a result, 258 transparency discourse promises were identified. 146 of them are administrative, 84 are financial and 28 are political transparency. In administrative transparency, providing and obtaining information and the activities of public institutions; in financial transparency, use of resource and bids; in political transparency, in line with the expectations, the discourse-promise of transparency regarding the declaration of property of politicians has come to the fore. Although there is no difference between right and left parties in terms of the discourse- promise of transparency in the statements, especially after 2000, opposition parties have a clear advantage over the ruling parties.
... Las organizaciones tienen la posibilidad de ser abiertas en lo que respecta a sus propios procesos de decisión, procedimientos, funcionamiento y desempeño (Gerring y Thacker, 2004;Welch et al., 2005;Curtin y Meijer, 2006;Grimmelikhuijsen, 2012;Grimmelikhuijsen y Welch, 2012;Meijer, 2013). La transparencia externa puede tener una función instrumental, en el sentido de que la conduce a cumplir otros objetivos como, por ejemplo, la rendición de cuentas (Heald, 2003), la reducción de corrupción (Villoria, 2014), o el aumento de la legitimidad y la confianza (Grimmelikhuijsen y Meijer, 2014;De Fine Licht, 2014). ...
Article
El carácter disruptivo de las redes sociales ha puesto de manifiesto dentro de las Administraciones públicas la necesidad de cambio hacia estructuras más flexibles y abiertas. Este fue, entre otros, el argumento que llevó durante la década anterior a la puesta en marcha de procesos de agencialización en el sector público español. Por ello, cabría esperar que la adopción de este tipo de tecnologías digitales en agencias estatales hubiese generado usos más orientados hacia la transparencia, participación y colaboración. En ese sentido, en este artículo se pretende estudiar hasta qué punto existen diferencias entre organismos públicos estatales y ministerios en relación con su provisión de información pública en Twitter. Para ello, se ha llevado a cabo la monitorización de la actividad de entidades del sector público institucional estatal y de los ministerios a través de la red social Twitter. Los datos han sido analizados a través del empleo de una taxonomía especializada para datos de Twitter. Los resultados muestran una cierta tendencia de los organismos públicos estatales a ser partícipes activos de la difusión de información pública, y de los ministerios a ser objeto pasivo de la difusión.
... Como puede observarse, los objetivos de las políticas de transparencia operan sobre dos realidades muy diferentes: los ciudadanos, por un lado, y las instituciones, por el otro. La mayoría de estudios sobre los efectos de la transparencia en el funcionamiento institucional se han focalizado en estudiar las asociaciones entre transparencia y corrupción (Bastida y Benito, 2007;Benito y Bastida, 2009; y transparencia y mejora de la gestión (Meijer, 2013;Prado, 2006); mientras que los estudios sobre los efectos de la transparencia sobre la ciudadanía examinan la relación entre transparencia y confianza en el Gobierno en su mayor parte (De Fine Licht et al., 2014;Grimmelikhuijsen y Meijer, 2012;Mabillard y Pasquier, 2016) y, en menor proporción, la relación entre transparencia y rendimiento de cuentas (Hood, 2014;Mabillard y Zumofen, 2017;Meijer, 2014). ...
Book
En contraste con la abundante evidencia científica sobre los efectos de la transparencia en las actitudes ciudadanas hacia las instituciones, no existe todavía un conocimiento robusto del efecto interno que provoca la puesta en marcha de las normativas de transparencia desde un punto de vista organizativo, especialmente en el ámbito municipal español. En otros países la investigación apunta a que la aplicación de criterios de transparencia ha producido cambios en la cultura y práctica organizativas de las Administraciones que, a su vez tienen un impacto en las percepciones del personal de la Administración sobre la aplicación de la transparencia. Es posible establecer que la política de transparencia implica un cambio notable en al menos dos aspectos: la forma en que se consigue y transforma la propia información y el modo en que esta se transmite a los destinatarios finales. Para alcanzar estos dos objetivos, son necesarios cambios y adaptaciones institucionales,
... In the case of institution websites, which are the main means of informing the public, transparency must be confined to an exclusive section that all too often is nothing more than a repository for documents that citizens avoid on the assumption that they will only find complex documents in it that may require considerable time and specific knowledge to read and understand. As is well known, when users are faced with too much information that is difficult to understand or that requires a high level of technical competence or a lot of management time, the relationship between transparency and trust is broken [54,55]. Thus, the website as a whole must act as a tool for transparency, favoring knowledge, debate and participation and making it easier for citizens to access transparency information by navigating naturally, starting with the news sections. ...
Article
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Transparency is a communicative process whose aim is to provide citizens with information that will promote their participation in public affairs. However, its application is often reduced to a legally stipulated administrative act. In contrast, this article sets out the principles, attributes and evidence of transparency from a communication perspective, taking into consideration that transparency is treated as a process through which recipients obtain, understand and use information. This study focuses on the transparency of local town councils, although most of the concepts could be applied at other levels of public administration. To establish this framework, the legislation and application of transparency in three countries (Spain, Ecuador and Colombia) was studied using the Infoparticipa method designed with a communication approach in mind. A comparative study was then carried out using methods designed in other disciplines. Through this approach, the benefits of transparency were categorized to define six principles—disclosure, strengthening, visibility, comprehensibility, dissemination and humanism—and eight attributes of transparent information: veracity, timeliness, accessibility, usability, intelligibility, universality, pluralism and plurality. For each attribute, the evidence of its application was determined. This framework clarifies the perspective of transparency for participation from a communication approach.
... Our outcome of interest is empirical legitimacy. This means that we understand legitimacy as a belief or perception among the public that the decision-makers have the right to make the decisions and that these decisions should be accepted (de Fine Licht et al. 2014;Tyler 2006;Werner 2020). Empirical legitimacy should not be confused with normative legitimacy, which involves objective criteria of standards such as justice or rationality (Hinsch 2008). ...
Article
A chronic problem for democratic governments is generating legitimacy for policy decisions that go against substantial groups of citizens’ legitimate interests. The primary means of achieving this aim involves the arrangements through which policy decisions are made. Whereas research in the field has tended to focus on the arrangements leading up to a decision, this paper draws attention to developments after a formal policy decision has been made. We theorize that the formal decision constitutes a focal event that motivates affected individuals to update their beliefs about the decision. We identify four types of potential legitimacy-enhancing post-decision arrangements: how the decision is announced; how it is publicly explained; whether the process allows for post-decision voice; and whether decision-makers take actions to mitigate its negative consequences. The results from two survey experiments with large samples of Swedish adults addressing the case of school closures suggest that post-decision procedures have legitimacy-enhancing potential and that this effect is not dependent on the pre-decision process.
