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Assessing Aberrant Personality in Managerial Coaching: Measurement Issues and Prevalence Rates across Employment Sectors

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Abstract

The convergent and discriminant validity of two methods to assess a broad spectrum of aberrant personality tendencies was examined in a large sample of managers who were administered the NEO-PI-R (N = 11 862) and the Hogan Development Survey (N = 6774) in the context of a professional development assessment. Five-Factor Model (FFM) aberrant compounds, defined as linear combinations of NEO-PI-R facets, converged for the antisocial, borderline, histrionic, avoidant and obsessive–compulsive tendencies with their respective Hogan Development Survey counterparts. Alternative linear FFM combinations did improve convergent results for the schizoid and obsessive–compulsive pattern. Risk for various aberrant tendencies was roughly equal across different employment sectors, with a higher prevalence of borderline, avoidant and dependent tendencies in the legal and more histrionic tendencies in the retail sector. Adopting FFM aberrant compound cut-offs developed for coaching purposes to flag at risk individuals showed that 20% to 25% of all managers qualified for at least one and 10% to 15% were flagged as at risk for two or more aberrant tendencies. The theoretical implications and the repercussions of this research for the design of professional development and coaching trajectories are discussed. Copyright © 2013 European Association of Personality Psychology

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... Apart from attention from clinical psychologists to full-blown personality pathology, selection and human resources psychologists have become interested in subclinical manifestations of aberrant personality and the impact on individuals' workplace functioning. This is because a substantial proportion of the general population and workforce has personality problems themselves or has to deal with (subclinically) disordered persons as colleagues or supervisors (Wille, De Fruyt, & De Clercq, 2013;De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013b). Whereas clinical psychologists have been treating patients with one or more PDs and co-occurring pathology, industrial and organisational psychologists run career development programs to coach people on how to deal with the dark sides of their personality, a common need for all these professional groups is well-designed and psychometric sound assessment instruments. ...
... Furnham et al. also found that the 11 scales can be clustered into three formations that are similar to clusters A, B, and C suggested by the DSM-IV. Over a dozen published studies have attested to its reliability, validity and dimensional structure (De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013b). ...
... The utility of these FFM PD counts has been further supported in the meantime for both clinical and professional developmental diagnostic purposes. Miller and colleagues (2010) demonstrated the utility of this system for clinical decision making, whereas Wille et al. (2013) and De Fruyt et al. (2009, 2013b investigated the applicability of the counts to screen for aberrant traits observable in the working population to identify dark side personality tendencies that may hinder performance or functioning at work. ...
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The definition, classification and assessment of personality disorders (PDs) have attracted con-siderable debate for nearly 50 years. This paper attempts a comprehensive review of the instru-ments to assess all, or specific, individual disorders as described in DSM-5, including structured interviews and inventories. The review should be helpful for clinicians, researchers and also in-dustrial and organizational psychologists, to screen and assess the personality pathology spec-trum from subclinical manifestations to full blown personality pathology. A decision tree helpful to choose among the different measures is also provided.
... For instance, Miller et al. (2005) demonstrated that the more easily calculated FFM counts perform as well as similarity scores that are generated by the prototype matching technique, in the sense that they are equally successful in predicting personality disorder symptoms. Further, the FFM count technique has proven to be a useful methodology to conceptualize and operationalize aberrant personality tendencies in the work context (e.g., De Fruyt et al., 2009;De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013;Wille et al., 2013). ...
... For instance, Miller et al. (2005) demonstrated that the more easily calculated FFM counts perform as well as similarity scores that are generated by the prototype matching technique, in the sense that they are equally successful in predicting personality disorder symptoms. Further, the FFM count technique has proven to be a useful methodology to conceptualize and operationalize aberrant personality tendencies in the work context (e.g., De Fruyt et al., 2009;De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013;Wille et al., 2013). ...
... Consistent with other studies, we conceptualize extrinsic career success as a construct that includes the income level of the employee, the number of subordinates, and the current managerial level (e.g., Dries, Pepermans, Hofmans, & Rypens, 2009;Wille, De Fruyt, & De Clercq, 2013). Commonly, a distinction is made between intrinsic and extrinsic career success (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, & Barrick, 1999;Wille et al. 2013). Whereas intrinsic success is more subjective, for instance one's level of career satisfaction, extrinsic success is relatively objective and tangible. ...
