Article

Applicability of MIMO to satellite communications

Authors:
  • Elektrobit Wireless Communications Ltd.
  • Elektrobit Wireless Communications Ltd.
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Abstract

SUMMARY This paper presents achievements of an on-going activity where the applicability of MIMO to satellite communications with Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite services to Handhelds as the key application is studied. The potential satellite and hybrid satellite-terrestrial MIMO scenarios are described, and the applicable MIMO schemes for each scenario are selected. The performance of the MIMO schemes was studied by performing comprehensive computer simulations, and the main results are presented in this paper. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... The MIMO configurations implemented in the test-bed are depicted in Table II and more extensively discussed in [22]. For comparison fairness, in all cases the total RF power of the satellite and terrestrial components is the same compared to single polarization reference system. ...
... As mentioned before, the simulation findings [11]- [13], [22] confirmed that for both the satellite only and the hybrid dual polarization MIMO configurations SM yields the most promising results. For the satellite only configuration, also the 2×SISO (single input single output) technique 1 [23] represents an intermediate step between SISO and MIMO. ...
... Concerning the performance metrics used, the test-bed keeps counters for the BER/FER (Bit/Frame Error Rate), but more importantly includes an automated algorithm for calculating the error second ratio ESR5 (20), which is Uniform Long interleaver of 10 seconds. It is worth highlighting that for all hardware emulations, the implementation losses with reference to the software simulation results [22] are kept very reasonable, that is within 1.5 dB and typically less than 1 dB. ...
Article
This paper presents the detailed design and the key system performance results of a comprehensive laboratory demonstrator (test-bed) for a hybrid satellite/terrestrial S-band mobile digital broadcasting system. The physical layer is based on an enhanced version of the Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite to Hand-held (DVB-SH) standard exploiting dual polarization Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology. This complete digital MIMO demonstrator, the first of its kind, allows in-depth verification and optimization of the MIMO techniques applied to satellite broadcasting networks. Moreover, this demonstrator allows complementing and confirming the theoretical or simulation-based findings published so far. It is shown that dual polarization MIMO diversity is able to provide remarkable gains in terms of satellite/terrestrial transmit power reduction and/or capacity increase compared to more conventional non MIMO solutions. It is also demonstrated that the adoption of a relatively simple spatial multiplexing MIMO technique represents the best way to grasp these gains. The paper provides an extensive set of laboratory measurement results for existing stochastic satellite and hybrid MIMO channels as well as results based on S-band satellite measured dual polarization time series recently collected during a campaign sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). Results obtained using MIMO techniques are also compared to a dual and single polarization Single Input Single Output (SISO) DVB-SH benchmark system as well to computer simulation results.
... On the other hand, polarization diversity has been regarded as an effective replacement for spatial diversity in satellite applications, where the number of antennas and their sizes are limiting features of the satellite transponder and the user terminal [3]. Several works have considered exploiting dual polarization in the S-band, e.g., [4] and [5]. The transmit processing in these works is performed after the modulation, while independent and joint decoding of streams have been considered. ...
... Exploiting dual polarizations to incorporate the MIMO paradigm has been studied in a number of works including [3]- [5]. Spatial multiplexing has been seen as a predominant candidate for satellite-only S-band applications [4]. The use of the Cartesian product of 2D constellations on the two polarizations coupled with joint detection of the two streams leads to the traditional MIMO paradigm with well known constellations. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we investigate the performance of constellations optimized for transmissions in dual-polar mobile satellite applications. These four-dimensional constellations (inphase and quadrature per polarization) are designed for joint transmission over the two polarizations. Such constellations enhance the reliability of the system by providing certain redundancy into their design. Their performance is compared with transmission of independent 2D constellations over each polarization. As performance metrics, the pragmatic achievable mutual information and the bit error rate have been considered. The gains serve to indicate the need to further investigate 4D constellation design and its application in dual-polar MIMO systems.
... W IRELESS communications systems can take advantage of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) techniques so as to improve the channel capacity, achieve a very high spectral efficiency, and successfully alleviate severe multipath phenomena, especially in urban propagation environments. Apart from the terrestrial networks, MIMO techniques can also be applied in satellite systems [1], [2]. Specifically, land mobile satellite (LMS) systems can exploit MIMO techniques in order to eliminate the fading effects and achieve increased rates. ...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the results of a dual polarized multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channel measurements, investigating a land mobile satellite (LMS) pedestrian scenario in an urban environment. The channel characterization considers the downlink from a fixed elevated position, emulating a satellite, to a mobile terminal, incorporating line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions, and low elevation angles. From the extracted results, the length of quasi-stationarity regions of the channel is 13 times larger than the coherence distance. The average coherence time is found 71 ms. Finally, from the capacity analysis, the ergodic capacity of the dual polarized MIMO channel is found 4.3 and 4.1 b/s/Hz, for LOS and NLOS propagation conditions, respectively.