... An alternative conceptualization sees politicians and public sector actors proactively providing transparency as a means of achieving or bolstering their legitimacy in the eyes of their constituents (Curtin and Meijer, 2006). While the linkage is still contested (De Fine Licht et al., 2014), the argument is that savvy politicians will seek to make public their decision making processes in order to generate public support for their decisions because they knew enough in advance to influence the outcome, and therefore (Curtin and Meijer, 2006). Thus, public sector transparency results from policies, institutions, and practices that provide information to improve the understanding of public policy, increase policy effectiveness, reduce political uncertainty (Guillamón et al., 2011), and generate legitimacy for those actors and institutions involved in the public policy decisions. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper seeks to identify some of the most important drivers of Portuguese local government transparency in their activities over time. The recent literature on good governance has repeatedly identified transparency as central to promoting accountability, preventing corruption and mismanagement and stimulating greater civic engagement. As local government is the main provider of many primary services to the population, evaluating its transparency is especially relevant given that misconduct or maladministration will have a strong impact on the population's well-being. Given increased diffusion of European good governance norms and practices, the authors believe the Portuguese case to be relevant across the EU. Design/methodology/approach The authors develop a dynamic panel data model to evaluate the simultaneous influence of both political and contextual variables on the municipal transparency index (MTI) in 308 Portuguese municipalities during the period from 2013 to 2017. Findings The results suggest support for previous studies that found increased Internet enabled transparency in municipalities with low levels of indebtedness (per capita), are more highly populated, are governed by left-wing parties, demonstrating higher levels of financial efficiency. The urban/rural status, measured by population density, is not a significant predictor. Originality/value The paper seeks to confirm earlier analyses of these same data over a longer period of years to substantiate the validity of those findings. This is important especially in the context of the political variable, to demonstrate it was not necessarily a particular collection of left-wing mayors, but that the relationship holds over time, across administrations, because the dataset covers two election periods.
... Courts face obstacles to gaining trust and support because they are unelected institutions (De Fine Licht et al. 2014). Open justice scholars assume that to gain trust, courts need to "open their doors, enabling the rule of law to be not only transparent and accessible, but open to external scrutiny" (Johnston 2018, 525). ...
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Openness and transparency have become defining goals for policy initiatives worldwide. Transparent and open political processes increase legitimacy by holding public institutions accountable and promote public trust by allowing public scrutiny. In the context of judiciaries, this discussion is informed by the open justice principle. This principle requires that the process of justice be visible, which in turn promotes trust in legal systems because citizens can see how justice works. However, scholars lack both a clear definition and approaches to measuring open justice in the courts. This chapter aims to establish open justice as a new avenue for comparative research in judicial politics by proposing a conceptualization and a measurement of the principle. Using data on trust in the legal system in 27 European countries, the chapter contributes to the literature by presenting the first empirical evidence for the assumption that open justice increases public trust.
... For the broad baseline definition, I adopt Dahl's view (Dahl and Shapiro 2015). Dahl suggests there are at least five criteria for a democratic process: (i) members must be able to make their views known about a policy; (ii) members are to have an equal opportunity to vote, and all votes are to be counted equally; (iii) members are to have the ability to learn about alternative policies; (iv) members are to have control of the agenda; and, (v) all (or most) adult permanent residents should have the full rights of citizens implied by the previous criteria (Dahl and Shapiro 2015, pp. ...
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The potential use, relevance, and application of AI and other technologies in the democratic process may be obvious to some. However, technological innovation and, even, its consideration may face an intuitive push-back in the form of algorithm aversion (Dietvorst et al. J Exp Psychol 144(1):114–126, 2015). In this paper, I confront this intuition and suggest that a more ‘extreme’ form of technological change in the democratic process does not necessarily result in a worse outcome in terms of the fundamental concepts of democracy and the Rule of Law. To provoke further consideration and illustrate that initial intuitions regarding democratic innovation may not always be accurate, I pose and explore four ways that AI and other forms of technology could be used to augment the representative democratic process. The augmentations range from voting online to the wholesale replacement of the legislature’s human representatives with algorithms. After first noting the intuition that less invasive forms of augmented democracy may be less objectionable than more extreme forms, I go on to critically assess whether the augmentation of existing systems satisfies or enhances ideas associated with democracy and the Rule of Law (provided by Dahl and Fuller). By imagining a (not too far-fetched) future in a (not too far-removed) democratic society, my conclusion is that, when it comes to democracy and the Rule of Law, intuitions regarding technology may lead us astray.
... Other empirical studies have focused on the relation between transparency and several features such as trust in public institutions, participation to public life, and civicness, showing that these connections are generally positive, even though context-dependent (see, among others, Welch et al., 2005;Piotrowski & Van Ryzin, 2007;de Fine Licht et al., 2014;Grimmelikhuijsen & Meijer, 2014). 1 See on these aspects a recent and exhaustive review by Cucciniello et al. (2016). ...
Article
Our paper investigates the intertwined relation among transparency, civic capital and political accountability in a large sample of Italian municipalities using a new indicator of institutional transparency. Firstly, we test the hypothesis that civic capital affects transparency of public administrations; secondly, we verify whether in municipalities where civic capital is high, citizens’ attention toward government accountability is also high, making it politically unfeasible to disregard the demand for transparency. We find that civic capital positively affects transparency and the latter, in turn, is politically rewarding for the local administrators only conditional to the level of civic capital. Our findings are robust to different samples and endogeneity concerns.
... The political science and public administration literature has also recognized the important role of information conveyed by transparency, stressing the connection between transparency and several dimensions of public life such as trust in public institutions, political participation, quality of government, the perception of legitimacy, and civic satisfaction (see, among others, Welch, Hinnant, and Moon, 2005;Piotrowsky and Van Ryzin, 2007;Benito and Bastida, 2009;Worthy, 2010;de Fine Licht et al., 2014;Grimmelikhuijsen and Meijer, 2014) 1 . Using Italian data at local level, our paper builds on these two strands of literature offering a new perspective on the relationship between civic capital and political accountability, namely considering transparency as one specific channel through which social capital affects accountability. ...
... Pero a pesar del optimismo que la transparencia despierta en algunos sectores, los académicos se cuestionan hasta qué punto la transparencia es realmente capaz de cumplir los objetivos comúnmente asignados a ella (Etzioni, 2010;. De hecho, en evaluaciones empíricas realizadas, se han visto que los efectos de la transparencia a menudo son limitados y difieren según una serie de factores, como el área de gobierno, el dominio de la política y las características del ciudadano (Grimmelikhuijsen y Meijer, 2014;Licht 2014;Licht et al. 2014;Porumbescu, 2015;García-Tabuyo et al, 2019). Otros han argumentado que los esfuerzos para mejorar la transparencia a menudo hacen más daño que bien, al razonar que los esfuerzos continuos para mejorar la transparencia han alimentado la polarización, la indecisión y, en última instancia, la disfunción en el gobierno (Grumet, 2014;Liem, 2007). ...
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RESUMEN: Este artículo analiza la situación de la transparencia contractual en los 211 ayuntamientos de los siete estados de la Región Norte de Brasil de más de 15.000 habitantes. Al comparar los municipios entre sí, muestra las situaciones individuales e identifica sus impactos en la gestión contractual. Para ello se han utilizado 18 indicadores que han permitido la construcción de un Índice de Transparencia en la Contratación de los Ayuntamientos Brasileños (ITCAB). En lo que respecta al análisis de los indicadores sobre contratación fue posible señalar que nos quedamos solamente con 187 municipios para análisis. Además, en la investigación se constató que, en general, no se cumplían ninguna de esas exigencias. La información era muy farragosa y amplia con un contenido muy administrativo y burocrático. Tampoco se apreció información elaborada que permitiera a los ciudadanos hacer un seguimiento ni realizar un control de la gestión del gobierno local.