... On the basis of a large database of working adults (N = 10,305), Hogan and Hogan (2001) found that these 11 dimensions loaded on three higher-order factors, representing three distinct dysfunctional patterns of how individuals relate to others: Moving Away, Moving Against, and Moving Toward people. This factor structure was later corroborated by De Fruyt, Wille, and Furnham (2013). Historically, the idea of moving away, against, and toward was inspired by the work of Karen Horney (1950), who posited that there are four primary ways in which individuals attempt to protect themselves from anxiety: withdrawal (or moving away from others), power (or moving against others by asserting oneself), and submissiveness and affection (or moving toward others by complying to external demands and rules). ...
... For example, the recently proposed DSM-5 (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) dimensional structure of personality disorders consisting of five to six dimensions (i.e., negative affect, detachment, antagonism, compulsivity/disinhibition, and psychoticism) may be a useful tool for capturing both internalizing and externalizing maladaptive personality (e.g., Krueger et al., 2011). Second, and related to the first point, it also has been cogently argued that maladaptive traits may simply reflect extreme levels and/or particular configurations of normal personality traits (e.g., Markon, Krueger, & Watson, 2005;Miller et al., 2005) and that normal and abnormal personality measures may be effectively integrated into a common framework (e.g., De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Thomas, Yalch, Krueger, Wright, Markon, & Hopwood, 2013). In light of this, future research should examine how normal and dark personality traits could jointly predict turnover outcomes, taking into account the overall patterns of dispositional characteristics that are associated with turnover. ...
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Recent advances in the personality and turnover literatures suggest the importance of expanding current turnover criteria, incorporating dark personality traits, and examining the role of time in these relationships. The present study investigates these issues by considering both the speed and the reasons for leaving, examining a wider range of personality variables as predictors by including both “bright” and “dark” traits, and exploring the potential moderating effect of time in such predictions. Data were collected from a sample of 617 employees working in an electronics manufacturing firm in the United States. Using a Bayesian survival analysis framework, we found that dark traits were just as useful in predicting turnover outcomes as traditional personality traits and best predicted the specific turnover reasons, “deviant behavior” and “no call no show.” Investigating the role of time showed that job satisfaction and intellectual curiosity (i.e., Openness) grew in predictive strength over the course of organizational tenure but that the time-dependent effects of other predictors were negligible.
... For instance demonstrated that the more easily calculated FFM counts perform as well as similarity scores that are generated by the prototype matching technique, in the sense that they are equally successful in predicting personality disorder symptoms. Further, the FFM count technique has proven to be a useful methodology to conceptualize and operationalize aberrant personality tendencies in the work context (e.g., De Fruyt et al., 2009;De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013;Wille et al., 2013a). ...
... This distinction, although crucial, is mainly a conceptual one, because at an operational level, basic tendencies are internal qualities of behavior, feelings and cognitions, and have to be inferred from characteristic adaptations. Through formal and informal learning processes, people may have acquired characteristic adaptations that are developed further away from their basic tendency levels, though their basic tendencies may become again apparent under conditions of stress or in the absence of external control mechanisms (De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013). To really advance the field we need to know whether interventions could be targeted at changing the basic tendency level or whether it is more a matter of helping individuals to develop characteristic adaptations in line with their basic tendencies and/or help them to cope with situational triggers. ...
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A summary is provided what the fields of personality and developmental psychology had to offer each other the past decade, reflected in the eleven contributions enclosed in this special issue. Strengths and opportunities to further advance the field are identified, including the extension of general trait with maladaptive trait models, the use of alternative methods to assess personality, and the adoption of configural approaches to describe traits in individuals, beyond more traditional person-centered approaches.
... Subsequently, a simplified technique to score personality disorders by computing a linear combination from the 30 facets scores of the FFM was introduced (e.g., Miller, Bagby, Pilkonis, Reynolds, & Lynam, 2005;Miller et al., 2008). Such compound techniques can be used to screen for dysfunctional personality tendencies in various contexts and have already been successfully applied in clinical samples (e.g., Miller et al., 2005) or the work context (e.g., De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013). ...