... The application of multi-antenna systems in SATs (Arapoglou et al., 2011;Kyröläinen et al., 2014;Petropoulou et al., 2014) has been triggered by the shift from lower frequency bands to higher frequency bands such as Ku and Ka, which allow the use of smaller antennas (Kodheli et al., 2021). Additionally, adopting a shorter wavelength enables the design of compact phased array antennas that achieve isotropic gain, and hence offsetting the propagation loss at higher frequencies (Varrall, 2018). ...
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The unrelenting technological advancement in the generation of wireless networks in recent years has awakened the motion concerning the inclusion of satellites in personal communications. Leveraging their ability to provide wide coverage, uniform services, wide bandwidth, and so forth, Satellite systems will be expected to co-exist with the current state-of-the-art infrastructure of terrestrial networks. Herein, we present a comparative study on the representative digital modulation techniques for use in personal satellite communications. We discuss the advantages and limitations of different modulation techniques, such as phase shift keying, continuous phase modulation, amplitude phase shift keying, and quadrature amplitude modulation. We also perform evaluations based on spectral efficiency, power efficiency, modulation error ratio, error vector magnitude, and peak-to-average power ratio in the presence of high power amplifier nonlinearities and Doppler effects. Comparisons in the form of tables, illustrations, and curves are also presented. In correspondence to the comparisons made basing on the aforementioned metrics, we conclude that continuous phase modulation is the best candidate modulation scheme for personal satellite communications since it outperforms other schemes by compromising the trade-off between power efficiency, bandwidth efficiency, and immunity to errors. We further present open issues that would reinforce personal satellite communications in terms of reliability, throughput and latency, other than power and spectral efficiency, if combined with appropriate modulation schemes.
... The capability of hybrid satellite and terrestrial systems with MIMO transmission are presented in [9]. The performance of the MIMO schemes is compared by carrying out several simulations. ...
Article
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Satellite networks has gained substantial research interest, owing to its wide range of capabilities such as lightning speed, vast coverage area, broadcast and multicasting functionalities. In this work, the dynamic Space-Time Coding (d-STC) is adopted for the dual polarized MIMO transmission in the hybrid mobile satellite system. MIMO and OFDM significantly improve the data rate and the efficiency of data transmission respectively. In case of d-STC, two different variants of ST code such as combination of STB and Trellis code and Linear dispersion code are utilised alternately, with respect to a specific time interval. This process boosts up the code and diversity gain. Besides this, this work consumes lesser energy and thus reliable communication is guaranteed.
... The MIMO technology has brought a major contribution towards modern wireless communications systems, and this has led to wide acceptability in various emerging wireless networks, ranging from Wi-Fi, WiMAX, HSDPA+, LTE and satellite networks. It has been shown that MIMO technology improves the capacity of satellite networks in spatial multiplexing mode despite the fact that the satellite channel does not have rich multipath characteristics as compared with terrestrial networks [4]. Hence, MIMO is an important component of not only just LTE technology but also satellite LTE (S-LTE) in order to achieve the target throughput and spectral efficiency. ...
Article
This paper deals with the performance evaluation of different packet scheduling schemes for Long Term Evolution mobile satellite systems based on the adoption of a multi-user MIMO technique. The major breakthrough of MIMO technology in terrestrial networks has motivated the interest here for the adoption of MIMO in mobile satellite systems as well. In particular, a land mobile dual-polarized GEO satellite system has been considered in this work. The aim of this paper is to propose new cross-layer packet scheduling schemes that achieve a good trade-off among throughput, QoS and fairness and to conduct performance comparisons with other scheduling schemes in the literature. This is the reason why this paper also proposes a new performance index that can be used to evaluate the overall performance of each scheduler. The work shows that the new cross-layer scheduler, called channel-based queue sensitive scheduler, attains the best performance in terms of the new comprehensive performance index, thus representing an interesting solution for future mobile satellite systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... T he applicability of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) techniques in land mobile satellite (LMS) systems has received increasing attention in the last few years, aiming at improving their spectral efficiency [1]. In the same context, the dual-polarized MIMO transmission for LMS channel is promising and provides additional multiplexing gain [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the validity of application of a multiple scattering model to a dual-polarized multiple-inputmultiple- output (MIMO) land mobile satellite (LMS) channel, based on a measurement campaign. Two LMS link scenarios in an urban pedestrian environment are examined. In the first one, the transmitter was located at the top of a tall building and in the second one, on an airship. The third-order scattering model is utilized to statistically characterize the measured channels and the results reveal that the model provides an excellent fit to the LMS composite fading amplitude in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS scenarios. For this generic radio channel, asymptotic expressions for the theoretical probability density function and the cumulative distribution function are derived. The comparison of the third-order scattering model with existing LMS ones showed that it provides better overall accuracy together with a physical interpretation of the propagation mechanisms involved.