... Pero a pesar del optimismo que la transparencia despierta en algunos sectores, los académicos se cuestionan hasta qué punto la transparencia es realmente capaz de cumplir los objetivos comúnmente asignados a ella (Etzioni, 2010;. De hecho, en evaluaciones empíricas realizadas, se han visto que los efectos de la transparencia a menudo son limitados y difieren según una serie de factores, como el área de gobierno, el dominio de la política y las características del ciudadano (Grimmelikhuijsen y Meijer, 2014;Licht 2014;Licht et al. 2014;Porumbescu, 2015;García-Tabuyo et al, 2019). Otros han argumentado que los esfuerzos para mejorar la transparencia a menudo hacen más daño que bien, al razonar que los esfuerzos continuos para mejorar la transparencia han alimentado la polarización, la indecisión y, en última instancia, la disfunción en el gobierno (Grumet, 2014;Liem, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN: Este artículo analiza la situación de la transparencia contractual en los 211 ayuntamientos de los siete estados de la Región Norte de Brasil de más de 15.000 habitantes. Al comparar los municipios entre sí, muestra las situaciones individuales e identifica sus impactos en la gestión contractual. Para ello se han utilizado 18 indicadores que han permitido la construcción de un Índice de Transparencia en la Contratación de los Ayuntamientos Brasileños (ITCAB). En lo que respecta al análisis de los indicadores sobre contratación fue posible señalar que nos quedamos solamente con 187 municipios para análisis. Además, en la investigación se constató que, en general, no se cumplían ninguna de esas exigencias. La información era muy farragosa y amplia con un contenido muy administrativo y burocrático. Tampoco se apreció información elaborada que permitiera a los ciudadanos hacer un seguimiento ni realizar un control de la gestión del gobierno local.
... Así, la implementación de políticas de transparencia permitiría alcanzar un conjunto de objetivos realmente muy amplios en relación con las administraciones públicas: fomentar una mayor confianza en el gobierno, reducir la corrupción públicapolítica y, sobre todo, mejorar el rendimiento institucional (Cucciniello et al. 2017;Hood 2010;Meijer 2013;Hood y Heald, 2006). Sin embargo, la mayoría de estudios sobre los efectos de la transparencia en el funcionamiento institucional se han focalizado en las asociaciones entre transparencia y corrupción (Bastida y Benito 2007;Bastida et al. 2009;Villoria et al. 2017) y transparencia y mejora de la gestión (Meijer 2013).A su vez, una gran parte de los estudios sobre los efectos de la transparencia en la ciudadanía examinan la relación entre transparencia y confianza en el gobierno (De Fine Licht et al. 2014;Grimmelikhuijsen y Meijer 2014; Mabillard y Pasquier 2015; Mabillard y Zumofen 2017) y, en menor medida, la relación entre transparencia y rendimiento de cuentas (Hood 2014;Mabillard y Zumofen 2017;Meijer 2014). Así, es notable la ausencia de estudios sistemáticos sobre los efectos que ha producido la normativa en las instituciones para intentar conseguir los objetivos perseguidos. ...
Article
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Los gobiernos locales de España han implementado normativas diversas, nacionales y autonómicas, de transparencia en los últimos años. Todo el acervo normativo aprobado establecía principios e imponía obligaciones de índole muy diversa al conjunto de entes públicos, entre ellos los más de 8.000 ayuntamientos. Este trabajo se interesa por el proceso de implementación de la(s) normativa(s) de transparencia en los gobiernos locales españoles de mayor población. Concretamente, se plantea hasta qué punto esta normativa ha impulsado el cambio organizacional e institucional en los entes locales y el nivel de desempeño en términos de publicidad activa. Mediante un cuestionario específico dirigido a los municipios de mayor población y el análisis de las páginas web de los ayuntamientos, obtenemos información sobre el proceso y el nivel de implementación efectiva. En este artículo discutimos sobre dos factores determinantes para comprender el proceso de implementación: la existencia de path dependency interna o el establecimiento de normativa y obligaciones legales. Los resultados apuntan hacia una explicación y efectos combinados de la existencia de normativa específica y la aplicación anticipada de la transparencia, tanto para el nivel de cumplimiento de ésta como para el cambio institucional provocado.
... It is therefore possible that even though people attach only a limited importance to their direct involvement, they are still sensitive to interpersonal aspects of the procedure, such as whether they are treated with respect and dignity. Although previous studies on collective decision making did not explicitly study this topic (Arnesen, 2017;Esaiasson et al., 2019), perceived respectful treatment is a likely explanation for previous experimental findings suggesting that representation-based decision-making gains legitimacy when the process is transparent and when decisionmakers dedicate themselves to a careful justification of their decisions (De Fine Licht et al., 2014). Moreover, perceived respectful interpersonal treatment is one indicator of people's satisfaction with the deliberative process, and thus, a predictor of perceived legitimacy of its outcomes within the deliberative democracy framework (Esterling et al., 2015;Fishkin & Luskin, 2005). ...
Article
According to the procedural justice approach, people tend to view authoritative decision‐making as legitimate if it includes their voice and if they are treated with respect, even when the outcomes are unfavorable. However, previous research suggests that the application of these effects to collective decision‐making is less straightforward. Therefore, this study investigates whether people's willingness to accept a collective decision is increased by two procedural aspects: the opportunity to directly vote on the outcome and respectful treatment from peers during the decision‐making process. Moreover, we ask whether the effects are moderated by outcome favorability. A study was conducted in their classrooms on 395 Czech high school students (aged 18–20, 60% females) who used a randomly prescribed procedure (direct vote, or expert decision) to decide on the use of a sum of money. Respectful treatment was measured through students’ perceptions during the decision‐making process. Results showed that while direct voting did not increase participants’ willingness to accept the outcome, perceived respectful treatment did. However, the positive effect of respectful treatment was present only among participants who were clearly dissatisfied with the outcome (i.e., it compensated for the lack of outcome favorability). Participants who perceived the outcome as favorable or had no clear preference between the alternatives were willing to accept the outcome despite the perception of not having been treated respectfully.
... La transparencia en su racionalidad implica que se pueden tomar decisiones de forma discreta y sin publicidad, pero luego se explica con todo detalle cómo se tomó la decisión y los procesos deliberativos que hubo. Pues bien, este tipo de transparencia normalmente aporta tanta o más calidad que la procedimental y puede ser más útil (De Fine Licht et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Los estudios sobre transparencia pública han florecido en las últimas tres décadas, pero las revisiones comprehensivas de las investigaciones sobre el tema han sido limitadas, especialmente en español. Ello debilita las posibilidades de comprensión del fenómeno y dificulta el avance de las prácticas existentes. Para reducir este vacío, este artículo trata de, en base a una revisión exhaustiva de literatura, dar respuesta a preguntas como: (1) ¿Cómo ha sido definida y conceptualizada la transparencia en la literatura?; (2) ¿Qué condiciones favorecen que las políticas de transparencia tengan impactos positivos? Los resultados nos muestran que existen diversas condiciones y factores endógenos (controlables mediante el diseño de la política de transparencia) para explicar la calidad de los outputs y de los procedimientos vinculados a la transparencia, y que son requisitos necesarios, pero no suficientes, para los impactos deseados. Las condiciones exógenas (no controlables mediante estos diseños) se articulan en cinco grupos: sociales, institucionales, estructurales, políticos y económicos. En general, parecen coincidir en que sociedades con confianza institucional previa, políticas educativas y sanitarias de calidad y Administraciones meritocráticas son claramente más proclives a tener una transparencia efectiva y, con ello, una mejor gobernanza. Concluimos con reflexiones sobre vías futuras de investigación.