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Objective In a longitudinal field study, we investigated the predictive associations between six aberrant personality tendencies (antisocial, narcissistic, borderline, schizotypal, obsessive‐compulsive, avoidant) and academic success of STEM students. Method Bachelor students of Industrial Engineering at a Dutch technical university (N = 432, Mage = 18.45; 87.3% male) filled out the NEO‐PI‐R and aberrant tendencies were operationalized by the five‐factor model compound technique. Indicators of academic achievement (grades) and persistence (credit points earned per year, re‐enrollment, study duration) were made available by the academic office. Results Validities across the three years of the study program consistently support the role of two aberrant tendencies: Individuals with high antisocial tendency reached lower academic achievement, took longer to finish their study, and had a higher risk of drop out. The obsessive‐compulsive tendency was associated with higher grade‐point‐average, faster study progress, and higher retention rates and effects were still visible while controlling for known predictors (high school grades, Conscientiousness). Contrary to our expectations, we found no evidence for inverted U‐shape relationships. Conclusions We used the compound technique for aberrant tendencies based on the five‐factor model in the academic context and our findings support the importance of personality‐based psychopathological tendencies for academic success. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Finally, De Fruyt, Wille and Furnham (2013) analyzed personality data obtained from a large sample of middle and senior managers (N= 6774; 21.1% females, mean age = 41.64 years, SD = 7.05) administered both the NEO-PI-R and HDS in the context of a development center. Data were collected across multiple companies over several years, to have a large enough sample available for analyses per industrial/vocational sector. ...
... But perhaps, the most common industrial psychology application of the HDS traits is in managerial coaching. For example, a recent paper by De Fruyt, Wille, and Furnham (2013) discussed the development of cut-off scores that would flag risks for various work contexts that might be addressed by coaching. They estimated that up to one quarter of all managers ''qualified'' as at risk for one problematic behavioral tendency. ...
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Important changes in how personality is conceptualized and measured are occurring in clinical psychology. We focus on 1 aspect of this work that industrial psychologists have been slow to embrace, namely, a new trait model that can be viewed as a maladaptive counterpart to the Big 5. There is a conspicuous absence of work psychology research emerging on this trait model despite important implications for how we understand personality at work. We discuss objections to the trait model in a work context and offer rejoinders that might make researchers and practitioners consider applying this model in their work. We hope to stimulate discussion of this topic to avoid an unnecessary bifurcation in the conceptualization of maladaptive personality between industrial and clinical settings.
... to .62; De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013), and the Dark Triad of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy (r range = .35 to .47; ...
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... Conceptually, the 11 scales fit the Horney [7] three-tiered taxonomy of self-defeating behaviours: Moving Away from Others accounts for individuals who are intimidated by stress [8], and have a preference to withdraw and socially isolate themselves under stress; individuals with a predisposition for Moving Towards Others behaviours seek integration, and will become reliant on others to make decisions for them, renouncing responsibility and becoming submissive; and Moving Against Others, however, desire manipulation, detailing individuals who want to assert dominance and set boundaries when under stress, becoming aggressive at higher levels of these traits [9]. ...
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This study tested whether specific dark-side traits may be beneficial in manifesting and maintaining Resilience, whilst others are vulnerability factors for Burnout. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 female) ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires as a part of a selection and development assessment. The study utilised the Hogan Development survey as a measure of dark side personality, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess work-related burnout, and the Resilience Scale- 14 to measure resilience levels. Those high on Excitable and Cautious but low on Bold and Reserved were linked to an increased vulnerability to Burnout. Also those high on Bold and Diligent yet low on the Excitable, Cautious, and Imaginative scales were more resilient. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that resilience plays both a mediating and moderating role on personality and burnout. Theoretical implications suggest future research assessing the predictive capacity of psychological variables on burnout should account the indirect effect of resilience.
... The average response time was 35 min. Research has provided evidence for the validity and the reliability of this instrument (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2010;De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013;McCrae, Kurtz, Yamagata, & Terracciano, 2011). ...
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This study compared the Big Five Personality facet scores of 138 CEOs compared with senior managers. The former were significantly less neurotic and had higher extraver-sion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness scores on both domain and facet scales. The results were then investigated in 5 work functions: engineering, legal, accounting/ finance, human resources, and marketing. Two traits showed very consistent results for all 5 functions: CEOs were less neurotic and more conscientious with Cohen's d values between .30 and .85. Results were also examined at the phenotypic factor level to show a more detailed pattern. These results are consistent with the relatively few other studies on the personalities of CEOs. Implications and limitations are discussed. Personality characteristics have been shown to play a significant role in work-related attitudes/ behaviors (Barrick & Mount, 2005). Consequently, industrial/organizational (I/O) researchers have turned their attention toward identifying the essence of the relationship and the mechanisms that underlie it (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001). Researchers have noted that personality affects two main behaviors that are vital for an organization: employee performance and withdrawal (Li, Barrick, Zimmerman, & Chiaburu, 2014). The personality traits that are less associated with employee withdrawal are conscientiousness, emotional stability (opposite pole of neuroticism), and agreeableness (Barrick & Mount, 2005; Zimmerman, 2008).