... Fortunately, there have been some efforts towards this goal. By exploiting the dual polarization, the two by two and four by two MIMO configurations were studied for the GEO satellite in [40]. The European Space Agency initiated the project to investigate the massive MIMO over satellite in [41]. ...
Preprint
This paper considers the joint channel estimation and device activity detection in the grant-free random access systems, where a large number of Internet-of-Things devices intend to communicate with a low-earth orbit satellite in a sporadic way. In addition, the massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with orthogonal time-frequency space (OTFS) modulation is adopted to combat the dynamics of the terrestrial-satellite link. We first analyze the input-output relationship of the single-input single-output OTFS when the large delay and Doppler shift both exist, and then extend it to the grant-free random access with massive MIMO-OTFS. Next, by exploring the sparsity of channel in the delay-Doppler-angle domain, a two-dimensional pattern coupled hierarchical prior with the sparse Bayesian learning and covariance-free method (TDSBL-FM) is developed for the channel estimation. Then, the active devices are detected by computing the energy of the estimated channel. Finally, the generalized approximate message passing algorithm combined with the sparse Bayesian learning and two-dimensional convolution (ConvSBL-GAMP) is proposed to decrease the computations of the TDSBL-FM algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform conventional methods.
... Given the limited link margins and the high entry loss that the UAV-to-indoor channel suffers from, it is essential to improve the link capacity and reliability. In this context, applying multipleinput-multiple-output (MIMO) techniques is a very promising solution for UAV-to-indoor systems [3,5]. Indeed, polarisation diversity can further improve the reception in indoor environments [6], and dual-polarised MIMO channels can provide multiplexing gains [7]. ...
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This study presents building entry loss and capacity results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)‐to‐indoor narrowband dual‐polarised multiple‐input–multiple‐output (MIMO) channel measurement campaign. Six different measurement scenarios were carried out with the transmitter (Tx) located on a low altitude platform (LAP) and the receiver (Rx) at various floors and distances from the external windows of a multi‐storey building. An analytic and simple procedure is proposed for the calculation of entry loss. The results reveal that there is a strong dependence on the propagation geometry and the orientation of the receiver with respect to the moving LAP transmitter. The processed data for both entry loss and capacity indicate a two‐state process that is closely related to the Tx–Rx relative azimuth and elevation angle. The average entry loss levels vary from 33 to 50 dB. The overall ergodic capacity varies between 3.1 and 4.1 b/s/Hz with insignificant variations with the floor level and the distance from the window. Finally, the K‐factor of the channel lies below 6 dB tending to decrease with higher elevation angles.
... The advantages deriving from the exploitation of MIMO concepts to hybrid satellite/terrestrial broadcasting networks based on the DVB-SH air interface are illustrated in [10]. Four potential satellite and hybrid terrestrial/satellite MIMO scenarios for S-band land mobile applications are described and analyzed in detail. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we review principles of hybrid radio access systems that are able to provide both terrestrial and satellite connectivity. Practical examples of the existing hybrid systems, such as digital video broadcasting-satellite services to handheld devices and TerreStar system, are also reviewed. The main focus is in the spectrum sharing challenges between the terrestrial and satellite components. Accordingly, we discuss different cognitive hybrid system proposals and the related issues. We describe also a potential hybrid satellite concept for the S-band, which enables efficient deployment of the higher IMT (International Mobile Telecommunications) frequency bands by providing coverage to rural areas where building of a terrestrial network is not economically feasible. The proposed concept consists of a terrestrial 3GPP (the 3rd Generation Partnership Project) LTE (Long-Term Evolution) network in dense populated urban areas and of cochannel satellite LTE cells in low populated areas. Simulation results of this overlay scenario are presented showing that the satellite interference to the terrestrial network can be kept at an acceptable level. Finally, future directions for the hybrid satellite systems are addressed.