... Voters value opportunities to (re)gain control of the policymaking process. Consistent with this view, prior work shows that transparency reduces perceptions of corruption and improves perceptions of fairness and accountability in decision-making (De Fine Licht et al. 2014;Kanol 2018). Hence, we expect voters to reward party efforts to regulate their interactions with interest groups. ...
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We study how political elites and voters respond to intra-party reforms to promote transparency and ethical conduct. Evidence from a paired conjoint analysis from politicians and voters in Portugal and Spain.
... In the studies conducted, (Etzioni, 2010;Etzioni, 2014;De Fine Licht, et al, 2014;De Fine Licht, 2014;De Fine Licht, 2011;Grimmelikhuijsen andPorumbescu, 2017) the capacity of transparency to reach the expected goals were investigated. As a result of these studies, it has been revealed that transparency is less effective than expected in achieving the determined goals. ...
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The purpose of this study, to determine the distribution of discourses-promises on transparency in election manifestos of political parties that passed the 10% election threshold in eight general elections according to the distinction of trend slopes, party ideology (right-left) and ruling, opposing party between 1991-2015 in Turkey. Although many qualitative and quantitative studies have been conducted in the literature on the effects of the processes and results of the transparency issue after 2000, there is no study encountered analyzing the transparency discourses-promises in the statements. 28 election manifestos were analyzed with content analysis method in terms of “discourse-promise of transparency”. As a result, 258 transparency discourse promises were identified. 146 of them are administrative, 84 are financial and 28 are political transparency. In administrative transparency, providing and obtaining information and the activities of public institutions; in financial transparency, use of resource and bids; in political transparency, in line with the expectations, the discourse-promise of transparency regarding the declaration of property of politicians has come to the fore. Although there is no difference between right and left parties in terms of the discourse-promise of transparency in the statements, especially after 2000, opposition parties have a clear advantage over the ruling parties.
... La transparencia en su racionalidad implica que se pueden tomar decisiones de forma discreta y sin publicidad, pero luego se explica con todo detalle cómo se tomó la decisión y los procesos deliberativos que hubo. Pues bien, este tipo de transparencia normalmente aporta tanta o más calidad que la procedimental y puede ser más útil (De Fine Licht et al., 2014). ...
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Cómo citar/Citation Villoria, M. (2021). ¿Qué condiciones favorecen una transparencia pública efectiva? Artículo de revisión. Revista de Estudios Políticos, 194, 213-247. doi: https://doi.org/10.18042/cepc/rep.194.08 Resumen Los estudios sobre transparencia pública han florecido en las últimas tres décadas, pero las revisiones comprehensivas de las investigaciones sobre el tema han sido limitadas, especialmente en español. Ello debilita las posibilidades de compren-sión del fenómeno y dificulta el avance de las prácticas existentes. Para reducir este vacío, este artículo trata de, en base a una revisión exhaustiva de literatura, dar respuesta a preguntas como: (1) ¿Cómo ha sido definida y conceptualizada la trans-parencia en la literatura?; (2) ¿Qué condiciones favorecen que las políticas de transpa-rencia tengan impactos positivos? Los resultados nos muestran que existen diversas condiciones y factores endógenos (controlables mediante el diseño de la política de transparencia) para explicar la calidad de los outputs y de los procedimientos vincu-lados a la transparencia, y que son requisitos necesarios, pero no suficientes, para los impactos deseados. Las condiciones exógenas (no controlables mediante estos diseños) se articulan en cinco grupos: sociales, institucionales, estructurales, polí-ticos y económicos. En general, parecen coincidir en que sociedades con confianza institucional previa, políticas educativas y sanitarias de calidad y Administraciones meritocráticas son claramente más proclives a tener una transparencia efectiva y, con ello, una mejor gobernanza. Concluimos con reflexiones sobre vías futuras de inves-tigación.
... In the public sphere, this increased disclosure and dissemination of information-i.e., the enhancement of transparency and reduction in information asymmetries-has a positive effect on public perceptions of state decisions [22]. The legitimacy of governmental decisions improves alongside transparency mechanisms that give citizens a look into public sector decision-making processes [23]. Information diffusion and dissemination holds public officials accountable to citizens, increases citizen's understanding of public decision-making, promotes an image of good governance, and helps public officials legitimize actions and gain the confidence of the citizenry [24]. ...
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The open government paradigm implies public processes are becoming more transparent, public information is available online, and citizens and non‐governmental organizations are encouraged to interact with public administration through new platform‐based forms of participation and collaboration. Though these governmental efforts to open up organizational procedures to the public are meant to strengthen the relationship between citizens and the government, empirical evidence is currently sparse and mixed. This article argues that positive impacts of openness depend on citizens’ democratic capacity defined as individual sense of empowerment to influence governmental systems. By matching individual survey data from the European Social Survey with secondary institutional data the authors investigate the relationship between individual and structural level variables. Findings indicate that structural openness is, in general, positively associated with higher trust. Further, the effect of openness on public trust is partially mediated by an individual's perception that they have meaningful opportunities for political participation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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South Africa’s move towards implementing National Health Insurance includes a commitment to establish a health technology assessment (HTA) body to inform health priority-setting decisions. This study sought to analyse health rights cases in South Africa to inform the identification of country-specific procedural values related to health priority-setting and their implementation in a South African HTA body. The focus on health rights cases is motivated in part by the fact that case law can be an important source of insight into the values of a particular country. This focus is further motivated by a desire to mitigate the potential tension between a rights-based approach to healthcare access and national efforts to set health priorities. A qualitative content analysis of eight South African court cases related to the right to health was conducted. Cases were identified through a LexisNexis search and supplemented with expert judgement. Procedural values identified from the health priority-setting literature, including those comprising Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R), structured the thematic analysis. The importance of transparency and revision—two elements of A4R—is evident in our findings, suggesting that the courts can help to enforce elements of A4R. Yet our findings also indicate that A4R is likely to be insufficient for ensuring that HTA in South Africa meets the procedural demands of a constitutional rights-based approach to healthcare access. Accordingly, we also suggest that a South African HTA body ought to consider more demanding considerations related to transparency and revisions as well as explicit considerations related to inclusivity.
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Gemeinden leisten lebensnotwendige Dienstleistungen und Produkte, die sich überwiegend aus Abgaben finanzieren. Sie werden als kleinste Ebene des Staates im Vergleich zum Bund und der Länder als transparenter und nahbarer wahrgenommen. Dennoch kann eine fehlende Verknüpfung zwischen den bezahlten Abgaben und den daraus finanzierten Leistungen der Gemeinden beobachtet werden. Sie stehen vor der Herausforderung, sich laufend an politischen und gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen anzupassen. Durch die Entwicklung der Digitalisierung hat sich eine Bewegung entwickelt, die sich einen transparenten, modernen und partizipativen Staat wünscht. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Möglichkeiten zur Schaffung von Transparenz bei der Verwendung öffentlicher Abgaben auf Ebene der Gemeinden aufzuzeigen. Zusätzlich wird die Wirkung von Transparenz auf verwaltungsinterne und verwaltungsexterne Akteurinnen und Akteure, die gesetzliche Verankerung von Transparenz in Österreich, die Wichtigkeit der Transparenz auf Ebene der Gemeinden sowie die mit der Thematik einhergehenden Herausforderungen beleuchtet. Zur Beantwortung der Forschungsfragen wurde eine ausführliche Literaturanalyse sowie eine überblicksartige Darstellung empirischer Beobachtungen durchgeführt. Als Ergebnis kann festgestellt werden, dass Transparenz bei der Verwendung öffentlicher Abgaben einerseits durch den Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien und andererseits durch eine kompetente, bürgernahe und persönliche Gemeindeverwaltung geschaffen werden kann. Ergänzend dazu benötigt es Abgaben, die vor der Allgemeinheit auf Basis steuerlicher Grundsätze auch schlüssig argumentierbar sind, um eine negative Wirkung von Transparenz zu umgehen. Zusätzlich wird eine gesetzliche Grundlage benötigt, die für Gemeinden klar anwendbar ist und damit Transparenz erst praktisch umsetzbar macht.