... The concept of "dark side" traits has come to be associated with measures of subclinical personality disorders or derailers (Hogan & Hogan, 2001;Moscoso & Salgado, 2004). Dark side traits measured by the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) have been investigated recently in a large number of studies (De Fruyt, Wille, & Furnham, 2013;Furnham, Hyde, & Trickey, 2013;Harms, Spain, & Hannah, 2011;Zibarras, Port, & Woods, 2008). ...
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This study proposes and tests an alternative methodology to conceptualize and assess aberrant personality tendencies at work beyond the dark triad. A sample of college alumni (N= 247) were administered the NEO PI‐R prior to entering the labor market and 15 years later when their professional careers had unfolded. Drawing on the dimensional perspective on personality functioning, 6 five‐factor model (FFM) aberrant compounds were computed as indicators of aberrant personality tendencies. As expected, FFM aberrant personality tendencies were highly stable across time, with test–retest correlations ranging from .61 (Narcissistic) to .73 (avoidant). With regard to predictive validity, borderline, schizotypal, and avoidant tendencies were negatively associated with extrinsic and intrinsic career outcomes. The obsessive‐compulsive tendency was largely unrelated to career outcomes, whereas individuals with antisocial and narcissistic characteristics tended toward higher hierarchical and financial attainment. In addition, relative importance analyses indicated that (a) FFM aberrant personality tendencies showed incremental validity in the prediction of career outcomes beyond FFM general traits, and that (b) both FFM general and FFM aberrant personality tendencies are important predictors when considered jointly. It is concluded that FFM aberrant personality tendencies suggest interesting avenues for personnel psychologists to form new linear combinations of FFM facets, complementing FFM general domains.
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IntroductionWidespread and long-standing dissatisfaction with the current DSM-IV diagnostic system for the personality disorders (PDs) revolves around five specific issues: use of a dichotomous, categorical model; extremely high rates of comorbidity within the PDs, as well as with Axis I disorders; excessive heterogeneity within the PDs; nonempirically derived diagnostic cut-offs and limited coverage of the personality pathology seen by clinicians. Many critics have suggested that the personality pathology might be better characterized using a dimensional trait model of general or pathological personality. Much research documents support relations between the PDs and the five-factor model of personality (FFM), a prominent model of general personality functioning. Recent research has examined the ability of FFM trait configurations to assess the DSM-IV PDs. Initial work focused on matching individual FFM profiles to prototypical PD profiles derived from expert ratings. Although this initial work showed that these FFM-assessed PDs performed like explicit PD assessments, the prototype matching approach was deemed cumbersome and a simpler, alternative count technique derived from the expert profiles was developed. The FFM PD counts sum the facets rated as being particularly prototypic (high or low) of a PD.
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The authors previously describe how each of the 10 personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) can be understood from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality functioning. This translation is helpful to those who are familiar with the DSM-IV constructs and wish to understand how a person with one or more of these diagnoses would be described in terms of the FFM. This chapter describes how to use the FFM to diagnose a PD. First, the authors begin with a brief description of how PDs are diagnosed by DSM-IV, followed by a more detailed discussion of how they could be diagnosed with the FFM. The process for the diagnosis of PD includes four cumulative steps, not all of which are in fact necessary: (1) provide a description of the person's personality traits with respect to the 5 domains and 30 facets of the FFM; (2) identify the problems, difficulties, and impairments that are secondary to each trait; (3) determine whether the impairments are clinically significant; and (4) determine whether the constellation of FFM traits matches sufficiently the profile for a particular PD pattern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Provides an introduction to personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. The chapter provides a background on the five-factor model, a description of factors, methods of assessment, and introduces the contents of this edition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper demonstrates the validity and usefulness of a count technique to screen for potential personality dysfunctioning in NEO-PI-R ratings obtained in selection and professional development assessments. The usefulness of this screening technique for Industrial, Work and Organizational (IWO) psychologists is demonstrated in five different samples that were administered the NEO-PI-R for selection or development purposes. Three additional samples served as normative data to compute FFM PD count cut-offs that can be used for selection and career development decisions. Evidence for the construct validity of 6 out of 10 FFM PD counts was provided, and all FFM PD compound scales were significantly related to important criteria, including the final selection decision, the results of a behaviourally oriented selection interview and self-rated work competencies. The practical utility and limitations of this count technique for personnel selection and development are discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Many