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Chapter
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A list sphere decoder (LSD) can be used to approximate the optimal maximum a posteriori (MAP) detector for the detection of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signals. In this paper, we consider two LSD algorithms with different search methods and study some algorithm design choices which relate to the performance and computational complexity of the algorithm. We show that by limiting the dynamic range of log-likelihood ratio, the required LSD list size can be lowered, and, thus, the complexity of the LSD algorithm is decreased. We compare the real and the complex-valued signal models and their impact on the complexity of the algorithms. We show that the real-valued signal model is clearly the less complex choice and a better alternative for implementation. We also show the complexity of the sequential search LSD algorithm can be reduced by limiting the maximum number of checked nodes without sacrificing the performance of the system. Finally, we study the complexity and performance of an iterative receiver, analyze the tradeoff choices between complexity and performance, and show that the additional computational cost in LSD is justified to get better soft-output approximation.
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Multiple transmit-and-receive antennas can be used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems to improve communication quality and capacity. In this paper, we present two techniques to improve the performance and reduce the complexity of channel parameter estimation: optimum training-sequence design and simplified channel estimation. The optimal training sequences not only simplify the initial channel estimation, but also attain the best estimation performance. The simplified channel estimation significantly reduces the complexity of the channel estimation at the expense of a negligible performance degradation. The effectiveness of the new techniques is demonstrated through the simulation of an OFDM system with two-transmit and two-receive antennas. The space-time coding with 240 information bits per codeword is used for transmit diversity. From the simulation, the required signal-to-noise ratio is only about 9 dB for a 10% word error rate for a channel with the typical urban- or hilly-terrain delay profile and a 40-Hz Doppler frequency
Space-time block codes for the 2Tx + 2Rx and 4Tx + 2Rx antenna MIMO systems
  • Raj C Hollanti
  • K Kumar
  • Lu J H Lahtonen
  • F Vehkalahti
Hollanti C, Raj Kumar K, Lahtonen J, Lu. H-F, Vehkalahti R. Space-time block codes for the 2Tx + 2Rx and 4Tx + 2Rx antenna MIMO systems. DVB TM-H NGH Call for Technologies (CfT) proposal, February 2010.
Annex 7 of Chairman Report, Reference network architectures, applications and performance, including QoS, for integrated systems operating within the mobile-satellite service (GEO) in the 1–3 GHz bands
  • Itu-R Wp4b
ITU-R WP4B, Annex 7 of Chairman Report, Reference network architectures, applications and performance, including QoS, for integrated systems operating within the mobile-satellite service (GEO) in the 1–3 GHz bands. 2010.
Digital video broadcast (DVB); framing structure, channel coding and modulation for satellite services to handheld devices (SH) below 3 GHz
ETSI EM 302 583. Digital video broadcast (DVB); framing structure, channel coding and modulation for satellite services to handheld devices (SH) below 3 GHz. 2007. APPLICABILITY OF MIMO TO SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
1.2 " WINNER II channel models
  • Ist-Winner Ii
IST-WINNER II, D1.1.2 " WINNER II channel models ", v.1.0, Sep 2007, https://www.istwinner.org/WINNER2-Deliverables/.
Space-time block codes for the 2Tx + 2Rx and 4Tx + 2Rx antenna MIMO systems. DVB TM-H NGH Call for Technologies (CfT) proposal
  • C Hollanti
  • Raj Kumar
  • K Lahtonen
  • J Lu
  • . H-F Vehkalahti
Hollanti C, Raj Kumar K, Lahtonen J, Lu. H-F, Vehkalahti R. Space-time block codes for the 2Tx + 2Rx and 4Tx + 2Rx antenna MIMO systems. DVB TM-H NGH Call for Technologies (CfT) proposal, February 2010.
he acted as a satellite coordination engineer for the Spectrum Management Division of the Hellenic Ministry of Transport and Communications
  • Pantelis-Daniel
Pantelis-Daniel Arapoglou received the Diploma Degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering and his PhD Engineering Degree from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece, in 2003 and 2007, respectively. From January 2004 until December 2005, he was a Research Assistant at the School of Pedagogical and Technological Education (ASPETE). From September 2005, he acted as a satellite coordination engineer for the Spectrum Management Division of the Hellenic Ministry of Transport and Communications. On August 2007, he began his mandatory military duty in the Electronic Warfare Corps of the Hellenic Army. From September 2008 to October 2010, he was involved in postdoctoral research on MIMO over satellite jointly supported by the NTUA and the European Space Agency Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), The Netherlands. From October 2010 to September 2011, he was a Research Associate with the Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability, and Trust (SnT) of the University of Luxembourg. Since September 2011, he is a Communications System Engineer at ESA/ESTEC.