Article
What can policy makers do in day‐to‐day decision making to strengthen citizens' belief that the political system is legitimate? Much literature has highlighted that the realization of citizens' personal preferences in policy making is an important driver of legitimacy beliefs. We argue that citizens, in addition, also care about whether a policy represents the preferences of the majority of citizens, even if their personal preference diverges from the majority's. Using the case of the European Union (EU) as a system that has recurringly experienced crises of public legitimacy, we conduct a vignette survey experiment in which respondents assess the legitimacy of fictitious EU decisions that vary in how they were taken and whose preferences they represent. Results from original surveys conducted in the five largest EU countries show that the congruence of EU decisions not only with personal opinion but also with different forms of majority opinion significantly strengthens legitimacy beliefs. We also show that the most likely mechanism behind this finding is the application of a ‘consensus heuristic’, by which respondents use majority opinion as a cue to identify legitimate decisions. In contrast, procedural features such as the consultation of interest groups or the inclusiveness of decision making in the institutions have little effect on legitimacy beliefs. These findings suggest that policy makers can address legitimacy deficits by strengthening majority representation, which will have both egotropic and sociotropic effects.
Chapter
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Europäische und deutsche Gesetzgeber:innen und Behörden sind sich einig, dass sie die negativen Folgen von Marktkonzentration begrenzen wollen. Doch inwieweit wirkt sich fehlender Wettbewerb auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre aus? Im Kontext des Facebook-Verfahrens werden v. a. zwei verschiedene Ansätze beleuchtet – einerseits, inwiefern Konzentration den Umfang der gesammelten bzw. genutzten Daten beeinflusst, und andererseits, wie Konzentration sich auf die Verhandlungsposition der Nutzer:innen auswirkt. Dieser Beitrag zeigt auf, dass der erste Ansatz nur spärlich empirisch gestützt ist, während der zweite weiterer konzeptioneller Ausarbeitung bedarf. Im Anschluss wird untersucht, inwieweit nicht nur Marktkonzentration, sondern fehlende Befähigung von Verbraucher:innen dazu führt, dass es keinen wirksamen Wettbewerb um besseren Datenschutz gibt. Beide Teile schließen mit politischen Handlungsempfehlungen ab.
Article
The aim of this study is to fill gaps in the literature related to perceptions of spokesperson credibility in a cross-cultural corporate social responsibility (CSR) context. After collecting data in two countries (Chile & U.S.) using two common forms of CSR disclosures (email/video), findings offer numerous insights for both theory and practice. Recent global trade literature found that employees are the best spokesperson for corporate communication messages (Beiser, 2017). Findings from the current study indicate that these perceptions are sensitive to cultural factors in a CSR context. Further, while scholars widely accept the need for transparent communication about CSR (Chaudhri & Wang, 2007), trade research indicates that organizational transparency falls short of consumer expectations (Edelman, 2016). Our research indicates that different dimensions of transparency (integrity, respect, openness) may be driving perceptions of spokesperson credibility and thus help to explain the variance in performance and perception.
Article
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Government transparency has been widely commented through the adoption of freedom of information laws. Several studies have shown a positive effect of access to information on government transparency. This contribution, based on a quantitative analysis of 2,222 Swiss municipalities, adds to the literature by combining disclosure of information on municipalities’ websites and constrained release of information. The findings indicate that more proactive transparency practices are not observed in regional entities that have enacted transparency laws. Nevertheless, they also indicate that levels of proactive transparency are slightly higher in municipalities where freedom of information has been implemented for a long time.
Article
To fully realize the benefits of Decision Support Systems (DSS), it is important to investigate factors influencing individuals who are affected by the DSS’ decision but are not involved in decision-making. An example of such DSS is the Video Assistant Referee (VAR) in professional football. Drawing on transparency and justice research, we examined the role of transparency, procedural justice, and social influence on individuals’ attitudes towards the VAR. A quantitative vignette-based approach (N = 824) using two scenarios (fans watching from home/in stadiums) was chosen. Results indicate that all variables are higher in the home setting. Structural equation modelling revealed that transparency, procedural justice, and social influence significantly impact individual’s attitude towards the VAR. Multigroup analyses showed that the effect size of one transparency dimension is significantly stronger at home, while social influence is stronger in stadiums. To further interpret the findings, we conducted twelve semi-structured interviews among football fans.
Article
In this article we take a first step towards understanding the use of social media by constitutional and supreme courts in Latin America. Some Latin American courts stand out worldwide for their active online presence. We present the first comparative evaluation of the social media presence of 17 Latin American high courts. We evaluate the intensity of the current use of the most relevant online platforms - Twitter, Facebook and YouTube - and explore the level of influence each court has developed in these networks. As a result, we present a classification of the courts that emphasizes that there are performance differences: the most influential courts are not necessarily the most active ones, but they make a very differentiated use of social media. In contrast, the least influential ones show great dispersion around the level of activity. Additionally, we present a preliminarily evaluation of the relationship between the level of trust in the judiciaries and both the intensity of the use and the level of influence of courts in social networks. We see that courts with higher levels of distrust are moderately more active and tend to have less influence. Two motivations could explain the court behavior in social media: First, the search for strategic self-promotion. Second, an ideal of institutional transparency.
Article
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We test the commonly stated, but rarely investigated, assertion that making political institutions more transparent is an effective method for combating corruption. This assertion is confirmed with cross-national data, but also specified and qualified in several respects. Most importantly, we find that looking only at average effects gives a misleading picture of the significance of transparency for corruption. Just making information available will not prevent corruption if such conditions for publicity and accountability as education, media circulation and free and fair elections are weak. Furthermore, we find that transparency requirements that are implemented by the agent itself are less effective compared to non-agent controlled transparency institutions, such as a free press. One important implication of these findings is that reforms focusing on increasing transparency should be accompanied by measures for strengthening citizens’ capacity to act upon the available information if we are to see positive effects on corruption.
Article
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Recent social psychological work on procedural justice suggests that people given the opportunity to participate in a decision are more likely to see that decision as just than those given no such opportunity. The operation of this “fair process effect” in legal settings contributes to the legitimacy of those settings and to the stability of their structure over time. A similar, limited opportunity for participation by experimental subjects playing the role of employee in situations designed to model hierarchical, profit-oriented business enterprises produces a similar effect in some cases, but a 'frustration” effect in others. In this latter case, limited participation leads people to see the decision as less just than when no participation is allowed. Previous interpretations of these data neglect the possibility that those in the role of employees recognize a basic conflict of interest with employers in such enterprises and see limited participation as a strategic device to induce loyalty and commitment. This paper reinterprets these data in light of that possibility and argues that various forms of participation may benefit or harm the interests of employers and employees differently.