meta-analyses and hundreds of primary studies have been carried out on the criterion-oriented validity of personality measures for predicting job performance. The Five-Factor Model of personality has been used as a frame for analyzing the empirical evidence. However, the research in industrial, work and organizational psychology has not examined the relationship between the dysfunctional tendencies of personality and the personality disorders as described in DSM-IV (Axis II) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and job performance. The present paper examines the relationship between job performance and the dysfunctional personality styles included in a non-clinical personality inventory developed to assess personality tendencies related to the dysfunctional (normal) personality styles and the personality disorders in work settings. This inventory assesses 14 dysfunctional personality styles and was given to a sample of 85 applicants. The job performance was rated by the direct supervisor 8 months later, and three measures were obtained: task performance, contextual performance, and overall job performance. The results showed that the seven dysfunctional personality styles (suspicious, shy, sad, pessimistic, sufferer, eccentric, and risky) predicted the three measures of job performance. The egocentric personality style negatively predicted contextual performance. Finally, the submitted style predicted task performance. With the exception of the risky personality style, the rest of the styles mainly consisted of Neuroticism. Implications for the research and practice of personnel selection are discussed.
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The present work explores what the domain of maladaptive traits has to offer to the industrial and organizational (I/O) field investigating the incremental validity of maladaptive traits from DSM Axis II to predict negative emotions experienced at work, beyond Five-Factor Model dimensions. This study was designed to examine the validity of adaptive and maladaptive traits to predict four negative affects (Anger, Fear, Sadness, and Shame) experienced at work in military personnel. The design was longitudinal, including two measurement moments, i.e. prior to and immediately after returning from a peace mission in a foreign country. The four negative affects were largely stable across a six month interval. FFM dimensions substantially explained negative affects experienced six months later, although the variance accounted for varied strongly across affects. In line with previous research, emotional stability was a consistent negative predictor of negative affects at both measurement moments. Two maladaptive traits derived from DSM Axis II (i.e. Borderline and Avoidant) were consistently related to specific negative affects experienced at work. Finally, maladaptive traits did not predict negative affect variance beyond FFM traits. These results are in line with robust findings suggesting that maladaptive trait patterns could be integrated in the five-factor space, and as a consequence have little or no incremental utility over FFM dimensions. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report correlates. The measures were moderately inter-correlated, but certainly were not equivalent. Their only common Big Five correlate was disagreeableness. Subclinical psychopaths were distinguished by low neuroticism; Machiavellians, and psychopaths were low in conscientiousness; narcissism showed small positive associations with cognitive ability. Narcissists and, to a lesser extent, psychopaths exhibited self-enhancement on two objectively scored indexes. We conclude that the Dark Triad of personalities, as currently measured, are overlapping but distinct constructs.
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Although empirical research on this topic is scarce, personality traits and vocational interests have repeatedly been named as potential individual level predictors of job change. Using a long-term cohort study (N = 291), we examined RIASEC interest profiles and Big Five personality scores at the beginning of the professional career as predictors of subsequent job changes, both internal as well as external, over the next 15 years. Overall, results provide additional evidence for an individual difference perspective on job instability, although our findings vary across instability variables. Consistent with previous research, external job changes in particular related to individual differences. Specifically, scores on Investigative, Artistic, Enterprising and Conventional scales showed to be the most important interest related predictors. With regard to Big Five personality traits, strongest associations were found with Agreeableness and Openness. In addition, facet level analyses proved to be useful to further clarify linkages between personality and job instability.
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Comments on the original article Personality traits and the classification of mental Disorders: Toward a more complete integration in DSM-5 and an empirical model of psychopathology by Robert F. Krueger and Nicholas R. Eaton (see record 2010-13810-003). Some researchers had hoped the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) would ask psychiatrists (and the clinical psychologists and researchers who are also tied to the DSM) to leap the gap and embrace a trait-based taxonomy of personality pathology (Widiger & Trull, 2007). Krueger and Eaton (pp. 97-118, this issue) take a more pragmatic stance: They hope to coax psychiatrists across by introducing personality dimensions as an adjunct to familiar PD types; they envision that DSM-5 might serve "as a bridge" (p. 110, this issue) to a fully dimensional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Sixth Edition (DSM-6). We acknowledge the wisdom of this strategy and suggest ways to strengthen it.
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One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for 8 standard statistical tests: (1) the difference between independent means, (2) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (3) the difference between independent rs, (4) the sign test, (5) the difference between independent proportions, (6) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (7) 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and (8) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) counts have demonstrated significant convergent and discriminant validity with DSM-IV PD symptoms. However, these FFM PD counts are of limited clinical use without normative data because it is difficult to determine what a specific score means with regard to the relative level of elevation. The current study presents data from three large normative samples that can be used as norms for the FFM PD counts in the respective countries: United States (N = 1,000), France (N = 801), and Belgium-Netherlands (N = 549). The present study also examines the performance, with regard to diagnostic efficiency, of statistically-defined cut-offs at 1.5 standard deviations above the mean (T > or = 65) versus previously identified cut-offs using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analyses. These cut-offs are tested in three clinical samples-one from each of the aforementioned countries. In general, the T > or = 65 cut-offs performed similarly to those identified using ROC analyses and manifested properties relevant to a screening instrument. These normative data allow FFM data to be used in a flexible and comprehensive manner, which may include scoring this type of personality data in order to screen for DSM-IV PD constructs.
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Theory and research have suggested that the personality disorders contained within the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) can be understood as maladaptive variants of the personality traits included within the five-factor model (FFM). The current meta-analysis of FFM personality disorder research both replicated and extended the 2004 work of Saulsman and Page (The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1055-1085) through a facet level analysis that provides a more specific and nuanced description of each DSM-IV-TR personality disorder. The empirical FFM profiles generated for each personality disorder were generally congruent at the facet level with hypothesized FFM translations of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders. However, notable exceptions to the hypotheses did occur and even some findings that were consistent with FFM theory could be said to be instrument specific.
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In 3 prior meta-analyses, the relationship between the Big Five factors of personality and job criteria was investigated. However, these meta-analyses showed different findings. Furthermore, these reviews included studies carried out only in the United States and Canada. This study reports meta-analytic research on the same topic but with studies conducted in the European Community, which were not included in the prior reviews. The results indicate that Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are valid predictors across job criteria and occupational groups. The remaining factors are valid only for some criteria and for some occupational groups. Extraversion was a predictor for 2 occupations, and Openness and Agreeableness were valid predictors of training proficiency. These findings are consistent with M.R. Barrick and M.K. Mount (1991) and L.M. Hough, N.K. Eaton, M.D. Dunnette, J.D. Kamp, and R.A. McCloy (1990). Implications of the results for future research and the practice of personnel selection are suggested.
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Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.
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The current study compares the use of two alternative methodologies for using the Five-Factor Model (FFM) to assess personality disorders (PDs). Across two clinical samples, a technique using the simple sum of selected FFM facets is compared with a previously used prototype matching technique. The results demonstrate that the more easily calculated counts perform as well as the similarity scores that are generated by the prototype matching technique. Optimal diagnostic thresholds for the FFM PD counts are computed for identifying patients who meet diagnostic criteria for a specific PD. These threshold scores demonstrate good sensitivity in receiver operating characteristics analyses, suggesting their usefulness for screening purposes. Given the ease of this scoring procedure, the FFM count technique has obvious clinical utility.
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The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced leadership self-perceptions; indeed, whereas narcissism was significantly positively correlated with self-ratings of leadership, it was significantly negatively related to other ratings of leadership. Study 2 also revealed that narcissism was related to more favorable self-ratings of workplace deviance and contextual performance compared to other (supervisor) ratings. Finally, as hypothesized, narcissism was more strongly negatively related to contextual performance than to task performance.
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The present study describes the construction of a taxonomy of trait-related symptoms in childhood, the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI), and examines the replicability of the taxonomy's higher order structure across maternal ratings of referred (N = 205) and nonreferred (N = 242) children and self-ratings of adolescents (N = 453). The DIPSI's 4 higher order factors--that is, Emotional Instability, Disagreeableness, Introversion, and Compulsivity--showed clear correspondence with the dimensions of personality pathology found in adulthood (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire; W. J. Livesley, 1990; Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality; L. A. Clark, 1993). These 4 factors can be further organized into 2 superfactors, representing Internalizing and Externalizing Traits, demonstrating empirical and conceptual relationships with psychopathology models in childhood and adulthood. The implications for the assessment and conceptualization of early trait pathology are discussed in the context of an integrative developmental perspective on the construction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition.