Article
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For this text focused on the social psychology of justice, the authors have assembled the most current information relating to 5 major questions. These questions look specifically at how justice is defined, how it influences individuals' thoughts and actions and shapes their behavior, and when and why it matters. The underlying unifying theme is that individuals do care about issues of fairness in their interactions with others, with groups, and with institutions they support or oppose. Using this theme as their guidepost, the authors explore research on relative deprivation, distributive justice, procedural justice, and retributive justice. Extensive use of examples drawn from contemporary culture make this book an informative and engaging collection of the most current thinking about topics such as diversity, gender, equal pay, personal satisfaction, 3rd-party dispute management, crime, cultural preservation, and scarcity theory. This text will be a valuable source for advanced courses on social justice, interpersonal relations, negotiation, intergroup conflict, and group processes in social psychology, political science, sociology, and legal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
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Americans often complain about the current operation of their government, but scholars have never developed a complete picture of people's preferred type of government. In this provocative and timely book, John Hibbing and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, employing an original national survey and focus groups, report the specific governmental procedures Americans desire. Their results are surprising. Contrary to the prevailing view that people want greater involvement in politics, most citizens do not care about most policies and therefore are content to turn over decision-making authority to someone else. People's most intense desire for the political system is that decision makers be empathetic and, especially, non-self-interested, not that they be responsive and accountable to the people's largely nonexistent policy preferences or, even worse, that the people be obligated to participate directly in decision making. In light of these findings, Hibbing and Theiss-Morse conclude by cautioning communitarians, direct democrats, social capitalists, deliberation theorists, and all those who think that greater citizen involvement is the solution to society's problems.
Article
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The paper examines the impact of distributive justice and procedural justice variables on judgments in seven countries (Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Spain, and the United States). Subjects were presented with each of two experimental vignettes: one in which the actor unsuccessfully appeals being fired from his job and one in which the actor unsuccessfully goes to an employment agency to seek a job; they were asked to rate the justness of the outcome and how fairly the actor had been treated. The vignettes manipulated deservingness and need of the actor (distributive justice factors) and impartiality and voice in the hearing (procedural justice factors). Four hypotheses were tested: first, a distributive justice hypothesis that deservingness would be more important than need in these settings; second, a procedural justice hypothesis that the importance of voice and impartiality vary depending on the nature of the encounter and the forum in which it is resolved; third, because of their recent socialist experience, Central and Eastern European respondents make greater use of need information and less use of deservingness information than Western respondents; and fourth, that distributive justice and procedural justice factors interact. The distributive justice hypothesis is supported in both vignettes. The procedural justice hypothesis receives some support. Impartiality is more important in the first vignette and voice is more important in the second vignette. The interaction hypothesis was not supported in the first vignette, but does receive some support in the second vignette. The cultural hypothesis is not supported in either vignette. The implications for distributive and procedural justice research are discussed.
Article
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Legitimacy is a psychological property of an authority, institution, or social arrangement that leads those connected to it to believe that it is appropriate, proper, and just. Because of legitimacy, people feel that they ought to defer to decisions and rules, following them voluntarily out of obligation rather than out of fear of punishment or anticipation of reward. Being legitimate is important to the success of authorities, institutions, and institutional arrangements since it is difficult to exert influence over others based solely upon the possession and use of power. Being able to gain voluntary acquiescence from most people, most of the time, due to their sense of obligation increases effectiveness during periods of scarcity, crisis, and conflict. The concept of legitimacy has a long history within social thought and social psychology, and it has emerged as increasingly important within recent research on the dynamics of political, legal, and social systems.
Article
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In recent years there have been numerous calls for making the operations of international organizations more transparent. One element in these demands involves the idea that international negotiations should be open to the same level of outside scrutiny that is presumed to prevail with bargaining in domestic contexts. While transparency of this sort may have clear benefits by facilitating attempts to hold officials accountable, scholars have made less effort to consider whether making international bargaining more public might also have detrimental effects. I develop a game-theoretic model that provides four hypotheses about the relative benefits of open-door versus closed-door bargaining, and about the preferences of different actors with regard to this type of transparency. This model, which can be applied to international and domestic contexts, helps extend positive theories about the design of institutions while also providing insights for the normative question of when transparency is desirable. I show that the hypotheses developed are supported both by historical evidence from eighteenth-century disputes about publicity in national parliaments, and by evidence from the more recent dispute about making European Council of Ministers deliberations public.I would like to thank Simon Hix, Bernard Manin, Lisa Martin, John Odell, Andrea Prat, Ken Scheve, Karen Smith, Andrew Walter, Peter Wilson, seminar participants at the LSE and at Sciences-Po in Paris, as well as two anonymous referees for helpful comments and suggestions.
Book
'Transparency' is widely canvassed as a key to better governance, increasing trust in public-office holders. But it is more often preached than practised, more often referred to than defined, and more often advocated than critically analysed. This book exposes this doctrine to critical scrutiny from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including political science, philosophy, and economics. It traces the history of transparency as a doctrine of good governance and social organization, and identifies its different forms; assesses the benefits and drawbacks of measures to enhance various forms of transparency; and examines how institutions respond to measures intended to increase transparency, and with what consequences. Transparency is shown not to be a new doctrine. It can come into conflict with other doctrines of good governance, and there are some important exceptions to Jeremy Bentham's famous dictum that 'the more closely we are watched, the better we behave'. Instead of heralding a new culture of openness in government, measures to improve transparency tend to lead to tighter and more centralized management of information.
Article
In 1966 the United States Congress passed the landmark Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) giving the public the right to access government documents. This ‘right to know’ has been used over the intervening years to challenge overreaching Presidents and secretive government agencies. This example of governmental transparency has served as an inspiring case in point to nations around the world, spawning similar statutes in fifty-nine countries. Yet, despite these global efforts to foster openness in government, secrecy still persists--and in many cases--sometimes thrives. Alasdair Roberts, a prominent lawyer, public policy expert, and international authority on transparency in government, examines the evolution of the trend toward governmental openness and how technological developments have assisted the disclosure and dissemination of information. In the process he offers a comprehensive look at the global efforts to restrict secrecy and provides readers with a clearly written guide to those areas where the battle over secrecy is most intense. Drawing on cases from many different countries, Roberts goes further than the popular view that secrecy is simply a problem of selfish bureaucrats trying to hide embarrassing information by showing how such powerful trends as privatization, globalization, and the ‘networking’ of security agencies are complicating the fight against secrecy. In our time when new terror threats provoke potentially counter-productive measures that impede openness, the need for a thorough and dispassionate discussion of openness in democratic societies is especially acute. Written in an engaging style, Blacked Out powerfully illustrates why transparency matters and why the struggle for openness is so difficult. Alasdair Roberts is Associate Professor in the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and Director of the Campbell Public Affairs Institute at Syracuse University. An internationally-recognized specialist on open government, he has written over thirty journal articles and book chapters. He is a 2005 recipient of the Johnson Award for Best Paper in Ethics and Accountability in the Public Sector. He has been a fellow of the Open Society Institute and the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars, and is a member of the Initiative for Policy Dialogue's Transparency Task Force.