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Corporations of every size have experience of employees who are guilty of lying, stealing, sabotage, hacking, destruction of files and data, and more than a few corporations have been, and continue to be, devastated by the activities of whistleblowers. Profits, secrets and staff morale are all threatened. This book provides a background to the psychology of deviance and offers practical advice about identifying the causes of and prescriptions for reversing disloyalty.
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The research agenda for DSM-5 emphasizes the implementation of dimensional trait models into the classification of personality disorders (PDs). However, because assessment psychologists may still want to recover the traditional DSM-IV categories, researchers developed a count technique that uses sums of selected Five-Factor Model facets to assess the DSM-IV PDs. The presented study examined the convergent and divergent validity of different linear combinations of trait facets to describe specific DSM-IV PDs in a heterogeneous clinical sample (N = 155) with sufficient prevalence of all PDs, using semi-structured interviews to obtain all diagnostic information, and comparing alternative counts from five different sources for each PD. The results show that none of the schizotypal, antisocial, and dependent counts succeeded in combining good convergent with adequate divergent validity. However, the original counts could be optimized for five of the seven remaining PDs by using alternative Five-Factor Model prototypes. The diagnostic and taxonomic implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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As part of an assessment centre 431 candidates completed three self-report measures: one of personality disorders (Hogan Development Survey, HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 1997), one of personality traits (NEO-PI, Costa & McCrae, 1992), and one of personality type (MBTI; Briggs & Myers, 1987). Correlational and regressional analysis tested various hypotheses about the overlap between the different dimensions and confirmed previous research using different instruments (Saulsman & Page, 2004). Results revealed highest correlation between the HDS and NEO, showing neuroticism correlating (as predicted) with excitable (borderline) and cautious (avoidant); introversion correlating with avoidant (cautious), schizoid (detached), and (negatively) with colourful (histrionic); openness correlating with schizotypal (imaginative) and conscientiousness with diligent (obsessive–compulsive). Many of the ‘overlaps’ were suggested by Widiger, Trull, Clarkin, Sanderson, and Costa (2002). The overlap and lack of overlap is considered at the psychometric and conceptual level. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The present study investigates the role of subclinical personality traits as determinants of leader development over time. In previous literature, subclinical traits have been identified as potential causes of leader derailment. However, leader development researchers have argued that developmental interventions based on increasing self-awareness may be effective at mitigating the negative effects of these character flaws. Using a multi-wave, multi-method longitudinal study of military school cadets we evaluate the impact of subclinical traits on externally-rated measures of leader development over a three year period. Results demonstrated that adding subclinical traits to models of development significantly increased model fit and that the relationship between “dark side” personality traits and performance and training is more complicated than originally thought. Moreover, subclinical traits were associated with different developmental trajectories over time. Implications for leadership development research and practice are discussed.
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John Holland has been clear that he believes vocational interests to be “an expression of personality.” In this paper, we document evidence for fundamental links between measures of personality and vocational interests. We go on to provide an interpretation of those links and suggest that personality assessment and interest measurement offer information that is critical to predicting individuals' success in achieving status and acceptance in groups. We also suggest a distinction between the perspective afforded by each type of measure. That is, personality assessment reflects the individual viewed from the perspective of an observer (i.e., an individual's “reputation”) while interest measurement reflects the perspective of the actor (i.e., an individual's “identity”).
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DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder (PD), and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding assessment instrument, in our roles as members of the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup and workgroup advisors. An initial list of specific traits and domains (broader groups of traits) was derived from DSM-5 literature reviews and workgroup deliberations, with a focus on capturing maladaptive personality characteristics deemed clinically salient, including those related to the criteria for DSM-IV-TR PDs. The model and instrument were then developed iteratively using data from community samples of treatment-seeking participants. The analytic approach relied on tools of modern psychometrics (e.g. item response theory models). A total of 25 reliably measured core elements of personality description emerged that, together, delineate five broad domains of maladaptive personality variation: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. We developed a maladaptive personality trait model and corresponding instrument as a step on the path toward helping users of DSM-5 assess traits that may or may not constitute a formal PD. The inventory we developed is reprinted in its entirety in the Supplementary online material, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators prior to the finalization of DSM-5. Continuing discussion should focus on various options for integrating personality traits into DSM-5.
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Despite recent interest in how psychiatric disorders affect work outcomes, little is known about the role of personality disorders (PDs), which are poorly understood yet prevalent (15%) and impairing. We used nationally representative data for 12,457 men and 16,061 women to examine associations of PDs with any employment, full-time employment, chronic unemployment, being fired or laid off, and having trouble with a boss or co-worker. Antisocial, paranoid, and obsessive-compulsive PDs demonstrated the broadest patterns of associations with adverse outcomes. Findings suggest that PDs may have implications for the productivity of co-workers as well as that of the disordered employees themselves.
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Proposals suggest that many or all of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders (PDs) may be omitted from the DSM (5th ed.; DSM-V) and replaced with a dimensional trait model of personality pathology (Krueger, Skodol, Livesley, Shrout, Huang, 2007; Skodol, 2009). Several authors have expressed concerns that this may be difficult for clinicians and researchers who are more comfortable with the extant PD diagnoses. In this study, we tested whether clinician ratings of traits from the Five-factor model (FFM; Costa McCrae, 1990) can be used to recreate DSM-IV PDs. Using a sample of 130 clinical outpatients, we tested the convergent and discriminant validity of the FFM PD counts in relation to consensus ratings of the DSM-IV PDs. We then examined whether the FFM and DSM-IV PD scores correlate in similar ways with self-reported personality traits from the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (Clark, 1993). Finally, we tested the clinical utility of the FFM PD counts in relation to functional impairment. Overall, the FFM PD counts, scored using clinician ratings of the FFM traits, appeared to function like the DSM-IV PDs, thus suggesting that the use of a dimensional trait model of personality in the DSM-V may still allow for an assessment of the DSM-IV PD constructs.
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Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual considers personality disorders to be categorically distinct entities. However, research assessing personality disorders has consistently supported a dimensional perspective. Recognition of the many limitations of categorical models of personality disorder classification has led to the development of a variety of alternative proposals, which further research has indicated can be integrated within a common hierarchical structure. This article offers an alternative integrated dimensional model of normal and abnormal personality structure, and it illustrates how such a model could be used clinically to describe patients' normal adaptive personality traits as well as their maladaptive personality traits that could provide the basis for future assessments of personality disorder. The empirical support, feasibility, and clinical utility of the proposal are discussed. Points of ambiguity and dispute are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Article
One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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Research shows consistent relations between personality and job performance. In this study the authors develop and test a model of job performance that examines the mediating effects of cognitive-motivational work orientations on the relationships between personality traits and performance in a sales job (N = 164). Covariance structural analyses revealed proximal motivational variables to be influential mechanisms through which distal personality traits affect job performance. Specifically, striving for status and accomplishment mediate the effects of Extraversion and Conscientiousness on ratings of sales performance. Although Agreeableness was related to striving for communion, neither Agreeableness nor communion striving was related to success in this sales job. The importance of the proposed motivational orientations model is discussed.
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This chapter reviews recent (2000-2005) personality disorder (PD) research, focusing on three major domains: assessment, comorbidity, and stability. (a) Substantial evidence has accrued favoring dimensional over categorical conceptualization of PD, and the five-factor model of personality is prominent as an integrating framework. Future directions include assessing dysfunction separately from traits and learning to utilize collateral information. (b) To address the pervasiveness and extent of comorbidity, researchers have begun to move beyond studying overlapping pairs or small sets of disorders and are developing broader, more integrated common-factor models that cross the Axis I-Axis II boundary. (c) Studies of PD stability have converged on the finding that PD features include both more acute, dysfunctional behaviors that resolve in relatively short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are relatively more stable-similar to normal-range personality traits-with increasing stability until after 50 years of age. A new model for assessing PD-and perhaps all psychopathology-emerges from integrating these interrelated reconceptualizations.
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DOI: 10.1037/1040-3590.17.3.379 Assessing aberrant traits 563 Copyright © 2013 European Association of Personality Psychology Eur. J. Pers. 27: 555–564 (2013) DOI: 10.1002/per McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1996). Toward a new generation of per-sonality inventories: Theoretical contexts for the Five-Factor Model. In J. S. Wiggins (Ed.), The Five-Factor Model of personality: Theoret-ical perspectives (pp. 51–87). New York/London: Guilford Press.
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Assessing aberrant traits Copyright ©
Assessing aberrant traits Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Eur. J. Pers. (2013) DOI: 10.1002/per