Article
Which SUVs are most likely to rollover? What cities have the unhealthiest drinking water? Which factories are the most dangerous polluters? What cereals are the most nutritious? In recent decades, governments have sought to provide answers to such critical questions through public disclosure to force manufacturers, water authorities, and others to improve their products and practices. Corporate financial disclosure, nutritional labels, and school report cards are examples of such targeted transparency policies. At best, they create a light-handed approach to governance that improves markets, enriches public discourse, and empowers citizens. But such policies are frequently ineffective or counterproductive. Based on an analysis of eighteen U.S. and international policies, Full Disclosure shows that information is often incomplete, incomprehensible, or irrelevant to consumers, investors, workers, and community residents. To be successful, transparency policies must be accurate, keep ahead of disclosers' efforts to find loopholes, and, above all, focus on the needs of ordinary citizens. © Archon Fung, Mary Graham, and David Weil 2007 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Article
Transparency is a term that has attained quasi-religious significance in debate over governance and institutional design. Today, it is pervasive in the jargon of business governance as well as that of governments and international bodies, and has been used almost to saturation point in all of those domains over the past decade. This chapter maps out some of the different strains and meanings of the term and doctrine. Like many other notions of a quasi-religious nature, transparency is more often preached than practised, more often invoked than defined, and indeed might ironically be said to be mystic in essence, at least to some extent. The English philosopher Jeremy Bentham seems to have been the first to use 'transparency' in its modern governance-related sense in English. The chapter also discusses transparency in international governance, transparency in national and sub-national government, and transparency and corporate governance.
Article
'Transparency', 'openness', and access to government-held information are widely applauded as remedies for the deficiencies and operations of government where government claims to be democratic but falls short of its rhetoric. This chapter examines whether transparency is a human right, focusing on one of its specific features: access to government information, or freedom of information (FOI). It explains what is meant by FOI and argues that within the framework of internationally agreed concepts of human rights, FOI deserves to be listed with those rights. Not only is FOI instrumental in realizing other human rights such as freedom of speech and access to justice, or other desiderata such as accountability, it is intrinsically important: the right to know how government operates on our behalf. The chapter also discusses constitutionalism and the struggle for information in the United Kingdom.
Article
In democratic theory, two frequently occurring ideas are that deliberation and direct voting in referendums can increase perceived legitimacy of democratic procedures. To evaluate this claim, we conducted a controlled field experiment in which 215 high school students participated by being subject to a decision on a collective issue. The decision was made either by direct voting or as a non-voting procedure (decision made by the teacher). Additionally, we manipulated the opportunities for deliberation prior to the decision. Our primary finding is that both voting and deliberation significantly increase perceived legitimacy compared with a procedure in which these components are absent. However, applying both voting and deliberation does not yield significantly higher perceived legitimacy than applying voting without deliberation. We also found that perceived influence in the decision-making process mediates the effect of both voting and deliberation, whereas the epistemic quality of the decision, which is heavily emphasized in deliberative democratic theory, gained no support as a mediator.
Article
A review of recent research demonstrates that people are more willing to accept decisions when they feel that those decisions are made through decision-making procedures they view as fair. Studies of procedural justice judgements further suggest that people evaluate fairness primarily through criteria that can be provided to all the parties to a conflict: whether there are opportunities to participate; whether the authorities are neutral; the degree to which people trust the motives of the authorities; and whether people are treated with dignity and respect during the process. These findings are optimistic and suggest that authorities have considerable ability to bridge differences and interests and values through the use of fair decision-making procedures. The limits to the effectiveness of such procedural approaches are also outlined. Une recension des recherches recentes montre que les gens sont prets a accepter des decisions quand ils sentent que ces decisions sont prises a la suite d'une procedure decisionnelle qu'ils considerent equitable. De plus, les etudes sur les jugements dans les procedure judiciaires suggerent que les gens evaluent l'equite prioritairement sur la base des criteres fournies a toutes les parties en conflit: possibilites de participation: neutralite des autorites; confiance dans les motifs des autorites; et procedure qui traite les personnes avec dignite et respect. Ces resultats optimistes suggerent que les autorites peuvent, par des procedures equitables de prise de decision, concilier des differences, des interets et des valeurs. Les limites a l'efficacite de ces approches procedurales sont aussi soulignees.
Article
Full Disclosure: The Perils and Promise of Transparency. By Archon Fung, Mary Graham, and David Weil. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 282p. $28.00. One of the cornerstones of Woodrow Wilson's policy agenda, even before he formally sought the presidency, was transparency. To neutralize corporate misbehavior, for instance, he called for “turn[ing] the light” on corporations: “They don't like light. Turn it on so strong they can't stand it. Exposure is one of the best ways to whip them into line.” Although the authors of this superb work do not acknowledge Wilson's part in the evolutionary line of transparency policy, they do show by means of thorough and enlightening description and analysis the fruit finally borne of ideas like those Wilson espoused. Indeed, the authors tell a story of policy design that demonstrates the continuing value of careful legislative craftsmanship and policy refinement over time, based on feedback from administration and enforcement. It is a tale of effective legislative governance, particularly at the national level, that far too many American citizens, and even political leaders, believe is impossible or at least unlikely anymore.
Article
This article examines the impact of Britain's Freedom of Information (FOI) Act 2000 on British central government. The article identifies six objectives for FOI in the United Kingdom and then examines to what extent FOI has met them, briefly comparing the United Kingdom with similar legislation in Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada. It concludes that FOI has achieved the core objectives of increasing transparency and accountability, though the latter only in particular circumstances, but not the four secondary objectives: improved decision-making by government, improved public understanding, increased participation, and trust in government. This is not because the Act has “failed” but because the objectives were overly ambitious and FOI is shaped by the political environment in which it is placed.
Article
This study examined the judgments and reasoning of adolescents (ages 12–19 years) from three sites in urban and rural China (n = 270) and in an urban Canadian comparison sample (n = 72), about the fairness of various forms of democratic and non-democratic government. Adolescents from both China and Canada preferred democratic forms of government, such as representative or direct democracy, to non-democratic systems, such as a meritocracy and an oligarchy of the wealthy, at all ages. Adolescents appealed to fundamental democratic principles, such as representation, voice, and majority rule, to justify their judgments. Similar age-related patterns in judgments and reasoning were found across cultures and across diverse settings within China.
Article
Procedural justice researchers have long argued that giving people a voice in decision-making proceedings leads to heightened satisfaction with the outputs of those processes and enhanced compliance with decisions. More recently, this concept has been applied to the political arena with the suggestion that simply having a voice in the proceedings may not be enough. Similarly, the attitudes of external efficacy and political trust have long been linked. Integrating these two lines of research to incorporate important lessons about the dimensionality of external efficacy, I argue that giving people a voice in politics is not a universal remedy for ailing democracy. A voice that is perceived to have no influence can be more detrimental than not perceiving a voice at all. Moving out of the experimental setting by using survey data collected in a 2001 study of attitudes toward municipal government, I examine the impact that perceptions of voice and influence have on feelings of policy satisfaction and political trust. Findings suggest that perceptions of voice and influence do indeed have an impact on feelings of political trust and policy satisfaction. Neither political trust nor policy satisfaction responds positively to perceptions of increased voice alone. Believing that citizen voice, loud or quiet, has an influence is important. Feelings of policy satisfaction and political trust are increased only when respondents believe citizens had both increased voice and influence.
Article
Although empirical studies of deliberative democracy have proliferated in the past decade, too few have addressed the questions that are most significant in the normative theories. At the same time, many theorists have tended too easily to dismiss the empirical findings. More recently, some theorists and empiricists have been paying more attention to each other's work. Nevertheless, neither is likely to produce the more comprehensive understanding of deliberative democracy we need unless both develop a clearer conception of the elements of deliberation, the conflicts among those elements, and the structural relationships in deliberative systems.
Article
Suppose that the costs of obtaining and using political information fall dramatically, in large part because of new technologies such as the Internet. What effects might this have on political accountability and social welfare? This response to a paper by Jane Schacter offers some skeptical anti-conclusions. The fall in political information costs has multiple effects, cutting in different directions: some will increase accountability, however defined, while others will perversely reduce it, in part because political transparency has complex costs and benefits. We can predict the direction of the relevant effects but have little idea of their magnitudes. It follows that the consequences for social welfare are systematically ambiguous, given our current knowledge. Either the cheerleaders of Internet politics or the doomsayers might turn out to be correct, but their beliefs are unjustified, given the current state of the evidence and our current theories. The response also briefly considers speculative possibilities for new institutions of accountability, such as a virtual Congress, the expansion of direct democracy into the federal lawmaking process, and legislation drafted through the putative wisdom of crowds - wikis for legislation.
Article
Transparency is a highly regarded value, a precept used for ideological purposes, and a subject of academic study. The following critical analysis attempts to show that transparency is overvalued. Moreover, its ideological usages cannot be justified, because a social science analysis shows that transparency cannot fulfill the functions its advocates assign to it, although it can play a limited role in their service. We shall see that in assessing transparency, one must take into account a continuum composed of the order of disutility and the level of information costs. The higher the score on both variables, the less useful transparency is. Moreover, these scores need not be particularly high to greatly limit the extent to which the public can rely on transparency for most purposes.
Article
A large research literature on procedural justice demonstrates that people are more accepting of decisions that they do not feel are advantageous or fair when those decisions are arrived at using just procedures. Recently, several papers (Skitka, Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 28:588–597, 2002; Skitka and Mullen, Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 28:1419–1429, 2002) have argued that these procedural mechanisms do not have a significant influence when the decision made concerns issues about which those involved have strong moral feelings (“a moral mandate”). A reanalysis of the data in these two studies indicates that, contrary to the strong position taken by the authors, i.e. that “when people have a moral mandate about an outcome, any means justifies the mandated end” (Skitka, Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 28:594, 2002), the justice of decision-making procedures is consistently found to significantly influence people’s reactions to decisions by authorities and institutions even when their moral mandates are threatened.
Article
Research on organizational justice has flourished in the last 30 years. During that time, researchers have generally sought to answer three questions: (1) Why do people care about justice? (2) What affects justice judgments? and (3) What outcomes are associated with justice judgments? The papers in this special issue of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes on organizational justice reflect how these three questions are explored in contemporary justice research. This introduction to the special issue considers how the papers represent trends and developments in current justice research. Several themes are identified: the role of justice in a broader model of group engagement, the empirical examination of justice as a moral virtue, the effect of social context on justice judgments, and the darker reactions to injustice. Thus, the special issue provides insight not only to familiar justice questions but also to the evolution of the field and its future direction.
Article
The most generally accepted and best documented manipulation in procedural justice experiments is varying whether participants are allowed an opportunity to voice their opinion about a decision. In the present article, a distinction is made between two types of no-voice procedures—those in which a person is not informed about possible voice opportunities and hence implicitly is not allowed a voice (implicit no-voice procedure) and those in which a person is explicitly told that he or she does not have voice opportunities (explicit no-voice procedure). I focus on the effect perceived outcome fairness may have on judgments of procedural fairness (fair outcome effect). On the basis of fairness heuristic theory, I argue that when information about procedure is not available (as in the case of implicit no-voice procedures), people may find it difficult to decide how they should judge the procedure, and they therefore use the fairness of their outcome to assess how to respond to the procedure. As a result, the procedural judgments of these people show strong fair outcome effects. However, persons who are explicitly denied voice do have explicit information about procedure and hence have to rely less on outcome information, yielding weaker fair outcome effects on procedural judgments. Findings of two experiments provide supportive evidence for this line of reasoning. Implications for our understanding of the psychology of social justice in general and the fair outcome effect in particular are discussed.
Article
Over the last decades central banks have become much more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the literature, the increase in central bank transparency has frequently been related to (changes in) the actions of economic actors. However, the fact that these actors might not even be aware of the increased transparency or might not perceive the central bank as any more credible or transparent as a result of it is neglected in the literature. By analyzing data of a Dutch household survey on the (perceived) transparency of the European Central Bank (ECB) we delve into those neglected issues. We find that transparency perceptions matter for inflation perceptions and expectations as well as for trust in the ECB. However, we also show that the link between actual and perceived transparency is weak. Not only because of poor transparency knowledge but also because perceived transparency is influenced by many individual and psychological characteristics.
Article
The role of imperfect information in a principal-agent relationship subject to moral hazard is considered. A necessary and sufficient condition for imperfect information to improve on contracts based on the payoff alone is derived, and a characterization of the optimal use of such information is given.
Article
Citizen demands for more accountability and transparency are implicitly grounded in a model of political representation based primarily on sanctions, in which the interests of the representative (in economic terms, the agent) are presumed to conflict with those of the constituent (in economic terms, the principal). A selection model of political representation, as with a selection model of principal-agent relations more generally, is possible when the principal and agent have similar objectives and the agent is already internally motivated to pursue those objectives. If a potential representative’s intrinsic goals (overall direction and specific policies) are those the constituent desires and if the representative also has a verifiable reputation of being both competent and honest, a constituent can select that representative for office and subsequently spend relatively little effort on monitoring and sanctioning. The higher the probability that the objectives of principal and agent may be aligned, the more efficient it is for the principal to invest resources ex ante, in selecting the required type, rather than ex post, in monitoring and sanctioning. A selection model is efficient when agents face unpredictable future decisions, are hard to monitor, and must act flexibly. Accountability through monitoring and sanctioning is appropriate to the sanctions model, narrative accountability and deliberative accountability to the selection model. Normatively, the selection model tends to focus the attention of both citizens and representatives on the common interest. In political science the selection model was advanced in the early 1960s as one of the two paths to constituency control, but after the 1970s was eclipsed by the sanctions model in spite of data seeming to indicate that in many circumstances it has greater predictive power. Economists have only recently begun to apply the selection model significantly to politics.
Blacked Out: Government Secrecy in the Information Age The Yale Book of Quotations Giving Reasons Requirement
  • Roberts
  • Alasdair
  • Shapiro
  • Fred
Roberts, Alasdair. 2006. Blacked Out: Government Secrecy in the Information Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shapiro, Fred R. 2006. The Yale Book of Quotations. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Shapiro, Martin. 1992. " Giving Reasons Requirement. " University of Chicago Legal Forum 179–220.
Stealth Democracy: American's Beliefs about How Government Should Work Moral Hazard and Observability
  • When Does Transparency Generate Legitimacy
  • John R Hibbing
WHEN DOES TRANSPARENCY GENERATE LEGITIMACY? Hibbing, John R., and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse. 2002. Stealth Democracy: American's Beliefs about How Government Should Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Holmström, Bengt. 1979. " Moral Hazard and Observability. " Bell Journal of Eco-nomics 10: 74–91.
Deliberation behind Closed Doors: Transparency and Lobbying in the European Union
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